CLIMATE or CULTURE?It is difficult to change a culture. Values are cherished Challenging values generates out-group attributions Beliefs & assumptions sustained by selective perceptionIt is easier to change the climate. Culture may follow. Many staff will mirror behaviours of certain people. Attitudes & feelings often change to match behaviour, in order to avoid dissonance The opportunity may be enough, as people enjoy creativity
CLIMATE FOR CREATIVITY (Ekvall & Isaksen)Resources: Idea Time Idea Support Challenge and Personal InvolvementMotivation Trust and Openness Playfulness and Humour Conflict ResolutionExploration: Risk-taking Debates about the Issues; Freedom to respond to challenges Dynamism
IDEA TIMEIf people are given:• Time when they are not doing tasks• Opportunities to discussThen they can explore and test suggestionsThey can elaborate on alternative approachesIf every minute is booked and measured, they can only think within their given routines
IDEA SUPPORTIf people respond to ideas and suggestions with: (managers, peers and subordinates)• Attentive listening• Professional respect• Practical and emotional support for initiativesThen the atmosphere is positive and constructive ways of trying out new ideas are createdIf not, people expect the automatic “no” faults are found and obstacles raised
CHALLENGE & INVOLVEMENTIf people are involved in: • Daily operations • Long-term goals and visionsThen they will be motivated, committed, inspiredThey will enjoy their work and find it meaningfulIf not, they will be detached, alienated, apathetic
TRUST & OPENNESSIf people are given:• emotional safety in relationships• personal support and respectThen they can be genuinely open and frankThey count on each other for professional supportIf not, they feel suspicious and are on guardThey avoid revealing their plans or ideas
PLAYFULNESS & HUMOURIf people are given:• An easy-going light-hearted atmosphere• Permission to make good-natured jokes• Professional attitudes within the humourThen they can have fun and laughThey can suggest zany ideas, ‘out of the box’If the atmosphere is stiff and gloomy Jokes are seen as improper, laughter intolerable
CONFLICT RESOLUTIONIf people are helped to:• control their own negative impulses• gain psychological insight into othersThen they can deal effectively with diversityIf work is full of personal and emotional tensions people dislike or even hate each other indulge in slander and gossip plots, traps and territorial struggles
RISK TAKINGIf risk is expected as natural in the course of work• Uncertainty and ambiguity is tolerated• Bold initiatives can be taken• People feel they can risk their own ideasThen bold initiatives can be taken People will go “out on a limb” to put ideas forwardIf not, people are cautious and hesitant set up committees, cover themselves
FREEDOMIf people are given:• Autonomy to decide how they do things• Discretion in day-to-day activitiesThen they will exercise discretion, take initiativeThey will seek & share information about the workIf not, they will blindly follow prescribed tasks
DEBATEIf people often meet to hear many voices:• discuss differing ideas and viewpoints• disagree and put forward their own ideasThen a the organisation has access to a wide range of knowledge and experience careful consideration of many alternativesIf not, people follow authoritarian patterns do daft things without questioning them
DYNAMISMOrganisational life should be eventful so that people get experience in adaptingWhen anything interesting happens, tell the story – to everyone
BRAINSTORMING1. Review the rules of brainstorming with the entire group: – No criticism, no evaluation, no discussion of ideas. – There are no stupid ideas. The wilder the better. – Record all ideas (if not enough ideas try a fishbone diagram) – Piggyback: combine / modify / expanding other peoples’ ideas.2. Review the topic or problem to be discussed.3. Make sure everyone understands the subject.4. Allow two minutes of silence for people to think.5. Invite people to call out their ideas. Record all ideas, in words as close as possible to those used by the contributor. No discussion or evaluation of any kind is permitted.6. Continue to generate and record ideas until several minutes’ silence produces no more.
NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUENGT is a variant of brainstorming that enables less vocal people.1. State the subject. Clarify the statement until everyone understands.2. All silently think and write as many ideas as possible in a set period.3. Each states one idea aloud. Facilitator records them on the flipchart.4. Continue around the group till done, or for an agreed length of time.5. Discuss each idea in turn to clarify meaning, explain logic / analysis. – Raise and answer questions, . – Change wording only when the idea’s originator agrees. – Strike ideas from the list only by unanimous agreement. – Discussion may or state agreement or disagreement.6. Prioritize the ideas using multivoting or list reduction.
EDWARD DE BONO – LATERAL THINKING1. Don’t try harder in the same direction. Change direction.2. Don’t play with the existing pieces. Seek new pieces.3. The brain forms asymmetric patterns. Aim to move across these patterns.4. Aim to escape from the local optimum in order to move towards a more global optimum.
EDWARD DE BONO – PARALLEL THINKINGParallel thinking is opposite of adversarial thinking.Adversarial only discovers truth‘. Doesn’t build anything.In parallel thinking all sides think in the same direction.There is co-operative and co-ordinated thinking.Can change direction to give a full scan of the situation.At any moment each thinker thinks in parallel with others.There does not have to be agreement.Contradictory statements are laid down in parallel.The way forward is designed from all the parallel thoughtsUse the Six Hats method (see roles).
TONY BUZANMind Maps express our ideas visually for creativity for learning
METAPHORMING (Todd Siler, artist)Associative thinking = creating new connections through: metaphors, similes, analogies, figures of speech, symbols, stories, puns, visualizations, hypotheses, empathy, models …Metaphorming is the act of connecting ideas to generate innovations ,continually transforming meanings + uses by applying them in new contexts5D symbolic modelling (length, width, height, time/motion, symbols)Method:1. Form: a group with a wide variety of skills and experience2. Connect: brainstorm relationships, connections, associations3. Discover: develop connections by generating more viewpoints4. Invent: hypothesise practical uses for the ideas5. Apply: