Thesis elaine

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  • Interesting writing . Speaking of which if others need a JTrentals Rental Application Form , I found a sample form here http://pdf.ac/1LlIkM.
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  • To the researchers, can you lend me the computation the correlation using pearson formula. And is it possible to get the relation of monthly income and general weighted average to the factors using pearson as well ? :). please help us in our research. thank you in advance :)
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  • TO THE RESEARCHER: i just wanna know the formula of LIKERT SCALE. i need it badly !! its my pleasure and honor if you grant my request.. tnx !
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Thesis elaine

  1. 1. FACTORS RELATED TO DROP OUTS AND PERFORMANCE OFCWTS STUDENTS AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY SAN PABLO CITY CAMPUS ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011 A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of the College of Teacher Education Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City In Partial Of Fulfillment Of the Requirements in Methods of Research for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Social Studies ELAINE ROSE P. CARANDANG October 2010
  2. 2. Republic of the Philippines LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION Approval Sheet The Thesis entitled, ―FACTORS RELATED TO DROP OUTS AND PERFORMANCEOF CWTS STUDENTS AT LSPU – SPCC ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 - 2011‖ is prepared andsubmitted by Elaine Rose P. Carandang in partial of fulfillment of the requirements for thedegree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in Mathematics, has been examined and isrecommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination. MRS. FE D. BELEN Adviser PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a rating of ______. MRS. FE D. BELEN ChairmanNELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D. PROF. MARILYN P. SANTOS Subject Specialist Statistician MRS. CECILIA B.DIVA Technical Editor & English Critic PROF. MAURO D. LUCIDO JR. Dean, College of Teacher EducationDate:___________Research Contribution no.__________
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher wants to give thanks to all the persons that have become a big part of thisstudy. First I would like to thank our God for giving me the strength to finish this study; To my family, especially to my mother, father, sister and cousin for their moral andfinancial support in order to finish this study; To all my friends and classmates, especially to I.S.P.O.Y., Marilyn C. Atienza, Ida,Maries, Maricris, Ate‘s and to all Social Science major who had helped the researcher to do thisstudy presentable; To Dr. Nelia T. Salvador & Mrs. Fe D. Belen, for guiding and helping me in order tomake the study a well done achievement. To Laguna State Polytechnic University for helping every student to be able to become aresponsible in the future. And lastly to all the respondents for all their full cooperation that made them a big part ofthis study. E.R.P.C.
  4. 4. DEDICATION The researcher wants to dedicate this study, first to Beloved God for giving us the light as guide to this research: To the teachers for discovering the hidden potential and also the guidance that was intensely needed in this problem; To fellow classmates and friends, hope that we can enrich our knowledge and skills that have become an instrument for everyone’s success; And to my family, my mother, father and my sister who were always there to help in this problem in order to make this study possible; To my beloved grandmother who just passed away and whom the researcher admired; To Laguna State Polytechnic University for creating and enriching the knowledge of everystudent in order to attain the maximum fulfilment of the students to become an effective unit as an individual; And lastly to all CWTS college students of Laguna State Polytechnic University. E.R.P.C.
  5. 5. ABSTRACT This study aims to know the ―Factors related to drop outs and performance of CWTSstudents in LSPU – SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011‖.It sought answers to the following questions. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 age; 1.2 gender; 1.3 course; 1.4 year level; and 1.5 general weighted average? 2. What is the level of performance of students enrolled in CWTS during 2010 – 2011? 3. How do the respondents perceive the factors related to the number of drop outs: 3.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 3.2 attitude of students; and 3.3 schedule? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the performance of the respondents and factors related to CWTS? 5.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 5.2 attitude of students; and 5.3 schedule?
  6. 6. Majority of the respondents are in age of 17 with 28 or 47%; 43 or 72 are female; 10 or15% are taking BS Biology; and 52 or 87% are in 1st year level. 19 or 32% of the grade of the respondents ranges 2.6 – 3.0. Students‘ attitude (mean = 3.57) and Programs‘ schedule (mean = 3.56) are interpreted as‗Agree‘. While teachers‘ methodologies (mean = 3.33) is interpreted as ‗uncertain‘. The person – related factors resulted as ‗significant‘ to the level of performance ofrespondents. The performance of the respondents is ‗not significant‘ to the CWTS – related variables.Conclusion 1. The hypothesis that ‗There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance‘ is ‗Rejected‘. 2. The hypothesis that ‗There is no significant relationship between the performance of students and factors related to CWTS program‘ is ‗Accepted‘Recommendations 1. Teachers‘ methodologies must utilized student‘s centred since CWTS‘s program has a vast number of learners. 2. Students‘ must be accountable on following the program‘s schedule and equip their own time management.
  7. 7. 3. Institutions should promote collaborative training as early as possible so that it will culminate the attitude of learners towards community service. 4. Researchers must extend their scope on the performance of students in such area of learning, especially in community subject. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction The Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, school year 2011-2012 offers two (2) of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) courses for the freshmencollege students. The two programs are Reserve Officers Training Corp (ROTC) program andCivic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) The CWTS refers to the program component or activities contributory to the generalwelfare and the betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of itsfacilities, especially those devoted to improving health education, environment,entrepreneurship, safety recreation and moral citizenry and other social welfare services (Khim,2009). Thus, it is timely and relevant that we know the perception of the freshmen collegestudents toward taking up the required NSTP course, either ROTC or CWTS as a prerequisitecourse for graduation.
