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Differnt technologies in oc mines

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  • nyc presentation sir.. v.useful information. thanx alot. bdw can u explain slide no 101 & 109 ?? about local depressurization
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  • good for all the mining engineers...well done ISN .!
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  • 1. PRESENTATION ONDifferent Technologies in OC mines of SCCL I. Satyanarayana, M.Tech,MBA,MCA Dy. Manager, Project Planning, SCCL, isnindian@gmail.com, visit at www.slideshare.com/isnindian ISN 1
  • 2. Every newly born will need…. ISN 2
  • 3. • Mining is extracting ore or minerals from the ground• An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit ISN 3
  • 4. • There are two main types of mining. 1) Surface Mining 2) Subsurface Mining ISN 4
  • 5. Mining Methods (Mode of Entry) Shaft Mine Incline Mine Incline Excavator Adit Mine Opencast Mine ISN 5
  • 6. MINING METHODS COAL MINING METHODSUNDER GROUND OPENCAST SPECIAL MINING Methods Methods Methods Hydraulic Gassification Mining ISN 6
  • 7. What is Opencast Mining• Opencast mining is also known as Open pit mining, Open cut Mining, Surface or Strip Mining.• The coal upto economical depth will be excavated by OC Method.• The overburden and the Coal are excavated in long strips of a few meters thickness. ISN 7
  • 8. SURFACE MINING• Based on System of Mining – Continuous & Discontinuous• Based on Mechansiation – Manual & Mechanised• Based on method and nature of mining: 1. Open-pit: Reclamation after completion 2. Open-Cast: Reclamation during mining 3. Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel 4. Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips up to 50 m wide x 1 Km long 5. Placer Mining 6. Glory hole Mining ISN 8
  • 9. MECHANISED OPENCAST METHODS OPENCAST MethodsSHOVEL DUMPER SHOVEL DUMPER Inpit Crussing SURFACE BUCKET WHEEL HIGH WALL COMBINATION Combination and MINER EXCAVATOR MINING with Conveyor DRAGLINE Technology ISN 9
  • 10. Ideal conditions (Suitability) for Opencast Mining 1. Thickness of coal seams- > 5m 2. Flat gradient - < 1 in 6 3. Strike length - > 1 km 4. No.of seams - Less the better, with higher thickness 5. Coal without stone bands 6. Free from surface structures / features. 7. Preferably non-forest land. 8. Availability of adequate place for dumping. ISN 10 9. Lower Stripping ratio depending on quality of the coal
  • 11. Advantages of opencast mining There is no problem of ventilation There is no problem of Roof control, supports There is no problem of lighting in daytime.Percentage of coal extraction is much higher (about90%) than that of Underground mining (30-60%) High OMS Much productivity / profits. Quick returns on capital investment. Dangers & Hazards are less compare to U/G Mines. There is no risk of gas explosion. Large-scale mechanisation is possible. Gestation period is less ISN 11
  • 12. Disadvantages of opencast mining •Work is affected by weather. •Land degradation by mining. •Deforestation. •Pollution( water, Air, Land, Noise ). •The method is uneconomic for workings Deeper Depths, cities and under sea/rivers. •The quarried area and OB dump heaps present an unpleasant sight. ISN 12
  • 13. TERMINOLOGY ISN 13
  • 14. STRIPPING RATIOAMOUNT OF OVERBURDEN REMOVED IN MINING A UNIT OFMINERAL ISN 14
  • 15. OPEN PIT MINE ISN 15
  • 16. OPERATIONS IN OPM• LEVELLING BY DOZING• DRILLING.• BLASTING• REMOVAL OF OVERBURDEN• DUMPING, BACK FILLING, RECLAMATION• EXTRACTION OF COAL• TRANSPORTING to (CHP, CSP, FLOODLOADING SYSTEM, Rapid loading etc.,) ISN 16
  • 17. OPERATIONS IN OPM ISN 17
