Industrial training partex denim ltd.

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Industrial training partex denim ltd.

  1. 1. Department of Textile Engineering Industrial Attachment PARTEX DENIM LTD. Banglabazar, Gazipur, Bangladesh
  2. 2. PARTEX DENIM LTD. Banglabazar, Gazipur May 20, 2011 to August 20, 2011 Prepared by: Mohammad Israfil Alam ID: 2007200400045 Batch: 6th (FMT) E-mail: israfil_tex@yahoo.com Cell: 01717123339
  3. 3. Supervising Faculty: Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan Chairman Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Banani, Dhaka Cell No.: 01711-698261 Industrial Supervisor: Mr. Zainul Abedin Bhuyan A.G.M (Weaving) Partex Denim Ltd. Banglabazar, Joydevpur, Gazipur
  4. 4. PARTEX DENIM Page4 Table of Contents Acknowledgement...............................................................................................................................................10 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................................11 Company Profile...................................................................................................................................................12 1.1 PARTEX HOLDINGS:....................................................................................................................................13 1.2 Enterprises of Partex Holdings:..................................................................................................................14 1.3 PARTEX DENIM LTD:...................................................................................................................................15 1.4 Work-Time Schedule of the Factory:..........................................................................................................15 1.5 Satellite View: ............................................................................................................................................17 1.6 Factory Layout:...........................................................................................................................................18 1.7 Company Organogram:..............................................................................................................................21 Process Flow ..........................................................................................................................................................22 2.1 Process Flow Chart.....................................................................................................................................23 Yarn Store...............................................................................................................................................................24 3.1 Types of yarn used: ....................................................................................................................................25 3.2 Yarn count used: ........................................................................................................................................25 3.3 Supplier of the Yarn: ..................................................................................................................................25 3.4 Yarn Store Layout:......................................................................................................................................26 Warping ...................................................................................................................................................................27 4.1 Definition: ..................................................................................................................................................28 4.2 Objects of Warping: ...................................................................................................................................28 4.3 Importance of Warping:.............................................................................................................................28 4.4 Types of Warping: ......................................................................................................................................28 4.4.1 Direct Warping: .................................................................................................................................29 4.4.2 Indirect or Sectional Warping:...........................................................................................................29 4.4.3 Ball Warping: .....................................................................................................................................30 4.4.4 Draw Warping: ..................................................................................................................................30 4.5 Difference between High speed warping and Sectional warping: .............................................................30 4.6 Warping in Partex Denim:..........................................................................................................................31 4.6.1 Machine Specifications:.....................................................................................................................31 4.6.2 Warping Section Layout: ...................................................................................................................32 4.6.3 Machine Main Parts: .........................................................................................................................33 4.6.4 Functions of Different Parts: .............................................................................................................33 4.7 Briefly Description of Different Parts:........................................................................................................34 4.7.1 Creel: .................................................................................................................................................34 4.7.2 Comparison between H creel & V creel: ...........................................................................................34 4.7.3 Rods:..................................................................................................................................................35
  5. 5. PARTEX DENIM Page5 4.7.4 Chain system: ....................................................................................................................................35 4.7.5 Control Devices: ................................................................................................................................35 4.7.6 Headstock:.........................................................................................................................................36 4.7.7 Dust and Fly Accumulation Unit:.......................................................................................................37 4.7.8 Warping Plan:....................................................................................................................................38 4.7.9 Warping Procedure: ..........................................................................................................................38 4.7.10 Count wise Drum Pressure:...............................................................................................................38 4.8 Calculations:...............................................................................................................................................39 Dyeing & Sizing.....................................................................................................................................................41 5.1 Definition: ..................................................................................................................................................42 5.2 Objects of Dyeing:......................................................................................................................................42 5.3 Theory of Dyeing:.......................................................................................................................................42 5.4 Denim Dyeing:............................................................................................................................................42 5.5 Dyes use for Denim: ...................................................................................................................................43 5.5.1 Vat Dyes:............................................................................................................................................43 5.5.2 Sulphur Dyes:.....................................................................................................................................45 5.6 Denim Dyeing Process:...............................................................................................................................47 5.6.1 Rope Dyeing: .....................................................................................................................................47 5.6.2 Slasher Dyeing: ..................................................................................................................................49 5.6.3 Loop Dyeing:......................................................................................................................................50 5.7 Difference between Slasher and Rope Dyeing:..........................................................................................50 5.8 Sizing: .........................................................................................................................................................51 5.8.1 Definition:..........................................................................................................................................51 5.8.2 Objects of Sizing: ...............................................................................................................................51 5.8.3 Changes in Yarn due to Sizing:...........................................................................................................52 5.8.4 Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving?.............................................................................................52 5.8.5 Techniques of Sizing: .........................................................................................................................52 5.8.6 Types of sizing according to application:...........................................................................................53 5.8.7 Size Ingredients and their function: ..................................................................................................53 5.9 Dyeing & Sizing in Partex Denim: ...............................................................................................................56 5.10 Machine Specification:...............................................................................................................................57 5.10.1 Creel section:.....................................................................................................................................59 5.10.2 Benlink:..............................................................................................................................................60 5.10.3 Accumulator: .....................................................................................................................................60 5.10.4 Pre treatment:...................................................................................................................................61 5.10.5 Pre-Washing (1-3 box):......................................................................................................................62 5.10.6 Dyeing:...............................................................................................................................................63
  6. 6. PARTEX DENIM Page6 5.10.7 Drying Zone: ......................................................................................................................................69 5.10.8 Accumulator: .....................................................................................................................................69 5.10.9 Sizing:.................................................................................................................................................69 5.10.10 Size Cooking Process:....................................................................................................................70 5.10.11 Drying Zone:..................................................................................................................................72 5.10.12 Accumulator:.................................................................................................................................72 5.10.13 Leasing Zone: ................................................................................................................................72 5.10.14 Expansion Comb:...........................................................................................................................72 5.10.15 Beaming: .......................................................................................................................................72 5.10.16 Transportation of Beams: .............................................................................................................72 5.11 Functions of chemicals used in Yarn dyeing:..............................................................................................73 5.12 Equipments used in dyeing lab: .................................................................................................................74 5.13 Chemicals used for dyeing and sizing:........................................................................................................75 5.14 Calculation: ................................................................................................................................................76 Weaving....................................................................................................................................................................77 6.1 Definition: ..................................................................................................................................................78 6.2 Basic Weave Designs:.................................................................................................................................78 6.2.1 Plain Weave:......................................................................................................................................78 6.2.2 Twill Weave: ......................................................................................................................................79 6.3 Classification of Modern Weaving Machines:............................................................................................79 6.3.1 Air-Jet Weaving: ................................................................................................................................80 6.3.2 Rapier Weaving: ................................................................................................................................80 6.3.3 Projectile Weaving: ...........................................................................................................................81 6.3.4 Water-Jet Weaving:...........................................................................................................................81 6.4 Weaving in Partex Denim:..........................................................................................................................81 6.4.1 Specification of Airjet: .......................................................................................................................82 6.4.2 Specification of Rapier:......................................................................................................................82 6.5 Looming:.....................................................................................................................................................83 6.6 Drawing-In:.................................................................................................................................................83 6.7 Tying-In:......................................................................................................................................................83 6.8 Basic Motion: .............................................................................................................................................83 6.8.1 Primary Motions:...............................................................................................................................84 6.8.2 Secondary Mechanisms:....................................................................................................................92 6.8.3 Tertiary Mechanisms:........................................................................................................................93 6.9 Special Features of PICANOL:.....................................................................................................................94 6.9.1 Unique Sumo main motor:................................................................................................................94 6.9.2 Picanol PC Suite:................................................................................................................................94
