Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk
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Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk

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molecular shape notes

molecular shape notes

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Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk Molecular Shape Covalent 4 No Grp Wk Presentation Transcript

  • Molecular Shape Pp 259-262
  • VSEPR Theory
    • Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
    • Used to determine molecular shape
    • Based on arrangement that minimizes the repulsion between shared and unshared electrons
  • Bond Angle
    • Angle formed by any two terminal atoms and a central atom
    • Caused by the repulsion of electron pairs
    • Supported by experimental evidence
    • Shared electron pairs repel each other
  •  
  •  
  • Lone pairs and VSEPR
    • Lone pairs also important
    • Occupy a larger orbital than shared electrons
    • Lone pairs push shared orbitals together
  •  
  • VSEPR Definitions
      • Electron group –set of electrons that occupies a particular region around an atom.
      • Ligand – an atom or a group of atoms bonded to an inner atom
      • Steric number – the sum of the number of ligands plus the number of lone pairs; in other words, the total number of groups associated with that atom.
  •  
  •  
    • Linear
    • 180’
    • Bent/angular
    • <120’
    • Bent/angular
    • 104.5
    • Trigonal planar
    • 120’
    • Tetrahedral
    • 109.5’
    • Trigonal pyramidal
    • 107.3’
    • Trigonal bipyramidal
    • 90’ Horz to vert
    • 120’ horz to horz
    • Octahedral
    • 90’
    • See-saw
    • Square planar
    • T-structure
    • Linear
    • Square pyramidal
  •  
  • Hybridization
    • What’s a hybrid?
      • Combining two of the same type of object and contains characteristics of both
    • Occurs to orbitals during bonding
    • Hybridization
      • Process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new hybrid orbitals
      • Each hybrid orbital contains one electron that it can share with another atom
    • Carbon is most common atom to undergo hybridization
      • Four hybrid orbitals from 1 s and 3 p orbitals
      • Hybrid= sp 3 orbital
  • HYBRIDIZATION
    • Mixture of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new hybrid atomic orbitals of equal energies
    • Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
    Hybrid Orbital
  •  
  •  
    • # of atomic orbitals mixed to form hybrid orbitals = the total # of pairs of shared electrons
    • # of hybrid orbitals formed = # of atomic orbitals mixed
      • 1 s orbital + px + py + pz = 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals
    • CH 4
    • AlCl 3
    • Lone pairs also occupy hybrid orbitals
      • H 2 O
      • BeCl 2
  •  
  • Class Work
    • Lewis Dot Diagram (6 steps)
    • Molecular geometry
    • Bond Angle
    • Type of hybridization
    • New Lewis dot structure showing molecular shape
    • BF 3
    • NH 4 +
    • OCl 2
    • BeF 2
    • CF 4
    • AsH 3