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!!!!!!!!!!N.p.4.8 !!!!!!!!!!N.p.4.8 Document Transcript

  • Home Contents Index NP 48 RECORD OF AMENDMENTS The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume. Sub−paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume. Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV) 2006 2007 2008 2009 IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows: Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations), Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents. All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
  • Home Contents Index NP 48MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOLUME IV Aegean Sea and approaches with adjacent coasts of Greece and Turkey THIRTEENTH EDITION 2006 PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
  • Home Contents Index E Crown Copyright 2006 To be obtained from Agents for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications Copyright for some of the material in this publication is owned by the authority named under the item and permission for its reproduction must be obtained from the owner. First published1882 Second Edition1892 Third Edition1900 Fourth Edition1908 Fifth Edition1918 Sixth Edition1929 Seventh Edition1941 Eighth Edition1955 Ninth Edition1968 Tenth Edition1987 Eleventh Edition2000 Twelfth Edition2003 ii
  • Home Contents Index PREFACE The Thirteenth Edition of Mediterranean Pilot Volume IV has been prepared by T.C.Harrison Master Mariner. The United KingdomHydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the information obtained by and assessed by it atthe date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate.If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them. The edition supersedes the Twelfth Edition (2003), which is cancelled. Information on climate and currents has been based on data provided by the Met Office, Exeter. The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted: Greece Charts Sailing Directions for Greek Coasts, Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service Volume A (1996) with Supplement 4/2004 Volume B (2004) with Supplement 1/2004 Volume C (1991) with Supplement 6/2004 Volume D (1987) with Supplement 6/2003 Turkey Charts Turkish Harbour Regulations Other publications Lloyd’s List Ports of the World 2006 Fairplay Ports and Terminals Guide 2005−2006 Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities Greek Waters Pilot (Ninth Edition 2004), Rod Heikell (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Ltd) Turkish Waters and Cyprus Pilot (Sixth Edition 2001), Rod Heikell (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Ltd) The Statesman’s Yearbook 2006 Whitaker’s Almanac 2006 Mr M S Robinson Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeThe United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeAdmiralty WayTauntonSomerset TA1 2DNEngland13 July 2006 iii
  • Home Contents Index CONTENTS PagePreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiContents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivExplanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiAbbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiiGlossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xIndex chartlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . facing 1 CHAPTER 1Navigation and regulations Limits of the book (1.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Traffic and operations (1.4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Charts (1.8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Aids to navigation (1.15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Pilotage (1.17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Radio facilities (1.18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Regulations (1.30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Signals (1.48) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Distress and rescue (1.50) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Countries and ports Greece (1.54) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Turkey (1.66) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.75) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Port services — summary (1.76) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Natural conditions Maritime topography (1.83) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.87) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Sea level and tides (1.97) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sea and swell (1.99) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sea water characteristics (1.101) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Climate and weather (1.104) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Climate information (1.132) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.146) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 CHAPTER 2Aegean Sea − principal routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 CHAPTER 3South Aegean − western approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 CHAPTER 4South Aegean − southern part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 CHAPTER 5South Aegean − western part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 CHAPTER 6Saronikós Kólpos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 CHAPTER 7South Aegean Archipelago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 iv
  • Home Contents Index CONTENTS CHAPTER 8South Aegean − eastern part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 CHAPTER 9Evvoïkós Kólpos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 CHAPTER 10North Aegean − western part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 CHAPTER 11North Aegean − central part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 CHAPTER 12North Aegean − eastern part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 CHAPTER 13North Aegean − northern part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 INDEXIndex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 v
  • Home Contents Index EXPLANATORY NOTES Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain informationneeded for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read inconjunction with the charts quoted in the text. This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, withoutthe use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weeklyeditions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the endof the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.CD−ROM Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements ofChapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should onlybe used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy existsbetween data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be reliedupon. Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, ithas not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD forthis purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligenceof the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of theUKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution. Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwisewithout the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed orcommercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Partieswhether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.References to hydrographic and other publications The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume. Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastalpassages. Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume. Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotageservices, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress andSafety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume. Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments andnotices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigationalwarnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas. The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals aswell as international flag signals.Remarks on subject matter Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too smallto show all the details clearly. Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Marinersshould consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts. Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted whereits use is more appropriate. Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exerciseareas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant fornavigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject. vi
  • Home Contents Index EXPLANATORY NOTES Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in bracketsfollowing the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned. Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned. Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the eventbeing described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time whichmay be kept. Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance fornavigation or anchoring.Units and terminology used in this volume Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted. Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359° Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object. Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel. Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground. Winds are described by the direction from which they blow. Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow. Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile. Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated. Heights of objects refer to the height of the object above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”. Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted inAdmiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively beexpressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height. Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, theselatter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart. Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local timekept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking. Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal. Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over alarge area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may bemarked “conspic”. Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous. vii
  • Home Contents Index ABBREVIATIONSThe following abbreviations are used in the text:AIS Automatic Identification System kHz kilohertzALC Articulated loading column km kilometre(s)ALP Articulated loading platform kn knot(s)AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue kW kilowatt(s) System Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy°C degrees Celsius LASH Lighter Aboard ShipCALM Catenary anchor leg mooring LAT Lowest Astronomical TideCBM Conventional buoy mooring LF low frequencyCDC Certain Dangerous Cargo LHG Liquefied Hazardous GasCVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System LMT Local Mean Time LNG Liquefied Natural GasDF direction finding LOA Length overallDG degaussing LPG Liquefied Petroleum GasDGPS Differential Global Positioning System LW Low WaterDW Deep WaterDSC Digital Selective Calling m metre(s)dwt deadweight tonnage mb millibar(s)DZ danger zone MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services CentresE east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost) MF medium frequencyEEZ exclusive economic zone MHz megahertzELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring MHHW Mean Higher High WaterENE east-north-east MHLW Mean Higher Low WaterEPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon MHW Mean High WaterESE east-south-east MHWN Mean High Water NeapsETA estimated time of arrival MHWS Mean High Water SpringsETD estimated time of departure MLHW Mean Lower High WaterEU European Union MLLW Mean Lower Low Water MLW Mean Low Waterfeu forty foot equivalent unit MLWN Mean Low Water Neapsfm fathom(s) MLWS Mean Low Water SpringsFPSO Floating production storage and offloading mm millimetre(s) vessel MMSI Maritime Mobile Service IdentityFPU Floating production unit MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination CentreFSO Floating storage and offloading vessel MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centreft foot (feet) MSI Marine Safety Information MSL Mean Sea Levelg/cm3 gram per cubic centimetre MV Motor VesselGMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System MW megawatt(s)GPS Global Positioning System MY Motor YachtGRP glass reinforced plasticgrt gross register tonnage N north (northerly, northward, northern,gt gross tonnage northernmost) NATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationHAT Highest Astronomical Tide Navtex Navigational Telex SystemHF high frequency NE north-eastHMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship NNE north-north-easthp horse power NNW north-north-westhPa hectopascal No numberHSC High Speed Craft nrt nett register tonnageHW High Water NW north-westIALA International Association of Lighthouse ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System AuthoritiesIHO International Hydrographic Organization PEL Port Entry LightIMO International Maritime Organization PLEM Pipe line end manifoldITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea AreasJRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre PWC Personal watercraft viii
  • Home Contents Index ABBREVIATIONSRCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre UHF ultra high frequencyRMS Royal Mail Ship UKC under keel clearanceRN Royal Navy UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeRo-Ro Roll−on, Roll-off ULCC Ultra Large Crude CarrierRT radio telephony UN United Nations UT Universal TimeS south (southerly, southward, southern, UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time southernmost)SALM Single anchor leg mooring system VDR Voyage Data RecorderSALS Single anchored leg storage system VHF very high frequencySAR Search and Rescue VLCC Very Large Crude CarrierSatnav Satellite navigation VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting SystemSBM Single buoy mooring VTC Vessel Traffic CentreSE south-east VTMS Vessel Traffic Management SystemSPM Single point mooring VTS Vessel Traffic Servicessq squareSS Steamship W west (westerly, westward, western,SSE south-south-east westernmost)SSW south-south-west WGS World Geodetic SystemSW south-west WMO World Meteorological OrganizationSWATH small waterplane area twin hull ship WNW west-north-west WSW west-south-westteu twenty foot equivalent unit WT radio (wireless) telegraphyTSS Traffic Separation Scheme ix
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY G = Greek T = TurkishForeign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaningada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... island dil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... isthmus, pointadacÝk . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... islet direk . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... mastaÕaç . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... tree doÕu . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... east, sunriseagía, −as, −ou . . . . . . G ....... saint, holy dok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... dockágios, −oi . . . . . . . . . G ....... saint, −s döküntü . . . . . . . . . . T ....... reefaÕÝz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... mouth doruk . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... peakak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... white duba . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... pontoonakÝntÝ . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... currentákra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cape, point ekklisía . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... churchakrotírion . . . . . . . . . G ....... promontory, cape ekvolí . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... mouth of riveraktí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... coastline élos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... marsh, swampalikí . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... saltpan epínion . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... small portámmos . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... sand ergostásion . . . . . . . . G ....... factoryanafor . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... counter current eríthros . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... redanatolí . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... east eski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... old, ancientanatolikós, −í, −ón . . G ....... eastern éso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... inner, insideandí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... opposite évripos . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... tidal channelangáli . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... bight, open bay évros . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... south−eastangirovólion . . . . . . . G ....... anchorage exéd(h)ra . . . . . . . . . G ....... jettyáno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... upper éxo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... outer, outsideapiliótis . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... east exoklísion . . . . . . . . . G ....... chapelapováthra . . . . . . . . . G ....... landing place, wharfáspros, −i, on . . . . . . G ....... white fabrika . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... factoryavathí . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... shoal fanós . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... lightavkhín . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... neck, pass fáros . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... lighthouseayía, −as, −ou . . . . . . G ....... saint, holy fener . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... lighthouse, lanternáyios, −oi . . . . . . . . . G ....... saints, −s fréar . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... wellaziz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... saint froúrio . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... fortbalçÝk . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... clay, mud, silt garb, −p . . . . . . . . . . T ....... westbank . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... bank, shoal geçit . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... channelbatak . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... swamp, marsh, quicksand gemi yataÕÝ . . . . . . . T ....... ship’s berthbatÝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... west, west wind girinti . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... creekbayrak direÕi . . . . . . T ....... flagstaff glóssa . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... tonguebel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... pass göl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... lakebeyaz . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... white gremnós . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cliff, precipicebikÝn . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... beacon gümrük . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... customsboÕaz . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... strait gün doÕrusu . . . . . . . T ....... east, east windburnu, burun . . . . . . T ....... cape, headland, point güney . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... southbük . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... bay güneybatÝ . . . . . . . . . T ....... south−westbüyük . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... great güneydoÕu . . . . . . . . T ....... south−eastbuz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... ice harabe . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . ruinçakÝl . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . gravel hastane . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . hospitalçamur . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . mud hisar . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . fortcankurtaran . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . lifeboatman, life−saving, rescue iç . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... innerçay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . river, stream id(h)ríon . . . . . . . . . . G ....... pipelineçÝkÝî yeri . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . outfall ífalos, −oi . . . . . . . . . G ....... see üfalos íformos . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... roadsteaddaÕ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... mountain ikhthiotrofíon . . . . . . G ....... fisherydalgakÝran . . . . . . . . . T ....... detached breakwater ipsilós, −í, −ón . . . . . G ....... highdemir yeri . . . . . . . . . T ....... anchorage ípsome . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... height (elevated ground)deniz . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... sea Ýrmak . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... riverdere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... stream, valley iskele . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... landing placed(h)éndron . . . . . . . . G ....... tree ísplous . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... entrance (for ships)d(h)íavlos . . . . . . . . . G ....... channel isthmós . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... isthmusd(h)iékplous . . . . . . . G ....... passaged(h)iélevsis . . . . . . . . G ....... passage kai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... andd(h)ínai . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... eddy, whirlpool kale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... fortd(h)iórix . . . . . . . . . . G ....... canal kanal . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... canal, channeld(h)itikós, −í, −ón . . G ....... western kapÝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... gate, passd(h)ivári . . . . . . . . . . G ....... fishery kapnod(h)ókhos . . . . G ....... chimney x
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARYForeign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaningkapnod(h)ókhos . . . . G ....... chimney monastírion . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . small monastery churchkara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... black, land, mainland moní . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . monasterykarávi . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... shipkástron . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... castle náos . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... church, templekatafanís, −és . . . . . . G ....... conspicuous návstathmos . . . . . . . G ....... naval basekatarráktis . . . . . . . . . G ....... waterfall nekrotafeíon . . . . . . . G ....... cemeterykáto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... lower nehir, nehri . . . . . . . . T ....... riverkávos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cape nisíd(h)a, −íd(h)es . . G ....... islet, −skaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... rock nisís . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... see; nisíd(h)akayalÝk . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... reef nísos, −oi . . . . . . . . . G ....... island, −skefál, −i . . . . . . . . . . G ....... head nosokomíon . . . . . . . G ....... hospitalkhamiláteros . . . . . . . G ....... lower nótos . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... southkhártis . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... chartkhersónisos . . . . . . . . G ....... peninsula od(h)ós . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... road, streetkhímarros . . . . . . . . . G ....... torrent oikía . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... housekhorió, −íon . . . . . . . G ....... village oriós, −í, −óu . . . . . . G ....... mountainouskilise . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... church ormískos . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cove, small baykimatothrávstis . . . . . G ....... breakwater órmos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... baykÝrmÝzÝ . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... red oropéd(h)ion . . . . . . . G ....... plateauklímax . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... scale (of chart) óros, −i . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... mountain, −sklisoúra . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... pass, defilekoilás . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... natural hollow, valley palaíos, −á, −ón . . . . G ....... oldkólpos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... gulf páno . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... upperkólposis . . . . . . . . . . G ....... wide bay paralía, −on . . . . . . . G ....... coastkorifí, korfí . . . . . . . G ....... peak, summit ped(h)iás, −íon . . . . . G ....... plainkoy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... small bay, creek pélagos . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... sea, high seaköprü . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... bridge peráma . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... ferrykörfez . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... gulf pétra . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... rock, stoneköy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... village pírgos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... towerkrimnos . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cliff, precipice pirsós . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... beaconküçük . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... small pirsorís . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... floating beaconkule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... tower, spire pólis . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... city, townkumlukÝyÝ . . . . . . . . . T ....... sandy shore póros . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... soundkumsal . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... sandy beach, sandbank porthmós . . . . . . . . . G ....... straitkuzey . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... north pórto . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... small harbourkuzeybatÝ . . . . . . . . . T ....... north−west potamós . . . . . . . . . . G ....... riverkuzeydoÕu . . . . . . . . T ....... north−east poúnda . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cape, point prásinos, −i, −on . . . G ....... greenlangád(h)a, −i . . . . . . G ....... pass, deep valley profítis . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... prophetlevkós, −í, −ón . . . . . G ....... white prokimáia . . . . . . . . . G ....... moleliman . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... bay, harbour, port prolimín . . . . . . . . . . G ....... outer harbourliman baîkanÝ . . . . . . T ....... harbour master provlítas . . . . . . . . . . G ....... pierliman baîkanlÝÕÝ . . . . T ....... harbour master’s officeliman reisi . . . . . . . . T ....... harbour master rákhi, −as . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . ridgeliménas . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... harbour réma . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . current, streamlimenískos . . . . . . . . G ....... small harbour ríax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . brook, streamlimenovrakhíon . . . . G ....... breakwater, jettylimín . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... see liménaslímni . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... lake, loch, lough îamandÝra . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . buoy, floatlimnothálassa . . . . . . G ....... lagoon sarÝ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . yellowlofískos . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... hillock sarp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . cliff, steep, rough, rocky,lófos . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... hill, long low ridge stony îato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . castlemakrís, −í . . . . . . . . . G ....... long, tall sehir . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . city, townmanastÝr . . . . . . . . . . T ....... monastery sÝÕlÝk . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . bank, shoalmansap . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... estuary, mouth of river simandír . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . buoymarína . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... marina sinoikismós . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . settlementmávros, −í, −on . . . . G ....... black sírtis . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . quicksandmegálos, −í, −o . . . . G ....... big siyah . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . blackmégas, −ali, −a . . . . . G ....... big sÝrt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . ridgemendirek . . . . . . . . . T ....... mole, breakweater skála . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . quay, stairway, small portmercan . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... coral skíron . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . north−westmésis . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... north−east skópelos, −oi . . . . . . G . . . . . . . rock, −s (which covermésos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... middle and uncover)mikrós, −í, −ón . . . . G ....... small spílaion, spiliá . . . . . G . . . . . . . caveminare . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... minaret spíti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . housemitrópolis . . . . . . . . . G ....... cathedral stathmós . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . stationmólos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... breakwater, mole stavrós . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . cross xi
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARYForeign word Language English meaning Foreign word Language English meaningstenó, −n . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . strait vivári . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... fisherystílos . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . pillar, post vorrás . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... northsu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . stream vounó, −á . . . . . . . . . G ....... hill, −s, mountain, −s vrachónisis,−ides . . . G ....... rocky islet, −stakÝmada . . . . . . . . . . T ....... group of islands vráchos, −oi . . . . . . . G ....... rock, −s (above water)taî . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... stone vrakhonisídha,−ídhes G ....... rocky islet, −stélma . . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... swamp vrakhonisís . . . . . . . . G ....... see vrakhonisídhateloníon . . . . . . . . . . G ....... custom house vrákhos, −oi . . . . . . . G ....... rock, −s (above water)tenagós . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... pond, fern vrakíon . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... branch (of river)tepe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... hill, peak vrísi, −s . . . . . . . . . . G ....... spring, running waterthálassa . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... seatopuk . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... bar, sandspit xéra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . reeftoúmba . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... moundtranós. −í, −ón . . . . . G ....... large yar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... cliff, precipicetrókhalos . . . . . . . . . . G ....... cairn yarÝmada . . . . . . . . . . T ....... peninsulatuz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... salt yeni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... new yeîil . . . . . . . . . . . . . T ....... greenváltos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... marsh üfalos, −oi . . . . . . . . G ....... underwater reef, −svasilikós, −í, −ón . . . G ....... royalvathís, −ía, −í . . . . . . G ....... deep zéfiros . . . . . . . . . . . . G . . . . . . . westváthos . . . . . . . . . . . . G ....... depth zirve . . . . . . . . . . . . . T . . . . . . . summit, peak ROMANIZATION SYSTEM FOR GREEK ELOT 743 System BGN/PCGN 1996 SystemThis romanization system supersedes the one which was approved by the BGN and the PCGN in 1962. It corresponds to thesystem devised by the Greek Organization for Standardization and approved for international use at the Fifth United NationsConference on the Standardization of Geographical Names in 1987. Greek Romanization Examples xii
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Greek Romanization Examples xiii
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Greek Romanization Examples xiv
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY xv
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY xvi
  • Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Notes on Turkish geographical names Ottoman Turkish was originally written in Arabic script, but was converted to Roman letters in 1928. There are eight vowels, four back (a, Ý, o, u) and four front (e, i, ö, ü). If the vowel of the first syllable of a word is aback vowel, succeeding vowels will normally also be back vowels; similarly front vowels follow front vowels. Exceptions tothis rule are mainly in words of foreign origin and then, in general, suffixes follow the vowel in the last syllable. This isknown as the rule of vowel harmony. Suffixes are used when words are declined to indicate their case, and to give additional meanings. These normally followthe rule of vowel harmony. Those most commonly used in this book are: Possessive −Ý, −i, −u, −ü Samsun Körfezi = Samsun Bay, from körfez = bay Possessive −sÝ, −si, su, −sü Marmara AdasÝ = Island of Marmara, from ada = island (after a final vowel) Plural −lar, −ler Adalar = Islands Adjective −lÝk, −lik KayalÝk = Rocky from kaya = rock For place names which are composed of two nouns, the possessive case is used for the second noun. However, when theyare made up of an adjective and a noun, the nominative case is used, eg: Ada = Island Deniz = Sea Büyük Ada = Large Island Karadeniz = Black Sea Zeytin AdasÝ = Zeytin Island Ege Denizi = Aegean Sea ™skele = Jetty Liman = Harbour ™ç ™skele = Inner Jetty DÝî Liman = Outer Harbour Gümrük ™skelesi = Customs Jetty BandÝrma LimanÝ = Bandirma HarbourPronunciation Generally stress is laid equally on all syllables of a word. Letters are pronounced as in English with the followingexceptions: c As ’j’ in jealous. ç As ’ch’ in ’chop’. Õ Between two front vowels − as ’y’ in ’yet’. Õ Between two back vowels − not sounded, but preceding vowel is lengthened. Ý As something between ’i’ in ’big’ and ’u’ in ’bug’. j As ’su’ in ’pleasure’. ö As ’u’ in ’urn’ or ’ea’ in ’earth’. î As in ’sh’ in ’shop’. ü As ’e’ in ’yew’. er As ’air’ in ’fair’. ey As ’ai’ in ’pain’. ay As ’i’ in ’mine’. xvii
  • Home Contents Index NOTES xviii