  • 18. Development SequenceOpening the deposit – Access trenchBox cut - To accommodate all equipmentMine phases - Depends on the shape of the propertyProgress of BenchesCoal production schedulesOB excavation schedulesNote:- Maximize inventory of coal in the initial years • Differ OB stripping requirements as much as possible – Average SR versus natural SR • Income generated in the first 5 to 10 years but not remote economics will either make or break the project. • Profits for in the future have practically no impact on the project NPV. Each successive phase will be less profitable and the ultimate limit will be loss even after ploughing in profits earlier. ISN 18
  • 19. ISN 19
  • 20. FOREST LAND NON FOREST LAND SURFACE COAL SEAM ISN 20
  • 21. END OF STAGE -1 FOREST LAND NON FOREST LANDEXTERNALDUMP YARD SURFACE COAL SEAM ISN 21
  • 22. END OF STAGE -2 FOREST LAND NON FOREST LANDEXTERNALDUMP YARD SURFACE INTERNAL DUMP COAL SEAM ISN 22
  • 23. END OF STAGE -3 FOREST LAND NON FOREST LANDEXTERNALDUMP YARD SURFACE INTERNAL DUMP COAL SEAM ISN 23
  • 24. FINAL STAGE FOREST LAND NON FOREST LANDEXTERNALDUMP YARD SURFACE INTERNAL DUMP COAL SEAM ISN 24
  • 25. MINE CLOSURE STAGEFOREST LAND NON FOREST LAND RECLAMATION UPTO 45 m BELOW GL SURFACE INTERNAL DUMP COAL SEAM ISN 25
  • 26. Pit designAs per Regulation 98 of CMR 1957,In alluvial soil etc. - Sides shall be sloped at 450 or Benched – height not more than 1.5m Width – not less than heightIn hard ground - Sides adequately benched/sloped so as to prevent danger from fall of sidesCoal - Sides shall be sloped at 450 or Benched – height not more than 3mHowever, exemption can be sought from Inspectorate. ISN 26
  • 27. Pit designOverall slope of a pit depends on several factors of the pit slope:a) Geological disturbances like faults etc.b) Hydrological condition of stratac) Orientation of slip planesd) Nature of strata – i.e. hardness, material consolidation etc.e) Depth of workingsf) Design of haul roads & ramps in the highwallg) Stratigraphy – thickness, spacing of the clay bands or other weak layers ISN 27
  • 28. Pit designIn general for OC mines upto a depth of 200m, overall slope angle of 450 ispermitted. ISN 28
  • 29. Pit designFor deeper mines flatter highwall slopes will be necessary from safety point ofview (for 35 T dumpers & above) ISN 29
  • 30. Pit designWorking benches1) GeneralWidth - 40 – 45mHeight - Generally equal to height of the boom or in some cases upto 3m above the boom height. In case of Backhoe – digging height of machineBench slope - 560 to 7002) Dragline:Width of the cut - 60mHeight of bench - maximum digging depth3) In order to even out the yearly OB removal quantities and the economics, sometimes alternative working and non-working benches (around 25 m wide) are proposed. ISN 30
  • 31. OPEN PIT MINING Operations ISN 31Source: WCI 2005
  • 32. ISN 32
  • 33. Different Technologies in OC Mines1) Shovel Dumper technology.2) Dragline technology3) Inpit Crusher – conveyor – spreader – technology.4) Continuous Mining technology – Bucket wheel excavators.5) Rock Breaker technology.6) Surface Miner technology. ISN 33
  • 34. Auxiliary mining equipmentOther common mining equipment to all the technologies•Drills•Dozers ,Graders & Compactors•Water Sprinklers•Pumps etc•Electrical equipment•Crushers & Conveyors for Coal/OB ISN 34
  • 35. Our Technology - Opencast Technology •Dragline •Shovel & Dumper •Surface Miner •Inpit crushing – Conveying – Spreading •Highwall Operational Profile •14 OC Mines •Coal: 39.72 MT OB: 214.47 MCu M • Avg.Stripping Ratio: 1:6.5 •Gradients operated : upto 19° •Depths operated: 220 Mts. •Depths Planned: 420 Mts. ISN 35
  • 36. SCCL OC Mines – Technology wise1. Drag Line-Shovel & Dumper combination – RG OC I Expansion – RG OC III Extension2. Inpit Crusher & Conveyor Technology – RG OC II Extension – GK OC3. Surface Miner Technology – Koyagudem OC II• Remaining all other OC projects in SCCL are being operated with Shovel Dumper Combination• High Wall mining Technology is now being practiced in ISN 36 RG OC II Extension project.
