Notes on circulation


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Describes the function, structure and behavior of the cardiovascular system

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Notes on circulation

  1. 1. The Circulatory System
  2. 2. <ul><li>Carries needed substances to cells and waste products away. </li></ul><ul><li>Links all parts of the body (highway system) </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain balance (regulates body temperature and pH) </li></ul><ul><li>Contain cells that fight disease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STRUCTURE AND BEHAVIOR of main components Creates force to push blood Pathway for blood Vehicle/transport
  4. 4. HEART <ul><li>Muscular pump (makes force to push blood) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of an upper chamber ( atria ) and lower chamber ( ventricle ) </li></ul><ul><li>The atria collects blood and the ventricles pump the blood </li></ul>
  5. 5. LA LV RV RA DOB OB
  6. 6. VALVES Flap-like structures that prevent backflow of blood
  7. 7. BLOOD VESSELS Serves as a pathway for blood to flow
  8. 10. ARTERIES <ul><li>Carries blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygenated blood (OB) </li></ul><ul><li>Thick-walled vessels </li></ul>ADAM Animation: Coronary artery disease
  9. 12. VEINS <ul><li>Returns blood to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxygenated blood (DOB) </li></ul><ul><li>Thin-walled vessels with valves to prevent backflow of blood </li></ul>ADAM animation- Blood Flow
  11. 16. CAPILLARIES <ul><li>One-celled vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Site of material exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Contains tissue fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to venules and arterioles </li></ul>ADAM animation- Nutrient exchange
  12. 17. Blood Vessels Thick muscular wall Thin floppy wall Large lumen (hole) Small lumen (hole) Very Small lumen Thin wall (1 cell thick) Oxygenated Blood Except pulmonary artery Deoxygenated Blood Except pulmonary vein O 2  CO 2 Arteries Capil laries Veins
  13. 18. Blood Vessels High Pressure Fast moving Low Pressure Very slow Low Pressure Slow moving Small lumen to maintain high pressure 1 cell thick lumen for exchange of gas Large lumen so less resistance to flow of blood No valves , blood is at high pressure No valves Valves to prevent back flow Pulse No pulse No pulse Arteries Capil laries Veins
  14. 19. BLOOD River of life Consists of red cells , white cells and platelets floating in a liquid called plasma
  15. 20. PLASMA <ul><li>Liquid part of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of water and dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ions ,proteins,food substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones,Excretory product, Urea </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. FACTS <ul><li>5–6 liters of blood in the body of an adult </li></ul><ul><li>each cubic centimeter contains about 5 billion red blood cells </li></ul>
  17. 24. RED BLOOD CELLS <ul><li>tiny,disc-like cells; no nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>contains red pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin (carries oxygen) </li></ul>
  18. 25. Blood Red Blood Cell (RBC) O 2 transport from lungs to all cells Biconcave disc No nucleus Contains haemoglobin (red) Component Structure Function
  19. 26. WHITE BLOOD CELLS <ul><li>larger cells with nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>1 WBC per 600 RBC </li></ul><ul><li>act as soldiers of the body; to fight infections </li></ul>
  20. 28. Blood White Blood Cell (WBC) Phagocytes Lymphocytes Lobed nucleus Large nucleus Fight infection Engulf bacteria (swallowing) Antibodies (chemicals that destroy bacteria) Component Structure Function
  21. 29. PLATELETS <ul><li>Promotes blood clotting </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent bleeding </li></ul>clotting
  22. 30. Blood Platelets Plasma Yellow / straw coloured Cell fragments (broken pieces of cells) 90% water 10% dissolved substances e.g. glucose, CO 2 , enzymes, hormones, antibodies Blood clotting Transport Component Structure Function
  23. 31. Double Circulatory System Pulmonary Vein Aorta (main artery) Pulmonary Artery Vena Cava (main vein) CO 2 O 2 O 2 O 2 CO 2 CO 2 Rest of body Heart Lungs Arteries carry blood Away from the heart Veins carry blood towards the heart