  8. 8. The graduation rate for students who enrolled in community service and other studentpopulations continues to be far below the national average. According to the 23rd Report toCongress, only 57% of youth with disabilities graduated with regular diplomas during the 2003 -2008 school year (U.S. Department of Education, 2007). Other student populations who havedisproportionately high rates of dropout include those from low socio-economic circumstancesor single-parent families and those who are identified as Native American or Hispanic/Latino(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002; Rosenthal, 2005). The problem of dropout canno longer be ignored, given the associated negative impact on individuals and society(www.person03service.com). The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has focused recent attention on the problem ofdropout and is driving efforts to increase graduation rates for all students. This law holds schoolsaccountable for student progress using indicators of adequate yearly progress (AYP), includingmeasures of academic performance and rates of school completion. Educators, administrators,and policymakers at district and state levels are in need of interventions that will increase highschool graduation for all students, especially those at risk of school failure. With the recentemphasis on accountability, personnel from local and state education agencies are charged withdeveloping programs that engage students in school and learning, ensure acquisition of academicand social skills necessary for adulthood, and result in high rates of school completion(Kilpatrick, 2006). Programs and practices designed to prevent dropout have been implemented in schoolsacross the country for decades. These practices vary and include counseling services, mentoringprograms, tutoring, attendance monitoring, and after-school programs. Unfortunately, the extent
  9. 9. to which these interventions are systematically targeted for disengaged learners is unclear, andcloser examination suggests many of these programs and practices lack research or evaluationdata documenting effectiveness (Lehr, Hansen, Sinclair, & Christenson, 2003). The resourcesrequired for program implementation in terms of time, staff, and dollars point to the need forclear evidence of effectiveness. Additionally, the current federal administration has drawnincreased attention to the need for educational decisions grounded in scientifically basedevidence and the conceptual cause are the attitude, teachers’ collaboration and etc. (Feuer,Towne, & Shavelson, 2002). The Essential Tool provides a synthesis of research-based dropout prevention andintervention and offers examples of interventions that show evidence of effectiveness especiallyboredom on the subjects. This has proven to be a difficult task because the intervention researchon dropout and school completion that can be used to inform practice is incomplete (Dynarski &Gleason, 2002; Lehr et al., 2003; Sutherland & MacMillan, 2001). Although there is not yet asolid foundation of research on dropout intervention and prevention from which to make strongconclusions, there is information that educators, administrators, and policymakers can use to help makeinformed decisions. The tool is intended as a base of current knowledge that can be built upon asadditional interventions are implemented and empirically validated to know the factors of drop outs.Background of the Study The National Defense Act was amended on 1990 by Presidential Decree No, 1706 or theNational Law which offered the three components of National Service Training Program namely:Military Service, and Law Enforcement Service with DND, CHED and DILG respectively asimplementing agencies: However, concerned agencies were not prepared to implement CWS and
  10. 10. LES components, thus MS program was the only program pursued in college and universities. In1991, RA 7077, otherwise known as the AFP Reservist Act was enforced prescribing for a twoyear ROTC Program as a requirement for graduation to all tertiary level students. In 1994, a tripartite committee was formed among DND, CHED and DILGrepresentatives modifying the traditional two year ROTC program into expanded ROTC programwhich provide for a mandatory Military Service, Civic Welfare Service on the second year. Republic Act 9163 NSTP Act of 2001 was assigned by President Gloria MacapagalArroyo on 23 January 2002 and promulgated on 23 March 2002. The NSTP now beingimplemented offers three component namely: Reserve Officer Training Corp (ROTC), LiteracyTraining Service (LTS) and Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) for a period of 1 year ortwo semesters. Effective on the first semester of Academic Year 2002-2003, all freshmenstudents on the tertiary level mandated to finish within one year of any one year of any of one ofthe three components as a prerequisite for graduation from any baccalaureate degree course orfrom any two year technical/vocational course (www.govph.com). The stream of the program factors are hypothetically determined: Homesickness andfeeling that you don‘t fit in (fond of problem Feroe, 2005). Educational burnout. While collegegives you control and flexibility over your schedule, the hard demanding schedule, challengingcourses, and boatload of homework certainly has turned a lot of students away from the desire tocontinue. Academic unpreparedness. Personal or family issues. Financial constraints.Additionally, financial situations can change from year to year. Too much fun — but not enougheducation. Some students take advantage of their friendships, which could put them on academicprobation due to suffering grades or absence in classes. The school isn‘t a good academic fit for
  11. 11. the student. You‘ve selected a great school that is very arts-centric. However, you realize thatyou like the sciences better. Similarly, you may hate the average class size of 100 and prefermuch smaller classes for more individualized attention. Setting sights on the wrong major. Youmay have wanted to be a doctor but after taking several science classes, you decided that you‘rerather go into marketing. Does your school have a marketing major? If not, you‘re likely to goelsewhere. No guidance or mentors. External demands, particularly within part time or full timeemployment. The major outline of the suggested causes are the teacher factor and studentswhich has a great stream (Gores, 2007) In relation to over 30% of college students leave after the first year and almost 50% nevergraduate, according to the Department of Education. The leading reason for this problem seemsto be a lack of money and principally by the students themselves. According to the NationalCenter for Public Policy and Higher Education: 1/2 of all entering freshman borrow funds forcertain unit, 1/5 of those who borrow drop out and those who drop out are twice as likely to beunemployed as borrowers who received a degree and more than ten times as likely to default ontheir loans. Notion of a knowledge base for teaching‖ and, specifically, this argument that teacherspossess ―pedagogical content knowledge,‖ invites further analysis. (Buchmann,2006) forexample, describes two likely political or social forces behind the knowledge base argument andthe base of subject interaction. One stems from motivations to professionalize teaching.Researchers attempt to dignify the practice of teaching by showing its rich, complex natureespecially the complex subject program. The tone of the discussions is often positive, perhapsinspiring, liberating or enlightening. The other stems from motivations to evaluate teaching.
  12. 12. Researchers attempt to scrutinize the nature of teaching in order to better clarify ways in whichteachers should be accountable. The tone of these discussions is often negative or critical,sometimes belittling the enterprise of teaching as a whole (applying teaching as a whole, 2005) Irrespective of whether one studies teachers in order to praise them or to bury them, atleast two interesting philosophical questions arise when the notion of teacher knowledge isexamined in greater detail affecting the number of drop outs. The first, which will be called the―tacit problem,‖ is that teacher knowledge appears to be primarily a form of knowledge how. Inother words, the most credible justification for a teacher‘s knowing is the fact that he or she cando something in the classroom (eg., create situations that enable students to learn). The second,which will be called the ―situated problem,‖ is that teacher knowledge is deeply dependent onparticular times, places, and contexts, and lacks the general character of knowledge inmathematics, physics, or even psychology. Thus, it is difficult to formulate criteria which can beused to explain how a piece or instance of teacher knowledge might be justified. According to many researchers most have described the tacit and situated nature ofteacher knowledge. The motive for rehashing these problems is not to disprove what Shulman(2008) writes, but to speak more carefully about the connection between knowledge and teachingand its relevance on dropping causes.Statement of the Problem This study aims to know the ―Factors related to drop outs and performance of CWTSstudents in LSPU – SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011‖.