  • 37. Comparison of SCCL with CIL No of Mines Production (MT)Parameter OB(M.cum) Avg.STRIPPING RATIO UG OC Total UG OC Total SCCL 36 14 50 11.61 39.72 51.33 214.47 1 IN 6.5 CIL 299 174 473 54.56 376.76 431.32 695.27 1 IN 3.0 When Compared with CIL, SCCL’s Constraints are : • Limited Opencastable reserves. • Reserves are deep seated (300 to 600m). • Low grade Coal • Highly Geologically Disturbed • Thin Seams • High Stripping Ratio • Steep Seams • High Cost of Production ISN 37
  • 38. Technology-wise Cost Vs Sale Value As on Feb’2011 Cost Of Avg. Sales Profit/Loss Technology Prodn Reliazation (Rs./T) (Rs./T) (Rs./T)Hand Section 4032 -2475Load Haul Dumpers 2250 -693Side Discharge Loaders 1859 -302Longwall 1080 477Road Header 4870 1557 -3313Blasting Gallery 1794 -237Continuous Miner 1562 -5Overall SCCL (UG) 2323 -766Overall SCCL (OC) 1036 521Overall SCCL 1404 153 The Singareni Collieries Company Limited(A Govt. Company) ISN 38
  • 39. Contd… OC Vs UG PRODUCTION Year OC UG TOTAL OC % UG %2010-11 39.72 11.60 51.33 77.38 22.602009-10 38.45 11.96 50.42 76.26 23.722008-09 32.35 12.08 44.44 72.79 27.182007-08 27.95 12.64 40.60 68.84 31.132006-07 25.83 11.87 37.70 68.51 31.49 The Singareni Collieries Company Limited(A Govt. Company) ISN 39
  • 40. UG Vs OC PERFOMANCE OC UG PAT Year Cost Sale Value Profit/Loss Cost Sale Value Profit/Loss (Cr) (Rs/T) (Rs/T) (Rs/T) (Rs/T) (Rs/T) (Rs/T) 2010-11 Around 1036 1557 521 2323 1557 -766(Upto Feb) 350 2009-10 1011.83 1296.48 285 2169.48 1628.77 -541 268.01 2008-09 802.71 1225.98 423 2037.75 1490.07 -548 132.83 2007-08 703.75 1100.13 396 1714.05 1191.00 -523 176.17 2006-07 635.63 1005.67 370 1797.81 1065.93 -732 63.80 The Singareni Collieries Company Limited(A Govt. Company) ISN 40
  • 41. UG-OC COST & SALE VALUE In Crores OC Year OC % UG % UG LOSS PROFIT2010-11 77.38 22.60 1497.10 461.832009-10 76.26 23.72 1114.17 633.442008-09 72.79 27.18 1319.49 628.48 The Singareni Collieries Company Limited(A Govt. Company) ISN 41
  • 42. Maintenance of OC to UG ratio is Essential forSustenance of the Company There is no Budgetary Support from the Govt. Funds are required for operation of existingmines and to start new mines. At Present, The Profit to the Company is onaccount of OC Mines by offsetting losses from UGmines The Singareni Collieries Company Limited(A Govt. Company) ISN 42
  • 43. ATTACHMENTS ON A BASIC SHOVEL ISN 43
  • 44. Mining with SHOVEL – DUMPER combination ISN 44
  • 45. 1)Shovel Dumper technology• This is the most commonly used technology in Opencast mines.• Basically two variants – Rope shovels and Hydraulic shovels (backhoe)• Shovel used for excavation & Dumper for transport of material.• Bucket capacities vary from 0.9 Cum to 40 Cum with matching Trucks/Dumpers of 16 Cum to more than 240 T.• Can be deployed for removal of varying thickness of materials.• Harder materials require blasting.• Can be deployed for removal of steep & thin seams (hydraulic shovels).• electrically driven or Diesel operated (shovels)Selection depends on the parting – wise volumes to be removed. ISN 45
  • 46. POWER SHOVEL ISN 46
  • 47. Rope shovels: • Life is large compared to Hydraulic shovels (20 – 25 years). • Initial capital is high compared to Hydraulic shovels. • Can work only on mild gradient of around 1 in 10. • Ideally suited for less no of marchings. • generators are driven by main motor and individual DC-motors are provided for different operations like propel, swing, hoist, crowd etc., ISN 47
  • 48. Rope Shovel & Dumper ISN 48
  • 49. Rope Shovel & Dumper ISN 49
  • 50. Rope Shovel & Dumper ISN 50
  • 51. Hydraulic shovels1. Versatile – easy to march from place to place.2. Productivity is higher than rope shovels.3. Can march on steep gradient.4. Can be deployed for removal of wedge portions in the last OB bench (over coal seams).5. Can be used for preparation sumps and drains.6. Can load on dumper placed at the same level as that of the shovel (same level loading) or on a dumper placed below the shovel level.7. Can be used for removal of soft coal/ strata without blasting.8. Can be deployed for removal of thin seams.9. The life of shovel is around 9 to 12 years only and requires a mid-life overhaul.10. Initial capital is low compared to Rope shovels.11. the operation is through hydraulic motors ISN 51
  • 52. ISN 52
  • 53. Hydraulic Shovel & Dumper ISN 53
  • 54. Hydraulic Shovel & Dumper ISN 54
  • 55. Front-end Loader & Dumper ISN 55
  • 56. Dumper1. After blasting the rock, the muck is loaded into the rear dumpers by shovels. For a bench height of 12 to 14m, front end rope shovels (Front End Shovels may be rope shovels or hydraulically operated) of 10 cum and above is normally used.2. Various ranges of dumpers of different manufactures are available.3. The capacity of the dumper depends upon the capacity of the loading ISN 56 shovel.