  • Home Contents Index Chapter Index Diagram 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 38° 38° 1085 Peiraiás 12 11 T 1087 Ándros 11 12 G U 6 7 R E Sámos R E 6 Ikaría K C Kéa E E 6 Y Míkonos 8 7 5 Sérifos Páros 1099 Náxos 37° 5 5 1092 5 37° 5 8 Kós 8 7 Amorgós Mílos Íos Astipálaia 7 Rhodes Ákra 8 Channelxix Taínaro 1091 Anáfi 4 Thíra 3 Kíthira 1095 7 4 Ródos 4 36° 8 36° 3 4 Kárpathos 4 4 1093 3 4 Soúda Irákleio 236 K R Í T I NP 49 35° MEDITERRANEAN PILOT 35° NP 49 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOL V VOL V 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 26° 27° 28° 0506 Mediterranean Pilot Vol IV NP 48(a)
  • Home Contents Index Chapter Index Diagram 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 41° 41° Kavála Alexandroúpoli NP 24 BLACK SEA AND Thessaloníki SEA OF AZOV PILOT Thásos 1085 Samothráki 13 13 Khersónisos Khalkidhikí 13 Gökçeada 40° 40° 10 Limnos 10 T U R K E Y Bozcaada 224 G R E 1087 E Cxx E 10 Vólos 1086 Skíathos Kirá Panayiá Lésvos 11 10 39° Skópelos 39° Skíros 12 9 Évvoia . Izmir Khíos NP 47 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT 1093 VOL III 38° 38° Peiraiás 12 1095 9 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 26° 27° 28° 0506 Mediterranean Pilot Vol IV NP 48(b)
  • Home Contents Index LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:− (a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and (b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition of the international validity of the law or regulation. MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOLUME IV CHAPTER 1 NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS COUNTRIES AND PORTS NATURAL CONDITIONS NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS LIMITS OF THE BOOK Lat N Long E Chart 180 Thence NE to Ákra Prásson, the SW 35°52′ 27°47′ 1.1 point of Nísos Ródos, including Stenó1 This volume contains Sailing Directions for the Aegean Karpáthou Sea and its approaches, including Lakonikós Kólpos, within Thence NE along the spine of Nísos 36°23′ 28°17′ the limits defined below: Ródos to Ákra Voúdhi, the E point of Lat N Long E Nísos Ródos From Ákra Taínaro 36°23′ 22°29′ Thence ESE to position 36°20′ 28°23′ SW to position 36°10′ 22°15′ Thence N to position 36°43′ 28°23′ Thence S to position 35°30′ 22°15′ Thence WNW to KadÝrga Burnu, 36°44′ 28°18′ including Rhodes Channel and Thence ESE to position 35°05′ 23°20′ approaches Thence NE to Ákra Kriós 35°14′ 23°35′ Thence NNW within the coast of 40°01′ 26°12′ Thence E along the spine of Kríti to 35°02′ 26°14′ Turkey to Kumkale Burnu Ákra Trákhilas, the SE point of Kríti Thence NNW to Mehmetçik Burnu, 40°03′ 26°10′ Thence ENE to Ákra Khélathros, the S 35°20′ 26°53′ excluding the SW entrance to point of Nísos Kásos, including Stenó Çanakkale BoÔazÝ (The Dardanelles) Kásou Thence NE along the spine of Gelibolu 40°44′ 26°03′ Thence NE along the spine of Nísos 35°26′ 27°01′ YarÝmadasÝ and WNW within the coast Kásos to Ákra Aktís, the NE point of of Turkey to the mouth of Meriç Nehri, Nísos Kásos the boundary between Turkey and Thence ESE to Ákra Kastéllos, the S 35°24′ 27°08′ Greece point of Nísos Kárpathos, including the Thence W and S within the coast of 37°55′ 23°00′ passage between Nísos Kásos and Greece to the SE end of Dhiórix Nísos Kárpathos Korínthou Thence NE through Nísos Kárpathos to 35°28′ 27°14′ Thence SW and S through Pelopónnisos 36°23′ 22°29′ Ákra Vólakas to Ákra Taínaro 1
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 NAVIGATION DANGERS AND HAZARDS Submarine exercises 1.6 1 Submarines exercise frequently in designated submarine General considerations exercise areas indicated on the charts and mentioned in the body of this book. Notice of submarine exercises is given Chart 180 only in exceptional circumstances, and all vessels should 1.2 keep a good lookout for submarines when passing through1 Although weather conditions in the Aegean Sea are the areas. generally good, mariners should not neglect the usual For reference to signals used by warships, submarines precautions against bad weather which can develop with and aircraft, see 1.48. little or no warning (see caution at 1.105). Apart from the uncertainty of the currents, poor visibility and the cloud associated with bad weather may obscure landmarks and Marine farms 1.7 cause difficulties in the identification of neighbouring 1 Marine farming equipment may be encountered in many channels or bays, especially at night. of the bays and inlets in the area covered by this volume.2 During N winds it is always safe to anchor under the lee The approximate position of known farms is shown on the of an island for, though such winds blow with much charts; however, development has been rapid and marine violence at times, they never shift S suddenly. farms can be quickly established or moved without any During S winds it is unsafe for low powered vessels to warning. Marine farms, which may be fixed or floating anchor off a N coast as such winds shift suddenly N or NE structures, are usually fixed to the seabed by a spread of in a squall. If it is necessary to anchor off a N coast, the anchors which can be extensive. The position of anchors, berth chosen should be such as to permit departure without where used, may be marked by buoys. difficulty at any time. As S winds increase in force 2 Caution. Mariners are cautioned to avoid areas of gradually there is usually sufficient time to seek the marine farms, and to note that their presence has rendered requisite shelter. many hitherto accepted anchorages either unsuitable or limited in swinging space. Conditions affecting small vessels 1.31 The Etesians (1.114), which blow from mid−July to CHARTS mid−September, sometimes create dangerous conditions for small vessels. The worst conditions can usually be avoided Admiralty charts by making passage during the latter part of the day and at 1.8 night when the winds tend to abate. Although some shelter 1 British Admiralty metric charts give full coverage of the may be found in the lee of the islands, the leeward coasts Aegean Sea, including Greek and Turkish coastal waters should not be approached closely on account of the strong and plans of the most important ports and anchorages. squalls (1.119) likely to be experienced. When assessing the degree of reliability of a chart, mariners should take account of the age of its source material and its date of publication. TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS 2 In certain areas where the British Admiralty charts show insufficient detail for navigation close inshore these Sailing Directions have been written using foreign charts. These Traffic are not quoted as reference charts in the text, which has been written on the assumption that mariners wishing to Chart 180 navigate in those areas will have provided themselves with Density suitable charts on which to do so. 1.4 Electronic Navigational Charts from Greece and1 The greatest concentrations of shipping are liable to be Turkey have been used in preparing this book. encountered in the following straits and areas: Stenó Elafonísou (36°25′N 22°57′E). Saronikós Kólpos (37°40′N 23°40′E). Foreign charts Stenó Kéas (37°40′N 24°15′E). 1.92 Stenó Kafiréa (38°00′N 24°39′E). 1 Charts of Greek and Turkish coastal waters and ports are Bozcaada (39°50′N 25°45′E) to Çanakkale BoÔazÝ published by the Greek and Turkish Hydrographic Services (The Dardanelles) (40°01′N 26°10′E). respectively. In some cases these charts are of a larger scale and a more recent date than the equivalent British Admiralty charts, though they are not necessarily compiled Exercise areas from more recent information. The Greek and Turkish charts may be obtained from the publishing authorities Greek given below and in the Catalogue of Admiralty Charts; 1.5 they are not issued by the United Kingdom Hydrographic1 Navy, army and air force exercise and firing areas are Office nor are they corrected by Admiralty Notices to established in Greek waters. Notice of exercises and firing Mariners. practices, giving the limits of the area and duration of the 2 Publishing authorities: exercise, is promulgated by radio navigational warning (for Greek charts: details see 1.20). Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service For signals used by warships, submarines and aircraft, TGN 1040 see 1.48. ATHÍNAI. 2
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Turkish charts: Diagram 1.15 shows types of Greek light−structures3 Seyir HidrografÝ ve OsinografÝ Dairesi BaîkanliÔi referred to in the body of the book. 34805 Çubuklu Bekoz, For further details of lights, see Admiralty List of Lights ™STANBUL. Volume E. Orthography Buoys 1.16 Alternative names 1 The IALA Maritime Buoyage System Region A (red to 1.10 port) is in operation in Greek and Turkish waters in the1 In the case of features which have alternative Greek and Aegean Sea. Turkish names, both names are given on the charts and in For details see IALA Maritime Buoyage System this volume. The names are given in alphabetical order, (NP 735), published by the United Kingdom Hydrographic separated by an oblique stroke; thus the strait, formerly Office, and The Mariner’s Handbook. known as Mitilini Strait, between the NE side of Nísos Lésvos and the mainland of Turkey appears as Dikili PILOTAGE BoÔazÝ/Stenó Mytilínis. 1.17 1 Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels entering the Greek orthography majority of the larger ports in the area. For details see 1.11 under the port concerned.1 The names on Greek charts published prior to 1985 were given in Katharévousa, but on Greek charts dated RADIO FACILITIES after 1985 names may be found in either Katharévousa or Demotikí (see Languages at 1.62). Where names in Satellite navigation systems Demotikí are available they have been transliterated into Chart 180 Roman letters and used in this volume, and, as opportunity 1.18 offers, they will be included on Admiralty charts. 1 For details of available satellite navigation systems see2 A further complication is introduced by the fact that in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. accordance with international agreement a revised system For differences in geographical positions where charts of transliteration (ELOT 743) has been adopted for use and satellite navigation systems are based on different with Greek geographical names, and British Admiralty horizontal datums, see 1.13. charts and publications are incorporating the resulting changes as the opportunity provides. Radio aids to navigation3 As a result of these ongoing changes, there may be 1.19 discrepancies between some names on the charts and those 1 Racons transmit from several locations in the N and E in this volume. For example, the Greek word for “islet” Aegean. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals may appear as Nisís, Nisídha or Nisída. Volume 2. Those aids which are pertinent to coastal and inshore navigation are included in the text. Datums Radio navigational warnings Vertical General information 1.12 1.201 Depths on British Admiralty charts are reduced to LAT, 1 The Aegean Sea lies within NAVAREA III. MLWS or MSL. The datum used is usually indicated on For details of the World−wide Navigational Warning the chart. Service see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1) Horizontal and Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. 1.13 For details of coast radio stations listed in the following1 Most British Admiralty charts in the area covered by paragraphs, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals this volume are based on European Datum (1950). Volume 1 (1). Positions derived from satellite navigation systems are Greece normally based on World Geodetic System 1984 datum, 1.21 and the difference between this and the horizontal datum of 1 The Greek Hydrographic Office issues information of an the published chart is given in a note on the chart. urgent nature under the title Hellenic Navwarns. They are Elevations broadcast in Greek and English by Greek coast radio stations at scheduled times. Broadcasts also include a list of 1.14 all Navwarns in force together with a summary of their1 On British Admiralty charts elevations are usually given content. On sailing from a Greek port, the Master can above MHWS, though on some charts MSL is used as the obtain, through the Pilot, the latest list of Navwarns in datum. On Greek and Turkish charts elevations are above force for the area of his forthcoming voyage. MSL. Owing to the small tidal range in the Aegean the 2 Routine broadcasts in English are made at scheduled discrepancy is negligible. times from the following coast radio stations within the limits of this book: AIDS TO NAVIGATION Irákleio (Kríti) (35°20′N 25°07′E). Ródos (36°27′N 28°15′E). Lights Límnos (39°52′N 25°04′E). 1.15 1.221 Lights are the responsibility of the appropriate national 1 VHF broadcasts. Olympia Radio broadcasts authorities. navigational warnings in English, on request, from remotely 3
  • Home Contents Index Greek light structures (1.15)
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 controlled VHF stations. For those operating within the to 2 m. They may also span seabed undulations and cause limits of this volume refer to Admiralty List of Radio fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a Signals Volume 3 (1). vessel in severe danger. See Annual Notice to Mariners No 24 and The Mariner’s Handbook. Turkey 2 See The Mariner’s Handbook for information on the 1.23 International Convention for the Protection of Submarine1 Routine broadcasts in English, including Navtex Cables. information, are made at scheduled times from the following coast radio station within the limits of this book: Pollution ™zmir (38°22′N 26°36′E). 1.31 1 International regulations concerning pollution of the sea Radio weather reports are contained in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 (MARPOL 1973) General information as modified by the 1978 Protocol to MARPOL 1973. 1.24 Details of this convention, which is known as MARPOL1 For full details of radio weather services, and for details 73/78 are given in the Mariner’s Handbook. of coast radio stations referred to in the following paragraphs, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Traffic separation Volume 3 (1). 1.32 1 See IMO publication Ships’ Routeing for General Greece Provisions on Ships’ Routeing. Regulations for 1.25 IMO−adopted schemes are contained in Rule 10 of the1 Routine broadcasts of weather forecasts for Greek International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, waters are made in English at scheduled times, and gale 1972. warnings on receipt, from the coast radio stations listed in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1). European Community regulations 1.26 Directive 2002/59/EC1 VHF broadcasts. Olympia Radio broadcasts gale 1.33 warnings and weather forecasts in English, on request, from 1 General information. This Directive establishes a remotely controlled VHF stations. common vessel traffic monitoring and information system throughout European Community (EC) waters. The Turkey principal provisions are described below. They apply in 1.27 general to all commercial vessels over 300 grt but the rules1 Routine broadcasts of storm warnings and weather concerning the notification of carriage of dangerous and forecasts for Mediterranean Forecast Areas 12−27 are made polluting goods applies to all vessels regardless of size. in English at scheduled times from the following coast 2 Caution. These extracts are for reference purposes only radio station: and are not to be regarded as a statement of the applicable Bandirma (40°21′N 27°58′E). law. The full text of the regulations is the sole authoritative 1.28 statement of the applicable law and it is recommended that1 VHF broadcast of weather forecasts for Turkish Aegean it is consulted. The regulations to which the following coast is made by ™zmir coast radio station at scheduled refers is Directive 2002/59/EC or the appropriate enabling times. legislation drafted by individual member states. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1) for 1.34 details. 1 Ship reports. All vessels bound for a port within the EC must report to the port authority at least 24 hours prior Automatic Identification System arrival, or, if the voyage is less than 24 hours, no later than the time of departure from the previous port. The report General shall include the following information: 1.29 Name, call sign, IMO or MMSI number.1 AIS is designed to contribute to the safety of navigation, Port of destination. enhance protection of the marine environment and improve ETA and ETD at port of destination. the monitoring of passing traffic by coastal states. A phased Total number of persons onboard. implementation programme is underway (2004) on various 2 Upon receipt of a ship’s report, the port authority will classes of vessel and at certain establishments ashore. For notify the national coastguard authority by the quickest further details see The Mariners Handbook. means possible. This information will then be pooled in the European−wide telematic network called SafeSeaNet. REGULATIONS Any amendments to the initial ship report must be notified immediately. International regulations 3 Mandatory ship reporting systems. All vessels shall report to the coastguard authority on entering an Chart 180 IMO−adopted mandatory ship reporting system, the report Submarine cables and pipelines being made in the recognised format (see Admiralty List of 1.30 Radio Signals Volume 6 (3)). The coastguard authority is to1 Mariners are advised not to anchor or trawl in the be informed of any changes to the initial report. vicinity of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas 1.35 pipeline could cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s 1 VTS. All vessels are to participate in and comply with buoyancy or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always VTS systems operated by EC member states and also those buried and may effectively reduce the charted depth by up systems operated by member states in conjunction with 5