  13. 13. It sought answers to the following questions. 6. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 6.1 age; 6.2 gender; 6.3 course; 6.4 year level; and 6.5 general weighted average? 7. What is the level of performance of students enrolled in CWTS during 2010 – 2011? 8. How do the respondents perceive the factors related to the number of drop outs: 8.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 8.2 attitude of students; and 8.3 schedule? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance? 10. Is there a significant relationship between the performance of the respondents and factors related to CWTS? 10.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 10.2 attitude of students; and 10.3 schedule?Significance of the Study It is hope that the findings of this study will help the students to develop their physical,moral, intellectual, and social well being. Enlighten their mind to know their vital role in nation
  14. 14. building. Also help to promote their civic consciousness and at the same time inculcate in theyouth or students the patriotism, nationalism and endurance and their involvement in public andcivic affairs. Finally with many strong youth-focused organizations in the government and publicsector, Filipinos are placing great importance on youth participation and service: programs likethe NSTP target youth in schools to participate in building civic community. These programs areproviding services that improve Filipino community, but more importantly they are building asense of civic responsibility in the students who are the future of the Philippines.Scope and Limitation The study is all about the factors related to drop outs and performance of CWTS studentsin Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus. It is limited to sixty (60)students coming from all enrolled students in CWTS academic year 2010 - 2011. The main source of data is on the survey questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Itprovides more information as the main instrument that determines how the respondents are ableto relate in this study.Theoretical Framework This study was based on how individuals cope with academic standings; individuals areclassified into introverts and extroverts. Their decisions and actions are determined primarily byobjective relationship and their attention and interests are centred on the immediate environmentrather than attaining good grades. The research task is interactive: to clarify the nature of the interfaces and optimalreadiness by Edward Thorndike through investigations of how students partially made to finish
  15. 15. curriculum. Needless to say, this law conditionally understood; they have to learn about the factsthat can set their interest and drive the responsibility of taking fulfilling a subject course.Conceptual Framework The independent variable of the study comprises the person – related factors; age, gender,course, year level, general average. While factors related to CWTS comprises attitude ofstudents, teachers‘ methodologies and schedule while the dependent variable of the study is theperformance of students who were enrolled in CWTS during 2010 - 2011. The result of performance of students in CWTS act as dependent variable in the study. Itis assumed to be affected by the independent variables.Paradigm Independent variable(s) Dependent variable(s) I. Profile of the respondents Age; Gender; Course; Year level; and Performance of students General Average II. Factors – related to drop out Attitude of students; Teachers‘ methodologies; and Schedule
  16. 16. Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the study Figure 1. shows the relationship between the independent variables and the dependentvariables or performance of students in Laguna State Polytechnic University.Hypotheses 3. There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance. 4. There is no significant relationship between the performance of students and factors related to CWTS program.Definition of Terms The terms used had defined from the operational point of view of the researcher to helpthe readers comprehend the study efficiently.CWTS. (Civic Welfare Training Service) a particular program and a subject in where students aretaking three (3) units every Saturday at Laguna State Polytechnic University – San Pablo CityCampus.Performance. Refers to the quantity of achievement of the respondents enrolled in CWTS during2010 - 2011.Drop out. Refers to the students who stopped un/intentionally the program of CWTS because ofsuch factors.Profile. Is a set of characteristics for an individual who are enrolled in a CWTS subject.Age. Refers to the respondents period of birth.
  17. 17. Gender. Is a socially constructed definition of women and men.Year level. Refers to the level of attainment of the respondents.Course. Refers to the specific field that individual choose in college.Attitude of students. Refers to the mental predisposition of the respondents based on the CWTSprogram Academic year 2010.Teachers’ methodologies. Refers to the methods of instruction delivered by the coordinators ofCWTS.Schedule. The time agreement of CWTS students enrolled in a subject and the instructors. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies that may have significant learningin the present study.Related Literature The CWTS refers to the program component or activities contribution to the generalwelfare and the betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of itsfacilities, especially those devoted to improving health, education, environment,entrepreneurship, safety recreation and moral citizenry and other social welfare servicesThe Components of CWTS The Civic Welfare Training Services (CWTS) is one of the program in National ServiceTraining Program (NSTP) is geared towards activities that have social impact through activities
  18. 18. that could contribute to ―health education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation, andmorals of the citizenry (www.laws.com). ―Thus, the CWTS component of the NSTP stressed the importance of youth, involvementin broad programs or activities that will benefit from people. While the CWTS focused onprograms to enhance the living conditions of the people‖ Guthrie (2004) There are many reasons for teens to underperform at school, including alack of motivation to do well, problems at home or with peers, poor work habits or study skills,emotional and behavior problems, learning disabilities (such as dyslexia), attention deficithyperactivity disorder, mental retardation or below average intelligence and other medicalproblems, including anxiety and depression. Also keep in mind that children with sleepproblems, such as obstructive sleep pane, or inadequate sleep, can have problems in school,usually secondary to intentional problems and daytime sleepiness as in such case college levelare vulnerable in acting as a student as adolescent period foresee as in Asia more and morecollege level degrade the privilege as behavioural concerned. For Aderson (2003) it is important to find the reason for your childs poor performance,especially if she is in college level, and come up with a treatment plan so that she can perform upto her full potential. Another reason to get your child help is that doing poorly in school caneasily lead to problems with low self-esteem, behavior problems and depression that lead todropping. It is sometimes difficult to figure out if a childs problems at school are caused by theirother medical problems, such as depression, or if these other problems began because of theirpoor school performance. Children who do poorly at school may be under a lot of stress, and will
  19. 19. develop different ways to cope with this stress. Some may externalize their feelings, which canlead to acting out and behavior problems or becoming the class clown. Other children willinternalize their feelings, and will develop almost daily complaints of headaches orstomachaches. A thorough evaluation by an experienced professional is usually needed tocorrectly diagnose children with complex problems. In congruence to imitativeness of thoseforced to work for the sake of finishing the course requirement as in relation to the communityservice a social practicum (www.realm – cc.com). Gorucd, F. O., & Puringht, (2004) When the fact realize your child has a problem atschool, you should schedule a meeting with her teacher to discuss the problem. Other resourcesthat may be helpful including talking with the school psychologist or counselor or yourPediatrician especially coordinating to the school. This study examined the effects of practice schedule manipulations implemented in aninstructional setting on the performance and learning of low- and high-skilled students. Collegeundergraduates (N = 83) enrolled in 5 social classes completed practiced these skills under ablocked or alternating schedule, and then completed a posttest. Results indicated that practiceschedule effects on learning were influenced by student ability. Low-skilled students assigned tothe blocked schedule had higher posttest scores than those assigned to the alternating schedule,whereas no significant differences were found for high-skilled students. These findings arediscussed in relation to previous applied and laboratory-based findings and as a means formanipulating practice difficulty in teaching physical education and humanism (Perspective ofJaques Derrida, 2002)
  20. 20. Ask about different things at school: classmates, recess, lunch, and art projects can be justas important as a math test. Its helpful to start out with friendlier topics before asking aboutcontentious issues. If a child is having trouble with chemistry, also congratulate him about asubject where his performance is good. In relation to the community relation (Frohsd, 2003)recent issues of affecting many variables related for dropping out with a high performance riskyis a doubt morphologically in relation. Meanwhile according to Whirt (2005) under-utilization of existing facilities by thedisadvantaged groups reflects one aspect of deprivation, the higher failure and dropout rate of thedisadvantaged, reflects the other aspect of their educational backwardness. The previous chapterhad clearly shown that under-utilization of the facilities was highest in respect of the scheduledtribes in all the states followed by the scheduled castes. The analysis of the comparative dropoutrates for the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and others. Causes of dropouts among thescheduled castes and the scheduled tribes as perceived either by the students themselves or bytheir teachers and heads of the Institutions would also be analyzed here. As defined by the Indian Professionals on Board - Dropout is a universal phenomenon inIndian educational system at all the levels which results in considerable wastage of resources.Dropout is most serious at primary school level. A number of studies have shown that dropout ishigher in case of disadvantaged poor students. The major reason given usually being that thechildren are an economic asset to the parents. In the case of ITIs, it was hypothesized thatdropout rate would be higher among the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes students thandie non-scheduled students because of their comparatively poor economic status.
