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The Arab Region in the New Internet World
 

The Arab Region in the New Internet World

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The Arab Region in

The Arab Region in
the New Internet World
presentation of Prof. William Dutton of Oxford Internet Institute at INET Qatar on November 27 2012,

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  • -including respondents from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen
  • -
  • Interpersonal benefitsGeneral information seekingDistractionEconomical purposes
  • (This is the sum of answers 5,6,7)****
  • -This is the sum of answers 5,6,7***
  • (Slide 55)Correlations (Pearson): Age(.073** ) Gender (-0.015)Experience (.142**)Skills(.109**)Time of use(.105**) Education(.058**)

The Arab Region in the New Internet World The Arab Region in the New Internet World Presentation Transcript

  • TheArabRegion in the New Internet World William Dutton Oxford Internet Institute, University of OxfordGlobal Values Project: http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=65 Presentation for INET Qatar, Doha, 27 November 2012.
  • The Global Values Project Focus: Global User Perspectives on Freedom of Expression Researchers: William Dutton, Principal Investigator; SoumitraDutta, Co-Principal Investigator; Ginette Law, Research Associate, Gillian Bolsover, Research Assistant, Isabella Litke, Research AssistantBased at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, in collaboration with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, Cornell University. Surveys conducted in collaboration with the World Economic Forum (WEF) and comScore Supported by ictQatar through ISIS Innovation, University of Oxford Online field research conducted by Toluna and comScore
  • The Global Values Project: The New Internet World1. New online nations are dominant in the New World;2. Users developing a global Internet culture: sharing similar values and attitudes;3. Newly adopting countries are as liberal, if not more so, such as support for freedom of expression;4. Users in the newly adopting nations are more innovative in their patterns of use, e.g., social networking.
  • ResearchQuestions• Where does MENA sit in the ‘New Internet World’?• Are there patterns of attitudes or beliefs constraining the role of the Internet in the MENA region?
  • Methodology• Online survey of Internet users in selected nations of the Middle East and North Africa conducted in two phases, from July through September 2012, fielded by Toluna.*• Merged with online survey of Internet users in selected nations world-wide from July through September 2012, fielded by comScore.• Contextualized by review of related research and literature, including other survey data available to the project investigators.*The survey was suspended during Ramadan.
  • The Survey SampleComposition: • 11,225 respondents in over 58 countries MENA AFRICA LATIN ASIA EUROPE OCEANIA NORTH TOTAL REGION AMERICA /AUS AMERICA(N) 2,803 595 1,825 2,156 2,025 509 1,312 11,225 (N) = 2,309 (N) = 9,166
  • MENA REGION GCC NORTH AFRICAAlgeria 229 Bahrain 11 Algeria 229Bahrain 11 Kuwait 197 Egypt 529Egypt 529 Oman 141 Morocco 270Iran 3 Qatar 156 Tunisia 108Iraq 1 Saudi Arabia 511Israel 10 UAE 245Jordan 243Kuwait 197Morocco 270Oman 141Qatar 156SaudiArabia 511Tunisia 108UAE 245Yemen 149TOTAL 2803 1261 1136
  • Number and Proportion of Internet Users by Region 90% 1200 79% 80% 1017 1000 70% 68% 61% Total number of Internet users (Mil.) 60% 800% of Internet users 50% 600 40% 45% 40% 501 36% 30% 26% 400 273 20% 22% 236 14% 200 139 10% 12% 10% 77 24 6% 1% 3% 0% 0 North America Oceania/Australia Europe Latin Middle East Asia Africa America/Carib. Percentage of global Internet population Number of Internet Users (mio.) Internet penetration within region Source: Internet World Stats- www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Penetration rates are based on a world population of 6,930,055,154 and 2,267,233,742 estimated Internet users for December 31, 2011.
  • Patterns of Use •MENA users rely more on the Internet for information & communication than users in North America/Europe. • The Internet is a greater source of entertainment, such as music, in the MENA region. • MENA users more involved in content production than old Internet countries. • However, less reliance on the Internet for work/school and business and commerce in MENA.Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com Image courtesy of jannoon028/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
  • "The Internet is making things better for people like me."60%50% 49%49% 48%40% 39% MENA (n=2727)30% North Africa (n=1102) GCC ( (n=1227) 21% World Average (n=10811)20% 17% 16% 15% 13% 12% 12% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • Global Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust, …Image scourtesy of maya picture and digitalart/FreeDigitalPhotos.net