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 co−operating non−member states. This includes those of his professional judgement, the master decides not to act systems operated by member states outside their territorial in accordance with measures taken by the coastguard, he waters but which are operated in accordance with IMO shall inform the coastguard of his reasons for not doing so. guidelines. 1.40 Routeing Schemes. All vessels must comply with 1 Measures relating to incidents or accidents at sea. IMO−adopted TSS and Deep Water route regulations. (See The coastguard authority will take measures to ensure the IMO publication Ships’ Routeing Guide). safety of shipping and of persons and to protect the marine 1.36 and coastal environment. Measures available to EC states1 AIS and VDR. All vessels are to be equipped with AIS include; and VDR. The systems shall be in operation at all times. (a) a restriction on the movement of a ship or an By 2008 individual coastguard stations throughout the instruction to follow a specific course. EC are required to be able to receive AIS information and (b) a notification to put an end to the threat to the to relay it to all other coastguard stations within the EC. environment or maritime safety; 1.37 2 (c) send an evaluation team aboard a ship to assess the1 Notification of dangerous and polluting goods. All degree of risk and to help the master remedy the situation; vessels leaving an EC port are to report dangerous and (d) instruct the master to put in at a place of refuge in polluting goods as specified within the Directive to the the event of imminent peril, or, cause the ship to be piloted harbour authority. Vessels arriving from outside EC waters or towed. must transmit a report to their first EC port or anchorage The owner of the ship and the owner of the dangerous upon departure from their port of loading. If, at the time of or polluting goods onboard must cooperate with the departure, the port of destination in the EC is not known, coastguard authority when requested to do so. the report must be forwarded immediately such information 1.41 becomes known. Where practical, this report is to be made 1 Places of refuge. EC states are required to designate electronically and must include the information described in places of refuge where a vessel which has undergone an Annex 1 (3) of the Directive. accident or is in distress can receive rapid and effective2 When a harbour authority receives a dangerous or assistance to avoid environmental pollution. polluting cargo report, it shall retain the report for use in Regulation (EC) No 417/2002 the event of an incident or accident at sea, forwarding it 1.42 whenever requested by the national coastguard authority. 1 This regulation establishes a timetable for the phasing 1.38 out of all single−hull petroleum tankers of more than1 Reporting of Incidents and Accidents. Whenever a 5000 dwt in European waters. Ultimately only double−hull vessel is involved with one of the following, the coastguard tankers or tankers of equivalent design will be permitted to authority of the EC coastal state is to be informed visit European ports and offshore terminals. immediately; The timetable is based upon a vessel’s date of build, its (a) any incident or accident affecting the safety of the design and the type of petroleum carried. The schedule for ship; Category 1 and 2 tankers will complete in 2007 and for (b) any incident or accident which compromises Category 3 tankers in 2015. Categories are as defined in the shipping safety, such as a failure likely to affect a regulation. ship’s manoeuverability or seaworthiness; (c) any event liable to pollute the waters or shores of Border controls the coastal state; 1.43 (d) the sighting of a slick of polluting material or 1 The Schengen Convention is an association of European drifting containers and packages. Union countries established to increase freedom of The owner of a vessel, who has been informed by the movement between participating states, while strengthening master that one of the above has occured, must inform the border controls with other nations. Within the area covered coastguard and render any assistance that may be required. by this volume, Greece is a member of the Convention. 1.39 Vessels intending to enter a port of a member country1 Measures to be taken in the event of exceptionally are required to give advance notification to the appropriate bad weather or sea conditions. If, on the advice of the Coast Guard command centre no later than 24 hours before national meteorological office, the coastguard authority arrival at the port using the form Notification in Advance deems a threat of pollution or a risk to human life exists (6 hours notice is required for fishing vessels). due to impending severe weather, the coastguard authority will attempt to inform the master of every vessel about to National regulations enter or leave port as to the nature of the weather and the Prohibited areas dangers it may cause. 1.442 Without prejudice to measures taken to give assistance 1 Passage is restricted, and regulation of navigation is to vessels in distress, the coastguard may take such exercised by the appropriate naval authority, in certain measures as it considers appropriate to avoid a threat of areas within both Greek and Turkish territorial waters. The pollution or a risk to human life. The measures may areas concerned are described in the body of the book. include: (a) a recommendation or a prohibition on entry or Diving restrictions − Turkey departure from a port; 1.45 (b) a recommendation limiting, or, if necessary, 1 In order to protect underwater cultural and natural prohibiting the bunkering of ships in territorial conditions Turkish authorities have prohibited diving in waters. certain areas. The areas concerned are marked on the3 The master is to inform his owners of any measures or relevant Turkish charts, and are also being included on the recommendations initiated by the coastguard. If, as a result relevant British Admiralty charts as they are revised. 6
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Greek fortified areas The Mariner’s Handbook. Mariners are reminded that a 1.46 radio watch on the international distress frequencies which1 Very severe penalties may be imposed on persons found certain classes of ships are required to keep when at sea is taking photographs or collecting hydrographic information one of the most important factors in the arrangements for within 10 km of a Greek naval or military fortified area. the rescue of people at sea. Where these regulations apply in the vicinity of the prohibited areas (1.44), they may be applicable outside Global Maritime Distress and Safety System those areas or within channels passing through the areas. 1.51 Quarantine reports 1 For full details of the Global Maritime Distress and 1.47 Safety System (GMDSS) see Admiralty List of Radio1 For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Signals Volume 5. Volume 1 (1). SIGNALS Rescue services Warships, submarines and aircraft Greece 1.48 1.521 Greek and Turkish warships, submarines and aircraft use 1 Peiraiás Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre (JRCC) similar signals and instructions to those described in Annual (37°58′N 23°40′E) is the SAR co−ordination centre for the Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. area covered by this volume. Storm and strong wind warnings Many of the larger Greek ports, and some smaller ones, 1.49 now have lifeboats. These are supplemented in some areas1 Except at Peiraiás (6.120), visual storm warning signals by coastguard vessels. are not used in Greek or Turkish ports. Turkey DISTRESS AND RESCUE 1.53 1 Ankara Main SAR Co−ordination Centre (MSRCC) General information (39°57′N 32°54′E) in conjunction with regional Turkish 1.50 Coast Guard centres, are responsible for the co−ordination1 For general information concerning Search and Rescue of all SAR incidents within the area covered by this see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and volume. 7
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 COUNTRIES AND PORTS GREECE Eastern Sporadhes, which lie in the E part of the N Aegean and include: Ikaría (8.18), Sámos (8.19), Khíos (11.2), Psára (11.3), Lésvos (11.4), Áyios General description Evstrátios (11.5), Límnos (11.6) and Samothráki (13.3). Charts 180, 4302 1.54 National limits1 Greece, known to the Greeks as Ellás, is a maritime 1.57 country in the SE of Europe. It is bounded on the N by 1 Greece claims a limit of 6 miles (measured from normal Albania, Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria; on the E by baselines) for both its territorial waters and fisheries Turkey; on the S by the E part of the Mediterranean; and jurisdictions. For further details, see Annual Summary of on the W by the Ionian Sea. Admiralty Notices to Mariners. Athínai (Athens) (38°00′N 3°45′E) is the capital of the country. History 1.55 1.581 Mainland. The Greek mainland comprises the following 1 From the end of the political independence of the city 11 regions: states of ancient Greece to the early years of the nineteenth Attica. century Greece was ruled successively by the Roman, Aegean N. Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. Aegean S. The Greek War of Independence began in 1821 and Ípiros. continued until 1829 when, by the Treaty of Adrianople, Greece Central. Turkey finally recognized the independence of Greece. At2 Greece West. that time the country comprised Pelopónnisos, Central Macedonia Central. Greece, Kikládhes Nísoi and Nísoi Vórioi Sporádhes. Macedonia East. 2 The Greek vision was to bring all Greeks of the Macedonia West. declining Ottoman Empire into the new state. The Peloponnese. realisation of this idea took many years, and its pursuit Thessaly. created tensions between Greece and its neighbours, 1.56 particularly Turkey, which have persisted to the present1 Islands. About one fifth of the total area of Greece time. The principal secessions of territory to Greece after consists of more than 1400 islands, of which about 170 are independence were as follows: inhabited, lying in the Ionian and Aegean Seas. The 3 1864 Iónioi Nísoi, by Britain. principal islands and island groups within the area covered 1881 Thessalía and Ípiros, by Turkey. by this book are as follows: 1913 Makedhonía, Kríti and Eastern Sporadhes, by2 Nísos Kríti (4.2), generally referred to as Kríti and Turkey. formerly known as Crete, the largest of the islands, 1918 Thráki, by Bulgaria. which forms the S limit of the Aegean Sea. Owing 1947 Dhodhekánisoi, by Italy. to its position, fertility and population, Kríti is one 4 In 1920 Eastern Thrace and Smyrna (now known as of the most important islands in the E ™zmir) were ceded to Greece by the Treaty of Sèvres. Mediterranean. In 1921−22 the Greeks took the offensive against the3 Kikládhes Nísoi, commonly called The Cyclades, Turks in pursuit of their claims in Anatolia. From Smyrna which lie in the central part of the S Aegean and the Greek army advanced to within 60 miles of Ankara include: Ándros (7.3), Makrónisos (7.4), Kéa (7.5), before being repulsed. Kíthnos (7.6), Sérifos (7.7), Yíaros (7.8), Síros 5 In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne returned Eastern Thrace (7.9), Rinía (7.10), Dhílos (7.11), Míkonos (7.12), and Smyrna to Turkey and provided for the exchange of Tínos (7.13), Mílos (7.14), Kímolos (7.15), Greek and Turkish minorities. Políaigos (7.16), Sífnos (7.17), Folégandros (7.18), In 1981 Greece became the 10th full member of the Antíparos (7.19), Síkinos (7.20), Anáfi (7.21), Íos European Community. (7.22), Iráklia (7.23), Skhoinoúsa (7.24), Government Koufonísia (7.25), Kéros (7.26), Amorgós (7.27), 1.59 Páros (7.28), Náxos (7.29), Dhonoúsa (7.30) and 1 On gaining independence a monarchy was established Thíra (7.31). which lasted until 1924 when a republic was proclaimed.4 Dhodhekánisoi, commonly called The Dodecanese The monarchy was restored in 1935, but after various and sometimes known as the Southern Sporadhes, vicissitudes it was finally terminated by referendum on 8th which mostly lie in the E part of the S Aegean December 1974. Since then Greece has been a presidential and include: Kásos (4.282), Kárpathos (4.283), parliamentary republic with a governmental structure Ródos (8.2), Tílos (8.5), Sümi (8.6), Nísiros (8.8), similar to those in most European countries. The president, Astipálaia (8.9), Kós (8.10), Kálimnos (8.12), who is head of state, is elected by parliament for a term of Léros (8.13) and Pátmos (8.16). Nísos Meyísti five years. The president appoints a prime minister and, on (Kastellórizon) (36°08′N 9°35′E), which also the latter’s advice, the remaining members of government. belongs to the group, is described in The president is advised by the Council of the Republic. Mediterranean Pilot Volume V.5 Nísoi Vórioi Sporádhes, commonly known as the Population Northern Sporadhes, a group lying NE of Nísos 1.60 Évvoia and including: Skíros (10.6), Skíathos 1 In 2001 the population of Greece was estimated to be (10.7), Skópelos (10.8) and Alónnisos (10.9). 10⋅9 million. 8
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Religion Bulgaria, on the N by the Black Sea, on the NE by 1.61 Georgia and Armenia, on the E by Iran, on the S by Iraq,1 The Greek Orthodox Church is the established religion Syria and the E part of the Mediterranean Sea. The country of the country. lies partly in Asia and partly in Europe, the two parts being separated by the straits connecting the Aegean and Black Languages Seas. The Asian part is called Anadolu (formerly Anatolia 1.62 or Asia Minor); the European part, which comprises only 31 Greek is the official language of the country. The per cent of the land area of the country, is called Trakya modern language contains many features of classical Greek (formerly Eastern Thrace). which has existed for 3000 years. 2 Ankara (39°57′N 32°54′E) is the capital of the country,2 In the nineteenth century a form of Greek known as and ™stanbul (41°01′N 28°58′E) is the largest city. Katharévousa was devised to purify the language and return The principal Turkish islands in the Aegean Sea are: it to a form nearer to that of the ancient dialect from which Bozcaada (39°50′N 26°02′E) (11.7). it developed. However, Katharévousa never became widely Gökçeada (40°10′N 25°50′E) (11.9). established and in 1976 it was abolished as a language of university instruction and government. The form of present National limits day spoken Greek, which has become the language of 1.67 modern literature, is generally termed Demotikí. 1 Turkey claims a limit of 6 miles (measured from a Apart from Greek, the languages most commonly straight baseline system) for both its territorial waters and understood are English, French and Italian. fisheries jurisdiction in the Aegean Sea. Elsewhere the limit claimed is 12 miles. For further details, see Annual Physical features Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. 1.631 The Greek mainland is mountainous. Much of the History 1.68 country is dry and rocky, and little more than a quarter of 1 At the end of the thirteenth century the Turks, who had the land is arable. In some of the mountainous regions, been dominant in central Asia and the E part of Asia especially Pelopónnisos, there are extensive tablelands. In Minor for the previous two centuries, took control of the its general aspect the country presents a series of striking Asiatic territories of the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman and interesting contrasts; fertile tracts covered with Empire came into being. During succeeding centuries the vineyards, olive groves, cornfields or forests lie close to Ottomans gradually acquired more of the Byzantine rugged heights and rocky precipices. Empire, absorbing the whole of it after their capture of Rivers are few in Greece. All are obstructed at their Constantinople in 1453. In subsequent conquests the entrances by shoals, and few can be entered even by boats. Ottoman Empire advanced into Syria, Mesopotamia and 1.64 Egypt, and reached its W limit before Vienna in 1529 and1 The islands of the Aegean archipelago are all high. again in 1532. Many are of volcanic origin, and others are composed of 2 In the nineteenth century Russia and the European white marble. Some of the islands are fertile and powers, and internal troubles, combined to weaken the picturesque; others, mostly the smaller ones, are masses of Ottoman Empire. In 1827 a combined Russian, French and rock and devoid of vegetation. British fleet destroyed the Turkish fleet at Navarino. During the Crimean War (1854−56), fought to frustrate Industry and trade Russian aspirations for the control of Constantinople, 1.65 France and Britain supported Turkey.1 Agriculture employs about one sixth of the working 3 Continual unrest in the Balkans for the remainder of the population of Greece, and its products make up a third of nineteenth century led to two Balkan Wars in 1912−13 the country’s exports. The principal products are sugar beet, which further reduced the Ottoman Empire. Finally, as a olives, tomatoes, cereals, seed cotton, fruit and vegetables, result of the First World War (1914−18) in which Turkey olive oil and wine. allied itself to Germany, the boundaries of the Ottoman2 Manufacturing industry employs about one seventh of Empire were reduced to Anatolia and a small area around the labour force and its products make up nearly a half of Constantinople. exports. The principal industries are cement, fuel oils, iron 4 In 1923, after a bitter war in which the invading Greeks and steel, fertilizers, alumina, sulphuric acid, packing were expelled from Anatolia, the Ottoman Empire came to materials, soap and detergents, textile yarns, soft and an end and modern Turkey became a republic. In 1999 alcoholic drinks, cigarettes and glass. Oil is produced from Turkey became a candidate for EU membership and a small oilfield off the W coast of Nísos Thásos. accession talks began in 2005.3 Principal exports are food (notably fruit and nuts), clothing, refined petroleum, machinery and aluminium. Government Imports consist of machinery, chemicals, crude petroleum, 1.69 road vehicles and food products. 1 Turkey is a democratic, secular republic with a parliamentary form of government and an independent TURKEY judiciary. The legislative body, with 450 elected members, is known as the Grand National Assembly. 2 Under the latest constitution, adopted by referendum in General description 1982, the president of the republic is chosen by the Charts 180, 4302 assembly for a term of seven years. The president appoints 1.66 a Council of Ministers who are responsible to the Grand1 Turkey, known to the Turks as Türkiye, is bounded on National Assembly. Executive powers are shared between the W by the Aegean Sea, on the NW by Greece and the president and the prime minister. 9