  21. 21. To understand the phenomenon of dropout among the ITI students this chapter examinesfirst the extent and nature of dropout of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes ascompared to others. The reasons for dropouts are discussed next, and, finally, the chapter makessome suggestions for reducing dropouts from the Industrial Training Courses(www.indED.com). Ordinarily, a dropout is defined as a person who withdraws from a programme of studybefore completing the same. It differs from wastage where a student takes longer time tocomplete a course than the prescribed one. For example, at the primary level all those childrenwho are admitted to class I and who do not complete class IV or V, are taker as dropouts. In thecase of ITIs all those students who join a particular trade but do not complete the same becausethey leave the programme before a varieties of reasons can come up example a rudimentary caseof community service as defined by (Gordon, 2001) a student maybe included (a class session)but S/he is not on the core of course which necessarily dropping the core. The costs of dropping out of high school can have a profound effect on a young personslife. The relative earnings of high school dropouts are lower than those for students whocomplete high school and/or college. Similarly, high school dropouts experience moreunemployment during their work careers. Young women who drop out of high school are morelikely to become pregnant at young ages and more likely to become single parents (Snyder &Sickmund, 2000). In 2007, the unemployment rate among those dropping out of school was 11%, comparedwith 7% for those who graduated from high school but did not attend college. The medianincome among dropouts who were employed full time was only half that of high school
  22. 22. graduates. While the real income (income adjusted for inflation) of college graduates hasincreased during the past 20 years, the real income of dropouts has declined dramaticallyespecially in mattering community service (Snyder & Sickmund, 2000).Census 2000 summary file 1-4-United States. (2002). These are sobering statistics whencontrasted with the reality of a workplace that continues to require increased literacy, moreeducation, enhanced technical skills, and the ability to embark on careers that require lifelonglearning. Without the skills and training that schooling should provide, those who do notcomplete their education face a lifetime of limited opportunities or even possibly a life ofdelinquency and crime The following data evaluation shows how certain risk factors affect achilds ability to achieve high school graduation. Although 4-H programs are not directlyresponsible for a childs academic career, Extension programs have a similar goal. The missionof 4-H Youth Development education is to create supportive environments for culturally diverseyouth and adults to reach their fullest potential (Colorado 4-H Youth Development Handbook,2003). Learning to identify proven risk factors in their high school members is the first step indesigning successful 4-H programs to meet the needs older youth. The ability to attain high scores on standardized entrance exams does not guarantee highstudent performance in all areas of academics. Aside from curriculum Economics courses areexamples of this phenomenon. Student performance in Principles of Macroeconomics classes isdependent on many factors. Natural ability needs to be supplemented with motivation and effort.Recent studies have tried to determine the factors that are attributed to high performance. For some students, getting accepted to a university is only the first in an uphill battletoward a degree. Persevering long enough to graduate can be just as challenging.
  23. 23. Data from the CHED revealed in 2000 that one in three Filipino drops out of college.This is an increase from the 1960s when one in five discontinued his or her studies. Even if your child has normal or above average intelligence, without a desire ormotivation to succeed at school, it is unlikely that she will do well. There are many reasons forchildren to have a lack of motivation, including parental expectations that are set too high or toolow, social problems, including difficulties at home or at school, and behavior problem(Delfrings, p.234) As suggested by Rhefortore, 2007 to help a child develop a positive attitude andmotivation toward working hard at school you should: Give your child praise and rewards for doing something well or working hard toward a difficult or challenging problem. Help build self confidence by avoiding frequent criticism and praising hard work. Communicate with your child about school and ask her about her day to show that you are interested. Help her to find something that she has a skill or special interest in, such as music, sports, reading, etc., Help your child to understand that success has a lot to do with how much time and effort you put into a task, and is not just about how smart or strong she is. Children who believe this are more likely to take on new challenges and work harder on difficult tasks. Set realistic goals and expectations for your children and set up consequences for not meeting these expectations and rewards or privileges for when she does. If your child is
  24. 24. making Cs, but is working hard at school and at doing her homework, then it may be unreasonable to expect her to make the honour roll. You should instead reward and praise her hard work and not punish her for not living up to your expectations. There are many classroom modifications that can be put in place to help improve schoolperformance, memory and attention, impulse control, organization, and self esteem. You shoulddiscuss implementing these techniques with your childrens teachers (www.uppertone.com). Improving memory and attention span: o Seat the child in an area with the least amount of distractions, near the teacher if possible. Consider using a study carrel, especially for independent work and keep her work area uncluttered. o Make instructions clear and unambiguous. o Keep oral instructions brief and repeat them at least once. o Consider providing written instructions and directions to supplement oral instructions. o Use visual aids. o Break up instructions, assignments and homework into small steps. o Improve reading comprehension by teaching her to underline key words or topics with a highlighter. o Improve listening comprehension by teaching her to take notes of key concepts. o Provide special signals or cues to remind her to get back on task. Improving organizational skills: o Establish a daily checklist of assignments.
  25. 25. o Keep a special notebook in which she can record homework assignments, project or report due dates, and test schedules.Improving productivity: o Divide work sheets and assignments into sections. o Reduce the amount of homework and written classwork, especially repetitive assignments such as math problems and spelling words that she can do accurately. o Vary the type of activities that she is doing. o Vary the way that material is presented. o Provide one on one instruction or small groups to introduce major concepts.Improving performance: o Provide extra time to complete assignments and tests. o Consider providing oral testing instead of or in addition to written tests. o Remind the student to slow down. o Give extra weight to the content of an assignment when grading, and do not take off points for poor handwriting or minor spelling errors.Protecting self esteem: o Avoid humiliating children who perform poorly in front of the other children. o Give positive feedback when she stays on task, pays attention or works hard at an assignment. o Find things that she has special interest or strength in and encourage her to do these activities.Improving behavior and impulse control: o Provide special signals or cues when she is beginning to misbehave.
  26. 26. o Give clear expectations of what behaviors are expected in the classroom. o Be consistent in your expectations and in the consequences for misbehavior. Parents all want their children to succeed, and they play an essential role. Make andmaintain positive connections between parents, children, and teachers. Parental involvement is a major factor in student success social interference of droppingis flexible to occur. Every family needs to create their own system for parental involvement inschoolwork. Strive for balance between support and hovering; between advocacy and over-managing.Related Studies Some studies indicate that a considerable proportion of college dropouts come from low-income families. The U.S. Department of Education found that 41% of low-income studentsenrolled in a four-year institution managed to graduate within five years. For higher incomestudents, this jumps to 66%. Of the low income students that did not return, 47% left in goodacademic standing (Victro, unpublished Master’s Thesis, Houston Texas 2004). Though research links financial difficulties to dropout rates, there are a number of factorsthat account for why students decide to leave school. Students tend to drop out because theirexpectations of college—academically, socially, or both—don‘t match up with the reality oncethey get there. They also suffer from lack of motivation, inadequate preparation, and poor studyskills.
  27. 27. The National Center for Education Statistics indicates that dropout rates are particularlyhigh for African American and Hispanic students. Other student populations at greater risk ofdropping out include those who are the first in their family to attend college, those who havelimited English proficiency, and nontraditional students such as returning adult students (Victro,2004). As observed by Fitright (Dissertation, references services view, Library Science, 2004)Few students who drop out eventually finish their education. Those that do return to collegeusually don‘t do it immediately. About 12% of the undergraduate population consists of re-entrystudents. These students are defined as those over the age of 25. Many college students—especially dropouts—are burdened with debt accumulated fromloans that could have been avoided or minimized by choosing other education and trainingoptions. Debt from student loans hurt those who never finish college. Most dropouts are left withbig debts and mediocre job prospects. It is estimated that 40% of college students will leave higher education without getting adegree, with 75% percent of these students leaving within their first two years of college.Freshman class attrition rates are typically greater than any other academic year and arecommonly as high as 20-30%. These statistics show a need for colleges to do something aboutretention rates. An alarming number of schools have no specific plan or goals in place to improve studentretention and degree completion. Colleges tend to put the blame on students, rather than onthemselves. College officials, when given lists of both student and institution characteristics that
  28. 28. might affect a student‘s decision to drop out, identified 13 student characteristics that they feltsignificantly contribute to student attrition. In contrast, respondents identified only twoinstitution characteristics as having a significant impact on attrition. It is quite troubling thatcolleges are still inclined to hold students largely responsible for their retention, whiledramatically minimizing the institutional role in this problem. When a student drops out of college, everyone loses—the student, the college, and thegreater society. College retention rates are important issues that impact not only colleges, but ourcountry and its future competitiveness in the global economy. Students‘ academic readiness is a key factor in college retention. Students who are wellprepared for college coursework are more likely to stay in school. Academic help alone is notenough to keep many students in school. Students also need individual support to feel connectedto the campus community. Helping students succeed in the classroom is a very positive step, butif students feel isolated or feel as if they don‘t fit in, they won‘t stay. It‘s important for collegesto offer programs and services that integrate first-year students into the social fabric of thecollege community, so that they feel a part of campus life from the very start of their collegeexperience (Victro, 2004 pg. 44 – 46). Some schools are establishing practices that appear to be highly effective in increasingstudent retention. These include social integration practices, multicultural centres, new academicadvising practices, and learning support practices. Student retention is everyone‘s business on acollege campus and a thoroughly integrated and coordinated approach needs to be taken to assuresuccess.
  29. 29. Many colleges have not yet made retention efforts a high priority. Fewer than half (47%)of all college officials responding to an ACT survey say they have established a goal forimproved retention of first-year students, and only a third (33%) say they have established a goalfor improved degree completion. In addition, only around half (52%) say they have an individualon staff that is responsible for coordinating retention strategies. As conclude by Bert (2001) performance is product of socio-economic, psychologicaland environmental factors. For the last 20 years, education in Pakistan is growing as a profitableindustry with prime objective of maximizing profit by delivering high quality education thatproduces well-educated, skilled, mannered students according to needs and requirements of thedynamically growing market. That‘s why the scope of research is always there to find out whatare the factors that affect the performance of the students in socially administered service. Thereare two groups of students as generally perceived i.e. those who improve and those who don‘timprove. This study can contribute to find out the factors, which are responsible for student‘sinelastic behavior towards study along with identifying those factors, which help a student tomake progress in his studies. This study focuses on investigating the factors affectingperformance of 3rd and 4th year college students equal to Europeans standard K-12 and K-14. Asurvey was conducted to collect information and responses of students, regarding factorsaffecting their performance in community service. All of the research reviews in Latin Americasupport the hypothesis that student performance depends on different socio-economic,psychological, environmental factors. The findings of research studies focused that studentperformance is affected by different factors such as learning abilities because new paradigmabout learning assumes that all students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not beconsidered as constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affect
  30. 30. student‘s performance. (Hansen, Joe B.2000). Some of the researchers even tried to explain thelink between students achievements, economic circumstances and the risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive (Goldman, N., Haney, W., and Koffler, S., 2002). The study found out the relationship among teachers‘ attitude and students‘ academicachievement in secondary school mathematics. The study is an ex-post facto type, which adopteddescriptive survey design. Three research questions were answered in the study. The subjects forthe study were one thousand five hundred and forty two (1542) senior secondary twomathematics students and one hundred and twenty three (123) mathematics teachers selectedfrom two secondary schools from each of the six senatorial districts in the South western part ofNigeria. Two research instruments were used for data collection. The data were analyzed usingsimple frequency and percentages. The findings revealed that there was good and positiveattitude of teachers towards the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in spite of theshortcomings that has bedevilled the teaching profession and particularly in the teaching ofmathematics. It is very important that teachers of mathematics should be adequately remuneratedand well equipped and be psychologically prepared to teach the subject in the secondary schools. Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual way of thinking, acting andbehaving. It has very serious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social groupwith which the individual learner relates and the entire school system. Attitudes are formed as aresult of some kind of learning experiences. They may also be learned simply by following theexample or opinion of parent, teacher or friend. This is mimicry or imitation, which also has apart to play in the teaching and learning situation. In this respect, the learner draws from his
  31. 31. teachers‘ disposition to form his own attitude, which may likely affect his learning outcomes(Olicer, 2005 pg. 24 – 45). In his observational theory, Bandura (1971) demonstrated that behaviours are acquired bywatching another (the model, teacher, parent, mentor, friend) that performs the behaviour. Themodel displays it and the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are, invariably, rolemodels whose behaviours are easily copied by students. What teachers like or dislike, appreciateand how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significant effect on their students.Unfortunately, however, many teachers seldom realize that how they teach, how they behave andhow they interact with students can be more paramount than what they teach. In a nutshell,teachers‘ attitudes directly affect students‘ attitudes. Teachers‘ attitudes are in turn, influenced bytheir culture and belief system. Teachers‘ attitudes towards their students in school must befavourable enough to carry students along. European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11,Number 3 (2009) 365 When the learner exhibits the expected behaviour or response, the value attacheddetermines very significantly the effectiveness of the learning processes in any aspect ofeducation. Gangoli cited in Igwe (2002) stipulates that for teaching and learning of science to beinteresting and stimulating, there has to be motivation on the part of both the teacher and thelearner so as to ensure the development of positive attitude and subsequently maximumacademic achievement. It has been observed that teachers teach science in a way that merelyrequires the pupils to listen, read and regurgitate. This depicts negative attitude to teaching.Several research findings have confirmed the hypothesis that teachers‘ attitude either towards
  32. 32. science or towards science teaching affect their students‘ achievement in and attitudes towardsscience. Okpala, (1985) found that the effect of teachers‘ attitude towards assessment practiceson students‘ achievement and their attitude towards Physics was positive. In the same veinOnocha, (1985) reported in one of his findings that teachers‘ attitude towards science is asignificant predictor of pupils‘ science achievement as well as their attitude. Also Igwe (1985)showed that the effect of teachers‘ attitudes to mathematics was stronger on the students‘mathematical achievement than on their attitudes. Chako (1981) reported in a study of teacherand student characteristics as correlates of learning outcomes in mathematics that teachers‘attitude towards teaching significantly predict students‘ attitude as well as achievement inMathematics. Also, Chidolue (1986) found that teachers‘ attitude towards Biology teaching isone of the major contributors towards explaining the variance in students‘ cognitiveachievement. In the same vein Odubunmi (1986) and Odunsi (1988) confirmed that teachers‘attitude towards Integrated Science teaching affect their students‘ attitude to and achievement inthe subject while Ogunwuyi (2000) found significant causal relationship between the teachers‘attitude and students‘ achievement in Integrated Science. Teachers‘ attitude towards the teachingof Mathematics plays a significant role in shaping the attitude of students towards the learning ofMathematics. Ogunniyi (2000) found that students‘ positive attitude towards science could beenhanced by the following teacher-related factors: • Teachers‘ enthusiasm, • Teachers‘ resourcefulness and helpful behaviour, • Teachers‘ thorough knowledge of the subject-matter quite interesting.