  • 57. Operating conditions• Can be deployed on shot ramps of 1 in 10 & haul roads of 1 in 16.• Haul roads of two way traffic are ideal.• Recommended width for > 35T dumpers including Dozer path, drains etc is 30m.• Fewer number of curves with adequate super elevation is desirable.• Adequate consolidation of Haul roads , suitable graded & Water spraying is needed.• Level platforms to be provided at suitable intervals. ISN 57
  • 58. DOZER ISN 58
  • 59. DOZER ISN 59
  • 60. OPERATION OF DOZER It is the vital equipment in Open cast mining. tractor with a pusher blade attached to the front portion. Diesel operated with crawler chain (some times tyre mountedDozers also used) the pusher blade can be raised lowered or tilted through smallangles horizontally by rams operated by hydraulic pressure. The Dozer blade is used for pushing loose material, digging earth,soft weathered rock, for pushing scrapers, for levelling / grading andcompacting the ground, for laying haul roads, for toeing dumpers etc.,for pushing boulders trees etc., There is different capacity of Dozers ranging from 100HP to 800HP and normally used are 400 HP, which costs app. 1.2 Cr. ISN 60
  • 61. WHEEL DOZER1968 CaterpillarISN Wheel Dozer 824 61
  • 62. WHEEL DOZER tractors outfitted with dozer blades or push blocks. used as push tractors in scraper applications. Though these machines can be converted from wheelloaders by replacing the loader’s bucket with a dozer blade,this configuration is only successful for light-duty tasks. Used for clearing and grading land, wheel dozers arefrequently used in mining applications and reclamation jobs. The wheel dozers’ advantage over crawler dozers is theirability to move quickly. Additionally, they can travel between multiple job siteswithout damaging paved roads. ISN 62
  • 63. RIPPER DOZER ISN 63
  • 64. RIPPER DOZER ISN 64
  • 65. RIPPER DOZER tractors outfitted with dozer blades or push blocks. A Dozer equipped with fork like attachment is known as“Ripper” can be mounted either with one or two rippers operates like a plough to loosen moderately hard rock can be also used to extract thin seams where thethickness is less than 1.2 m where blasting is not effectivelydone. It rippes the thin seams and later can be loaded by theShovel & Dumper combination. There are other crane attachments for the Dozer which isknown as pipe layer for transporting pumps, pipes andlaying pipes. ISN 65
  • 66. MOTOR GRADER ISN 66
  • 67. MOTOR GRADER ISN 67
  • 68. MOTOR GRADER tractors outfitted with dozer blades or push blocks. This is a machine used for levelling the road surface bysmoothening out the ups and downs and for casting asidethe boulders on the road. It is always pneumatic tyre operated with rear wheelsdrive. The grading blade is attached to a circle that is hung fromthe overhead frame and pulled by a drawbar fastened to thefront of the frame. The blade is usually 3 to 4m long having replaceableedges on the sides and bottom. The approximate cost of a medium size Motor Grader willbe Rs 60 Lakhs. This is essential equipment in Opencast mining for ISNcontinuous maintenance of haul roads. 68
  • 69. SCRAPER• excavation cum transport equipment• suitable for soft material• generally used for top soil removal• Diesel operated with pneumatic tyre wheels• a bowl fitted with a cuttingISN blade at the bottom. 69
  • 70. OPERATION OF SCRAPERA scraper is pushed forward by a DozerIt’s blade cuts a thin slice of a earth usually between 100 mm to 250mm thick over a distance of nearly 30 m.The earth is automatically collected in the bowl located at the centreof the machine.The bowl capacity ranges from 5 cum to 20 cum and takes nearly halfto one minute for loading.When the scraper is fully loaded its bottom opening is closed througha table operated by the operator.At the dumping yard as the Scraper moves, the bottom opening ofbowl is opened, and the contentsISN earth are unloaded in the layer of 70150 mm to 250 mm thick over a distance of 30 to 50 m.