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Population PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND 1.70 ANCHORAGES1 In 2001 Turkey had a population of nearly 67⋅8 million. 1.75 Place and position Remarks Religions Greece 1.711 The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but 1 South Aegean—S part forbids its political exploitation or any impairment of the Órmos Soúdas (4.86) Large natural harbour, secular character of the republic. In 1992 there were (35°29′N 24°07′E) Naval and commercial port 58⋅2 million Muslims, two−thirds Sunni and one−third Shi’ite. Irákleio (Iráklion) (4.170) Large commercial port2 The Greek Orthodox, Gregorian, Armenian, Armenian (35°22′N 25°09′E) Apostolic and Roman Catholic Churches are represented in South Aegean—W part Istanbul and there are small Uniate, Protestant and Jewish 2 Návplion (5.141) Commercial port communities. (37°34′N 22°48′E) Órmos Mílou (5.225) Large safe anchorage; Languages 1.72 (36°43′N 24°25′E) commercial and ferry port at1 Turkish is the official language of the country. Adámas (5.230) English, which is taught extensively, is mostly used Saronikós Kólpos commercially. German or French are known by many technicians and professional people. Peiraiás (6.75) Major commercial port (37°56′N 23°37′E) Physical features Peiraiás roads (6.104) Waiting anchorage 1.73 3 Órmos Falírou (6.106) Summer anchorage used by1 The main physical feature of Turkey is a belt of young cruise ships and naval mountain ranges with a mean elevation of about 1100 m vessels dominating the N and S and encircling the Central Liménas Peiraiás (6.108) Main harbour of Peiraiás Anatolian Plateau. North of the plateau are the Pontic Mountains and to its S rise the Taurus Mountains. Liménas Irakléous (6.146) Artificial harbour for2 Western Anatolia has elongated mountain ridges Ro−Ro and container traffic separated by depressed floors. The W side of W Anatolia is Salamís naval base (6.184) Naval base broken by broad valleys and the deeply indented coastline 4 Elevsís (6.219) Large commercial port throws out long rocky promontories into the Aegean sea. Central Anatolia is a semi−arid plateau divided into several (38°02′⋅5N 23°32′⋅5E) basins. Eastern Anatolia comprises lofty ranges and recent Liménas Pógonos (6.328) Large safe anchorage volcanic cones, such as AÔri DaÔi (Mount Ararat), the (37°31′N 23°25′E) highest peak in Turkey at 5128 m. South Aegean archipelago3 Earthquakes are frequent all over Turkey, especially in the SE and W, and the region is remarkable for the number Órmos Íou (7.167) Safe anchorage of its thermal and mineral springs. (36°43′N 25°16′E) There are several lakes in Turkey, the largest being that 5 Órmos Naoúsis (7.289) Large safe anchorage of Van Gölü. It is a salt lake, variable in size and without (37°08′N 25°14′E) an outlet. The rivers in Turkey are of no great importance and few are navigable by boats for more than a short Ermoúpolis (7.341) Commercial port distance from their mouths. (37°26′N 24°57′E) Órmos Gávrio (7.417) Deep−water anchorage Industry and trade (37°51′N 24°45′E) 1.74 South Aegean—E part1 Agriculture accounts for about one seventh of the gross Ródos (8.68) Ferry and commercial port national product of Turkey, and nearly half of the working (36°27′N 28°14′E) population are farmers. Cotton, tobacco, cereals, sugar beets, fruit and nuts are grown. Kós (8.340) Ferry and commercial port Manufacturing industry accounts for a quarter to one (36°54′N 27°17′E) third of the gross national product. Products include 6 Órmos Lakkí (8.371) Natural harbour, Naval and cement, fuel oil, sugar, paper and paperboard, iron and (37°07′N 26°50′E) commercial port steel bars, fertilizers, cotton yarn, chemicals, olive oil and carpets. Evvoïkós Kólpos2 Principal exports are machinery and automotive industry Lávrion (9.13) Commercial port products, ready−made garments, textile and food products, (37°43′N 24°03′E) iron and steel. Imports consist of machinery and automotive industry products, minerals and oil, chemicals, food and Khalkís (9.116) Large commercial port agricultural raw materials, iron and steel. (38°28′N 23°36′E) 10
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 North Aegean—W part Other facilities Vólos (10.227) Large commercial port Compass adjustment (39°21′N 22°57′E) 1.777 Thessaloníki (10.325) Large commercial port 1 Órmos Soúdhas (4.111). (40°00′N 22°56′E) Peiraiás (6.88). North Aegean—central part Oily waste reception Órmos Moúdhrou (11.205) Large safe anchorage 1.78 (39°50′N 25°15′E) 1 Facilities for the reception of certain types of oily waste exist at the following places: North Aegean—E part Peiraiás (6.88). Khíos (12.80) Commercial port Elevsís (6.235). (38°22′N 26°08′E) Áyios Theódhoroi oil terminal (6.309). Ermoúpolis (7.351). North Aegean—N part 2 Khalkís (9.119). Kavála (13.74) Commercial port Vólos (10.241). (40°55′N 24°24′E) Thessaloníki (10.347).8 Aliaga (12.344). Alexandroúpoli (13.212) Commercial port (40°50′N 25°53′E) Deratting Turkey 1.79 1 Deratting and deratting exemption certificates: North Aegean—E part Irákleio (4.189). KuîadasÝ (12.29) Commercial and ferry port Peiraiás (6.88). (37°52′N 27°15′E) Thessaloníki (10.347). 1.80 ™zmir (12.268) Large commercial port 1 Exemption certificates only: (38°26′N 27°08′E) Návplion (5.148). Nemrut LimanÝ (12.317) Industrial port Ermoúpolis (7.351). (38°46′N 26°55′E) Ródos (8.78). Kós (8.347). AliaÔa (12.336) Oil terminal Vólos (10.241). (38°50′N 26°57′E) 2 Moúdhrou (Nísos Límnos) (11.223). Sámos (12.20). PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY Khíos (12.89). ™zmir (12.303). Docking facilities AliaÔa (12.344). 1.76 Mitilíni (12.391).1 The summary below lists ports with docking facilities; Kavála (13.90). dimensions, where given, relate to the largest vessel that Alexandroúpoli (13.225). can be accommodated; further details of the facilities are given at the reference quoted for each port. Measured distances Peiraiás (6.87): 1.81 Liménas Peiraiás (6.126): two dry docks, the larger 1 Northern approach to Órmos Soúdhas (4.79). with a maximum capacity of 10 000 dwt. Peiraiás approaches (6.97).2 Pérama ship repair yard (6.167): two floating docks, Nísoi Dhiapórioi (6.292). the larger with a lifting capacity of 15 000 tonnes. Salamís naval base (6.187): three floating docks for Supplies the use of the Hellenic Navy, the largest with a 1.82 lifting capacity of 3000 tonnes. 1 Fuel oil, fresh water and provisions can be obtained at Skaramangás shipyard (6.209): two dry docks and the ports listed at 1.75, and at many smaller places three floating docks, the largest with a maximum mentioned in the text. The quantities available are likely to capacity of 500 000 dwt. be commensurate with the size of the place.3 Elevsís (6.233): three floating docks, the largest with a Fuel oil: at the smaller places the supply may be by lifting capacity of 30 000 tonnes. drum or road tanker. Ermoúpolis (7.350): two floating docks, the larger with 2 Fresh water is sometimes in short supply in the islands, a lifting capacity of 75 000 tonnes. especially in late summer. Khalkís (9.133): two floating docks, the larger with a Provisions, when mentioned at the smaller places, may lifting capacity of 15 000 tonnes. signify no more than the existence of a shop where food ™zmir (12.302): three slipways and a floating dock. may be obtained. 11
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 NATURAL CONDITIONS MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY CURRENTS, TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW General remarks Currents in the Mediterranean Chart 180 Inflow and outflow 1.83 1.871 The Aegean Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea 1 From rivers, the Mediterranean receives about a third of bounded on the S by Nísos Kríti, on the W and N by the the amount of water that it loses from evaporation. Rapid Greek mainland, and on the E by the coast of Turkey. It evaporation from the Mediterranean Sea causes high contains numerous islands, sometimes known as the Aegean salinity and density. The sub−surface outflow through Strait archipelago. of Gibraltar transfers highly saline and dense water from Sea of Crete is the name sometimes given to the sea Mediterranean Sea to Atlantic Ocean. A strong, area between the N coast of Kríti and the islands of the S compensating surface inflow pulls less−dense water from Aegean archipelago. the Atlantic into the Mediterranean. A similar, though much less pronounced, mechanism prevails between Seabed Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. Water flows out of the 1.84 Mediterranean through Çanakkale Bogazi (The Dardanelles)1 Beyond the edge of the continental shelf, which is (40°01′N 26°10′E) at depth and into the Mediterranean at comparatively narrow, basins reach depths of more than the surface. 1000 m particularly in the S Aegean. The seabed consists predominately of mud. The rocks of the floor are chiefly General circulation limestone, though often greatly altered by volcanic activity. 1.88 Such activity has been the cause of richly−coloured 1 The Mediterranean is divided into two basins connected sediments in the vicinity of Nísos Thíra. by Sicilian Channel and Stretto di Messina. The surface currents result from these basins and the inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar. Volcanic activity 1.89 1.85 1 West Mediterranean. From Strait of Gibraltar an1 Volcanoes are known to exist at the following places E−going current flows along the coast of Algeria and forms within the area covered by this volume: the S flank of a counter−clockwise circulation in the W Near Kaiméni (37°37′N 23°20′E), on Khersónisos Mediterranean; a current extends ESE through Sicilian Methánon on the SW side of Saronikós Channel. Kólpos—dormant since about 250 BC. 1.902 Near Sousáki (37°56′N 23°04′E), at the W end of 1 East Mediterranean. Some part of the ESE−going Saronikós Kólpos—fumarolic activity. current in Sicilian Channel diverges S into Gulf of Sirte. Nísos Thíra (36°22′N 5°28′E) (for details see 7.31). The main stream continues ESE along the coasts of N Nísos Mílos (36°41′N 24°27′E)—solfataric and Cyrenaica and Egypt to Nile Delta. fumarolic activity. 2 The circulation in the extreme E and off the S coast of3 Nísos Nísiros (36°35′N 27°11′E)—last erupted in Turkey is ill−defined because of insufficient data. The flow 1888. probably continues counter−clockwise, passing N of Cyprus Nísos Kós (36°50′N 27°10′E)—solfataric activity. and along the coast of Turkey to Rhodes Channel. In the sea area S of Cyprus reports indicate a moderate to weak Seismic activity predominance of E and SE−going flows with much 1.86 variability.1 The area comprising the Greek mainland, the Aegean 3 In the sea area S of Kríti the currents are very variable Sea and W Turkey has the highest amount of seismic with a marked tendency, least in spring, for a W−going activity of the entire Mediterranean. In the area covered by predominance; rates rarely exceed 1 kn. This predominance this volume the most active zones are as follows: decreases S until the ESE−going current along the coasts of Nísos Kíthira (36°15′N 23°00′E) through Nísos Kríti, N Cyrenaica and Egypt becomes dominant. The reversal of Nísos Kárpathos and Nísos Ródos to Nísos Kós flow occurs close to the coast of Kríti during the winter (36°50′N 7°10′E). months; it occurs near latitude 34°N in summer.2 Saronikós Kólpos (37°40′N 23°40′E). 4 The outflow from the Aegean, between Ákra Maléas and Vólos (39°21′N 2°57′E) to Nísos Lésvos (39°15′N the NW point of Kríti, contributes to the N−going flow in 26°15′E). the E Ionian Sea. It also opposes the ESE−going flow of Khersónisos Khalkidhikí (40°30′N 23°30′E). the prevailing current SE of Sicilia. Saros Körfezi (40°30′N 26°15′E).3 For the most active zones at least one earthquake of Conditions affecting currents magnitude 5 may be expected each year. 1.91 The largest earthquake in the area this century was one 1 With a few exceptions, the wind field over the of magnitude 8 at Nísos Kíthira on 11th August 1903. Mediterranean in different seasons supports the general Two heavy shocks S of Nísos Amorgós (36°50′N water circulation described. Winds vary considerably, 25°55′E) on 9th July 1956 caused waves reported to be up especially during winter. Local drift currents, opposed to to 25 m in height and damage to harbours on the N coast the general circulation, may develop under the influence of of Kríti by waves 3 m in height. strong and persistent winds. 12
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Currents in the Aegean (see 9.156 for rates) and also attain appreciable rates in the other channels between Nísos Évvoia and the mainland. General circulation 1.92 SEA LEVEL AND TIDES1 The surface currents of the Aegean Sea are complex, but in many respects conform to the broad counter−clockwise circulation of the E Mediterranean. Sea level2 The water entering through Çanakkale Bogazi fans out 1.97 towards the W side of the N Aegean where it becomes SW 1 As in most parts of the Mediterranean, the sea level in and S−going. In the E part of the S Aegean, the inflow the Aegean is influenced more by wind than by tide. through Rhodes Channel, mainly during late autumn and During the months of February, March and April the winter, creates a predominance of W and NW−going MSL in the central Mediterranean may fall as much as currents. 0⋅5 m below normal.3 These two currents merge between 38° and 39°N to 2 Seiches, which occur with little or no warning, can raise form a SW to S−going current. After diffusing through the or lower the sea level by about 1 m over wide areas. The S Aegean archipelago, the stronger W part of the current seiches may be the result of seismic disturbances some leaves the Aegean between Ákra Maléas and the NW point distance away, or the consequence of a small but rapid of Kríti. The remainder flows out through Stenó Kásou and change in atmospheric pressure (1 or 2 hPa in a few Stenó Karpáthou. Current eddies are particularly likely to minutes). For further details see The Mariner’s Handbook. form in the vicinity of islands, especially on the downstream side. 1.93 Tides1 Current diagrams. Diagrams 1.93.1 to 1.93.4 show the 1.98 predominant currents in the Aegean Sea Sea for selected 1 In the Aegean the spring rise varies from 0⋅1 to 0⋅8 m. periods. The current diagrams indicate the predominant When the rise and fall is appreciable it is regular, direction, average rate and constancy. These are defined as especially at springs. follows: Predominant Direction. The mean direction, within a 90° sector, that contains the highest proportion of SEA AND SWELL observations from all sectors.2 Average rate, to the nearest ¼ kn, of the highest 50% in predominant sectors. Sea conditions Constancy is a measure of current persistence. Low 1.99 constancy implies marked variability in rate and 1 Strong N winds raise short heavy seas among the islands direction. of the Aegean archipelago in both summer and winter. In the lee of islands and high ground, squalls give rise to confused seas. Constancy and rates 1.941 With the exception of the moderately constant SW to Swell conditions 1.100 S−going current between Çanakkale Bogazi and the W side 1 Diagrams 1.100.1 to 1.100.4 show swell distribution for of the S Aegean, most currents are of low constancy and selected months. Heavy swells are unusual in the Aegean slight predominance. Sea. They can occur occasionally in winter, most often2 Rates are generally low, with 65 to 70% not exceeding from NE. Moderate N swells are occasionally experienced ½ kn. Rates in excess or 3 kn are rare and of short in summer. duration; they are limited to areas susceptible to rapid increases. SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS Conditions affecting currents 1.951 Winds, especially sea and land breezes, may reduce, Density 1.101 increase or deflect the normal flow and may create local 1 For an explanation of density as applied to sea water, currents and eddies. Prolonged strong winds may oppose and units used, see The Mariner’s Handbook. and reverse the expected current. 2 The mean surface density of water entering the Aegean Topography. Coastal configuration and uneven bottom Sea through Çanakkale BoÕazÝ varies from 1⋅020 g/cm3 in topography may cause channelling and refractions. summer to 1⋅026 g/cm3 in winter. The density increases Seiches (see 1.97 for details) have a short−term effect rapidly as the water fans out S and W, and in the S on currents. Aegean it varies from 1⋅027 g/cm 3 in summer to 1⋅029 g/cm3 in winter. Tidal streams 1.96 Salinity1 The tidal streams are very weak everywhere in the 1.102 Aegean Sea, except in Evvoïkós Kólpos (38°28′N 23°35′E). 1 For an explanation of salinity as applied to sea water, Here they run very strongly in Porthmós Evrípou at times and units used, see The Mariner’s Handbook. 13