  33. 33. From Korlings (2001) the above we can say that the role of the teacher as facilitator oflearning and the contributions to students‘ achievement is enormous. Bajah (2005) was of theopinion that the success of our science programme depends greatly on the classroom teacher ashe is the one that translates all our thoughts into action. It can be argued to some extent that thecharacteristics of the teachers and their experiences and behaviours in the classrooms, contributeto the learning environment of their students, which in turn will have an effect on studentoutcomes. It is also important that we do not undermine the role of the parents in affectingstudent learning. A common hypothesis with respect to the relationship between teachers‘ experience andstudent achievement is that students taught by more experienced teachers achieve at a higherlevel, because their teachers have mastered the content and acquired classroom managementskills to deal with different types of classroom problems (Slavin, 2004; Evans, 2004; Gibbons etal, 2004). Furthermore, more experienced teachers are considered to be more able to concentrateon the most appropriate way to teach particular topics to students who differ in their abilities,prior knowledge and backgrounds (Raudenbush and Williams, 2001; Stringfield and Teddlie,2002). Ejiogu, (2003) was of the view that in order to improve on any aspect of education, it istherefore imperative to involve a well articulated teacher education programme that will preparethe teacher for the leadership role they are expected to play. The nation‘s overall development isinextricably tied to its educational system. If we accept these views, then there is the need tointroduce quality into the system. Most educationists believed that there could be no meaningfulsocio economic development without the right type and appropriate quality of education. Tobecome an educated (Research Library European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 11,
  34. 34. Number 3 2009) 366 person requires the combination of several factors and processes. At thecenter of the processes is the presence of an educator. The teacher is the most indispensablefactor in the effective administration of any education system. In his opinion Ofofuena (2003)said that no matter what amount of resources we might put into the nation‘s education system,without properly prepared and motivated teachers, we can never expect from the system. Theimportance of teacher in the meaningful education at all levels is reflected in the Nationalinstitution. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the description of research design the population and sample of thestudy, sampling procedure, research instrument, and the data gathering techniques dataprocessing and statistical treatment of the data.Research Design This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the Factors related to dropouts and performance of CWTS students in LSPU – SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011. Thepossible solutions were obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observationmade by the researcher. This study made the used of College students enrolled in NationalService Training Program – Civic Welfare Training Service as its respondents, the main sourceof data during the academic year 2010 – 2011. They were selected by random order among thetotal number of college students from different level the instrument used was a collaboration ofinformation based on Seidl, William (2003). Community welfare scenarii: the participants of
  35. 35. community service. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 1 – 87888 – 755. Some ofits modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope of the study.Population and Sampling The respondents of the study include sixty (60) college students enrolled in NationalService Training Program – Civic Welfare Training Service academic year 2010 – 2011. The random sampling as a sampling technique was utilized.Research Instrument A set of Questionnaire containing three (3) pages including a letter of request wasprepared; it includes the personal profile: such as age, gender, year level, course, average of therespondents. Three (3) major categories employed namely attitude of students, teacher‘smethodologies, and schedule of CWTS to assess the overall perception regarding the factorsrelated to CWTS program and the number of drop – outs in Civic Welfare Training Service. The respondents were oriented by the researcher to make sure of the information andclarity of the given questionnaires.Data Collection The questionnaire undertook revisions and was addressed to the levels and group virtuesof the respondents. The instruments distributed to the respondents on the last week of January.After sometime, the questionnaire was gathered personally by the researcher. It took one (1)week to retrieve the questionnaire for the needed data in the study.
  36. 36. In order to determine the related factors of drop – outs; the study used the following scalecomposed of five categories: 5 – Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 – Uncertain 2 – Disagree 1 – Strongly Disagree After the questionnaire was retrieved, coded, and tallied, it is followed by statisticalprocedures and then the analysis and interpretation of data.Statistical Treatment of Data The data collected from the questionnaire are reviewed, tabulated, and coded for analysis.The dependent and independent variables were coded and interpreted as follows:Survey Questionnaire I. Profile of the Respondents 1. Age Legend: 16 – 1 17 – 2 18 – 3 19 – 4 20 and above – 5 2. Gender Legend: Male – 1 Female – 2
  37. 37. 3. Course Legend: BSEd – 1 BEEd – 2 BSIE – 3 BSHRM – 4 AHRM – 5 BSPsych – 6 BSBio – 7 BSTourism – 8 BSBA – 9 BSIT – 10 BSinfo – 11 BSECE – 12 BSEE – 13 AT – 14 4. Year level Legend: First year – 1 Second year – 2 Third year – 3 Fourth year – 4 5. General Average Legend: 1 – 1.00 – 1.50 2 – 1.51 – 2.00 3 – 2.99 – 2.50 4 – 2.69 – 3.00 5 – 3.99 – 5.00 Percentage distribution was utilized to describe the related factors to CWTS program andregarding the number of drop – outs in CWTS variables in terms of age, gender, course, yearlevel, general average.
  38. 38. For the drop – out related factors such as attitude of students, teacher‘s methodologies,and schedule. The researcher was utilized the mean and standard deviation using a Likert scale, 5being the highest, denotes ‗outstanding‘ and 1 being the lowest, denotes ‗poor‘. To find that if there is a relationship existing between the independent and dependentvariables, Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to tell how well two setsof continuous data correlate to each other at 0.05 level of significance. CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS This chapter presents the findings of the study in illustrative tables and analysis as well asthe interpretation based from the statistical treatment of the data. Table 1 Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age Frequency Percent 16 17 28 17 28 47 18 8 13 19 2 3 20 & above 5 8 TOTAL 60 100 As shown in Table 1 the distribution of respondents according to age. In a clear view age17 outnumbered the rest with 28 or 47%; followed by 16 with 17 or 28%. On the other hand 8 or13 % of the total respondents are in the age of 18; while the rest such as 20 & above has 5 or 8%and the least score goes to age 19 with 2 or 3%. This implies that the majority of the respondentssubjected in the study are in age 17 which is under adolescence period.