  • 71. FRONT END LOADERWheel-loader (also known as Pay loader or Front-end Loader) forloading dumper or tipping truck for transport ISN 71
  • 72. FRONT END LOADER ISN 72
  • 73. FRONT END LOADER These loaders are a popular addition to tractors from 50 to 200 hp. A loader (also known as: bucket loader, front loader, front endloader, payloader, scoop loader, shovel, skip loader, and/or wheelloader) is a type of tractor, usually wheeled, sometimes on tracks, thathas a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of twobooms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground, such asdirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another withoutpushing the material across. A loader is commonly used to move a stockpiled material fromground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or into an opentrench excavation. The loader assembly may be a removable attachment orpermanently mounted. Often the bucket can be replaced with otherdevices or tools—for example, many can mount forks to lift heavypallets or shipping containers, and a hydraulically-opening "clamshell"bucket allows a loader to act as a light dozer or scraper. ISN 73
  • 74. 2. DRAGLINE WORKING ISN 74
  • 75. Dragline Working ISN 75
  • 76. DRAGLINE• Draglines are deployed wherever there is scope for side casting Overburden above coal seam into the de-coaled area.• It is very cost effective technology- cost of OB removal is cheaper than shovel dumper technology.• There are two draglines working at RGOC-I and RG OC-III with bucket size of 24 Cum and 30.6 Cum respectively.• Both these draglines are performing very well.• A dragline bucket system consists of a large bucket which is suspended from a boom with wire ropes.• The bucket is maneuvered by means of a number of ropes and chains. ISN 76
  • 77. OPERATION OF DRAGLINEIn a typical cycle of excavation, the bucket is positionedabove the material to be excavated.The bucket is then lowered and the dragrope is then drawn sothat the bucket is dragged along the surface of the material.The bucket is then lifted by using the hoist rope.A swing operation is then performed to move the bucket tothe place where the material is to be dumped.The dragrope is then released causing the bucket to tilt andempty. This is called a dump operation.It is a independent machine unlike a shovel.A 30 cum Dragline can handle 40 Lakh cum of OB per annum.The dragline works on the immediate OB bench above coaland the benches from the surface to the Dragline are normallyhandled by Shovel & Dumper combination. Hence adequatecapacity of Shovel & Dumper ISN capacity should be provided to 77prevent idling of the Dragline.
  • 78. OPERATION OF DRAGLINEThe Dragline has a long boom with a bucket capacity rangingfrom 15 to 50 cum.It can swing in 360 degrees, after dragging the loose materialbelow its level.It swings normally between 90 to 120 degrees and side castthe material in to the de-coaled area.The nomenclature of the Dragline usually called as 24/99which means 24 cum of bucket capacity and 96 m is the boomlength.The same Dragline can have about 32 cum of bucket capacityif the boom length of 71 m. normallyThe Draglines are electrically driven with 6.6 KV power with 2main motors of 1750 HP each. These motors in turn drive theGenerators and the Generators drive DC motorsNormally, there are 7 DC motors for different operations like ISNmarching, dragging, hoisting, swinging etc., 78
  • 79. DRAGLINE BUCKET ISN 79
  • 80. LINE DIAGRAM OF DRAGLINE ISN 80
  • 81. LINE DIAGRAM OF DRAGLINE ISN 81
  • 82. APPLICATION OF DRAGLINE1. Gradients flatter than 1 in 6 (if gradient is more the dumped OB will slide towards the coal face and particularly in rainy season the extraction of coal become dangerous)2. Seams should be free of faults & other geological disturbances3. Deposits with Larger Strike length (>2 km) so that frequent shifting of the Dragline from one end to another can be reduced.4. Present cost of the Dragline is above 100 Cr and the life of the Dragline is 1.50 Lakh hours hence, the property should be large enough ensuring the life of about 25 yr or more.5. A hilly property is not suitable6. Property should have atleast 15 years life. ISN 82
  • 83. ISN 83
  • 84. 3. In pit crusher conveyor technology•The drilled & blasted OB is loaded by shovels and transported by dumpersto Crushers. The crushed OB is then transported by a series of conveyorsinto a spreader for dumping.•Can be used in steep seams where laying of transport roads for the trucksis difficult.•While S.R indicates volumes, cut off ratio indicates depth and reflects indumper haulage cost, which increase with depth and may becomeprohibitive where in alternative haulage system may have to thought off.•Ideally suited where material has to be transported over a longer distance& high lift. ISN 84