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28°41° 41° ½ <¼ KEY40° Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 40° Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: VARIABLE High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% ¼ Low constancy <50%39° 39° 72 ¼38° 38° VARIABLE37° ¼ 37° ¼ <¼ VARIABLE36° 70 36° ¼ ¼ <¼ ¼35° <¼ 35° <¼ 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 27° 28° Arrows indicate direction of set and are Th e l e n g t h o f e ac h d i vi s i o n i n d i c at es The figure within the circle gives the divided according to rate:- percentage frequency on the scale:- percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots. 0.5 - 2.9 1 - 1.9 2 - 2.9 3+kn 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 61 Aegean Sea - predominant currents in spring MARCH to MAY (1.93.1) 14
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28°41° 41° ¼-½ KEY40° / 12 Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 40° Arrows indicate the predominant direction. The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50%39° 39° 64 ¼-½38° 38° ¼ ¼ ¼37° 37° ¼-½ ¼ ¼36° 36° 64 ¼-½ ¼35° 35° 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 27° 28° Arrows indicate direction of set and are Th e l e n g t h o f e ac h d i vi s io n i n d i c at es The figure within the circle gives the divided according to rate:- percentage frequency on the scale:- percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots. 0.5 - 2.9 1 - 1.9 2 - 2.9 3+kn 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 61 Aegean Sea - predominant currents in summer JUNE to AUGUST (1.93.2) 15
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28°41° 41° ¼ <¼ KEY40° Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 40° ¼ Arrows indicate the predominant direction. ¼ The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50%39° 39° 72 ¼-½38° 38° <¼ / 1437° 37° / 14 ¼-½ <¼36° 36° 70 / 14 ¼-½ / 14 1 /435° 35° <¼ 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 27° 28° Arrows indicate direction of set and are Th e l e n g t h o f eac h d i vi s io n in d i c at es The figure within the circle gives the divided according to rate:- percentage frequency on the scale:- percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots. 0.5 - 2.9 1 - 1.9 2 - 2.9 3+kn 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 61 Aegean Sea - predominant currents in autumn SEPTEMBER to NOVEMBER (1.93.3) 16
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28°41° 41° ¼ VARIABLE ¼ KEY40° Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 40° Arrows indicate the predominant direction. ¼ The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% ¼-½39° 39° 70 VARIABLE ¼-½38° 38° ¼ ¼ VARIABLE37° 37° <¼ <¼ ¼-½36° <¼ 36° 70 ¼ <¼35° 35° < 1/4 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 27° 28° Arrows indicate direction of set and are Th e l en g t h o f eac h d i vi si o n i n d i c at es The figure within the circle gives the divided according to rate:- percentage frequency on the scale:- percentage of occasions with currents less than 0.5 knots. 0.5 - 2.9 1 - 1.9 2 - 2.9 3+kn 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 61 Aegean Sea - predominant currents in winter DECEMBER to FEBRUARY (1.93.4) 17
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 40° 40° 0 0 38° 38° 0 0 0 0 36° 36° 0 0 0 0 0 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Swell distribution JANUARY (1.100.1)EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Swell direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n figure within the circle gives the percentage of 0% 10 20 30 40 50% metres) according to the legend: calms. 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 18
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 0 40° 40° 0 0 38° 38° 0 0 0 0 36° 36° 0 0 0 0 0 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Swell distribution APRIL (1.100.2)EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Swell direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n figure within the circle gives the percentage of 0% 10 20 30 40 50% metres) according to the legend: calms. 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 19
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 0 40° 40° 0 0 38° 38° 0 0 0 0 36° 36° 0 0 0 0 0 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Swell distribution JULY (1.100.3)EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Swell direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n figure within the circle gives the percentage of 0% 10 20 30 40 50% metres) according to the legend: calms. 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 20
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 0 40° 40° 0 0 38° 38° 0 0 0 0 36° 36° 0 0 0 0 0 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Swell distribution OCTOBER (1.100.4)EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Swell direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: f r e q u e n c y o f swe l l o f d i f fe r e n t h e i g h t s ( i n figure within the circle gives the percentage of 0% 10 20 30 40 50% metres) according to the legend: calms. 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 21
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 The mean surface salinity of water entering the Aegean Over the Aegean Sea through Çanakkale BoÕazÝ is 30‰. The salinity 1.107 increases rapidly as the water fans out S and W, and in the 1 In spite of the large seasonal variation in the pressure S Aegean the figure is 39‰. There is little seasonal pattern over the Mediterranean as a whole, the resultant variation. changes over the Aegean are comparatively small and in both seasons the pressure decreases from N to SE. 2 In winter the gradient is weaker over the S and central Sea surface temperature parts of the Aegean, and stronger to the N. In summer the 1.103 gradient is stronger over the S and central parts of the1 Mean temperatures. Diagrams 1.103.1 and 1.103.2 Aegean, and weaker to the N. show the mean sea surface temperatures for selected Over the Aegean pressure changes are slight during the months. Sea temperatures are less variable than air summer, whereas in winter, the changes are frequent. In temperatures. Under extreme winter conditions the sea summer the gradient is stronger over the S and central temperature may reach as much as 6°C above or below the parts of the Aegean, and weaker to the N. long term average. The deviation in air temperature from average is much greater, especially in the N of the area.2 Winter sea temperatures range from 10°C in the NE Diurnal variation to 16°C in the S. In summer the temperatures are more 1.108 uniform and range from about 23 to 25°C over the whole 1 There is a diurnal variation of about 1 hPa with maxima area. at 1000 and 2200, and minima at 0400 and 1600, local3 Effect of winds. Prolonged winds from S cause time. In settled weather in summer this variation is readily above−average sea temperatures; sustained winds from N apparent, in winter it is often masked by large changes cause below−average sea temperatures. associated with pressure systems. Sea and air temperature differentials. From October to Depressions March the sea surface is warmer than the overlying air, 1.109 differences of as much as 3°C occurring locally between 1 Diagram 1.109 shows the main tracks of depressions December and February. From April to September, when affecting the Mediterranean Sea. the sea is cooler than the air, the difference rarely exceeds The E Mediterranean is affected by depressions moving 1½ to 2°C. in a generally E direction; some track NE over the Aegean Sea, others move SE from the Balkans to the E Mediterranean. Though less extensive than Atlantic winter depressions, these depressions are often vigorous and CLIMATE AND WEATHER occasionally violent; development may be very rapid. The mountainous topography of the region contributes to the erratic and unpredictable movement of depressions; General conditions 1.104 interludes of little or no movement alternate with periods of1 In common with other parts of the Mediterranean, the fast movement. Depressions often linger over the Ionian Aegean Sea has one of the most favoured climates in the Sea, the S Aegean and near Cyprus. world. The Aegean Sea is more continental in character Fronts than that of the central and W Mediterranean having fewer 1.110 depressions, generally lower rainfall and lower humidity. 1 The Mediterranean depressions usually have associated The summers are long, usually dry, fine and hot. Most of frontal systems. The warm fronts are often ill−defined, the rain falls during the short and usually mild winters. Fog giving little or no rain. By contrast, cold fronts are at sea is rare. frequently well marked and may appear as a line squall 1.105 with a sharp veer of wind and a period of rain. The squalls1 Caution. The area is occasionally affected by vigorous on these fronts are sometimes accompanied by depressions. Local gales and squalls caused by topography thunderstorms. Whirlwinds and waterspouts are common affect the area. These can be violent and develop with great during the summer. rapidity and little or no warning. They are most frequent in autumn and winter and infrequent in summer. Winds Open sea 1.111 Pressure 1 Diagrams 1.111.1 to 1.111.4 show the wind distribution over the Aegean Sea for selected months. Over the Mediterranean For most of the year the prevailing winds are from NW 1.106 over the S Aegean, N over the central Aegean, and NE1 The Azores anticyclone and pressure over Asia dominate over the N Aegean. In May and June the winds are the pressure distribution over the Mediterranean. In winter generally light. pressure is low over the Mediterranean Sea. High pressure 2 Over the whole of the Aegean the average wind strength extending from the Siberian anticyclone often covers the is barely force 3. In summer the winds are very constant, area to the N of Greece. Diagrams 1.106.1 and 1.106.2 particularly when the Etesians (1.114) are established. From give the average pressure distribution for selected months. July to September the average strength is force 4 to 5 in2 The day to day pressure patterns will rarely resemble the areas where the Etesians are blowing, and about force 3 average pressure patterns. In summer the E Mediterranean elsewhere. In autumn the winds become steadily weaker, lies within the circulation of the Asian seasonal low centred before the onset of winter winds. far to the E. The Azores high extends its summer influence 3 In contrast to summer, winter winds seldom blow from over the W Mediterranean and over S and central Europe. the same direction for more than a few days in succession. 22
  • Home Contents Index 22° 24° 26° 28° 22° 24° 26° 28° 40° 40° 40° 40° <24 5 1 38° 38° 38° 38° CHAPTER 123 24 36° 16 36° 36° 36° >24 >24 34° 34° 34° 34° 22° Longitude 24° West from Greenwich 28° 22° Longitude 24° West from Greenwich 28° Mean sea surface temperature (°C) JANUARY (1.103.1) Mean sea surface temperature (°C) JULY (1.103.2)
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30°42° 42° 10 1640° 40° 101 7 6 10138° 38°36° 36° 10 17 10 1834° 34°32° 32° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 28° 30° Mean sea level pressure (hPa) FEBRUARY (1.106.1) 24
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30°42° 42° 101340° 40° 3 10138° 38° 12 10 101036° 1 10 36° 1 08 10 10 0934° 34°32° 32° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 28° 30° Mean sea level pressure (hPa) AUGUST (1.106.2) 25
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 126 Mediterranean Sea - Typical tracks of depressions (1.109)
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 9 40° 40° 7 2 38° 38° 3 3 3 2 36° 36° 3 1 1 2 3 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Wind distribution JANUARY (1.111.1)EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Wind direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: frequency of winds of different Beaufort force figure within the circle gives the percentage of according to the legend: calms. 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 27
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 12 40° 40° 6 4 38° 38° 6 8 6 4 36° 36° 7 2 3 4 4 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Wind distribution APRIL (1.111.2)EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Wind direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: frequency of winds of different Beaufort force figure within the circle gives the percentage of according to the legend: calms. 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 28
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 9 40° 40° 7 4 38° 38° 7 7 6 2 36° 36° 4 2 2 2 1 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Wind distribution JULY (1.111.3)EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Wind direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: frequency of winds of different Beaufort force figure within the circle gives the percentage of according to the legend: calms. 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 29
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 42° 42° 5 40° 40° 5 3 38° 38° 6 5 3 4 36° 36° 6 3 4 5 5 34° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.111.4)EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from This scale is further subdivided to indicate the Wind direction is towards the circle centre. Theany direction is given according to the scale: frequency of winds of different Beaufort force figure within the circle gives the percentage of according to the legend: calms. 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 30
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Winds from E and W are usually only transient. Winds Strong winds and gales tend to be from either N or S depending upon whether the 1.120 main low is centred over the W or the E Mediterranean; 1 Winter: see diagram 1.120. From November to February these lows are often slow moving. From December to winds of force 6 and over are reported in 20% of ships’ February the average wind strength is force 4 in the S and observations, and winds of force 8 and over in 8% of force 4 to 5 in the N. observations. Gales are often from between N and NE; an appreciable number are from between SE and SW. A gale Coastal areas from S is often followed in a short time by a gale from N; 1.112 a gale from N rarely switches to the S. Strong winds are1 The coast has a strong influence over the speed and less frequent in summer than in winter. direction of the inshore winds (for further explanation see 1.121 The Mariner’s Handbook). Topography and the thermal 1 Summer: see diagram 1.121. In the E part of the central effects of differential heating of land and sea play an Aegean from July to September, winds of force 6 or over influential role. The mountainous and complex are reported in 15% of ships’ observations and gales configuration of the coast causes pronounced local represent about 1%. Any strong winds in summer are differences between neighbouring places in the Aegean. usually Etesians as these winds are seldom interrupted by Deflected wind from steep cliffs and mountain barriers, the other winds of any strength. funnel effect of straits and ravines and land and sea breezes play their part. These features occur in the quieter periods Storms 1.122 of all seasons, but especially in summer. 1 Disturbances with winds of force 10 or more do occur but are infrequent. A depression with hurricane intensity Regional winds has been known in the central Aegean, but such events are 1.113 very rare.1 Diagram 1.113 shows the main regional winds of the Mediterranean Sea. Those affecting the Aegean are Cloud described below. 1.114 Amounts1 Etesians. In summer N winds blow for weeks in 1.123 succession and are such a regular and reliable feature of 1 Cloud amounts vary with the seasons with most in the climate that they are called Etesians (from the Greek winter and least in summer. From December to February word etésios which means ‘annual’). The winds set in in cloud averages 6 oktas in the SE Aegean. The SW Aegean late May or early June, fitfully at first, when they are is least cloudy with averages of 4 to 5 oktas. known by the Greeks as pródromoi (‘forerunners’). The 2 In July and August the cloud cover is less than 1 okta in Etesians proper become fully established in July and the S and SE Aegean, and barely 2 oktas in the N Aegean. continue throughout the summer. Clear skies for days in succession are typical of the 1.115 summer months, though mountains and peaks are often1 Meltemi is the Turkish name for the Etesians (1.114). surrounded by clouds. Both names are commonly and widely used. Development 1.116 1.1241 Scirocco. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, winds 1 Over the land there is a slight diurnal variation; cloud from S are called Scirocco. These winds are relatively amounts in early morning are less on average than in the moist, and are often hazy owing to suspended dust carried afternoon. Stratus clouds reach their maximum extent from N Africa. around dawn and decrease during the day; cumulus clouds 1.117 reach their greatest development in late afternoon or1 Vardarac. Similar in character to the Mistral of the W evening by which time they may have formed Mediterranean, the Vardarac is a strong cold dry NW wind cumulonimbus clouds. which blows down the valley of Potamós Axiós (40°35′N 2 Over the open sea cumulus clouds usually reach their 22°45′E) at times in the cold season. The wind affects the greatest development later in the night. Thessaloníki region where it is also known as Vardar, Vardháris or Vardháridhes. It sets in suddenly, frequently Precipitation without warning and at times with cloudless skies, It can reach gale force and persist for as long as five days. Rain 1.118 1.1251 Winds from N and NE are cold and dry, similar to the 1 The annual rainfall varies from moderate in the wettest Bora of the Adriatic. parts to rather scanty in the driest areas. Most coastal stations report amounts from 400 to 700 mm, but there are reports of less than 350 mm in some S parts of Saronikós Squalls Kólpos (37°40′N 23°40′E) and of less than 200 mm in 1.119 some districts of Kríti (35°15′N 24°45′E).1 Hazardous squalls are liable to be experienced in the lee 2 The wettest regions, with annual amounts exceeding 800 of high land during strong offshore winds; they are most mm, are the coasts on the W side of Thermaïkós Kólpos severe with N winds. Squalls develop rapidly with little (40°N 23°E), parts of the E side of Nísos Évvoia (38°30′N warning and blow down the leeward slopes with a force far 24°00′E), and the E side of Nísos Sámos (37°45′N in excess of that of the general wind. Following light winds 26°50′E) and the adjacent coast of Turkey. and calm seas, squalls of force 8 have been reported within 3 Winter is the wet season, summer being very dry. The two hours. Squalls are occasionally associated with seasonal variation is greatest in the S where all the rain thunderstorms. usually falls between October and March. Rain is usually 31