  7. 7. PARTEX DENIM Page7 6.9.3 Automatic full pick finding: ...............................................................................................................95 6.9.4 Exchangeable shed formation:..........................................................................................................95 6.9.5 Electronic Let-Off and Take-Up: ........................................................................................................95 6.9.6 Easy fitting and removal of warp beam and cloth roll: .....................................................................95 6.9.7 Perfect lubrication:............................................................................................................................95 6.9.8 Double pressure roller:......................................................................................................................95 6.9.9 Optimized sley drive:.........................................................................................................................96 6.9.10 Electronic Selvedge System and Electronic Rotary Leno:..................................................................96 6.9.11 Quick Step filling presenter (Rapier): ................................................................................................96 6.9.12 CANplus prewinders (Airjet):.............................................................................................................96 6.9.13 Programmable Filling Tensioner (Airjet): ..........................................................................................96 6.9.14 Clamp on the movable main nozzle (Airjet): .....................................................................................96 6.9.15 Argus filling detector (Airjet):............................................................................................................97 6.9.16 Fixed and movable main nozzles (Airjet):..........................................................................................97 6.9.17 New relay nozzles and valves (Airjet):...............................................................................................97 6.9.18 Adaptive Relay Valve Drive (Airjet): ..................................................................................................97 6.9.19 Stretch nozzle (Airjet):.......................................................................................................................98 6.10 Different Parts Manufacturers Name: .......................................................................................................98 6.11 Selvedge:....................................................................................................................................................99 6.12 Calculation: ..............................................................................................................................................100 Finishing................................................................................................................................................................102 7.1 Definition: ................................................................................................................................................103 7.2 Objects of Finishing:.................................................................................................................................103 7.3 Types of finishing: ....................................................................................................................................103 7.3.1 Physical/Mechanical Finishing:........................................................................................................103 7.3.2 Chemical Finishing:..........................................................................................................................103 7.4 Finishing In Partex Denim: .......................................................................................................................104 7.5 Process Sequence of Denim Finish Line: ..................................................................................................106 7.5.1 Brushing:..........................................................................................................................................106 7.5.2 J-Box: ...............................................................................................................................................106 7.5.3 Singeing: ..........................................................................................................................................106 7.5.4 Softening: ........................................................................................................................................109 7.5.5 Skewness Control: ...........................................................................................................................109 7.5.6 Dryer:...............................................................................................................................................112 7.5.7 Stenter:............................................................................................................................................112 7.5.8 Sanforizing:......................................................................................................................................112 7.5.9 Calendaring: ....................................................................................................................................114
  8. 8. PARTEX DENIM Page8 7.6 Mercerization:..........................................................................................................................................115 7.6.1 Physio-chemical changes during mercerization: .............................................................................116 7.6.2 Advantages of mercerization: .........................................................................................................116 7.6.3 Effect of mercerizing condition: ......................................................................................................116 7.7 Desizing: ...................................................................................................................................................117 7.8 Resin Finishing:.........................................................................................................................................118 Inspection..............................................................................................................................................................119 8.1 Inspection in Partex Denim:.....................................................................................................................120 8.2 Inspection Process: ..................................................................................................................................120 8.3 Four (4) Point System:..............................................................................................................................120 8.4 Machinery Description:............................................................................................................................121 8.5 Major Fabric Faults:..................................................................................................................................123 8.6 Quality Assurance Procedure:..................................................................................................................126 Research & Development ................................................................................................................................127 9.1 R & D Department in Partex Denim: ........................................................................................................128 9.2 Developed Samples:.................................................................................................................................129 9.3 Name of some Buyers: .............................................................................................................................131 Denim Wash..........................................................................................................................................................132 10.1 Denim Washing:.......................................................................................................................................133 10.2 Types of Denim Wash: .............................................................................................................................134 10.2.1 Desizing: ..........................................................................................................................................136 10.2.2 Bleaching: ........................................................................................................................................137 10.2.3 Stone wash: .....................................................................................................................................138 10.2.4 Enzyme wash:..................................................................................................................................140 10.2.5 Sand Blasting: ..................................................................................................................................141 10.2.6 Acid wash: .......................................................................................................................................141 10.3 Denim Washing in Partex Denim: ............................................................................................................143 10.4 Chemical Used for Washing: ....................................................................................................................144 10.5 Machine used in washing unit: ................................................................................................................145 10.6 Most Common Denim Washes: ...............................................................................................................147 Utilities ..................................................................................................................................................................153 11.1 Definition: ................................................................................................................................................154 11.1.1 Water Supply:..................................................................................................................................154 11.1.2 Boiler: ..............................................................................................................................................155 11.1.3 Generator: .......................................................................................................................................156 11.1.4 Air Compressor:...............................................................................................................................157 11.1.5 Chiller: .............................................................................................................................................160
  9. 9. PARTEX DENIM Page9 11.1.6 Humidification Plant:.......................................................................................................................162 Effluent Treatment Plant ...........................................................................................................................163 Process Flow Chart:...........................................................................................................................................166 11.2 Pre-Treatment..........................................................................................................................................167 11.3 Primary-Treatment...................................................................................................................................167 11.4 Secondary-Treatment ..............................................................................................................................168 Maintenance .........................................................................................................................................................171 12.1 Introduction: ............................................................................................................................................172 12.2 Types of Maintenance:.............................................................................................................................172 12.2.1 Reactive/Break-down Maintenance:...............................................................................................172 12.2.2 Preventive/Schedule Maintenance: ................................................................................................173 12.2.3 Predictive/Planned Maintenance:...................................................................................................173 12.2.4 Capital Replacement: ......................................................................................................................174 12.3 Functions/Elements of Maintenance Department: .................................................................................175 12.4 Requirements for Good Maintenance: ....................................................................................................176 Store & Inventory Control .............................................................................................................................177 Marketing Activities .........................................................................................................................................180 Security..................................................................................................................................................................183 Quality Assurance..............................................................................................................................................186 Discussion .............................................................................................................................................................192 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................................193 References:............................................................................................................................................................194
  10. 10. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page10 Acknowledgement Firstly I would like to thank the Almighty Allah for giving me patience to conclude my internship program & finally this industrial attachment. Preparing the internship report based on “Fabric Manufacturing Technology (Denim)”, I have understood that it is very difficult to find out the basic and fundamental aspects of fabric manufacturing are largely distant from the theoretical bookish knowledge. I express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. M. S. Hasan, General Manager, Partex Denim Ltd. for giving me permission for industrial training in his mill. I am also thankful to Mr. Zainul Abedin Bhuyan, A. G. M. (Weaving), for his cordial support during the period of internship. After him I would like to thank Mr. Rafat Bin Hasan for his guideline and endless help. My gathered knowledge about denim washing will not successful without his help. From Preparatory Section I would like to thank Mr. Alamgir (Warping), Mr. Akash (Warping), Mr. Aziz (Dyeing) for their guideline about Warping, Dyeing & Sizing process. From Weaving Section I would like to thank Mr. Radhakanta Paul (Manager) & Mr. Sukanta Kumar (Asst. manager) for their support. They helped me a lot about learning weaving process both airjet and rapier loom. I would like to thank Mr. Mahfuzur Rahman (Manager) from finishing section, Mr. Masud & Mr. Kaium from R&D department. I have learned so many things form R&D department. Without their help it will difficult for me to understanding the whole process. Special Thanks to Mr. Mogh (A.G.M) from utility section. I have learned so many things in this section specially ETP. I am very grateful and deeply indebted to our respected teacher Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan, Chairman, Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University for his continuous support, encouragement, suggestion, guidance and constructive criticism to get through the industrial training. I thank to the management of Partex Denim Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to undergo Industrial Training there. Thus all in all it can be said that without their help it would not be possible for me to prepare this internship report. So I would like to convey thanks notation to all who directly or indirectly contributed and inspired me to time to time in preparing the report. My gratitude also goes to all the employees of Partex Denim Ltd. for their sincere co-operation, support and valuable advice which they have provided me during the training period.
  11. 11. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page11 Introduction If the theoretical knowledge is a glass of water then the practical knowledge would be drinking of water. It is always very easy to make a man understand about a firebox by showing and lighting practically rather than describing theoretically who has not ever seen a firebox. So, for any technical education the practical experience is the most important as well as the theoretical knowledge. As we are studying in a technical line, it is always important for us to gather the practical knowledge. Through our study life the only biggest chance for us to combine the theoretical knowledge with the practical knowledge is the “Industrial Attachment Period” that comes only once in the education life when completing under graduate education. So we can easily realize the importance of Industrial Attachment. And in addition the knowledge we gathered from the industrial training reflects in the report of industrial attachment note book. So industrial attachment is the process where a trainee can blend his theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge which increased the ability of work, skills, performance and attitude and so on. It also provides sufficient knowledge about production management, productivity evaluation, work study & efficiency, industrial management, production planning and control, production cost analysis, inventory management, utility, maintenance and so on. Industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere and also improve courage and inspiration to take self- responsibility. I have tried to my best to prepare this note book applying our best efforts. I have tried to gather all the necessary information to make it a valuable for me as well as for everyone. I think it will help me a lot in future practical life.
  12. 12. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page12 Chapter One Company Profile
  13. 13. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page13 1.1 PARTEX HOLDINGS: Partex Holdings is a conglomerate comprising 20 companies across diverse industries. Adjusting to the ever changing global environment, it is an exodus from patrimonial management system to professional management system, using the Partex name as a springboard that has been respected in Bangladesh for 50 years for its adherence to strong values and business ethics. Founded by Mr. M.A. Hashem in 1959, the mother ship PARTEX’S early years were inspired by the spirit of nationalism. Initially a major importer of consumer products and materials, fast transition to import substitution made it possible to become pioneer in several industries of national importance in newly independent Bangladesh. In more recent times, its pioneering spirit has been showcased by PARTEX HOLDINGS, with direction from the competent next family generation comprising Mr. Aziz Al-Kaiser, Mr. Aziz Al-Mahmood, Mr. Aziz Al-Masud, Mr. Showkat Aziz Russell & Mr. Rubel Aziz. PARTEX HOLDINGS companies now operate in business sectors like communications and information technology, energy, materials, services and consumer products. The major Partex Holdings companies are Partex Plastics, Partex Denim, Partex Beverage, Amber Pulp, Amber Cotton, Partex Foundry Ltd., Partex Rotor Spinning Mills, Partex Spinning Mills, Dhakacom Limited, Partex Sugar Mills Ltd., Partex Paper Mills Ltd. We are, by and large, based in Bangladesh and have significant international clients. In tandem with the increasing international footprint of PARTEX HOLDINGS companies, the Partex flagship is also gaining international recognition. In a short span of time, PARTEX HOLDINGS’ concerns have shown incomparable success. Partex Beverage Ltd. has positioned at the 2nd position in the local beverage market being the sole official bottler of Royal Crown Cola Co. To cater international demand, Partex Denim has been supplying 3 million yards per month with minimum lead time, superior quality at the best price, color consistency and meticulous packaging. Our IT services are to cover all 64 districts by end of 2010 through Dhaka com, which is also connected to all major Telecom Carriers in the country. Going forward, Partex Holdings is focusing on new technologies and innovation to drive its business in Bangladesh and internationally. Anchored in Bangladesh and wedded to traditional values and strong ethics, Partex Holdings companies are building multinational businesses that will achieve growth through excellence and innovation, while balancing the interests of shareholders, employees and civil society.
  14. 14. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page14 1.2 Enterprises of Partex Holdings: Textiles  Partex Rotor Spinning Mills Limited  Partex Spinning Mills Limited  Partex Rotor Mills Limited  Amber Cotton Mills Limited  Partex Denim Limited Food & Beverages  Partex Sugar Mills Limited  Partex Beverages Plastics  uPVC Pipes & Fittings  PP-R Pipes & Fittings  Plastic Furniture  Superware  Accessories Paper  Amber Paper & Pulp Mills Limited Real Estate  Partex Real Estate Limited ICT  DhakaCom Limited  BEPS  Radio Dhaka Trading  Partex Trading & Shipping Limited Agro Business  Fisheries  Agriculture  Partex Foundry Limited
  15. 15. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page15 1.3 PARTEX DENIM LIMITED: Company Profile Company Name : PARTEX DENIM LTD. Company Status : Private Owner : Mr. M.A.Hashem Year of Establishment : 2005 Factory Location : Banglabazar,Joydevpur,Gazipur. Corporate Office : House # 37, Road # 01, Block # 1, Banani Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh Web: www.Partexholding.com Type of Factory : Fabric Manufacturing Product : Denim Fabric Annual Production : 22 million yards Project Cost : 30 million US dollar Total Area : 30 acres Structure : Steel structure surrounded by brick wall Total Employee : 1200 (250 executive & officers) 1.4 Work-Time Schedule of the Factory: The Factory Runs 24 Hour A Day. It Maintains A Tight Work Schedule. That Is Shown In The Chart. Section Number of Shift Duration Warping 2 12 hours each Dyeing 3 8 hours each Weaving 3 8 hours each Finishing 2 12 hours each Utility 3 8 hours each Security 3 8 hours each Stuff & Commercial General Shift 9 a.m. – 5 p.m. Top Management General Shift 9 a.m. – 5 p.m.
  16. 16. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page16 Bangla Bazar Rajendrapur Chourasta National Park PARTEXDENIM LTD. Gazipur Chourasta Dhaka-Mymensingh Highway Mirzapur Bazar Kapasia Dhaka-Tongi Road Joydebpur Railway Station Chandra Factory Location Map
  17. 17. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page17 1.5 Satellite View: ETP Humidification Plant Yarn Store Admin Office Buyer rest house Main Gate Fabric Store Utility Weaving Finishing Garden Warping Dyeing & Sizing Play ground Entrance Gate WTP
  18. 18. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page18 1.6 Factory Layout: Desizing Resin Finishing Mercerizing Denim Finish Line 2 Denim Finish Line 1 R & D Dyeing & SizingCreeling Dyeing & SizingCreeling Warping Inspection & Packing Dyeing Lab A= Front Gate M=Mechanical office B=Mosque T=Toilet C=Sewing section R=Coating chemical store D=Doctor G=Gate E=Electrical office H=Warping & Sizing office F=Finishing office → = Gate S=Spare parts K=Washing unit W=Weaving office Rapier loom Airjet loom 625 feet 340feet Total Space: 212500 square feet
  19. 19. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page19 Partex Denim is a Premium Denim producer. It commenced its production in 2005 with the best and latest machinery available in the world. The current capacity is two Million yards of Fabric per month. On the fabric side, our product range includes weights from 4.5 ozs up to 14.5 ozs using multi-count/ multi twist ring/open-end yarn using CAIPO technology. We have two worlds best Benninger Slasher Indigo dye range from Switzerland and Germany, which are capable of doing colored bottoming/topping reactive colored denim/Sandwich/plus very deep indigo shades. Weaving is done on machines from Picanol Belgium. Most modern Weaving machines both in rapier and airjet version to get good productivity and to make trouble free fabric even if it is made with coarser slub or spandex. Picanol Omniplus 800 and GamMax rapier from Belgium where used some special device as per our requirement which can help to produce better fabric than others mill though they used also same machine. The loom shed is totally humidified and temperature controlled with enough air circulation and sufficient pressure to help machine and yarn to make better fabric and always make the shed clean. On the finishing side, we have Cibitex which is the most modern finishing range introduced in Bangladesh for the first time by Partex. It has mini Stenter to keep fabric width same without any variation. Sufficient brushing, singeing in both side, high quality skew device, bigger padder, sanforizer and compacting device to make the fabric more clean and maintain shrinkage properly. Partex was the pioneer of starting Flat finish fabric commercially in Bangladesh and is capable of doing a variation in the Figure: Front View of Partex Denim Ltd. Figure: Weaving Section Figure: Dyeing Section
  20. 20. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page20 flat quality as per the buyers requirement. They can make Soft Finish, Flat Finish and Super Flat as well. This machine was specially designed as per Partex’s requirement. Partex gives importance to inspection machines also. To control proper tension and easy handling. Partex uses most modern machines with conveyer belt with auto wrapping and packing. On the quality side, Partex uses most modern and efficient lab instruments from Atlas UK which is operated by trained technicians. The variable light box, Spectrophotometer, Rubbing tester, Washing Fastness, Tensile strength tester etc. gives accurate results and helps to keep quality good and more consistent. On the development side, the R&D department is independent and equipped to promptly invent new designs for new fashion and develop buyer’s requirements timely. This department keeps all documents from dyeing recipe to fabric construction and keeps master roll to keep shade in same consistent even over a longer discontinuity. Partex always researches to develop new fashion as per the world requirement as well as to maintain comfort & durability. Partex is manufacturing all kinds of denim fabrics in rigid and stretch in the following versions: Non flat, Flat Super flat, Resin coated, Pigment coated, Over Dyed, PU coated, ECRU denim, RFD denim, Ash colored denim, Reactive colored denim, Color denim. Partex is manufacturing bi-stretch commercially for the first time in Bangladesh and coming soon with Organic denim fabric. There is no end in fashion. They are also in the process of making Linen denim, viscose denim and so on. On the environment side, Partex maintains a state of the art Water and Effluent Treatment Plant meeting toughest international standards and always looks to make the working environment greener. It has plenty of lush trees surrounding the plant premises. Partex maintains labour laws, gives all facilities like medical, housing, leave, festival bonus etc to their employees. Pacific Jeans, IDS Group, Kenpark Bangladesh Ltd., Liberty Fashion, Standard Group, M&J Group, Tusuka Trousers, Shanta Denims, ABA Fashions Ltd., Regency Bangladesh Ltd., Jeacon Garments Ltd., Tanaj Fashion, Windy Apparels Ltd., Swan Garments Ltd., Birds Garments, EPIC Designers, Brandix Srilanka and many more.
