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Pedagogical uses of
Translation may is needed to facilitate
communication between speakers of
Translation has been proposed as a
means for learning and teaching a
It is natural for people encountering a
foreign language to relate it to the
language they already now.
In compound bilingualism, the
lexicons of the two languages are said
to be stored jointly in the mind, end in
coordinate bilingualism, they are
said to be kept separate.
Arguments for translation
A language can only be perceived and learnt as
‘foreign’ in relation to a language that is not.
Translation helps in the development of
proficiency by economically and unambiguously
explaining the meaning of foreign language items
Translation promotes explicit knowledge about
the foreign language and helps develop
awareness of differences and similarities between
the native and the foreign language systems.
Translation can trigger discussions
about forms and functions of culture
expressions of politeness,
indirectness, routine formulas,
collocations, and general problems
from one linguistic-cultural code to
Translation can make learners aware
of the differences between obligatory
and optical changes in movements
from one language to another.
Translation activities can be used to develop
communicative competence in a foreign
Translation needs to be reconceptualized as a
helpful instrument, contributing to communicative
competence in the foreign language, to linguisticcultural awareness, and to cognitive and
conscious learning as well as cross-cultural
This can promote learner’s cognitivecommunicative competence and improve their
awareness of linguistic and cultural similarities
and differences, highlighting regional, social, oral,
and written variations in L1 and foreign
Translation as intercultural
There are four issues in translation studies, the
nature of the translation process, corpus
translation studies, and translation and
In intercultural communication it focus in a
literary text when proper names, names of places
and institutions, or references to historical and
other culture-specific events are substituted by
‘equivalent’ items in the target culture.
Intercultural transfer is explicitly present and so
likely to be perceived by recipients.
The differences of languages when
translating ‘One does not translate
languages nut culture’ or ‘translation
is cultural translation’.
In geographical areas where conflict
and war are rife, translation may be
engaged in circulating texts designed
to further the goals of one side or
Corpus studies in translation
The term translation is ambiguous.
A corpus is a collection of texts, selected and compiled
according to specific criteria.
The texts are held in an electronic format.
The use of corpus methods allows us to focus on language
as it is actually used in translations and so enables us to
determine what is probable and typical in translation as a
Corpus methods also allows us to focus on a combination of
lexical, syntactic, and discoursal features while comparing
large numbers of translations into different languages by
different translators, in different sociocultural settings, and
across different time frames.
Corpus methods are useful for analysing translations as .
A major aim of working with comparable
corpora is to establish patterns that are either
restricted to translations or occur with different
frequency in them.
Globalization processes have not only had an
impact on world economy and international
politics, they have also dramatically altered the
role of translation.
By creating a worldwide electronically mediated
forum, the Internet has revolutionized
information flow and contact possibilities over
Translation plays an important role in multilingual
news writing and the provision of tourist
information worldwide, where texts are retrieved
from many different sources.