  • Home Contents Index 10° 5° 0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 50° 50° E U R O P E ra Bo 45° 45° Tr ra am Bo Mi on str ta al na Va Libeccio rd M Sc ar ar iro ac in cc o n te 40° Le va cio 40° ec Lib CHAPTER 1 Scirocco32 ale Etesians (Summer) eg Gr l a ve nd Ve Leveche Scirocco Levanter Sc Scirocco Vendavel (K iroc Scirocco co (Chili) ha co 35° Sciroc m 35° M mm sin (S Et mm el ) t e e r) u (S es Sc m u ia er) s ir i n oc i) co co (Chil S ciroc Ghibli Ghibli Kha msin 30° 30° N O R T H A F R I C A 25° 25° 10° 5° Meridian 0° of Greenwich 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° Mediterranean Sea - Main regional winds (1.113)
  • Home Contents Index 22° 24° 26° 28° 22° 24° 26° 28° 40° 40° 40° 40° >3 and <5 38° 15 38° 38° 38° CHAPTER 133 36° 36° 36° 36° 3 <3 0 1 <10 34° 34° 34° 34° 22° Longitude 24° West from Greenwich 28° 22° Longitude 24° West from Greenwich 28° Percentage frequency of winds Beaufort force 7 or over Percentage frequency of winds Beaufort force 7 or over DECEMBER - FEBRUARY (1.120) MAY - AUGUST (1.121)
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 absent in July and August. The seasonal variation is lowest summer. In the S, the variations from average monthly towards the NW where appreciable amounts of rain falls values are smaller, 5% of observations differing by 5°C in during July and August. winter and only a very small percentage differing in4 The average intensity is greater than in NW Europe as summer. Over the open sea the temperature of the much of the rain falls in short heavy downpours. Rainfall overlying air varies only by about 2°C throughout the day varies considerably from year to year. and night. This temperature range does not alter much with season. Snow 3 The air temperature is dependent upon the wind 1.126 direction especially in winter; N winds being cold and S1 Snow falls infrequently and usually only between winds usually bring warm air. Near the coasts of the December and March on average between ½ and 1½ days mainland a change from onshore S winds to offshore N per month. It seldom lies to any extent near sea level but winds is often accompanied by a large drop in temperature. mountains are often snow−capped in winter. The largest and most sudden falls occur with the passage of cold fronts. Sudden rises in temperature are rare because Thunderstorms the change of wind direction from N to S is almost always 1.127 gradual.1 Thunderstorms occur on between 10 to 20 days per year. The higher frequency applies to the coasts of the mainland where thunder occurs mostly in summer. Over outlying Humidity islands the frequency is lower and thunder is mostly a 1.131 winter feature. 1 Relative humiditiy for morning and early afternoon are given in the Climate Information (1.132). When compared Fog and visibility with humidity observed in other coastal regions, the values recorded at the coastal stations in this area are low. The Sea fog relative humidity is very closely related to the air 1.128 temperature and there are pronounced daily and seasonal1 Away from the larger land areas, fog (visibility less than fluctuations with temperature 1000 m) is infrequent at all seasons. Most fog occurs 2 The average relative humidity is usually higher in winter between March and July, and is usually of short duration. than in summer for the same time of day, and is higher in2 Sea smoke and steaming fog are sometimes observed the early morning than during the afternoon. The humidity near land particularly during cold spells in winter. The fog may deviate from the monthly average, ranging from 100% is usually shallow; visibility may be as little as 40 m but in fog to less than 20% with a fresh onset of continental the depth of the fog layer may be only 2 or 3 m. air. Humidity is usually higher with onshore winds than3 Radiation fog, forming inland during cold winter nights, with offshore winds, and higher with S winds than with N may affect landlocked parts of the sea area; the fog is winds. usually most dense around dawn and usually disperses within 3 hours after sunrise. This type of fog is more frequent during the winter half of the year, particularly in CLIMATE INFORMATION January. 1.132 1 The following information applies to selected Visibility observation stations. The data may not represent conditions 1.129 at sea or in the approaches to ports.1 Although sea fog is relatively infrequent and of short Topography has an important influence on local weather duration, occurrences of poor visibility of a less severe conditions and variations can occur within a short distance. category (less than 5 miles) are more frequent and Differences between weather conditions at sea and over prolonged. This poor visibility is commonly reported as a land can be substantial. whitish haze and represents from 10 to 20% of 2 The following notes list the significant influences; for observations in summer and 5% in winter. further information see The Mariner’s Handbook: Wind speed is usually greater over the sea than over Air temperature the land. 1.130 Cloud amounts over the coast or land may differ1 The average air temperature over the sea is highest considerably from amounts a few miles offshore. generally in July and August and lowest in January and Precipitation amounts can often be regarded as February. During the summer the air temperature, on applicable to coastal waters in the vicinity of a average, is 1 to 2°C higher than the sea temperature and is coastal station but become increasingly less so fairly uniform over the whole area. In late winter the air offshore. temperatures are lower than the sea temperatures by about 3 Where high cliffs or a range of hills rise steeply 3°C in the N, and by 1° to 2°C in the S. The temperature inland of a coastal station, the station may record differential between the N and S parts of the area is then much more rain than falls on the coast or offshore. about 7°C. From time to time the air temperature may Fog statistics at coastal stations include both radiation deviate considerably from the average value. fog and sea fog.2 In the N, 5% of observations differ by more than 9°C in Temperatures over the sea are less variable than over winter and 5% of observations differ by about 5°C in the land. 34
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30°42° 42° 1.133 ALEXANDROÚPOLI 1.145 THESSALONÍKI 1.136 GÖKÇEADA40° 1.138 40° LÍMNOS GREECE 1.143 TU R K E Y SKÍROS MITILÍNI 1.13938° 38° ATHÍNAI 1.134 1.142 SÁMOS NÁXOS BODRUM 1.140 1.135 1.141 RÓDOS 1.137 KÍTHIRA36° 36° SOÚDA 1.14434° 34° 20° 22° Longitude 24° East from Greenwich 26° 28° 30° Location of Climate Stations (1.132) 35
  • Home Contents Index1.133 WMO No 16627 ALEXANDROÚPOLI 40°51N 25°55E. Height above MSL - 3 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 36ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -8ºC Period maximum = 40ºC Period minimum = -14ºC 30 ALEXANDROÚPOLI 20 Mean monthly maximum GÖKÇEADA 10 Mean daily maximum LÍMNOS 23 yr period Mean daily minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Mean monthly minimum -101022 1 1.8 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 5 0.9 > force 6 1.61020 11 days per 0.8 1.4 23 yr period 2 days per year1018 4 year 0.7 1400 local 1.2 0.61016 3 1 0.51014 0.8 0.4 23 yr period 2 0.61012 0.3 0800 local 0.2 0.4 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 11010 Annual mean 1017 hPa Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 0.1 0.2 1400 local mean= 4 23 yr period1008 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 90 9 90 1.2 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog 80 8 days > 0.1mm 80 0800 local 1 70 7 4 days per 60 6 70 0.8 year 22 yr period 50 5 60 0.6 23 yr period 40 4 1400 local 30 3 50 0.4 20 2 23 yr period 40 0.2 22 yr period Annual 0800 local mean 73%; 10 1 444 mm per year 58 precipitation days per year 1400 local mean 56% 0 0 30 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local 53 54 51 49 46 55 January March May July September November February April June August October DecemberThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local September October January February 5 5 2 5 12 10 May March June July November April August December 36
  • Home Contents Index1.134 WMO No 16716 ATHÍNAI 37°54N 23°44E. Height above MSL - 15 m Climate information for period 1974 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 37ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -1ºC Period maximum = 42ºC 35 Period minimum = -4ºC ATHÍNAI 30 25 20 Mean monthly maximum 15 Mean daily maximum NÁXOS 10 Mean daily minimum 33 yr period 5 Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 1 3.5 33 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 0.9 > force 6 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 31018 1400 local mean= 4 0.8 1 day per 20 days per 5 33 yr period 0.7 year 2.5 year1016 1400 local 0.6 4 21014 0.5 3 33 yr period 1.5 0.41012 2 0.3 1 0.21010 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 1 0.5 Annual mean 1016 hPa 0.1 0800 local 33 yr period1008 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 80 10 80 1 Mean precipitation in Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog mm 9 days > 0.1mm 0.9 70 70 0800 local 364 mm per year 8 0.8 60 22 yr period 1 day per 7 0.7 52 precipitation 60 year 50 6 days per year 0.6 22 yr period 40 5 50 0.5 33 yr period 30 4 0.4 40 3 1400 local 0.3 20 33 yr period 2 0.2 30 10 1 Annual 0800 local mean 66%; 0.1 1400 local mean 52% 0 0 20 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local 45 35 35 36 27 January March May 27 July September June November February April August October DecemberThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local 2 6 5 16 13 1 May March June July January April August September November February October December 37
  • Home Contents Index1.135 WMO No 17290 BODRUM 37°27N 27°26E. Height above MSL - 26 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 50 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 40ºC 45 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 0ºC SÁMOS Period maximum = 45ºC 40 Period minimum = -2ºC 35 30 BODRUM 25 NÁXOS 20 Mean monthly maximum Mean daily maximum 15 RÓDOS 10 Mean daily minimum 23 yr period 5 Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 6 1 3 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder1018 0.9 > force 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 2; 5 2.51016 1400 local mean= 2 0.8 14 days per 1 day per 1400 local (green triangle) 0.7 year year1014 4 2 0800 local (blue circle) 0.61012 3 0.5 1.51010 23 yr period 0.4 23 yr period1008 2 1 0.31006 0.2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 1 0.51004 Annual mean 1014 hPa 0.1 23 yr period1002 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 160 14 80 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog days > 0.1mm 0.9 140 12 583 mm per year 70 0800 local 0.8 120 60 precipitation days 0 days per 10 per year 0.7 60 year 100 0.6 8 80 21 yr period 50 0.5 1400 local 21 yr period 6 60 0.4 23 yr period 40 4 0.3 40 23 yr period 0.2 2 30 20 Annual 0800 local mean 69%; 0.1 1400 local mean 47% 0 0 20 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local September November October December 22 24 January 20 March July 13 11 April May 24 February June AugustThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local 0 0 3 1 0 1 January February March April May July September June November August October December 38
  • Home Contents Index1.136 WMO No 17110 GÖKÇEADA 40°11N 25°54E. Height above MSL - 72 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2000 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 34ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -4ºC Period maximum = 37ºC 35 Period minimum = -8ºC ALEXANDROÚPOLI 30 25 GÖKÇEADA 20 Mean monthly maximum 15 LÍMNOS 10 Mean daily maximum Mean daily minimum 5 17 yr period 0 Mean monthly minimum J F M A M J J A S O N D -51022 8 1.6 3 17 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 7 1.4 > force 61020 Annual 0830 local mean= 4; 1430 local mean= 4 2.5 20 days 6 1.2 6 days per per year1018 17 yr period year 2 5 0800 local 11016 4 0.8 1.51014 17 yr period 3 0.6 11012 2 0.4 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.51010 1 0.2 Annual mean 1016 hPa 1400 local 17 yr period1008 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 140 12 85 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog days > 0.1mm 80 0.9 120 0800 local 607 mm per year 10 75 0.8 69 precipitation 100 days per year 0.7 8 70 1 day per 0.6 year 80 65 6 1400 local 0.5 14 yr period 60 60 14 yr period 0.4 4 55 40 0.3 17 yr period 50 0.2 20 2 45 Annual 0830 local mean 76%; 0.1 1430 local mean 61% 17 yr period 0 0 40 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D January March February Station Wind Distribution April - 0800 local 10 September July October 6 8 6 August May November June 12 December Beaufort force is indicated by: 5 4 Station Wind Distribution Wind flow is towards the circle. - 1400 local May The figure in the circle gives June July the percentage of calms. 0 August 0 March April 0 January The frequency of wind is given by scale: 0 February September November 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 0 December 0 October 39
  • Home Contents Index1.137 WMO No 16743 KÍTHIRA 36°17N 23°01E. Height above MSL - 167 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 36ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 2ºC NÁXOS Period maximum = 43ºC 35 Period minimum = -2ºC 30 25 KÍTHIRA 20 Mean monthly maximum 15 Mean daily maximum 10 Mean daily minimum 23 yr period SOÚDA Mean monthly minimum 5 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 4.5 3 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 4 > force 6 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 3;1018 1400 local mean= 3 2.5 3.5 30 days per 10 days per 5 year year1016 1400 local 3 2 4 23 yr period 23 yr period 23 yr period 2.51014 1.5 3 21012 1.5 1 2 11010 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.5 1 Annual mean 1016 hPa 0.5 0800 local1008 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 120 14 80 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog days > 0.1mm 0.9 488 mm per year 12 75 100 65 precipitation days 0800 local 0.8 per year 70 10 0.7 2 days per 80 year 65 0.6 8 60 60 1400 local 0.5 22 yr period 6 23 yr period 22 yr period 0.4 55 40 4 0.3 50 23 yr period 0.2 20 2 45 Annual 0800 local mean 67%; 0.1 1400 local mean 63% 0 0 40 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local 16 19 33 27 24 14 January May July September November March December February June August October AprilThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local 9 7 13 10 8 8 January March May July September November February April June August October December 40
  • Home Contents Index1.138 WMO No 16650 LÍMNOS 39°55N 25°14E. Height above MSL - 4 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 34ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -3ºC ALEXANDROÚPOLI Period maximum = 37ºC 35 Period minimum = -8ºC 30 25 GÖKÇEADA 20 Mean monthly maximum LÍMNOS 15 Mean daily maximum 10 5 Mean daily minimum 23 yr period 0 Mean monthly minimum J F M A M J J A S O N D -51022 7 2.5 2.5 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder > force 61020 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 1400 local mean= 3 14 days 2 2 10 days per per year1018 5 1400 local (green triangles) year 23 yr period 1.5 1.51016 41014 3 23 yr period 1 11012 2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.5 0.51010 1 Annual mean 1016 hPa 0800 local (blue circles) 23 yr period1008 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 90 10 95 3 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog 80 9 days > 0.1mm 23 yr period 444 mm per year 85 0800 local 2.5 70 8 22 yr period 7 10 days per 60 75 2 year 22 yr period 6 50 5 65 1.5 23 yr period 40 4 30 55 1400 local 1 3 20 2 45 0.5 10 1 Annual 0800 local mean 76%; 56 precipitation days per year 1400 local mean 59% 0 0 35 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local November December May July June August 30 33 March 32 30 September April January 24 October February Beaufort force is indicated by: 4 13 The frequency of wind is given by scale: March April 0% 10 20 30 40 50% 2 Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure 2 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. 4 July Station Wind May August 1 4 January Distribution June 1 September November February - 1400 local October December 41