  • Perceptions of Media Freedom in the MENA Region 90% 80%% of respondents who believe that the media has freedom 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet MENA (n=2803) 45% 49% 47% 70% Global Average (n=11225) 66% 65% 65% 82%
  • Perceptions of Media Freedom in North Africa and the GCC Region% of respondents who believe that the medi a has freedom 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Radio Print TV Internet North Africa (n=1136) 47% 54% 47% 78% GCC (n=1261) 44% 46% 47% 63%
  • "Access to the Internet should be a fundamental right for all people."70%60% 59% 54%50% 47% 46%40% MENA (n=2694) North Africa (n=1092)30% GCC ( (n=1203) World Average (n=10794)20% 18% 14% 12% 12% 12% 13% 10% 11% 10% 10%10% 9% 5% 5% 5% 3% 3% 4% 2%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • "People should be able to say what they feel about their government on the Internet."60%50% 48% 42% 41%40% 33% MENA (n=2639)30% North Africa (n=1078) GCC ( (n=1163) World Average (n=10754)20% 19% 16% 16% 15% 15% 14% 14% 13% 12% 11% 11%10% 9% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5% 4% 5% 3%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • "I can express myself freely online."45%40% 39%35% 31%30% 27%25% 23% MENA (n=2700) 22% 21% North Africa (n=1097)20% 19% 19% 18% 18% GCC ( (n=1204) 17% 16% 16% 16% 16% World Average (n=10831)15% 13%10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5% 4% 4% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • “I can express myself freely online” Proportions Who ‘Totally Disagree’ (MENA) Gender Skills** 29% 17% Male, 6% Female, 8% 10% 7% 7% 6% 4% 1 Poor 2 3 4 5 6 7 Age** Excellent 8% 8% Time of use** 7% 7% 6% 11% 5% 8% 6% 5% 5% 0% Under 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ 0-5 hrs/week 6-10 11-15 16-20 >20 hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week hrs/week 15% Experience** 15% Education** 8% 9% 7% 6% 5% 5% 9% 9% 7% 7% 5% <6 months 6 mo-<1yr 1 yr-<2 yrs 2 yrs-<5 yrs 5-7 yrs >7 yrs
  • "I feel free to say things online that others might not45% agree with." 42%40% 37%35% 32% MENA (n=2682)30% 27% North Africa (n=1093)25% GCC ( (n=1194)20% World Average 17% 17% (n=10735) 16% 15%15% 14% 14% 13% 13% 11% 11% 11% 11% 10% 10%10% 8% 8% 7% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5%5%0% 1 Totally disagree 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7
  • “The Internet is a safe place to express my opinions."25% 22% 21% 20% 20%20% 19% 18% 18% 17% 15% 15%15% MENA (n=2803) 12% 11% 11% North Africa (n=1136) 10% 10% GCC ( (n=1261)10% 9% World Average (n=11225) 8% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 5%5% 4%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont know disagree
  • "There are times when people should be able to be anonymous on the Internet."35% 31% 30%30% 28% 27%25%20% 18% MENA (n=2665) 17% 16% 16% North Africa (n=1064) 15% 15%15% 14% GCC (n=1185) 13% 13% 13% 13% 12% 12% 12% World Average (n=10701) 10%10% 9% 8% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • "Government authorities should not censor political content on the Internet."30% 28% 27%25% 24% 21%20% 18% 16% 16% 15% 15% MENA (n=2803)15% 14% 14% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1136) 12% GCC ( (n=1261) 11% 11% 11% 10% World Average (n=11225)10% 9% 9% 8% 7% 7% 7% 6% 6% 5%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 Dont Know disagree
  • “It is OK for people to express their ideas on the Internet, even if they are extreme.”30% 27%25% 24% 23% 20%20% 18% 18% 18% 18% 18% 17% 17% 16% 16% 15% MENA (n=2652)15% 14% 13% North Africa (n=1079) 12% GCC ( (n=1180) 11% 10% 10% World Average (n=10761)10% 9% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7%5%0% 1 Totally 2 3 4 5 6 Totally agree 7 disagree
  • Over-Arching Themes The MENA Region Reflects the New Internet World - Innovative Uses of the Internet and Social Media - Support for the Internet for Information, Entertainment, Expression, … - Support for Core Internet Values: Freedom of Expression, Privacy, … - But More Sensitive Areas of Expression Concerns over Privacy, Trust, Security, … Spectrum of Regional Opinions between Two Poles: Traditional versus Next Generation Users (education, age, and experience online) Differences with MENA Region Image courtesy of uak_rock8/Flickr.com
  • Implications for Discussion Interventions in Support of More Inclusive Access: - Take-up - Skills - Digital Literacy Encourage Greater Use in Business, Government and Commerce Foster Dialogue Across the Spectrum of Opinions Address Uncertainties and Anxieties Image scourtesy of maya picture and digitalart/FreeDigitalPhotos.net