  21. 21. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page21 1.7 Company Organogram: Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer Asst. Production Officer Chairman Managing Director General Manager AGM Preparatory & Dyeing AGM HR & Administration AGM Utility & Maintenance Manager Finance & Accounts AGM Weaving Manager Civil Manager Marketing Manager Commercial Coordinator Production & Marketing Maintenance Manager Preparatory Manager Dyeing Manager Finishing Manager Weaving Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer Asst. Production Officer Trainee OfficerTrainee Officer Asst. Manager Shift Engineer Sr. Production Officer Production Officer Asst. Production Officer Trainee Officer Asst. Manager Senior Chemist Chemist Asst. Chemist Trainee Chemist
  22. 22. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page22 Chapter Two Process Flow
  23. 23. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page23 2.1 Process Flow Chart For Warp Yarn Yarn in Cone Warping Pre-treatment Indigo Dyeing Drying Sizing Drying Beaming Weaving Singeing Softening Skewness Sanforizing Calendaring Mercerizing Stentering Desizing Resin Finishing Inspection Packing Delivery PreparatoryFinishing For Weft Yarn Yarn in Cone
  24. 24. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page24 Chapter Three Yarn Store
  25. 25. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page25 3.1 Types of yarn used:  Rotor yarn  Ring yarn  Slub yarn  Polyester  Lycra yarn 3.2 Yarn count used:  For warp : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 30 (Slub + Normal)  For weft : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 30 (Slub + Normal)  Polyester : 300D, 600D  Lycra : 10L40D, 16L40D, 200L40D, 300DL40D 3.3 Supplier of the Yarn:  Partex Rotor Mills Ltd.  Partex Rotor Spinning Mills Ltd.  Amber Cotton Mills Ltd.  Mahamud Denim Ltd.  Sapphire Textile Mills Ltd.  Indorma  Shaoxing Xingji Import & Export Co. Ltd.  Nishat Mills Ltd.  Ashik Composite Textile Ltd.  Salek Textile  Purbani Rotor Mills  Square Textile Ltd.  Kader Synthetic
  26. 26. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page26 3.4 Yarn Store Layout: Total Space: 19950 square feet 175 ft 114ft Gate Gate
  27. 27. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page27 Chapter Four Warping
  28. 28. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page28 4.1 Definition: In general terms, warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam. The warp beam that is installed on weaving machine is called the weaver’s beam. A weaver’s beam can contain several thousand ends and for different reasons it is rarely produced in one operation. 4.2 Objects of Warping:  Construction of warp yarn beam.  Construction of a parallel of yarn shift.  Modifying the faults of yarn like thick and thin places, large knots etc.  Winding the pre-determined length of yarn.  Combination of small packages.  Finding long length of warp yarn.  Accelerating the next process. 4.3 Importance of Warping:  The tension of wounds ends must be uniform and possibly constant during all the time of with drawl from supply package.  Warping should not impair the physical and mechanical properties of yarn.  Pre determined length of warping should be high.  The surface of warping package must be cylindrical. 4.4 Types of Warping: There are four types of warping, which are as follows: 1. Direct Warping 2. Indirect or Sectional Warping 3. Ball Warping 4. Draw Warping
  29. 29. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page29 4.4.1 Direct Warping: In direct warping, the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the creel and directly wound on a beam. Direct warping can be used to directly produce the weaver’s beam in a single operation. This is suitable for strong yarns that do not require sizing and when the number of warps on the warp beam is relatively small. This is also called direct beaming. It can also be used to make smaller, intermediate beams called warper’s beams. These smaller beams are combined later at the slashing stage to produce the weaver’s beam. This process is called beaming. 4.4.2 Indirect or Sectional Warping: In Indirect warping, a section beam is produce first. It is also called band warping or drum warping. The section beam is tapered at one end. Warp yarn is wound on the beam in sections, starting with the tapered end of the beam. Each section has multiple ends that are traversed together slowly during winding along the length of the section to form the angle. Due to the geometry of the yarn sections, the last section on the beam will have a tapered end that will make the whole yarn on the beam stable. It is important that each layer on the beam contain the same number of yarns. The same length of yarn is wound on each section. After all the sections on the beam are wound completely, then the yarn on the beam is wound on to a regular beam with flanges, before slashing. This process is called re-beaming. Figure: High speed/Direct warping Figure: Sectional warping
  30. 30. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page30 4.4.3 Ball Warping: Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. After the dyeing process, the tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming. 4.4.4 Draw Warping: Draw Warping is combining the drawing of filament yarns with heat setting and warping processes to achieve uniform stretching and heating for improved dye uniformity, end to end. It is used for weaving of thermoplastic yarns. 4.5 Difference between High speed warping and Sectional warping: High speed warping Sectional warping To produce common fabric To produce fancy fabric High production Low production Large no of yarn are required Small amount of yarn are required Weavers beam is produced after sizing Weavers beam is produced before sizing Creel capacity is greater than 1200 Creel capacity is greater than 300 to 400 Cone, cheese winding are used Flanged bobbin is used Single yarn is used Twist yarn is used Cheap process Costly process Uniform tension Not uniform tension Used very much Not used Figure: Draw warping Figure: Ball warping
  31. 31. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page31 4.6 Warping in Partex Denim: The warping section of the Partex Denim Ltd. is working under the A.G.M. of Preparatory Section. AGCH- 9240, UZWIL BENNINGER 2005 warping machine with v-creel is used here. The department is connected with dyeing section directly and working 24 hrs. R&D department inspects the cones which is converted in beams of required length and forwarded to dyeing section. 4.6.1 Machine Specifications: NAME : BEN DIRECT WARPING MACHINE Total Machine : 02 Model : AG, CH-9240 UZWIL BENINGER 2005 Origin : Germany Year of Installation : 2005 Creel capacity : Max.: 520, Min.: 372 Winding Speed : Maximum 1200 m/min Maximum Beam Diameter : 1250 mm Air Pressure Required : 5-8 bar Air Consumption : 2.5 – 3 m3 /hour Power : 21-23 KW Pressure of Drum : 600 daN Maximum Length of Yarn Can Wind : Around 30000 m Yarn Count : Both Ring & Open End yarn
  32. 32. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page32 4.6.2 Warping Section Layout: GateGate Creel Windingm/c Dust Chamber Creel
  33. 33. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page33 4.6.3 Machine Main Parts: Bobbin Stand/ Package Stand Holder Balloon Breaker Creel Section Yarn Tensioner Stop Motion Yarn Guide Cutter Motor Control Board Beam clamping & De-clamping Zone Machine Section Pressure Roller Accumulating zone Comb Cleanvac Section 4.6.4 Functions of Different Parts: Winding on Winding Speed: 350 - 1200 m/ min Encoder: Measure the surface speed of pressure drum Motor speed gradually reduced with the increase of beam diameter Inverter controls the motor speed Yarn Parallelization Each yarn is separated by comb Each dent contains only one yarn Combs are traversed by motor Cleaning Combs are cleaned by compressed air automatically at a preset interval Beam Clamping & De -clamping By motor Cleanvac Collects the dusts flying in the winding zone Collects dusts by creating vacuums by suction fan Accumulator Accumulator is used for storage of yarn when need to unwinding the beam for knot of yarn due to yarn breakage.