  39. 39. Table 2 Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Gender Frequency Percent Male 17 28 female 43 72 TOTAL 60 100 As table 2 reveals the distribution according to gender it is obvious that femalerespondents override the male with 43 out of 100 or 72% it justify that most enrolees in CWTSprogram are female regardless of course and year level. Unlike the male who has only 17 or28%. Table 3 Distribution of Respondents According to Course Course Frequency Percent BSEd 8 13 BEEd 7 12 BSIE 3 5 BSHRM 7 12 BS Psycho 5 8 BS Bio 10 15 BS Tourism 5 8 BSBA 8 13 BSIT 2 3 BS Info 2 3 BSECE 1 2 BSEE 2 3 AT 1 2 TOTAL 60 100 In respect to table 3 we can grasp that most enrolees are come from BS Bio with 10 or15%. Hence it can be noted that majority of drop – outs comes from CAS department it followsBSEd and BSBA (which is a new program of LSPU – SPCC) with 8 or 13%; BEEd and BSHRMare nest to the lead with 7 or 12%; BS Tourism and BS Pscyho has 5 or 8%; 3 or 5% come fromBSIE; BSIT, BS info and BSEE has 2 or 3% and BSECE and AT has subdued to least with 1 or2%.
  40. 40. Table 4 Distribution of Respondents According to Year Level Year Level Frequency Percent st 1 year 52 87 2nd year 3 5 rd 3 year 3 5 4th year 2 3 TOTAL 60 100 Table 4 shows the distribution according to the respondent‘s level, majority of it goes to1st year level with assurance that most freshmen thoroughly enrol the NSTP program since theyare requiring to have a 3 units in this field; followed by 2nd year and 3rd year level with 3 or 5%hence, the reasons behind are lack of priority choices on NSTP (whether they choose CWTS orROTC) some says their status is cross enrolled and still do not taking the prescribe units.(Kintaro, 200). Table 5 Distribution of Respondents According to General Weighted Average General Weighted Average Frequency Percent 1.0 – 1.5 18 30 1.51 - 2 6 10 2.99 - 2.5 12 20 2.6 - 3 19 32 3.9 - 5 3 5 TOTAL 60 100 Table 5 shows the distribution with regards to their courses or career they had chosen. Itis lucid that most respondents have an average of 2.6 – 3.0 with 19 or 32%; next grade ranges 1.0– 1.5 with 18 or 30% it is obvious that one – fourth of enrolees in CWTS perform in a verysatisfactory level; 2.99 – 2.5 ranges the grade of 12 or 20 respondents; 6 or 10% stretch to 1.51 –2.0 general weighted average; and lastly 3 or 5% of grade ranges 3.9 – 5.0.
  41. 41. The results imply that majority of the respondents befall the weighted average from 3.0 –2.6. this is supported by Ward (2010) that gaining 3 units in a such field do not necessarily fallout to a vey outstanding result. Hence, capability of students dearly affects the learningconditions and the G.W.A. which is not true score. Table 6 Respondents‘ Perception on Students‘ Attitude as Factors – Related to Drop Out Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. Students are attentive in CWTS. 3.74 0.99 Agree 2. Students in CWTS follow the policies that made 3.75 0.98 Agree by the coordinators. 3. students are accountable towards given tasks 3.45 0.87 Agree 4. Students of CWTS come to class early. 3.40 0.89 Uncertain 5. The students act or follow their instructors if they 3.46 0.93 Agree meet their interest. TOTAL 3.57 0.93 AgreeLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Uncertain1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly Disagree It appears that in table 6 the respondents‘ perception on how a students‘ attitude has arelationship related to drop out, moreover the second indicator has highest weighted mean ( =3.75) ‗that students in CWTS follow the policies made by the coordinators‘ and interpreted as‗Agree‘ which seems the researcher positively observed during data gathering procedure; and thetrough indicator is number 4 ‗students of CWTS come to class early‘ ( = 3.40) in which showsthe sluggishness or tardiness of respondents during the class hours.
  42. 42. Table 7 Respondents‘ Perception on Teachers‘ Methodologies as Factors – Related to Drop Out Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. The instructors provide conducive learning 3.35 0.87 Uncertain environment. 2. They assess the materials accordingly (like test, 3.48 0.99 Agree community resources etc.) 3. Their teaching methodologies are always 3.21 1.10 Uncertain sustainable to the needs of their students. 4. The instructors discuss the lessons clearly. 3.38 0.97 Agree 5. The instructors respect the ideas being held by 3.24 0.90 Uncertain their students. TOTAL 3.33 0.97 UncertainLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Uncertain1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly Disagree Table 7 presents the respondents‘ perception on teachers‘ methodologies. The instructorsprovide conducive learning environment having a mean of 3.35 and interpreted as uncertain; theyassess the materials accordingly (like test, community resources etc.) having a mean of 3.48;Their teaching methodologies are always sustainable to the needs of their students with a meanof 3.21; The instructors discuss the lessons clearly with a mean 3.38; The instructors respect theideas being held by their students having a mean of 3.24. Table 8 Respondents‘ Perception on Program‘s Schedule as Factors – Related to Drop Out Indicators Standard Mean Remarks Deviation 1. The schedules are followed by the students. 3.52 0.99 Agree 2. There is a need to change the schedule of class in 3.75 0.99 Agree CWTS. 3. Schedules strongly affect the behaviour of the 3.76 1.02 Agree students of CWTS. 4. All students of CWTS are accountable to their 3.29 1.00 Uncertain time management.