  • 85. 3.IN-PIT CRUSHER CONVEYOR TECHNOLOGY• Haulage costs have been an area that have risen significantly with the increase of diesel prices.• One alternative to reduce haulage costs is to shorten the truck haul distance by bringing the dump point into the pit using an in pit movable crusher/ crushers and conveying the Over burden out of the pit can reduce the haul cost.• When the gradient is too steep, dumping the material within the mine is not practicable as the dumped OB slides on to the coal face. In such cases in pit crushing is preferred.• The flow of material utilising an inpit movable crusher and conveyor system starts with OB material being dumped into crushers by dumpers. The material is crushed and fed on to horizontal transfer belts within the pit or directly on to a major up slope belts taking the material out of the pit. There may be one or more belts depending on the pit Geometry and depth. The conveyed material is dumped as per Video the requirement and the dump design by using spreaders. ISN 85
  • 86. In pit crusher conveyor technology: • Can be used in steep seams where laying of transport roads for the trucks is difficult. • Ideally suited for large capacity projects. • Ideally suited where material has to be transported over a large distance with huge lift. • Requires huge capital. • The transport cost will be much less than compared to shovel dumper combination. • Requires heavy equipment like crushers, conveyor distribution point and spreaders. ISN 86
  • 87. Ramagundam OC-II with Inpit Crushing & Conveying TechnologyDepth and gradients makes dumper haulage prohibitive due to high operatingcost. The alternate choice is ICC where material has to be transported over alarge distance & lift.The drilled & blasted OB is loaded by shovels and transported by dumpers toCrushers. The crushed OB is then transported by a series of conveyors into aspreader for dumping. ISN 87
  • 88. Salient features of RG OC-II ProjectNo.of seams- 10Gradient- 1 in 3.6 to 1 in 4Depth planned- 400mCapacity of the project- 4 MTPATechnology- Shovel dumper combination with ICC technologyLife of the project- 27 yearsStripping Ratio- 7.73 Cum/T (107.46 Mt of coal and 808.46 M.Cum of OB)Grade of the coal- ‘D’OMS- 6.88 plannedCost of production in Rs/T - 1606.94Total Capital outlay of the project is estimated at Rs 896.32Slope stability is a vital aspect in this project, as final highwalls will have a heightof up to 400 m which need to be planned as steep for better economics.The 120m high dumps with crushed OB(low cohesion) will pose differentproblems in dump stability which needs a comprehensive study on design, ISNmaintenance, monitoring and stabilisation altogether. 88
  • 89. IN-PIT CRUSHER CONVEYOR TECHNOLOGY ISN 89
  • 90. ICC at RG OC-II ISN 90
  • 91. Ramagundam OC-II Mine with Inpit Crushing & Conveying TechnologyCompacted floor sloped 2-3°towards toe of the upper deck to direct the water to the ISN 91drain to avoid seepage into the dump. Better we provide lined drains/channels.
  • 92. ISN 92
  • 93. ISN 93
  • 94. The spreader can rotate with an angle of 120 degrees. In SCCLtd, the inpit crushing and conveying system introduced in RG OC II, Ramagundam. The capacity of each crusher-conveyor system is 1200 cum/hour. There are 3 such systems in addition to coal conveying system in ISN 94 RG OC II mine.
  • 95. 4) Continuous Miner Technology:- Bucket Wheel Excavators•Presently being used in Naveyali, Lignite Opencast mines,having soft strata.•The buck wheel excavates the material without blastingwhich is transported by a series of belt conveyors tospreader. ISN 95
  • 96. 4. BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR(BWE) ISN 96
  • 97. BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR(BWE)This machine is suitable for excavating soft and non stickey material inlarge quantities.Lignite deposits usually associated with soft over burden. Most lignitemines in world use these BWEs for both OB and Lignite, as is the casethis Lignite mines are “Nyveli Lignite Corporation” of India Semi hardmaterial also be made suitable for BWEs by small blastings.The BWE is a continuous excavating machine and capable of removingof OB up to 1200 cum / per hour.The excavation component of BWE is a large rotating wheel mounted onan arm/boom.On the outer edge of wheel is a series of scoops/ buckets as the wheelturns, the Bucket removes soilAs the wheel turns, the bucket removes OB/Coal from the target areasand carries it around to be the back side of the wheel, where it falls on toa conveyor which carries the material to the identified destination.BWE are generally worked in combination with crusher & conveying ISN 97system.
