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Some theories about dialogue for a module on workshop facilitation in MSc Agile Software Development

Some theories about dialogue for a module on workshop facilitation in MSc Agile Software Development



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Dialogue Dialogue Presentation Transcript

  • Dialogue
  • DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELSTheory of Developmental Levels (Herb Shepard 1965)Primary Mentality  A zero-sum game between individual and group  If an individual co-operates, the group gains  But the individual loses outSecondary Mentality  The co-operative group gains more viewpoints  And strengthens each person’s individuality
  • CONSENSUSFacilitated workshops usually aim for consensusConsensus is defined as:  General agreement  Absence of sustained opposition  Taking account of all parties’ views  Reconciling any conflicting arguments www.bsigroup.com/en/Standards-and-Publications/About-standards/Glossary/Attempts to gain consensus can degenerate into forcing people to say that they agree
  • DIALOGUE IS MORE AMBITIOUS Negotiation aims to arrive at an agreement between parties that differ Collaboration aims to share decision-making Consensus aims to reconcile conflicting views Dialogue aims to find a new understanding, leading to new ways to think and act that, in turn, lead to other new ideas
  • WHAT IS DIALOGUE? DIA = through LOGOS = word / meaning / gather together > relationship DIALOGUE = flow of meaning through relationships TQM seeks to solve the problem of errors, not by correcting errors after they occur, but by changing processes so errors don’t occur in first place Dialogue seeks to solve the problem of fragmentation not by rearranging the components of conversation, but by uncovering and changing the underlying structures that cause fragmentation in the first place
  • EARLY (first?) USE OF DIALOGUETo improve conversations among physicistsDavid Bohm (1965) advocated: Groups of 20–40 people meet in a circle (enough people to avoid any family dynamic) For several hours each day, over several days No agenda Try to suspend preconceptions and prejudices Look at process, at how thoughts have moved
  • EARLY (first?) USE OF DIALOGUEDavid Bohm describes Dialogue as:  1st person speaks  2nd person hears similar meaning (not the same)  As 2nd person replies, 1st person sees a difference between what he meant to say and what 2nd person heard  This difference suggests something new  As dialogue continues, new content emerges  So they are creating something in common, new
  • BOHM’S PHILOSOPHYBohm on PhysicsReality involves unbroken wholeness in flowing movementBohm on DialogueThought is a collective enterprise arising from how we discourseConditions for effective dialogue All participants must "suspend" their assumptions, literally, to hold them "as if suspended before us"; All participants must regard one another as colleagues; There must be a facilitator who holds the context of dialogue
  • MEETINGS ARE LONELY PLACESMost of the time, we think alone: We defend our position We look for evidence to prove that we are right and others are wrong We avoid being vulnerable to other opinions We withhold information We feel hurt or betrayed We lose respect for the other side
  • HISTORYCultures that used dialogue survived for a long time: e.g. Native Americans, Ancient Greeks, MaorisSo, is dialogue something we already know? or is it something we have forgotten?
  • CLAIMS for DIALOGUEWhen F W de Klerk visited Nelson Mandela in prison, they devised a new context for South AfricaJohn Hume & Jerry Adams talked privately about how to stop violence in N. Ireland In both cases, dogmatists went to great lengths to prevent these conversations. . Isobel thinks the magic here was that the conversations were out of the public eye.A new “mind” emerges, if:Participants believe that maintaining good feelingswithin the group is more important than holding totheir fixed position
  • HARGROVEA dialogue is a conversation where: There is a free flow of meaning … and Diverse views & perspectives are encouraged People desire to learn from different colleaguesCollaboration is based on inspiring visions It is deeply purposeful, focused on practical accomplishments that are carried out in conversations
  • FACTS model