  34. 34. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page34 4.7 Briefly Description of Different Parts: 4.7.1 Creel: At the creel, the yarn packages are placed. The machine has travelling package V-creels. The max creel capacity is 520 cones on one end and 560 cones on the other. When one end is on working then the cones for next lot are installed on inner ends. After the one end’s stock ends then the creel is moved to other side. Capstan tensioners are installed at the creel. Guide rods are installed at the creel. 4.7.2 Comparison between H creel & V creel: H creel V creel Parallel warping is used for sectional warping as well as for direct warping. V-creel is used for only in direct warping. Suitable for comparatively low speed warping. Suitable for high speed yarn warping. Needs proper yarn guides. No need of yarn guide Provide low tension on whole beam. Provide uniform yarn tension across the whole beam. No free yarn from creel to the warping machine because proper yarn guides are required. Free yarn run from creel to the warping machine. More time consumable because of low speed. Less time consumable. More space is consumed. Less space is consumed. In indirect warping, a constant speed drive is generally required to provide approximately uniform yarn speed on the surface of the beam. Surface friction drive and variable speed drive is commonly used to attain the uniform yarn speed. H-creel has a wide range of package change system. Example: with reversible package, with unrolling draw off, with fixed package frames, with package trucks, with swiveling package frames. V-creel has a low range of package change. Example: reversible frames, reversible frames with automatic knotter, and with travelling package. Figure: Creel Section
  35. 35. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page35 4.7.3 Rods: Steel rods in creel frame for yarn support and guidance also important for yarn tension. Due to their structure, rotor yarns have special balloon dynamics. Ballooning is three times greater with rotor yarns than with ring spun yarns and has its maximum elongation in the spaces between package and tensioner. Two round metal rods with a smooth and friction-resistant surface achieve effective balloon reduction. 4.7.4 Chain system: Chain system is connected with motor. Use to rotate the creel frame in cone changing process. There are two sides of frame one is in working and second side is stationary till the filling of new cones. Proper oil lubrication is maintained in the system. 4.7.5 Control Devices: Warp yarns are threaded through capstan tensioners and stop motions at the creel. These tensioners are provided in order to provide necessary tension. When the machine starts running it remain closed for a little time in order to straightening of yarns. After the machine comes in running they open automatically to provide tension. Figure: Control Device
  36. 36. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page36 4.7.6 Headstock: At the headstock, the warper’s beam is installed for winding. The beam width is 1800mm. A guide roller guides the yarns to the warper’s beam. A pressing roller presses the warp sheet on the warper’s beam for winding with proper tension. The yarn build-up is determined by the tension of the warp threads and the press roller force. Uniform thread tension from the middle of the beam to the outside, i.e. from the front to the rear ends in the creel, must be assured. The press roller must ensure compact winding and absolute cylindricity. The first requirement for non-crossed ends is precision thread guidance with minimal free thread lengths from zigzag comb to beam. It must be possible to match the width of the thread sheet exactly to the beam width to avoid errors at the flanges. The presser roll is of hard paper and has strong end rings to prevent damage. The increasing yarn diameter on the beam forces the press roller back against the resistance of the pre-set pressing force. Thanks to this indirect pressing action the winding is always perfectly cylindrical. Upon braking, the press roller is immediately swung away hydraulically. All friction between roll and yarn is avoided. Figure: Headstock Figure: Drum pressure on yarn
  37. 37. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page37 The standard equipment is intended for back beams with 40° toothed internal taper. The teeth ensure exact centering as well as non-slip drive and braking. The machine can also be configured to accommodate journal beams. To avoid rolled-in threads, in the event of a thread break the direct warper must be able to be stopped in a short distance, even at the highest speeds and with a fully wound beam. This is performed by hydraulically operated disc brakes mounted to the both sides. From the creel, the yarns are passed through the expandable zigzag comb. The required warper’s beam width required can be set with the help of this comb. Simple insertion of the threads into the comb. The stepped comb is moved apart to simplify laying in the ends. The lateral alignment of the comb on the beam and the setting to the exact warp width are motor- driven. The horizontal comb movement guarantees uniform yarn build-up on the beam. The traverse can be set steplessly. Due to the vertical movement, the life of the comb is increased. 4.7.7 Dust and Fly Accumulation Unit: On Ben Direct, a dust and fly accumulation unit is installed at the headstock, which sucks dust, fluff and fly and prevent the warper’s beam from them. Figure: Break System Figure: V-reed
  38. 38. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page38 4.7.8 Warping Plan: The warper gets the required no of ends and the number of beams from the R&D department and then he made the warping plan that how to complete that task whether on one creel or on more no. of creels. 4.7.9 Warping Procedure: The creel stand has maximum capacity of five cones per stand. The yarn from the cones is unwounded and passes from rod by cross wound, holed by a catcher guided to the tensioning zone when cone rotates anticlockwise. There are three types of tension in warping i.e. catcher tension, rod tension, and sacker tension. Magnetic tensioner is used for yarn tension. Then the yarn comes to the winding zone or headstock. Combs straighten the yarns towards pressure drum, which supports beam, and yarns in an alignment so that each and every yarn end can wound separately. Static charges due to friction of yarns on metal surface cause static charges, which are removed through an anti static device. Then the yarn is wounded on beam in this way for a required length if beam is changed after one filling of beam then knotting of yarns is made. Similarly if cones are finished on one frame side then trolley system of cone changing is used in this way chains rotates the whole frame of empty side and new filled side of frame is forwarded again knotting is done between the new cones yarn and already winded yarn. Extra yarn is then removed through cutting. Sensors sense any type of yarn breakage and in case of yarn breakage knotting is done. 4.7.10 Count wise Drum Pressure: Count Drum Pressure (daN) 6 500 7 500 8 500 9 400 10 400 12 400 14 400 16 400 20 350
  39. 39. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page39 4.8 Calculations: Some examples are given below to show the concept of warping plans. Problem: 01 If Weight of Bag: 50 Kg Total Number of Cone: 18 Count: 7 OE Then find out the length of yarn in one cone. Solution: Length of yarn in one cone = Bag wt. × 2.2046 × .9144 × Count × 840 Totalnumber of cone = 50 × 2.2046 × .9144 × 7 × 840 18 = 32926 m Answer: Length of 8 OE = 32926 m Problem: 02 If Set length: 21000 m Count: 7 9 12 Ratio: 4:4:4 Find out average count. Solution: Average Yarn Count =       12 × 7 × 9 × 12 4 × 9 × 12 + 4 × 7 × 12 + 4 × 7 × 9 = 8.89 Answer: Average Count = 8.89
  40. 40. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page40 Problem: 03 If, Set length: 21000 m Total ends: 4464 Ends/beam: 446 Total beam: 10 Count: 7 OE Find out the weight of yarn required. Solution: Weight of yarn in one beam = Set Length × TotalEnds × 1.0936 840 × 2.2046 × count = 21000 × 446 × 1.0936 840 × 2.2046 × 7 = 790 Kg Answer: Total Yarn Required = 790 x 10 = 7900 Kg
  41. 41. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page41 Chapter Five Dyeing & Sizing
  42. 42. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page42 5.1 Definition: The process by which a textile material is to be changed physically or chemically, so that it looks mono uniform colored is called dyeing. All commercial textile dyeing processes take place by the application of a solution or a dispersion of the dyes to the textile material followed by some type of fixation process. The dye solution or dispersion is almost always in an aqueous medium. A major objective of the fixation step is normally to ensure that the coloured textile exhibits satisfactory fastness to subsequent treatment in aqueous wash liquors. Dyeing is mainly depends on the type of fabric, structure of fabric and the properties of dyes. 5.2 Objects of Dyeing:  The textile goods are dyed uniformly with single color.  To increase the attractiveness of the textile goods.  To make the fabric suitable for various usage.  To make the textile goods suitable for decorative purposes. 5.3 Theory of Dyeing: The procedure by which dye stuff enters into the textile goods is called theory of dyeing. It is essential to have certain degree of fastness properties when a dye particle is applied on textile goods. The whole process of dyeing is completed by four steps as follows: 1. Dye molecules come to the fabric surface from the dye bath. 2. Fibre absorbs the dye molecule from the outer surface of the fibre to the internal surface of the cellulose. 3. Migrates the dye molecules everywhere of the fibre molecules. 4. Anchoring or fixing the dye molecules to the fibre molecules by hydrogen or covalent bond. 5.4 Denim Dyeing: The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The special character of this fabric – only the warp thread is dyed makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. The development of OE yarns by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality, a high fiber for strength, regularity as well as a small part of short-stapled cotton fibres belongs to the basic features of the denim yarn. For regular jeans qualities the warp yarns are spun in a fineness of 50 to 90 tex, for the weft yarn the fineness ranges are mainly 75 to 120 tex. If Denim is made out of Tencel or Modal especially for jeans shirts the finenesses are up to 25 tex.
  43. 43. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page43 Indigo, sulphur and indanthrene are mainly used in the dyeing process. Two methods are applicable for continuous dyeing with indanthrene dyes: rapid dyeing and vat dyeing. While processing the basic colored denim, reactive dyes are used and fixed with hot caustic soda solution. The dyeing process is mainly influenced by the dyestuff characteristics, dyeing temperature and necessary chemicals used in the process. Indigo dye is the most popular choice as it has good depth of shade and suitable rubbing and washing fastness. When cotton yarn is dyed with indigo, it leaves a ring-dyeing effect, because of which the outer layer of warp yarn is coated with indigo, and the core of the yarn remains undyed. This gives the denim garment a unique ‘faded look’ and a rich blue shade after repeated use and wash. Originally, the warp yarns or ends were put through the dye bath side by side to form a sheet of yarn, which passed continuously through several dye baths, squeeze rollers or airing sequences. Specially two types of dyes are commonly used in factory. Vat dye and sulphur dye. These two types of dyes are described below. 5.5 Dyes use for Denim:  Vat Dyes  Sulphur Dyes 5.5.1 Vat Dyes: The name vat was derived from the large wooden vessel from which vat dyes were first applied. Vat dyes provide textile materials with the best colour fastness of all the dyes in common use. The fibres most readily coloured with vat dyes are the natural and man-made cellulosic fibres. Vat dyes are more expensive and difficult to apply than other classes for cellulose such as directs, sulphurs, and reactive. Indigo is a special case in the vat dye class. Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it. Vat dyes are characterized by the presence of a keto group. Vat dyes in keto form are water insoluble pigments. Dyeing with vat dyes: The application of vat dyes to cellulosic materials occurs in five stages. Aqueous Dispersion: The insoluble vat dye is dispersed in water.
