Space solarpower


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Space solarpower

  1. 1. Space Solar Power Thomas Lynch Boeing
  2. 2. Sun Tower Concept 15 kM bed length 3 GW output beam < 5 cents/kW-Hr $125B Fab Estimate Microwave beam to earth mounted “Rectenna”
  3. 3. Introduction Laser Beam to Existing Photovoltaic Solar Array Introduction
  4. 4. 1. Concentrator focuses sunlight on space-based PV array 2. PV array powers laser diode 3. Laser diode pumps fibers 6. DC electricity is converted to AC 7. Power is distributed to consumers 4. Light from fibers is fed to optics and transmitted to Earth 5. Terrestrial PV receiver array converts sunlight to DC electricity Satellite Concept of Operation
  5. 5. Transmitter Face and Robot <ul><li>Two robots placed symmetrically on transmitter’s frontside </li></ul><ul><li>Robots move on a rail connected at perimeter and center </li></ul>Robot assembles and repairs transmitter modules 83,841,250 Radiating Elements 2.141 GW Radiated Microwave (5.8GHz)
  6. 6. Solar Cell Efficiency vs Wavelength Example: Laser Diode Array achieves 40% with LASER SSP & Photovoltaic ground Array 1kW/m 2 ~ Sun on Earth Typical earth mounted solar array has 14% efficiency Visible Light (reference)
  7. 7. Economic and Market Factors - General Cost Findings <ul><ul><li>For 1996, U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generating costs for new plants averaged about 3.8 ¢/kWh (EIA, 1997) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For ~ 2020, U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A “reference case” for generation costs in 2020 is ~ 3.2 to 3.3 ¢/kWh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Bank experts suggested an average generating cost, ~ 2020, for rapidly growing economics, of ~ 5.5 ¢/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deregulation of foreign electric power markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource inputs trade in a world market at world prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization of investment and technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interfuel competition holds costs down </li></ul></ul></ul>10 SSP Economic & Market Analysis Team
  8. 8. Preliminary Observations - Market 14 SSP Economic & Market Analysis Team World Energy Prospects to 2020 , IEA, 1998 Growth In Electric Capacity Supply 1995 - 2020 (GW )
  9. 9. SPG Pointing Accuracy, Structural Control Trades <ul><li>Pointing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off pointing : % of capture (2 degrees of control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface accuracy requires active control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2 o for PV concentrator cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each concentrator needs its own control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbance while pointing may impact WPT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Station keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifetime (40 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotating machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrator Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actuator control </li></ul></ul>Pat George
  10. 10. <ul><li>SSP must be managed by robotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect repairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All are imperative to achieve cost objective of < 5 cents per kW-Hour </li></ul>Robotics
  11. 11. LEMUR L egged E xcursion M echanical U tility R obot LEMUR A new type of autonomous n-pod walker called LEMUR has been developed for assembly, inspection, and maintenance. This robot demonstrates multi-mode operations (mobility, inspection, and manipulation) with a modular and multifunctional toolset. LEMUR Configuration 4 DOF Hex Driver Leg 4 DOF Gripper Leg w/ in-line camera (Palm-cam) 3 DOF Gripper Leg Stereo Cameras <ul><ul><li>Demonstrated fine manipulation and tool based operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined payload identification methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented fiducial markers for encoding payload identification, orientation, and characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed visual inspection of payloads and robots </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. LEMUR L egged E xcursion M echanical U tility R obot Three-fingered manipulator with integrated camera optics Hex driver with retractable foot <ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed and integrated LEMUR mobile platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a three-fingered manipulator with compliant grasp adjustment for manipulation of fine/delicate payloads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a hex driver end-effector with retractable foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a miniature macroscopic imaging camera (Palm-cam) for integration into grasping manipulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed algorithms and computer code for stereo vision and pattern recognition using wavelet decomposition of fiducials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated visual object and self-inspection using the Palm-cam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing software for autonomous navigation, inspection, and manipulation of target </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hyper Redundant Intelligent Systems <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Develop small, identical robotic elements that can accomplish tasks collectively that are well beyond the capabilities of its individual members. </li></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize serpentine chain of linkages with integrated computing, sensing, and power as testbed for cooperative robotics executing construction, inspection, and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>NASA - Haith, Wright, Loch, Thomas </li></ul><ul><li>CMU - Howie Choset </li></ul><ul><li>Industry - Randy Sargent (Newton Labs) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism Configuration: advanced actuators, packaging, lightweight structure, power, biomimetic skin </li></ul><ul><li>Single Robot Control: force and redundancy control strategies, communication, simulation & modelling of hyper-redundant systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Robot Control: Autonomy;Mobility planning in complex structures, payload strategies, data sharing/sensing </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly Redundant (> 7 DOF) serial link manipulator chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of long reach into highly constrained spaces (trusses, frames) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of prehensile grasping, limbless locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundant to multiple joint failures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Path and motion planning to arbitrary locations in a complex 3D structure using generalized voronoi graph search </li></ul></ul>Hyper Redundant Intelligent Systems
  15. 15. Actual system “flight proven” through successful mission operations Actual system completed and “flight qualified” through test and demonstration (Ground or Flight) System prototype demonstration in a space environment System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (Ground or Space) Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept Technology concept and/or application formulated Basic principles observed and reported System Test, Launch & Operations System/Subsystem Development Technology Demonstration Technology Development Research to Prove Feasibility Basic Technology Research TRL 9 TRL 8 TRL 7 TRL 6 TRL 5 TRL 4 TRL 3 TRL 2 TRL 1 Assessing Technology Readiness Levels