  • 98. ISN 98
  • 99. ISN 99
  • 100. Overview – 3D view ISN 100
  • 101. METHOD OF MINING Opencast continuous mining system using • Bucket Wheel Excavators • Spreaders • Conveyor Systems Refilling Mine Advancing Side NSBS NSBS SBSSBS TBS TBSSpoil Bank MBS MBS OB bench Avg. Height – 25 m Spoil Bank BBS Av. Height – 15 m Spoil Bank BBS Lignite Bench Maximum Height = 22 m ISN 101
  • 102. 1400 LITRE BRIDGE TYPE BWERated Production : 2250 m3/hrOutreach from BW boom to Discharge boom : 130 ± 12 metresMaximum High Cut height : 30 metres ISN 102Service Weight : 3193 Tonnes
  • 103. 1400 LITRE BWERated Production : 2250 m3/hrOutreach from BW boom to Discharge boom : 61.3 metresMaximum High Cut height ISN : 26 metres 103Service Weight : 2170 Tonnes
  • 104. 700 LITRE BWE WITH DEEP CUT FACILITY Rated Production : 1100 m3/hr Outreach from BW boom to Discharge boom : 63.8 metres Maximum High Cut height : 18 metres Service Weight : 1450 Tonnes ISN 104
  • 105. 11,000 TPH SPREADERTheoretical design capacity : 11,000 Tonnes/hrOutreach from Receiving boom to Discharge boom : 135 metresWorking Gradient : 1 : 20Service Weight ISN : 1450 Tonnes 105
  • 106. BRIDGE TYPE 1400 LITRE BWE IN OPERATION ISN 106
  • 107. DUMPING OPERATION OF 20,000 TPH SPREADER ISN 107
  • 108. 700 LITRE BWE OPERATION IN LIGNITE BENCH ISN 108
  • 109. EXCAVATION WITH LOCAL DEPRESSURISATION GROUND WATER PUMPING FROM MINES - 110 Mm3 / ANNUM ISN 109 45 NUMBERS OF 1000 GPM PUMPS (20” DIA) ARE IN OPERATION
  • 110. ISN 110
  • 111. 5. Surface Miner Technology ISN 111
  • 112. 5. Surface Miner Technology•Used for selective mining•Larger strike length of about 600 m – 1000 m andwidths of around 300 m are ideally suited for surfaceminer.•Does not need drilling and blasting. The machinecuts the coal & loads into trucks for onwardtransportation to Surface ISN 112
  • 113. SURFACE MINEREngine hp : 800Annual production : 10 L. Cu.MGradient :1 in 10Deployed for selective mining ISN 113
  • 114. SURFACE MINER SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM ISN 114
  • 115. Crushed Coal by Surface Miner ISN 115
  • 116. What is Surface Miner?Surface Miner is : - continuously operating mobile opencast machine - it cuts consolidated soils and semi – solid rocks without drilling and blasting - the cut material is pre-crushed and suitable for belt conveying, loading, transporting and transferred to down stream means of transportation ISN 116
  • 117. Operation:Surface Miner operates: - according to the “Rock cutting technology” - the cutting drum is provided with point attack picks - which cut the mining face during the continuous advance of the machine on crawler track assemblies. ISN 117
  • 118. ISN 118
  • 119. ISN 119
  • 120. A modern surface miner –heres how it works ISN 120
  • 121. Technical highlight:Clever design with central cutting drum ISN 121
  • 122. Working principle of Surface Miner: the surface miner is crawler-mounted machine having a cutting drum located b/w two sets of crawlers and positioned at the center of the machine. the drum is lowered and raised by hydraulic system with powerful hydraulic motors therby varying the depth of cut. the material cut is loaded onto the primary and secondarydischarge conveyors for loading the same onto the loading/transporting equipment. the rear crawler travel at lower level then the front crawlers toadjust to the required depth. ISN 122
  • 123. REASONS FOR DEPLOYMENT OF SURFACE MINER IN SCCLImprovement of quality by selective mining of coalEco-Friendly mining of coalImproved coal recovery especially in areas sensitive toblastingLess coal loss and dilutionPrimary crushing and fragmentation of coalLess stress and strain on trucks due to minimum impact ofthe excavated material.Since the cutting depth can be set with great accuracy, thinseams can also be mined selectively with high purity.Reduced capacity requirements for coal washing /preparation plants. ISN 123