  44. 44. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page44 Vatting: This step involves the chemical reduction of the vat dye to produce the soluble, reduced or leuco form of the dye. This is achieved by Sodium Hydrosulphite, Sodium Hydroxide and water. The sodium hydrosulphite chemically reduces the vat dye in the alkaline conditions created by the presence of sodium hydroxide. Absorption of dye molecules by the fibre: The vatted dye molecules are substantive to the cellulosic material when this is introduced into the dye liquor. To achieve adequate exhaustion, an electrolyte is added to the dye liquor and the temperature may be increased depending on the specific vat dye. The application of the dye molecule to the fibre occurs at temperatures specific to a particular vat dye and occurs in a range from 200 C to 600 C. The addition of the electrolyte alters the equilibrium of the dye liquor so as to increase the substantivity of the dye molecules for the fibre. During this stage of dye application the textile material must be kept immersed in the dye liquor to prevent premature oxidation of the leuco compound. Re-oxidation of dye molecules within the fibre: Once within the polymer system of the fibre the leuco form of the vat dye has to be oxidized and converted to its original colour and the insoluble form of the dye. Oxidation of the leuco compound can be achieved by atmospheric oxygen although this is somewhat slow. In practice, a mild oxidizing reagent such as sodium perborate is used to convert the soluble leuco compound into the original insoluble vat dye. Figure: Water soluble leuco form of indigo
  45. 45. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page45 Soaping-off vat dyes: During the previous stage some insoluble vat dye may be deposited on the surface of the textile material. This has to be removed to prevent poor rub-fastness as well as a possible change of shade due to the subsequent removal of this surface deposit. Soaping-off, which is the boiling of the dyed material in a liquor containing some suitable detergent, removes this surface dye. The term soaping-off was derived from the fact that before the development of detergents, soap was used to remove the surface dye. 5.5.2 Sulphur Dyes: These dyes are so called because they contain sulphur atoms in their molecules. The fibres most readily coloured with sulphur dyes are the natural and man-made cellulosic fibres. Dyeing with sulphur dyes: Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades. Light fastness of pale shades is poor. Sulphur dyes are usually dull in shade since the molecular structures are complex. As a class, the sulphur dyes are not resistant to chlorine containing bleaches. Characteristics of Sulphur and Luco Sulphur Dyes on Cotton: Sulphur dyes have the dullest range of colours of all dye classes but are relatively inexpensive. They are used to dye medium to deep, dull shades on cellulosic materials. There are several excellent blacks giving dyeings with good wet fastness properties. In fact, when black, and deep brown, blue and dull olive green shades are needed, with good washing and satisfactory light fastness at reasonable cost, sulphur dyes are irreplaceable. There are few green sulphur dyes and no true reds. There are, however, an abundance of blacks, blues, yellows and browns. On a world basis, sulphur dyes constitute one of the major dye classes. Sulphur dyes are used in cotton dyeing for woven goods using jig dyeing machines and also in continuous dyeing. They are commonly used for the continuous dyeing of corduroy. They are now being used more widely in jet machines. Sulphur dyes are also used for dyeing denim olive, brown and maroon, rather than the traditional Indigo blue, as well as to ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ Indigo dyed cotton warps. To ‘bottom’ or ‘top’ means that a sulphur dye is applied either before or after the Indigo. The fastness to wet processes and to crocking can be varied almost as required to satisfy the demand for the faded look so popular for denim. This is achieved by allowing premature oxidation of the leuco dye during dyeing, by using short dyeing times so that there is inadequate time for dye penetration into the fibres, and by poor rinsing and soaping after dyeing. The dyeing can then be subsequently treated to
  46. 46. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page46 produce the faded worn look by removing the surface colour. Although cellulosic goods dyed with sulphur dyes usually have good washing fastness, it can be further improved by resin finishing. The light fastness varies from moderate to good in heavy shades. A major characteristic of sulphur dyes is the poor fastness to chlorine, which distinguishes them from most quinone vat dyes. Dyeings with sulphur dyes cannot be bleached with hypochlorite. In fact, these dyes are readily distinguished from other cotton dyes by their dark, dull colours and the bleaching that occurs when a dyeing is spotted with hypochlorite and allowed to dry. Cotton dyed with some sulphur blacks becomes tendered on storing under warm humid conditions. This is a consequence of the formation of sulphuric acid from oxidation of the sulphur dye in the fibres. It can be minimized by thorough washing after dyeing before the oxidation of the leuco dye, by a final alkaline rinsing with soda ash solution, and by resin finishing. Such tendering is avoided by dichromate oxidation of the leuco dye. Dyeing with Sulphur Dyes: Initially the goods are wet out in the bath. Since the dyeing liquor contains appreciable amounts of sulphide, copper fittings must be avoided. If wetting or penetrating agents are used these should be of the anionic type since non-ionic surfactants form stable, non-substantive complexes with the leuco thiols. An anionic product such as phosphated 2-ethylhexanol is suitable. The bath may then be set at 40° C with some sodium polysulphide. Polysulphides in the leuco dyebath prevent premature oxidation of the dye and reduce the tendency to bronziness of deep dyeing of blues, navies and blacks. An addition of a sequestrant such as EDTA avoids precipitation of the leuco thiolate by calcium and magnesium ions. The leuco dye is then added slowly and, since the leuco dyes only have low to moderate substantivity for cellulose, some salt may be added initially, or in portions during dyeing, to promote exhaustion. After dyeing the goods are rinsed, the leuco dye oxidised and the dyeing is soaped as for a conventional vat dye. Sulphur dyes usually have acceptable substantivity, particularly in the presence of salts, so that stripping in a fresh reducing bath is not easy. Dyeing is often conducted at the boil but this decreases the degree of exhaustion. Sulphur dyes require less salt than reactive dyes and usually have reasonable exhaustion. Low sulphide leuco dyes require more salt and no polysulphide. They do not give good exhaustion in heavy shades and the use of a low liquor ratio is recommended. For popular shades such as black, it has long been common practice to use a standing bath. This is a dye bath that is re-used for subsequent dyeings after addition of more reduced dye. Any free sulphur that tends to accumulate is dissolved by addition of sodium sulphite to give thiosulphate. This prevents it sticking to the goods. The actual dyeing temperature can vary. At higher temperatures around the boil, the bath exhaustion is less but penetration of the leuco dye into the fibres is better than at lower temperatures.
  47. 47. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page47 5.6 Denim Dyeing Process: There are three processes in the practice for continuous denim dyeing: 1. Rope Dyeing 2. Slasher or Sheet Dyeing 3. Loop Dyeing 5.6.1 Rope Dyeing: The indigo Rope dyeing technology for denim production is considered a superior dyeing technology, where better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing. Indigo rope dyeing was started in USA. Today rope dyeing accounts for a large percentage of warp yarn dyed for denim production. The system offers highest production, due to continuous process, as there is no stoppage for set changes. In this dyeing method, maximum continuity of shades and minimum danger of center to selvedge shade variation can be achieved. Flow diagram of rope dyeing is shown in figure. During Figure: Rope Dyeing Range
  48. 48. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page48 dyeing process, it forms a coating in the outer layers of the cotton yarn and fiber. This produces a ring of color around the cotton yarn, with the core remains white core. This dyeing effect is known as ring dyeing. Figure: Rope dyeing and subsequent sizing, Step 1: Ball Warper, Step 2: Rope Dyeing, Step 3: Long Chain Beamer, Step 4: Sizing Indigo Rope Dyeing when dyeing according to the rope dyeing or cable dyeing method. 350 - 400 warp threads are bound on the ball warper to very thick cables of 10000 - 15000 m length. On the continuous dyeing installation, 12 to 36 cables are led side by side, wetted, dyed and dried after the dyeing process on cylinders and put into cans. Then the cables are dissolved to warps on the long chain beamer. The warps are added to the sizing machine, sized and then led together to warp depending on the total numbers of threads. In practice, this method has proven to be very good through obtaining an optimum indigo dyeing. However it is important that the cables have a constant tension in order to avoid warp stripes. The disadvantage compared to other methods is that yarn breakages do occur more often.
