Covalent Bonds
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  • 1. Chapter 9 Covalent Bonds pp. 240 - 267
  • 2. Review..
    • What is a chemical bond?
      • Force that holds two atoms together
    • What is an ionic bond?
      • An electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound
      • Forms when….?
    • What are atoms and compounds always trying to achieve?
      • Stability
      • Complete set of valence electrons…
  • 3. What is a covalent bond?
    • Chemical bond that results from sharing of valence electrons
  • 4. Which bond is stronger?
    • Ionic vs. Covalent
    • Remember….
      • Ionic compounds are in a crystal lattice…many ions are bonded together in a crystal lattice
      • Covalent compounds are neutral and often found in the form of individual molecules
      • Ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
  • 5. How are covalent bonds formed?
    • Charge of nucleus?
    • Charge of electron cloud?
    • What happens when 2 fluorine atoms approach each other?
    • Covalent bond occurs at “Point of maximum attraction”
      • Attractive forces of nucleus for electrons and repulsive forces of electrons in each atom balance out
      • What would happen if the atoms kept moving closer?
  • 6. What is a Molecule?
    • Compound made when two or more atoms bond together covalently
    • Diatomic molecules
      • In nature, sometimes two atoms of the same element are more stable when they are covalently bonded than the individual atom alone…
      • BrINClHOF
      • Br 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2 H 2 O 2 F 2
  • 7. Types of electrons in molecule
    • Look at fluorine
    • What is the electron configuration?
      • 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5
    • How many Valance electrons?
      • 7
    • Dot Structure?
    • What would two F atoms look like covalently bonded?
  • 8.
    • BONDING PAIRS are electrons involved in the covalent bond (shared electrons)
    • The pairs of electrons that are NOT involved in the covalent bond are called the LONE PAIRS (unshared electrons)
    • What are the lone pairs in…
  • 9. In the fluorine molecule…
    • How many bonding pairs are there in each?
      • 1
    • How many lone pairs are there each?
      • 3
  • 10. Lewis Dot Diagrams
    • When writing out molecules…
      • Bonding pairs can be represented by the electrons themselves or by a single line
      • If there is more than one bonding pair, two lines are used
      • Up to four lines can be used
      • EACH LINE REPRESENTS A BONDING PAIR OF ELECTRONS IN A MOLECULE
      • 1 line=2 electrons
      • Lines represent bonding pairs…you must still draw out lone pairs
  • 11. 3 basic rules
    • Sum up valence electrons of all atoms in the molecule
    • Use a pair of electrons to form a bond between atoms…use a line to represent bond
    • Arrange remaining electrons to satisfy the duet rule for hydrogen and the octet rule for other atoms
    • (Verify that each atom has a complete set of electrons )
  • 12.
    • Elements is group 7A have how many valence electrons?
      • How many electrons would they share in a covalent bond with an atom in group 7A?
      • How many covalent bonds do are formed between bonding atoms in 7A?
    • Elements in group 6A have how many valence electrons?
      • How many electrons would they have to share in a covalent bond with another atom in group 6A?
      • How many covalent bonds do are formed between bonding atoms in 6A?
  • 13.
    • Elements in group 5A have how many valence electrons?
      • How many electrons would they have to share in a covalent bond with another atom in group 5A?
      • How many covalent bonds do are formed between bonding atoms in 5A?
    • Elements in group 4A have how many valence electrons?
      • How many electrons would they have to share in a covalent bond to be stable?
      • How many covalent bonds are formed between bonding atoms in group 4A?
  • 14. Writing Chemical Equations showing covalent bond formation
    • See board…
  • 15. Classwork…to turn in…
    • 1. PH 3
    • 2. H 2 S
    • 3. HCl
    • 4. CCl 4
    • 5. SiH 4
    6. HF 7. N 2 8. CH 4 9. CF 4
    • Show the formation of the following molecules…your final answer should be the correct Lewis Dot Structure