Basics of openpit mining

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Basics of openpit mining

  1. 1. BASICS OF OPENPIT MINING I. Satyanarayana, M.Tech,MBA,MCADy. Manager, Project Planning, SCCL, isnindian@gmail.com, visit at www.slideshare.net/isnindian ISN
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  3. 3. • Mining is extracting ore or minerals from the ground• An ore is a natural material with a high concentration of economically valuable minerals that can be mined for a profit ISN
  4. 4. • There are two main types of mines. 1) Surface Mining 2) Subsurface Mining ISN
  5. 5. STATUS OF OPEN PIT MINING Production: 2009-10SCCL• Underground------------ 11.97 MT (36 Mines)• Opencast----------------- 38.45 MT (14 Mines)• Over Burden------------ 248 M.CumCIL• 473 mines owned:• – 279 UG• – 163 OC• – 31 Mixed• Production in 2009-10 was 388MT from OC and 43MT from UG ISN
  6. 6. Mining Methods (Mode of Entry Shaft Mine Incline Mine Incline Excavator Adit Mine Opencast Mine ISN
  7. 7. MINING METHODS COAL MINING METHODSUNDER GROUND OPENCAST SPECIAL MINING Methods Methods Methods Hydraulic Gassification Mining ISN
  8. 8. What is Opencast Mining• Opencast mining is also known as Open pit mining, Open cut Mining, Surface or Strip Mining.• The coal upto economical depth will be excavated by OC Method.• The current operating depth of OC mines in SCCL is about 200m and SCCL proposed to operate OC mines upto a depth of 420m. Ex: MNG OC II Extension Project.• The overburden and the Coal are excavated in long strips of a few meters thickness. ISN
  9. 9. SURFACE MINING• Based on System of Mining – Continuous & Discontinuous• Based on Mechansiation – Manual & Mechanised• Based on method and nature of mining: 1. Open-pit: Reclamation after completion 2. Open-Cast: Reclamation during mining 3. Quarries: stone, crushed rock, sand, gravel 4. Strip Mining: removing surface coal in strips up to 50 m wide x 1 Km long 5. Placer Mining 6. Glory hole Mining ISN
  10. 10. MECHANISED OPENCAST METHODS OPENCAST MethodsSHOVEL DUMPER SHOVEL DUMPER Inpit Crussing SURFACE BUCKET WHEEL HIGH WALL COMBINATION Combination and MINER EXCAVATOR MINING with Conveyor DRAGLINE Technology ISN
  11. 11. SELECTION OF METHOD OF MININGI. Physical Factorsa) Geological Disturbancesb) Mineable Reserves.c) Area of Excavation ( Extensiveness )d) Depth of mining.e) Gradient of the Seam.f) Thickness of the Seam & No.of seams.g) Gassiness of the seam.h) Proness to Spontaneous heating.i) Strata of the seam / Seams.j) Hydro - geological conditions. ISN
  12. 12. II. Techno-Economical Factors1. Stripping Ratio2. Availability of technology / Machinery.3. Availability of technical Skill ( HRD )4. Capital investment.5. Demand of Coal6. Network of power lines, roads & railway lines, water supply lines, railway sidings7. Townships8. Coal handling plants9. Workshops10.Life of the mine (optimum 25 years)11.Work Culture ISN
  13. 13. III. SOCIO ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 1. Socio economic status of the area 2. Requirement of land(Pvt, Govt, Forest etc.,) 3. R&R consideration 4. Environmental issues 5. Archaeological constructions 6. Bio reserves 7. EMP Clearance from. * APSPCB , MOEF, Ministry of Forestry * Requires public clearance also 8.Government policies * IRR ( 12% ) * LPG ISN
  14. 14. Ideal conditions (Suitability) for Opencast Mining 1. Thickness of coal seams- > 5m 2. Flat gradient - < 1 in 6 3. Strike length - > 1 km 4. No.of seams - Less the better, with higher thickness 5. Coal without stone bands 6. Free from surface structures / features. 7. Preferably non-forest land. 8. Availability of adequate place for dumping. 9. Stripping ratio depending on quality of the coal ISN
  15. 15. Advantages of opencast mining There is no problem of ventilation There is no problem of Roof control, supports There is no problem of lighting in daytime.Percentage of coal extraction is much higher (about90%) than that of Underground mining (30-60%) High OMS Much productivity / profits. Quick returns on capital investment. Dangers & Hazards are less compare to U/G Mines. There is no risk of gas explosion. Large-scale mechanisation is possible. Gestation period is less ISN
  16. 16. Disadvantages of opencast mining •Work is affected by weather. •Land degradation by mining. •Deforestation. •Pollution( water, Air, Land, Noise ). •The method is uneconomic for workings Deeper Depths, cities and under sea/rivers. •The quarried area and OB dump heaps present an unpleasant sight. ISN
  17. 17. FINAL PIT LAYOUT ISN
  18. 18. TERMINOLOGY ISN
  19. 19. STRIPPING RATIOAMOUNT OF OVERBURDEN REMOVED IN MINING A UNIT OFMINERAL ISN
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  21. 21. OPEN PIT MINE ISN
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  24. 24. OPERATIONS IN OPM• LEVELLING BY DOZING• DRILLING.• BLASTING• REMOVAL OF OVERBURDEN• DUMPING, BACK FILLING, RECLAMATION• EXTRACTION OF COAL• TRANSPORTING to (CHP, CSP, FLOODLOADING SYSTEM, Rapid loading etc.,) ISN
  25. 25. OPERATIONS IN OPM ISN
  26. 26. Thank you all, ISN

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