  49. 49. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page49 5.6.2 Slasher Dyeing: In continuous slasher/sheet dyeing and sizing machine, direct warping beams are used, instead of ball warping logs in case of Indigo rope dyeing system. The Slasher Dyeing machine is capable of handling Ne count form 9/s to 30/s (OE and Slub both). Typical schematic sheet dyeing range is shown in Figure. At the back end of the slasher/sheet dyeing range, the direct warping beams are creeled. The yarns sheet from each beam is pulled over and combined with the yarns from the other beams so that multiple sheets of yarns can be made. When dyeing according to the sheet dyeing method, instead of cables the warp threads are fed to the machine parallel next to each other. These are much smaller compared to the rope dyeing machines. Another advantage is that the cables don’t need to be open after dyeing. Moreover, each yarn wets much faster and in this way reduces the dipping and wetting times during dyeing. All in all, each thread has a larger surface compared to a dyeing cable and this requires somewhat more hydrosulphite to prevent a premature oxidation of the indigo. Figure: Sheet Dyeing Range
  50. 50. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page50 5.6.3 Loop Dyeing: In the loop dyeing process, the yarn is dyed in a single bath instead of several. The desired depth of color is attained by passing the yarn through the vat several times. Subsequently, as a part of the same process, the yarn is sized. The advantages and disadvantages of loop dyeing are the same as with sheet dyeing. 5.7 Difference between Slasher and Rope Dyeing: Comparison On Slasher Dyeing Rope Dyeing Required Space Less More Mercerizing Easy Difficult Manpower Less More Dye bath Less capacity More Broken end repairing Not Possible In rope dyeing there is a possibility to repair broken end in LCB (Long Chain Beamer) Flexibility Flexibility to produce denim in different colors and small quantities Less flexible. Difficult to change colors. Set change Machines should start and stop at the time of set change. Hence shade matching is not easier until hundreds of meters of yarn run. No need to start and stop the machine at the time of set change. Hence shade matching is easier. Extra ends Extra ends Required. No extra ends. Different colour mixing Not possible Possible to mix ends of different colours. One can get stripe design at re-beaming. Count range Advantages for lighter yarn. Can use Ne 1-30 without major change. Large numbers of yarns are difficult to open at re-beaming. Hence it is not suitable for fine yarn. Can use Ne1-16 without major change. In latest machines even higher yarn count can be dyed. Rear view characteristics of fabric Less thin / thick & knot points High thin / thick & knot points Dye dipping time for effective dye result < = 14s ( standard 10 – 14s regulated by speed) < = 21s ( standard 15 – 21s regulated by speed) Production capacity Approx. 9 to 11 mill. Mt. in case of normal capacity. Approx. 10 to 22 mill. Mt. in case of double capacity. 12 ropes = 9 to 11.5 mill. Mt., 24 ropes = 18 to 23 mill. Mt., 36 ropes = 27 to 34.5 mill. Mt. Cost Cost of production is lesser compared to Rope Dyeing Cost of production is more compared to sheet Dyeing
  51. 51. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page51 Relative merits and demerits:  Generally rope dyeing denim range produces better quality of denim than slasher dyeing.  Rope dyeing means for higher production and long runs. Ropes dyeing can more lots without any stoppages at set change. In case of sheet dyeing, the machine remains stop at set change.  In rope dyeing better dry and wet fastness properties in denim fabric can be achieved, than sheet dyeing.  In sheet dyeing good quality yarn is required, as mending of broken ends is very difficult in sheet dyeing. This problem is less in rope dyeing.  Sheet dyeing produces more waste than rope dyeing.  Lot to lot, set to set shade consistency is better in rope dyeing,  In sheet dyeing, there is a problem of center to selvedge shade variation. This can be caused due to uneven nip pressure, non-uniform chemical and colour content in dye boxes. This problem can also occur in rope dyeing as well. But proper rotation of the dried yarn cans at spreading and winding and even distribution of warp yarns over the full width of the fabric minimize the problem.  The wetting and immersion time, oxidation time of dyed yarn are less in sheet dyeing due to parallel warp threads. 5.8 Sizing: 5.8.1 Definition: The process of applying a protective adhesive coating upon the yarn surface is called sizing. This is the most important operation to attain maximum weaving efficiency specially for blended and filament yarns. 5.8.2 Objects of Sizing:  To improve the weave ability of warp yarn.  To increase the tensile or breaking strength for cellulose yarn.  To maintain good quality fabric.  To reduce hairiness, weakness of textile materials.  To remove electrolytic formation for synthetic or blended yarn.  To increase elasticity.
  52. 52. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page52 5.8.3 Changes in Yarn due to Sizing:  Breaking strength: Increase  Abrasion Resistance: Increase  Stiffness: Increase  Elasticity: Increase  Frictional Resistance: Increase  Yarn Diameter: Increase  Extension: Decrease  Electrostatic Charger: Decrease  Hairiness: Decrease 5.8.4 Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving?  Higher Strength  Higher Elasticity  Higher Smoothness  Higher yarn diameter  Higher weight of yarn  Lower static electricity  Lower weakness  Lower absorbency  Lower flexibility  Lower hairiness  Higher frictional resistance 5.8.5 Techniques of Sizing: There are several techniques to impart size materials into the yarn. These are:  Hot melt sizing  Foam sizing  High pressure sizing  Electrostatic sizing  Emulsion sizing  Combined sizing  Slasher sizing
  53. 53. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page53 5.8.6 Types of sizing according to application:  Pure sizing: When sizing is done in yarn which produces unbleached fabric is called pure sizing. So, ingredients are on the weight of yarn 7 to 10%.  Light sizing: This is used for dyeing and printing. 11 to 15% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.  Medium sizing: For increase of strength and weight of the yarn 16 to 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.  Heavy sizing: It is used to increase the weight of yarn. Above 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn. 5.8.7 Size Ingredients and their function: 5.8.7.1 Starch or Adhesive: The carbohydrate component extracted from certain plates is called starch. Example: Starch not maize, corn, potato etc. Function:  To improve the strength  To increase smoothness  To increase elasticity  To increase stiffness  To impart adhesion 5.8.7.2 Softening Agents: The agent which is used to give fabrics a soft handle and frequently smooth appearance is called softening or lubricating agent. Example: Japan wax, tallow, lin seed oil, coconut oil, animal fats, mineral oil, T.R.O., soap etc. Function:  To make the yarn soft and slippery  To smoothen the yarn  To reduce the stiffness  To reduce flexibility and friction
  54. 54. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page54 5.8.7.3 Antiseptic or Anti mildew Agent: The substances which prevent the mildew formation is called anti-mildew agent. Example: Carboxylic acid, salicylic acid, Zinc chloride, phenol etc. Function:  To prevent mildew formation  To prevent size material for a long time  To help to store the size yarn  To protect yarn from bacteria or fungi. 5.8.7.4 Hygroscopic Agents: The agents which are used to moisture yarn and to prevent excessive drying of yarn is called hygroscopic agent. Example: MgCl2, CaCl2, Glycerin etc. Function:  To moisture the yarn  To prevent excessive prevent of yarn 5.8.7.5 Weighting Agents: The agent which is used to increase weight of yarn and to impart the fullness and feel to the fabric is called weighting agents. Example: China clay, Sodium Sulphate, French chalk etc. Functions:  To increase the weight of yarn during finishing  To impart fullness and to fell the fabric  To prevent opening of the cloth. 5.8.7.6 Tinting Agents: The agent which is used for the temporary coloration of textile materials is called tinting agents. Example: Blue, Tinapol, Optical brightener etc. Function:  To increase the brightness and to remove the yellowish color of yarn  To prevent dusting off  To form a particular shade
  55. 55. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page55 5.8.7.7 Wetting Agents: The agents which are used for uniform distribution of the sizing solution is called wetting agent. Example: Sulphanol, soap, MgCl2 etc. Function:  To increase size exhaust  To obtain a distribution of the sizing solution 5.8.7.8 Antifoaming Agents: The substrates which prevent the foam formation is called antifoaming agent. Example: Pyridine, Benzene etc. Function:  To prevent foam formation  To give uniform size pickup 5.8.7.9 Neutralizing Agents: This type of agent is used to neutralize the sizing solution.
  56. 56. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page56 5.9 Dyeing & Sizing in Partex Denim: In Partex Denim, dyeing of warp beam is carried out by Slasher dyeing process. World class Benninger Slasher dyeing machines are using here. There are two slasher in this section. Normally it is said that in Slasher dyeing shade variation is a normal practice but one who achieve the minimum variation is market leader. Because it is very much economical than rope dyeing. So in less investment there is margin of great profit. Slasher is normally operated at a speed of 30 m/min. There are two working shifts in the department each of 12 hours a day. Input of dyeing department is beams from warping department. Output of dyeing department is dyed warp sheet beams which are forwarded to weaving department. It has well equipped dyeing lab. All controls of dying process is monitored from here by computer. Different portion and their model: Machine Portion Model Name Creeling and linking Ben link Dyeing Ben indigo Sizing Ben size tech Dye kitchen Ben dye mix Total machine Benninger Zeel The salient features of the machine:  Optimum dye fastness and uniform dyeing.  High dye batch stability ensured by cross flow circulation and Continuous metering.  Reproducible computerized process management.  Multi color capability achieved by flexible process engineering.  Environmentally compatible, due to low consumption of dyes and chemicals.  User friendly design with low maintenance requirement.  Optimum sizing and residual stretch.  High output.  Synchronized motors capable of running the machine at a constant speed.  Easy drainage of liquor.  Automatic dosing system.  Re-storage of used dye liquor.  Drying option after pre-washing, dyeing and sizing.  Storage of 150 m long yarn sheet on accumulator.  Automatic and manual controls of pressure of padders with electronic load cells.  Quick creel change.