  43. 43. 5. Determining schedule of CWTS is rigid. 3.46 0.93 Agree TOTAL 3.56 0.99 AgreeLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Uncertain1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly Disagree Table 8 show the indicator the schedules are followed by the students ( = 3.52); There isa need to change the schedule of class in CWTS ( = 3.75); Schedules strongly affects thebehaviour of the students of CWTS ( = 3.76); All students of CWTS are accountable to theirtime management ( = 3.29); Determining schedule of CWTS is rigid ( = 3.46). This impliesthat schedule of the subject strongly affects the respondents‘ performance. As (Unel, 2003) reinforce that time strictly has relationship on a person to put into act,maybe personal or disorganize management. Table 9 Correlation Between the Profile of the Respondents and Their Performance Variables r - value p - value Interpretation Age .209 .020 Significant Gender .227 .011 Significant Course .124 .009 Significant Year level -.196 .029 SignificantLegend:p >.05 - not significantp <.05 – significant Table 9 shows the correlation between the profile of the respondents and theirperformance during A.Y. 2010 – 2011. As we notice all the variables for profile of therespondents are significant to their academic performance, Age (p = 0.020), Gender (p = 0.011),
  44. 44. Course (p = 0.009), Year level (p = 0.029) since their p – value is less than 0.05 level ofsignificance. The result implies that age, gender, the chosen course and year level are determinants onhow a learner will perform academically. As reflected by the study of Dacma (2003) studentperformance is affected by different factors such as learning abilities because new paradigmabout learning assumes that all students can and should learn at higher levels but it should not beconsidered as constraint because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affectstudent’s performance. (Hansen, Joe B.2000). Some of the researchers even tried to explain thelink between students achievements, economic circumstances and the risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive (Goldman, N., Haney, W., and Koffler, S., 2002). Table 10 Correlation Between the Performance of the Respondents and Factors - Related to CWTS Program Variables r - value p – value Interpretation Teachers‘ .207 .115 Not Significant methodology Attitude .296 .023 Significant Schedule .083 .527 Not significantLegend:p >.05 - not significantp <.05 – significant Table 10 shows the correlation between the performance of the respondents and factors –related to CWTS program and two variables are exhibited to be not significant; teachers‘methodologies (p = 0.115) & schedule of the program with (p = 0.527). While ‗attitude‘ asperceived by the respondents is significant to the performance since (p = 0.023) is less than the0.05 level of significance. As Coco (2004) supported that the mental pre - disposition is thesummit on a person how perform and is strictly affecting the performance of learners. Attitude as
  45. 45. a concept is concerned with an individual way of thinking, acting and behaving. It has veryserious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social group with which theindividual learner relates and the entire school system. Attitudes are formed as a result of somekind of learning experiences. They may also be learned simply by following the example oropinion of parent, teacher or friend. This is mimicry or imitation, which also has a part to play inthe teaching and learning situation. In this respect, the learner draws from his teachers‘disposition to form his own attitude, which may likely affect his learning outcomes (Olicer, 2005pg. 24 – 45). In his observational theory, Bandura (1971) demonstrated that behaviours areacquired by watching another (the model, teacher, parent, mentor, friend) that performs thebehaviour. The model displays it and the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are,invariably, role models whose behaviours are easily copied by students. What teachers like ordislike, appreciate and how they feel about their learning or studies could have a significanteffect on their students. Unfortunately, however, many teachers seldom realize that how theyteach, how they behave and how they interact with students can be more paramount than whatthey teach. In a nutshell, teachers‘ attitudes directly affect students‘ attitudes. Teachers‘ attitudesare in turn, influenced by their culture and belief system. Teachers‘ attitudes towards theirstudents in school must be favourable enough to carry students along. CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendationsrelated to the factors related to drop out.
  46. 46. Summary This study aims to know the ―Factors related to drop outs and performance of CWTSstudents in LSPU – SPCC academic year 2010 - 2011‖.It sought answers to the following questions. 11. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 11.1 age; 11.2 gender; 11.3 course; 11.4 year level; and 11.5 general weighted average? 12. What is the level of performance of students enrolled in CWTS during 2010 – 2011? 13. How do the respondents perceive the factors related to the number of drop outs: 13.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 13.2 attitude of students; and 13.3 schedule? 14. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance? 15. Is there a significant relationship between the performance of the respondents and factors related to CWTS? 15.1 teacher‘s methodologies; 15.2 attitude of students; and 15.3 Schedule?
  47. 47. Findings Majority of the respondents are in age of 17 with 28 or 47%; 43 or 72 are female; 10 or15% are taking BS Biology; and 52 or 87% are in 1st year level. 19 or 32% of the grade of the respondents ranges 2.6 – 3.0. Students‘ attitude (mean = 3.57) and Programs‘ schedule (mean = 3.56) are interpreted as‗Agree‘. While teachers‘ methodologies (mean = 3.33) is interpreted as ‗uncertain‘. The person – related factors resulted as ‗significant‘ to the level of performance ofrespondents. The performance of the respondents is ‗not significant‘ to the CWTS – related variables.Conclusion 5. The hypothesis that ‗There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their performance‘ is ‗Rejected‘. 6. The hypothesis that ‗There is no significant relationship between the performance of students and factors related to CWTS program‘ is ‗Accepted‘Recommendations 5. Teachers‘ methodologies must utilized student‘s centred since CWTS‘s program has a vast number of learners. 6. Students‘ must be accountable on following the program‘s schedule and equip their own time management.
  48. 48. 7. Institutions should promote collaborative training as early as possible so that it will culminate the attitude of learners towards community service. 8. Researchers must extend their scope on the performance of students in such area of learning, especially in community subject. BIBLIOGRAPHYCensus 2000 summary file 1-4-United States. (2002). U.S. Census Bureau, Washington D.C.Census 2000 summary file 1-4 technical documentation. (2002). U.S. Census Bureau, Washington D.C.Colorado 4-H youth development handbook. (2003). State 4-H Program Office, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, C.O.The condition of education 2003, NCES 2003?067. (2003). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C.Curtin, T.R., Ingels, S.J., Wu, S., & Heuer, R. (2002). National education longitudinal study of 1988: Base-year to fourth follow-up data file users manual (NCES 2002-323). Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, D.C.Dropout data. (1999-2003). Colorado Department of Education, Denver, C.O. Available at: http://www.cde.state.co.usIngels, S.J., Curtin, T.R., Kaufman, P., Alt, M.N., and Chen, X. (2002). Coming of Age in the 1990s: The Eighth-Grade Class of 1988 12 Years Later. (NCES 2002?321). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington D.C.Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund. M. (1995). Juvenile offenders and victims: A national report. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, D.C.www.researchlib.comwww.yahoo.comwww.google.ph.com
  49. 49. www.censusUS.comwww.indED.comwww.skills-measure.com APPENDIX A Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo CityDear Respondents, GREETINGS! I am undertaking a research study entitled ―Factors Related to CWTSprogram and the number of drop outs in CWTS Academic Year 2010.‖ as a course requirementto my subject research. In view here of, I respectfully choose you as one of my respondents toanswer the following questions for the completion of study. Please provide me your honest response. Rest assures that will be treated with utmostconfidentiality. Thank you for your cooperation.Respectfully yours,Carandang, Elaine Rose P.The Researcher
  50. 50. APPENDIX BPART I : Profile of the respondentsDirection : Please fill-up the needed information on the blank provided.Name:_____________________ (optional)Age:_______Gender: ___Course: ____________Year Level: _________General weighted average or performance: _______PART II. The Perception of the respondents Direction: Based on your observation, indicate your response to the following regardingthe factors related to CWTS program and the number of drop-outs of CWTS students by puttinga (/) mark according to the rating scale provided. 5 ------------- Strongly Agree 4 ------------- Agree 3 ------------- Uncertain 2 ------------- Disagree 1 ------------- Strongly Disagree A. Attitude of students 5 4 3 2 1 6. Students are attentive in CWTS. 7. Students in CWTS follow the policies that made by the
  51. 51. coordinators.8. students are accountable towards given tasks9. Students of CWTS come to class early.10. The students act or follow their instructors if they meet their interest.B. Teacher methodologies 5 4 3 2 1 1. The instructors provide conducive learning environment. 2. They assess the materials accordingly (like test, community resources etc.) 3. Their teaching methodologies are always sustainable to the needs of their students. 4. The instructors discuss the lessons clearly. 5. The instructors respect the ideas being held by their studentsC. Schedule 5 4 3 2 1 1. The schedules are followed by the students. 2. The is a need to change the schedule of class in CWTS. 3. Schedules strongly affects the behaviour of the students of CWTS. 4. All students of CWTS are accountable to their time management. 5. Determining schedule of CWTS is rigid Thank you for your cooperation!

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