Geomedicine may be defined as the science dealing with environmental factors, Which influence the geographical distribution of nutritional and pathological problem relating to human and animal health.
Source: J. Lag (1994). Geomedicine, an exapanded application in soil science, In. ‘Interaction of soil components, Agricultural Ecosystem and Health’. Vol.3a, pp557-567. 15 th World Congress on Soil Science, Commission ll Symposium, Acapulco, Mexico.
Genesis of geo-medicine : Effects of elements on human health were started in 1928. Iodine, iron, selenium, zinc, fluorine etc : The first clear geo-medical evidence – Goitre in the Alps (iodine deficiency in the soil environment). Chatin (1851), French chemist : Human and animals health problem in China – symptoms – further confirm the Se deficiencies (Lag, 1986). Marco Polo : Wrote first records on the relationship between geochemistry and geo -medicine. Hippocrates & Plinius
Human health Intake of minerals Daily diet Drinking water Inhalation of dust Macro & Micronutrients Essential in Human nutrition Health problem Deficient in body Toxic in body
Human Essential Minerals (inorganic form) Macronutrients Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Micronutrients Iron Iodine Copper Manganese Zinc Cobalt Molybdenum Selenium Vanadium Nickel Chromium Tin Fluorine Silicon Arsenic
Human food 98% produced on the land Only 2- 10 % drinking water Primary source of elements Plant absorption from soil Human food chain Animal using vegetation as fodder Human food chain through (Meat, milk, egg etc) Human intake small fraction of elements Food chain as drinking water
Deficiency of nutritional element on human health Cancer Nitrosamine production Nitrite accumulation Vitamin C deficiency (best known anti oxidant ) Manganese Cancer low Mn availability on soil Mn deficiency in plant 2.
Anemia (Fe- key component of haemoglobin, myoglobin & a number of enzyme).
(chronic arthritis and deformity of the joints of children and teenagers ).
Cardiomyopathy (cardiovaccular problem)
Poor / under development of brain
Goitre , impaired mental function (mentally retarded )
(Iodine : essential part of the thyroid hormone, thyroxin and tri iodothyronine ).
Geomedicinal problem Mineral deficiencies in food Under malnutrition (sub Saharan Africa: 20 years) & Other developing countries e.g. iodine, iron & zinc High intake of food Problem related to excess consumption
Carry capacity of land Influenced by Genetic diversity of species Productivity of soil climate Quality& quantity of water resources Developing countries Macronutrients (N, P & K) Neglate the micronutrient The issue of neglate animal human essential nutrient element.
Estimated Anemia, iron deficiency………….. 64.3 3709.3 25.7 1483.7 34.3 1978.3 total 72.0 1084.5 28.8 433.8 38.4 578.4 Western Pacific 33.9 265.7 13.6 106.3 18.1 141.7 The Americas 98.8 1434.8 39.5 573.9 52.7 765.2 South- East Asia 17.3 149.6 6.9 59.9 9.2 79.8 Europe 72.2 336.6 28.9 134.6 38.5 179.5 Eastern Mediterranean 72.8 438.2 29.1 175.3 38.8 233.7 Africa Prevalence(%) Number (millions) Prevalence(%) Number (millions) Prevalence(%) Number (millions) Iron deficiency Iron deficiency anemia Anemia WHO global regions Population Affected
16.51 0.92 911 15.6 total 0.74 0.14 254 15.5 Western Pacific 3.56 0.81 220 14.9 The Americas 0.48 0.26 93 10.7 South- East Asia 7.18 2.59 145 30.3 Europe 0.34 0.33 52 6.5 Eastern Mediterranean 4.21 1.48 174 23.7 Africa Number affected (millions) Prevalence(%) Number affected (millions) Prevalence (%) centrins Goiter WHO global regions Population Affected
Strategies for improving micronutrient concentration of food Food system Balance diet (diet with vegetable & fruits) Fertilizers & organic amendments Varietal selection & plant breeding Farm management e.g. (i) crop rotation (ii) Balanced cropping system (iii) Tillage practice Molecular genetic crops transformation e.g. crops
Human Health Quality Food Drinking water Atmosphere Quantity soil Animal Plant Deficient of nutrients Toxic concentration of nutrients/toxic element / compounds Ground water Deficient element Toxic concentration of element Soil and water management