  57. 57. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page57 5.10 Machine Specification: Brand name Benninger Zell Model Ben Indigo Year of construction 2005 Country of origin Germany Creel capacity 16 Speed of winding 1-50 m/min Warping width 1800 mm Maximum reed space 2600 mm Maximum beam diameter 1000 mm Number of dye bath 6 Total no. of boxes 13 No. of pre dryer 10 No. of post dryer 14 Air pressure required 6-8 bar Air consumption 15 m3 /hr Steam pressure required 6 bar Steam consumption 5500-5700 kg/hr Water pressure required 2 bar Water consumption 20 m3 /hr Electric power consumption 120 kW/hr - 190 kW/hr Production/day 40000 mtr/day Machine Specification (Sizing part): Brand name Ben size tech Machine Speed 30-40 m/min Squeeze Pressure 16.4 kN No. of Squeeze Roller 02 pair No. of Emersion Roller 02 No. Of Size Dryer 14 Preparation Tank Temperature 90O C Storage Tank Temperature 94O C Size Box Temperature 90O C Cooking Time 25-40 minute Refractor value & Ford cup value Measure the Solid % in size liquor
  58. 58. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page58 Machine process Sequence of Dyeing & Sizing Three Post Wash Box Sheet Dyeing process (Regular, Bottoming, Topping, Pure Black) Three Pre Wash Box Pre-beam creel zone Sewing section Benlink zone/ yarn welding area Accumulator BL Pre Wetting Box Pre-drying cylinder Accumulator TA Size bath Post drying cylinder Accumulator BN After Waxing Device Yarn leasing area Weavers beam winder
  59. 59. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page59 Some other assisting areas in the dyeing and sizing process are-  Skying zone  Dye kitchen  Size kitchen  Blower  Reserves tank  Size cooker  Beam crane  Yarn sheet spreader roller Some other assisting areas in dyeing sections:  Preparation Tank (K-905)  Indigo stock solution tank (K-915)  Black Stock solution Tank (K-920)  Store Tank (K-925, K-930, K-935, K-940) Reactor (K-910): The dyestuff is prepared in stock solution tank, it may happen some times that the dyestuff may get coagulate and the function of Reactor is to break the coagulated dyestuff. There is a separate arrangement of- Hydrogen peroxide Tank, Acetic Acid Tank, D Black Tank, Reducing agent Tank, Tenside, Caustic Soda, Normal water & Also Hot water (50o C) tank respectively. 5.10.1 Creel section: The beams are creeled in the creeling zone .There are 16 pre beams capacity. Pre-Beams are creeled here. Pre-Beams are negatively moved by the tension of warp sheet from front side of m/c. Must have to maintain same speed & tension on each pre Beam. Here is a control panel to control the speed of pre Beam. Figure: Creeling section
  60. 60. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page60 The beams can be controlled in groups or individually. The let-off can be individual let-off, single group let-off or warp- round let-off. There are two creels present on the machine in order to replace the used creel quickly with a creel on which beams are already installed. The back beams are mounted in the back beam unit with insert able journals. The Unwinding tension is imparted by pneumatically loaded and automatically regulated band brakes and break shoes. The upper beam supports can be shifted pneumatically making it easier to mount the bottom beam. Most important part of creel section is Benlink or yarn sewing section. Benlink is the process of joining the previous warp sheet with next warp sheet. 5.10.2 Benlink: Benlink tape is used for this process. It is costly. Benlink tape heated for almost 46 min. Before Belting Separating, rods are removed to pass through tape before entering warpers beam. In case of ring Denim higher count is set at front side of creel section for example. If we use 7S , 9S , 12S then first 4 pre beams contain yarn of 12S . In case of slub; if we use 4 pre beam for slub then first 2 slub, then regulary again 2 slub at middle. 5.10.3 Accumulator: Here pairs of Roller moving ups-down to maintain proper tension on yarn. It also performs the storage of yarn. There are 3 accumulators used, one is after creeling before dyeing next is after dyeing before sizing and final one is after sizing before weavers beam. Dyeing & sizing is a continuous process. Accumulator stored extra yarn by going up pair of R/r, during this time necessary work such replacement of weavers beam is done, then again Accumulator come s its original position. Remember that, for linear yarn tension of accumulator is low & for coarse Yarn, tension is high. Load cell Roller used here for maintaining yarn tension.
  61. 61. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page61 5.10.4 Pre treatment: Pre-treatment process in sheet dyeing consists of treatment of the cotton yarn sheet with caustic and wetting agent. Pre-wetting is carried out in order to get proper dyeing of the sheet. Pre-wetting is carried out with a Wetting agent, at room temperature. Increasing temperature also increase the In some cases, if well penetration of the dye is required, the yarns are treated with strong caustic soda solution followed by hot wash and cold wash treatment prior to dyeing. The pH of the bath is 11.8-12. Measuring rollerPressure roller Figure: D-100, Pre wetting, Pre dyeing, mercerizing box Squeezing roller Window Immersion roller Feed roller Safety device Yarn separator roller Yarn sheet
  62. 62. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page62 5.10.5 Pre-Washing (1-3 box): After pre treatment, pre-washing of the warp sheet is done. Pre washing is done in order to remove the excess pre-treatment chemical from the warp sheet. If they remain inside the sheet than it will cause the fibers to loose and also dyeing will not occur uniformly. Squeezing rollers are provided at the end of each bath to remove the excess liquor from the sheet. These rollers also drive the warp sheet. Pressure on these rollers is adjusted according to the tensile strength of the warp sheet with the help of load cells. Clod washing is done after hot washing in order to reduce the temperature of the warp sheet. Before dying, washing is important for better penetration of dye molecules in the fibre. Squeezing rollerSqueezing roller Immersion roller Yarn separator roller Yarn sheet Figure: D-200, 220, 240 (Wash box)
  63. 63. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page63 5.10.6 Dyeing: As discussed above denim warp sheet is dyed with Indigo (Vat) dyes and sulfur dyes. There are some options in dyeing of warp sheet.  Indigo (Regular): In this case we use indigo in all tanks. According to shade.  Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo. First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur dye (black color) and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo.  Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur).  Pure Black: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with sulphur dye (black color) with high concentration of color. Washing is done after dyeing bath in order to remove unfixed dye. There are three wash box in this machine. The wash boxes are similar as pre wash box. Nitrogen ChamberDye Chamber Immersion roller Squeeze roller Dyed yarn sheet Undyed yarn sheet Window Figure: Dyeing box (D600 –D690)
  64. 64. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page64 Step 1 → Pre-wetting: Bath Components Quantity D - 100 Caustic soda (NaOH) (5-6) g/L Wetting Agent (Tenside) (10 -15) g/L Temperature (70-80) o C Squeezing Pressure (40-50) kN Normal Water As required Total volume Step 2 → Pre-washing: Step 3 → Dyeing: Step 4 → Post-washing: Bath Components Quantity D – 200 D – 220 D – 240 Normal water As required Squeezing Pressure 70-80 kN Temperature Room temp. Total volume/box Bath Components Quantity D – 400 D – 420 D – 440 D – 460 D – 480 D – 490 Indigo ----(1.7-2.0) % shade pH 11.8 - 11.9 Temperature Room Squeezing Pressure (55-60) k N Water As Required Total volume/box 600 L Bath Components Quantity D – 600 D – 620 D – 640 Normal water As required Squeezing Pressure 70-80 kN Temperature Room temp. Total volume/box Dyeing Recipe: Regular
  65. 65. PARTEX DENIM Md. Israfil Alam Rana, israfil_tex@yahoo.com, cell: 01717123339 Page65 Step 1 → Pre-wetting: Bath Components Quantity D - 100 Black ----(1.5-2.5) % shade Reducing agent 10 g/L Wetting agent (Tenside) 5 g/L Caustic Soda 10 g/L Temperature (80-90)o C Squeezing Pressure (40-50) kN Water As required Step 2 → Pre-washing: Step 3 → Dyeing: Step 4 → Post-washing: Bath Components Quantity D – 200 D – 220 D – 240 Normal water As required Squeezing Pressure 70-80 kN Temperature Room temp. Bath Components Quantity D – 400 D – 420 D – 440 D – 460 D – 480 D – 490 Indigo ----(1.7-2.0) % shade pH 11.8 - 11.9 Temperature Room Squeezing Pressure (55-60) k N Water As Required Bath Components Quantity D – 600 D – 620 D – 640 Normal water As required Squeezing Pressure 70-85 kN Temperature Room temp. Dyeing Recipe: Bottoming

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