  • 124. Specification of the Writgen Surface Miner 2100SM• Overall length - 15500 MM• Overall width - 2500 MM• Overall height - 4500 MM• Milling/Cutting Width - 2100 MM• Milling/Cutting depth - 0 – 250 MM• Engine output - 448 KW/610 HP• Maximum longitudinal tilting while milling - 1 in 4 (25%)• No. of crawlers - 4• Cutting drum drive - Mechanical• Travel Drive System - Hydraulic/All crawler• Production - 270 M3/Hr(Av.)• Speed - 10 – 20M/Min.• Fuel consumption (Full load) - 110 Ltr/Hr. ISN 124
  • 125. • Belt width (Primary conveyor) - 1000 MM• Belt width (Secondary conveyor) - 1000 MM• Theoretical discharge Performance - 550 M3/Hr• Ground clearance - 350 MM• Loading capacity - 550 M3/Hr.• No. of picks/bucket - 76 Nos.• Fuel tank - 1200 Ltrs.• Hydraulic oil tank - 300 Ltrs.• Water tank - 4180 Ltrs.• Tare weight - 37000 Kgs.• Operation weight (Fuel Tank) - 40500 Kgs.• Cutting speed - 0.45 M/Sec. ISN 125
  • 126. ISN 126
  • 127. ISN 127
  • 128. Application & Advantages of Surface Miner:• Presently being used in KOCP-II for selective mining.• Can work safely on a gradient of 1 in 10. However, presently being worked in KOCP-II in gradient of 1 in 4.• Annual productivity of the model 2000 SM is around 2.00 MT per annum. However, high capacity of surface miner sare also available.• Larger strike length of about 600 m – 1000 m and widths of around 300 m are ideally suited for surface miner.• Does not need drilling and blasting.• Can crush coal up to -100 mm.• Cutting size can be varied by selection of equipment, speed etc.• Two methods of coal removal are available – Wind rowing i.e., loading the crushed coal by front and loader on to trucks and dispatch of the cut material by gathering arms on to a belt conveyor and then to a waiting truck.• At KOCP-II, Grade improvedISN from F to E by this technology. 128
  • 129. MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF SURFACE MINER TECHNOLOGYDirect excavation of hard material without needfor drilling and blasting.High productivityLow cost for multi seam mining including hardcoal and overburden.Possibility to link the machine directly tocontinuous conveyor transport systems.Higher recovery rate of coal ISN 129
  • 130. Precrushing of coal and elimination of primarycrushing plants high selective mining capabilities toeliminate interbands to improve coal quality.Surface Miner shall be very much needed for futuremining due to higher productivity, less hazard, eco-friendliness, better quality of product, betterexploitation of mining property and also consideringthe poor quality of coal from future coal seams tohave an economic solution for producing low ash coalas per government regulations for power plants (lessthan 34 % ash for transporting distance > 1000 km). ISN 130
  • 131. Constraints.Steeper Gradient (more than 1 in 4)Danger of Machine sliding along the High Wall.Coal Seams Containing minute dirt bands (less than5CM)Dimensions of the coal bench. ISN 131
  • 132. Rock breakerRock breaker technology can be applied for breaking of rock/coal/oreeven about 500 kg/sq.cm.It can be used wherever it is not possible to go for blasting – near ISN 132vicinity of structures and habitations.
  • 133. Technical Parameters of Mega – BreakerMake : INDECOModel : 8500 UPWeight : 4500 KgDia of tool : 195 mmHP : 120 HPStriking rate : 350-450 Blows / MinPressure to Breaker : 150-160 barEnergy Class / Blow : 10,000 joules ISN 133
  • 134. Working Parameters of Mega BreakerProduction / Hour : 190 – 200 tonsProduction / Month : 55,000 tonsDiesel Consumption : 30 Lit./ HrLife of Moil point : 275-300 hoursOptimal Bench Ht. : 3 to 4 M ISN 134
  • 135. AdvantagesLocked-up reserves can be mined easilyReduction in Man powerSump-deepening an easy affairDigging of foundation pits adjoining the kiln /valuable structuresMore environmental friendly working &maintaining better social relationship withvillagersEffective working hours compared toconventional working methods ISN 135
  • 136. LimitationsFloor-level will not be uniform as comparedto Surface MinerNot suitable for mining huge reservesHave to be dependent on a single machine ISN 136
  • 137. Cost ParticularsTotal Capital Investment = 330 LakhsCost of consumables = 1.2 LakhsCost / ton of Limestone (Rs./MT) : Owning Cost = 17.77 Operating Cost = 12.25 Total Cost = 30.02Cost of Conventional Mining (Rs./MT) : Total Cost = 24.80 ISN 137
  • 138. ISN 138