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Community Interactions And Sucession
 

Community Interactions And Sucession

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chapter 3 and 4 notes

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    Community Interactions And Sucession Community Interactions And Sucession Presentation Transcript

    • Community Interactions
    • Community Interactions
      • Powerfully affect an ecosystem
      • Include:
        • Competition
        • Predation
        • Symbiosis
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    • Competition
      • When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time
        • Resource  any necessity to life
        • Plants and animals compete
        • Winner and losers
    • Rules, rules, rules
      • Fundamental rule in ecology
        • Competitive Exclusion Principle
          • No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat and the same time
          • Prevents competition
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    • Predation
      • Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism
      • Predator
        • Organism that does the killing and eating
      • Prey
        • Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim)
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    • Symbiosis
      • Any relationship where two species live closely together
      • Symbiosis literally means “living together”
      • 3 main types
        • Parasitism
        • Mutualism
        • commensalism
    • What type of relationship is this?
      • Who is helping who?
    • Mutualism
      • Both species benefit from the relationship
      • A Happy couple
      • Flowers and bees
        • Flowers need bees for pollination, bees need flowers nectar
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    • What type of relation ship is going on here?
      • Who is helping who?
    • Commensalism
      • One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped
      • One-sided
      • Food or shelter
      • Barnacles on whale
    • Ants and aphids
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    • What type of interaction is going on here?
    • Parasitism
      • One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
      • Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism
      • Host
        • Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite
      • Parasite
        • Organism that gets its nutrients from the host
      • Do they want to kill their host?
        • No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way
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    • Recap
      • What are the three types of interactions in a community?
        • Competition
        • Predation
        • Symbiosis
          • What types do we have?
            • Mutualism
            • Commensalism
            • Parasitism
    • Ecological Succession
      • Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time?
      • What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems?
        • Natural and unnatural
        • Quickly and slowly
      • Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances.
      • As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change
    • Ecological Succession
      • Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
        • Physical environment
        • Natural disturbance
        • Human disturbance
    • Primary Succession
      • Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
      • Volcanic eruptions
      • Glaciers melting
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    • Stages of Primary Succession
      • Start with no soil, just ash and rock
      • First species to populate this area
        • “ pioneer species”
        • For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz)
          • Lichens  made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock
          • When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow
    • Secondary Succession
      • Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
      • Natural
        • hurricane
        • fires
      • Human disturbances
        • Farming
        • Forest clearing
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    • Succession in Marine Ecosystems
      • Deep and dark
      • Can succession happen?
      • 1987 dead whale off of California
        • Unique community of organisms living in remains
        • Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem
        • Whale-fall community
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    • Whale-Fall Succession
      • Begins when large whale dies
        • Sinks to barren ocean floor
        • Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community
          • Amphipods
          • Hagfish
          • sharks
      • After a year, most tissues have been eaten
        • Now, second small community of organisms live here
        • Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water
          • Small fishes
          • Crabs
          • Snails
          • worms
      • Only skeleton remains…
        • Third community moves in
          • Heterotrophic bacteria
          • Decompose oil in bones  release of chemical compounds
          • Who uses these chemical compounds?
            • Chemoosynthetic autotrophs
          • In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria
    • Teacher, Study Chemical reactions, enzymes, and Chapters 3 and 4