  • Home Contents Index1.139 WMO No 16667 MITILÍNI 39°04N 26°36E. Height above MSL - 5 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 37ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -1ºC GÖKÇEADA Period maximum = 41ºC 35 Period minimum = -3ºC LÍMNOS 30 25 20 Mean monthly maximum 15 Mean daily maximum MITILÍNI TURKEY SKÍROS 10 23 yr period Mean daily minimum 5 Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 1.8 2.5 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 1.6 > force 61018 6 1400 local mean= 3 2 1.4 9 days per 13 days per1016 5 1400 local (green triangles) year year 1.2 1.51014 4 1 23 yr period 23 yr period1012 3 0.8 23 yr period 1 0.61010 2 0.4 0.5 Mean sea level pressure in hPa1008 1 0800 local (blue Annual mean 1015 hPa 0.2 circles)1006 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 120 10 85 1 Mean precipitation Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog in mm 9 days > 0.1mm 80 0.9 100 0800 local 8 75 0.8 22 yr period 512 mm per year Below one 7 0.7 80 55 precipitation 70 day per year 22 yr period 6 days per year 0.6 65 1400 local 60 5 0.5 60 4 0.4 40 55 3 0.3 23 yr period 2 50 23 yr period 0.2 20 1 45 Annual 0800 local mean 75%; 0.1 1400 local mean 63% 0 0 40 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local September May October June 17 18 28 27 30 July November January March August December February AprilThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 13 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local March April September January October February May July 16 June 15 August November 11 December 11 15 8 42
  • Home Contents Index1.140 WMO No 16732 NÁXOS 37°06N 25°23E. Height above MSL - 9 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 40 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 33ºC temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 4ºC 35 ATHÍNAI Period maximum = 37ºC SÁMOS Period minimum = 1ºC 30 25 20 Mean monthly maximum NÁXOS 15 Mean daily maximum Mean daily minimum 10 23 yr period Mean monthly minimum 5 KÍTHIRA 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 7 3 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder Annual 0800 local mean= 3; > force 61018 6 6 2.5 1400 local mean= 3 33 days per 12 days per1016 5 1400 local (green triangle) 5 year year 21014 4 23 yr period 4 23 yr period 23 yr period 1.51012 3 3 11010 2 2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.51008 1 1 Annual mean 1015 hPa 0800 local (blue circle)1006 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 60 12 80 1 Mean precipitation in Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog mm days > 0.1mm 0.9 50 10 75 0800 local 315 mm per year 0.8 51 precipitation days per year 0.7 Below one 40 8 70 day per year 21 yr period 0.6 21 yr period 30 6 65 0.5 23 yr period 0.4 1400 local 20 4 60 0.3 23 yr period 0.2 10 2 55 Annual 0800 local mean 74%; 0.1 1400 local mean 66% 0 0 50 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D The frequency of wind is given by scale: March May November January April December 0% 10 20 30 40 50% June September February July October August Station Wind Distribution 23 12 15 - 0800 local 21 17 9 Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local November May December January March June February April September July October Beaufort force is indicated by: August 4 4 3 3 3 Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure 1 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. 1 43
  • Home Contents Index1.141 WMO No 16749 RÓDOS 36°24N 28°05E. Height above MSL - 11 m Climate information for period 1974 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 34ºC temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 4ºC 40 Period maximum = 40ºC NÁXOS BODRUM 35 Period minimum = 0ºC 30 RÓDOS 25 20 Mean monthly maximum Mean daily maximum 15 33 yr period Mean daily minimum 10 Mean monthly minimum 5 J F M A M J J A S O N D1018 6 1 4 33 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder1016 0.9 > force 6 3.5 Annual 0800 local mean= 2; 5 1400 local mean= 3 0.8 20 days per1014 3 days per 3 1400 local year 0.7 year 41012 0.6 2.5 33 yr period 33 yr period1010 3 0.5 21008 0.4 1.5 2 0800 local 0.31006 1 0.2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 11004 Annual mean 1013 hPa 0.1 0.5 33 yr period1002 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 160 10 80 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog 9 days > 0.1mm 0800 local 0.9 140 603 mm per year 75 8 43 precipitation days 0.8 120 per year 7 70 0.7 Below one 23 yr period day per year 100 6 0.6 65 1400 local 80 5 0.5 23 yr period 60 33 yr period 60 4 0.4 3 55 0.3 40 33 yr period 2 0.2 20 50 Annual 0800 local mean 72%; 1 0.1 1400 local mean 60% 0 0 45 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local 2 July 30 24 35 6 August 17 March May January June November April September February December OctoberThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. March Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local April 4 0 September July October August 9 1 9 May 1 June November January December February 44
  • Home Contents Index1.142 WMO No 16723 SÁMOS 37°42N 26°55E. Height above MSL - 7 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 50 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 38ºC 45 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 0ºC Period maximum = 44ºC 40 Period minimum = -3ºC SÁMOS 35 30 25 20 Mean monthly maximum BODRUM NÁXOS 15 Mean daily maximum 10 Mean daily minimum 5 RÓDOS 23 yr period Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 1.2 2.5 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder1018 > force 6 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 1 13 days per1016 1400 local mean= 3 2 year 6 days per 5 23 yr period year1014 0.8 1400 local 23 yr period 1.51012 4 0.6 23 yr period1010 3 11008 0.4 2 0800 local1006 0.5 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.2 11004 Annual mean 1014 hPa1002 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 140 12 90 1 Mean precipitation Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog in mm days > 0.1mm 0.9 120 80 10 56 precipitation 0800 local 0.8 days per year 70 Below one 100 584 mm per year 0.7 8 day per year 60 0.6 80 6 50 0.5 60 22 yr period 40 0.4 22 yr period 4 1400 local 40 0.3 30 23 yr period 23 yr period 0.2 20 2 20 Annual 0800 local mean 67%; 0.1 1400 local mean 50% 0 0 10 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local September March May October April June 32 28 34 January 31 27 February July November 14 August DecemberThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. March Station Wind Distribution September April - 1400 local October January February May 9 8 June July 10 5 August 5 1 November December 45
  • Home Contents Index1.143 WMO No 16684 SKÍROS 38°58N 24°29E. Height above MSL - 28 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 35ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 1ºC Period maximum = 43ºC 35 Period minimum = -4ºC MITILÍNI T 30 SKÍROS 25 20 Mean monthly maximum 15 Mean daily maximum 10 Mean daily minimum ATHÍNAI 23 yr period SÁMOS 5 Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 8 2 1.4 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 7 1.8 > force 61018 Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 1.2 10 days per 1400 local mean= 3 1.6 8 days per year 61016 1400 local (green triangles) 1.4 year 1 5 1.21014 0.8 4 23 yr period 11012 23 yr period 0.6 3 0.81010 0.6 0.4 2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.41008 1 0.2 Annual mean 1015 hPa 0.2 0800 local (blue circles) 23 yr period1006 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 80 10 85 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog 9 days > 0.1mm 80 0.9 70 336 mm per year 8 75 0800 local 0.8 60 22 yr period 2 days per 7 52 precipitation 0.7 year 70 50 6 days per year 0.6 65 40 5 0.5 60 1400 local 23 yr period 22 yr period 4 0.4 30 55 3 0.3 20 2 50 23 yr period 0.2 10 1 45 Annual 0800 local mean 74%; 0.1 1400 local mean 65% 0 0 40 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local July January February August September November March October December April May June 32 29 36 36 32 21The frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local November December May June July August September October 10 10 11 January 8 March 3 6 February April 46
  • Home Contents Index1.144 WMO No 16746 SOÚDA 35°29N 24°074. Height above MSL - 151 m Climate information for period 1984 - 2006 50 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 38ºC 45 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = 3ºC Period maximum = 43ºC 40 Period minimum = 0ºC KÍTHIRA 35 30 25 Mean monthly maximum 20 SOÚDA 15 Mean daily maximum 10 Mean daily minimum 23 yr period 5 Mean monthly minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D1020 7 1 3.5 23 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 0.9 > force 61018 6 Annual 0800 local mean= 3; 3 1400 local mean= 3 0.8 2 days per 13 days per1016 5 1400 local (green triangle) 0.7 year 2.5 year 23 yr period 0.61014 4 2 23 yr period 0.5 23 yr period1012 3 1.5 0.41010 2 0.3 1 0.2 Mean sea level pressure in hPa1008 1 0.5 Annual mean 1015 hPa 0.1 0800 local1006 0 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 120 14 90 1 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog days > 0.1mm 0.9 526 mm per year 12 80 100 0800 local 3 days per 69 precipitation days 0.8 per year year 10 70 0.7 80 20 yr period 0.6 8 60 23 yr period 60 0.5 20 yr period 6 50 0.4 40 4 40 1400 local 0.3 23 yr period 0.2 20 2 30 Annual 0800 local mean 69%; 0.1 1400 local mean 52% 0 0 20 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D NO DATA AVAILABLEThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. NO DATA AVAILABLE 47
  • Home Contents Index1.145 WMO No 16622 THESSALONÍKI 40°31N 22°58E. Height above MSL - 4 m Climate information for period 1974 - 2006 45 Mean maximum and minimum Mean annual maximum = 37ºC 40 temperatures ºC Mean annual minimum = -6ºC Period maximum = 46ºC 35 Period minimum = -10ºC ALEX 30 THESSALONÍKI 25 20 GÖKÇEADA Mean monthly maximum 15 LÍMNOS 10 Mean daily maximum 33 yr periodEEC E 5 Mean daily minimum 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D Mean monthly minimum -51022 5.5 1.2 5 33 yr period Cloud cover in oktas Days with winds Days with thunder 5 > force 6 4.51020 33 yr period 1 33 yr period 20 days per 4.5 4 year 1400 local 5 days per1018 4 year 3.5 0.8 3.5 31016 3 0.6 2.51014 33 yr period 2.5 2 0.41012 2 1.5 1.5 0800 local 1 Mean sea level pressure in hPa 0.21010 Annual 0800 local mean= 4; Annual mean 1017 hPa 1 0.5 1400 local mean= 41008 0.5 0 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 60 10 90 4 Mean precipitation in mm Mean precipitation Relative humidity % Days with fog 9 days > 0.1mm 0800 local 3.5 50 23 yr period 80 8 3 7 15 days per 40 70 year 6 2.5 30 5 60 2 33 yr period 1400 local 4 1.5 20 50 3 1 33 yr period 2 10 40 23 yr period Annual 0800 local mean 75%; 0.5 1 400 mm per year 74 precipitation days per year 1400 local mean 54% 0 0 30 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Station Wind Distribution - 0800 local 59 56 60 61 48 44 September May July October November January March August June December February AprilThe frequency of wind is given by scale: Beaufort force is indicated by: Wind flow is towards the circle. The figure0% 10 20 30 40 50% 4 in the circle gives the percentage of calms. Station Wind Distribution - 1400 local November December 1 July 4 August May 7 8 June 25 22 January March September February April October 48
  • Home Contents Index1.146 METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES Fahrenheit to Celsius °Fahrenheit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 °F Degrees Celsius −100 −73⋅3 −73⋅9 −74⋅4 −75⋅0 −75⋅6 −76⋅1 −76⋅7 −77⋅2 −77⋅8 −78⋅3 −90 −67⋅8 −68⋅3 −68⋅9 −69⋅4 −70⋅0 −70⋅6 −71⋅1 −71⋅7 −72⋅2 −72⋅8 −80 −62⋅2 −62⋅8 −63⋅3 −63⋅9 −64⋅4 −65⋅0 −65⋅6 −66⋅1 −66⋅7 −67⋅2 −70 −56⋅7 −57⋅2 −57⋅8 −58⋅3 −58⋅9 −59⋅4 −60⋅0 −60⋅6 −61⋅1 −61⋅7 −60 −51⋅1 −51⋅7 −52⋅2 −52⋅8 −53⋅3 −53⋅9 −54⋅4 −55⋅0 −55⋅6 −56⋅1 −50 −45⋅6 −46⋅1 −46⋅7 −47⋅2 −47⋅8 −48⋅3 −48⋅9 −49⋅4 −50⋅0 −50⋅6 −40 −40⋅0 −40⋅6 −41⋅1 −41⋅7 −42⋅2 −42⋅8 −43⋅3 −43⋅9 −44⋅4 −45⋅0 −30 −34⋅4 −35⋅0 −35⋅6 −36⋅1 −36⋅7 −37⋅2 −37⋅8 −38⋅3 −38⋅9 −39⋅4 −20 −28⋅9 −29⋅4 −30⋅0 −30⋅6 −31⋅1 −31⋅7 −32⋅2 −32⋅8 −33⋅3 −33⋅9 −10 −23⋅3 −23⋅9 −24⋅4 −25⋅0 −25⋅6 −26⋅1 −26⋅7 −27⋅2 −27⋅8 −28⋅3 −0 −17⋅8 −18⋅3 −18⋅9 −19⋅4 −20⋅0 −20⋅6 −21⋅1 −21⋅7 −22⋅2 −22⋅8 +0 −17⋅8 −17⋅2 −16⋅7 −16⋅1 −15⋅6 −15⋅0 −14⋅4 −13⋅9 −13⋅3 −12⋅8 10 −12⋅2 −11⋅7 −11⋅1 −10⋅6 −10⋅0 −9⋅4 −8⋅9 −8⋅3 −7⋅8 −7⋅2 20 −6⋅7 −6⋅1 −5⋅6 −5⋅0 −4⋅4 −3⋅9 −3⋅3 −2⋅8 −2⋅2 −1⋅7 30 −1⋅1 −0⋅6 0 +0⋅6 +1⋅1 +1⋅7 +2⋅2 +2⋅8 +3⋅3 +3⋅9 40 +4⋅4 +5⋅0 +5⋅6 6⋅1 6⋅7 7⋅2 7⋅8 8⋅3 8⋅9 9⋅4 50 10⋅0 10⋅6 11⋅1 11⋅7 12⋅2 12⋅8 13⋅3 13⋅9 14⋅4 15⋅0 60 15⋅6 16⋅1 16⋅7 17⋅2 17⋅8 18⋅3 18⋅9 19⋅4 20⋅0 20⋅6 70 21⋅1 21⋅7 22⋅2 22⋅8 23⋅3 23⋅9 24⋅4 25⋅0 25⋅6 26⋅1 80 26⋅7 27⋅2 27⋅8 28⋅3 28⋅9 29⋅4 30⋅0 30⋅6 31⋅1 31⋅7 90 32⋅2 32⋅8 33⋅3 33⋅9 34⋅4 35⋅0 35⋅6 36⋅1 36⋅7 37⋅2 100 37⋅8 38⋅3 38⋅9 39⋅4 40⋅0 40⋅6 41⋅1 41⋅7 42⋅2 42⋅8 110 43⋅3 43⋅9 44⋅4 45⋅0 45⋅6 46⋅1 46⋅7 47⋅2 47⋅8 48⋅3 120 48⋅9 49⋅4 50⋅0 50⋅6 51⋅1 51⋅7 52⋅2 52⋅8 53⋅3 53⋅9 Celsius to Fahrenheit °Celsius 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 °C Degrees Fahrenheit −70 −94⋅0 −95⋅8 −97⋅6 −99⋅4 −101⋅2 −103⋅0 −104⋅8 −106⋅6 −108⋅4 −110⋅2 −60 −76⋅0 −77⋅8 −79⋅6 −81⋅4 −83⋅2 −85⋅0 −86⋅8 −88⋅6 −90⋅4 −92⋅2 −50 −58⋅0 −59⋅8 −61⋅6 −63⋅4 −65⋅2 −67⋅0 −68⋅8 −70⋅6 −72⋅4 −74⋅2 −40 −40⋅0 −41⋅8 −43⋅6 −45⋅4 −47⋅2 −49⋅0 −50⋅8 −52⋅6 −54⋅4 −56⋅2 −30 −22⋅0 −23⋅8 −25⋅6 −27⋅4 −29⋅2 −31⋅0 −32⋅8 −34⋅6 −36⋅4 −38⋅2 −20 −4⋅0 −5⋅8 −7⋅6 −9⋅4 −11⋅2 −13⋅0 −14⋅8 −16⋅6 18⋅4 −20⋅2 −10 +14⋅0 +12⋅2 +10⋅4 +8⋅6 +6⋅8 +5⋅0 +3⋅2 +1⋅4 −0⋅4 −2⋅2 −0 32⋅0 30⋅2 28⋅4 26⋅6 24⋅8 23⋅0 21⋅2 19⋅4 +17⋅6 +15⋅8 +0 32⋅0 33⋅8 35⋅6 37⋅4 39⋅2 41⋅0 42⋅8 44⋅6 46⋅4 48⋅2 10 50⋅0 51⋅8 53⋅6 55⋅4 57⋅2 59⋅0 60⋅8 62⋅6 64⋅4 66⋅2 20 68⋅0 69⋅8 71⋅6 73⋅4 75⋅2 77⋅0 78⋅8 80⋅6 82⋅4 84⋅2 30 86⋅0 87⋅8 89⋅6 91⋅4 93⋅2 95⋅0 96⋅8 98⋅6 100⋅4 102⋅2 40 104⋅0 105⋅8 107⋅6 109⋅4 111⋅2 113⋅0 114⋅8 116⋅6 118⋅4 120⋅2 50 122⋅0 123⋅8 125⋅6 127⋅4 129⋅2 131⋅0 132⋅8 134⋅6 136⋅4 138⋅2 HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES HECTOPASCALS 950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 28 29 INCHES 30 31 MILLIMETRES TO INCHES (1) (for small values) millimetres 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0⋅5 1⋅5 2⋅5 3⋅5 0 1 2 3 4 inches (2) (for large values) millimetres 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 20 30 40 60 70 80 90 110 120 0 5 10 50 100 inches 49
  • Home Contents Index Chapter 2 - Aegean Sea - principal routes 23° 24° 25° 26° 27° 28° 41° 41° Kavála 13.74 13.212 NP 24 Alexandroúpoli BLACK SEA AND SEA OF AZOV PILOT Thásos Thessaloníki 10.325 Samothráki lle zi ne oÔa s) B Límnos le 40° Gökçeada ka a 40° ak rd an e Da Ç h (T Bozcaada 224 2.3 1 10.227 2.34 Vólos 1086 Kirá Panayiá Lésvos 2.47 2.46 39° Skópelos 39° 6 Skíros T U R K E Y 2.3 2. 3 (Skáros) y 0 2.37 Évvoia . G R E E C E Izmir Khíos 12.268 Çe=me Geçidi/ 1093 Stenó Chíou 2. Stenó (Khios Strait) 6.75 41 38° Kafiréa 38° 2.44 1085 Peiraiás 1087 Ándros Sámos Ikaría 3 Kéa Stenó 2 .1 Mikónou Míkonos Khtapodhiá 2.27 Sérifos Páros 1099 37° 1092 Náxos 37° 15 2.12 Parapóla 2. Amorgós Kós Íos 2.1 Mílos 2.29 Nísiros Symi ´ 2.22 9 Rhodes Stenó Astipálaia Channel Elafonisou 1091 Thíra Anáfi 2. Tílos 26 1095 Kíthira 2.25 Ródos 36° Stenó 36° Kithíron 2. 24 2.18 Kárpathos Stenó Stenó Andikithíron Karpáthou 2.23 Soúda 4.86 236 KRÍTI Irákleio NP 49 4.170 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT Stenó VOL V 35° Kásou 35° 23° 24° Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 27° 28°0506 50
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 2 AEGEAN SEA—PRINCIPAL ROUTES GENERAL INFORMATION ROUTES DESCRIBED Rhodes Channel (36°31′N 28°06′E), the most direct route for vessels bound from the port of Ródos. Chart 180 2.11 The chapter index diagram shows the principal routes ROUTES TO NORTH AEGEAN through the Aegean Sea to the following destinations: Irákleio (Iráklion) (35°22′N 25°09′E). General information Peiraiás (37°56N 23°37′E). Vólos (39°21′N 22°57′E). Chart 180 Thessaloníki (40°37′N 22°56′E). 2.52 Kavála (40°55′N 24°24′E). 1 Routes to destinations in the N Aegean pass through one Alexandroúpoli (40°50′N 25°53′E). of the following focal positions or straits: Çanakkale BoÕazÝ (The Dardanelles) (SW entrance) Stenó Kafiréa (38°00′N 24°39′E). (40°01′N 26°10′E). Stenó Dhísvaton (37°41′N 24°58′E). ™zmir (38°26′N 27°07′E). Stenó Mikónou (37°30′N 25°15′E).3 The legs of each route, which are fully described in the 2 Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia (6 miles NE of) (37°30′N body of the book, are summarized in the following sections 25°38′E). of this chapter: Ákra Páppas (3½ miles WSW of) (37°30′N 25°54′E). South Aegean—Principal routes (2.12−2.29). The recommended routes are given in the following North Aegean—Principal routes (2.30−2.49). paragraphs.4 Distances between the initial and final positions of each route may be obtained from Admiralty Distance From Stenó Elafonísou Tables—Atlantic Ocean. To Vólos, Thessaloníki, Kavála, Alexandroúpoli and Çanakkale BoÕazÝ APPROACH ROUTES 2.6 1 Vessels normally route via Stenó Kafiréa. From west During adverse conditions, Stenó Dhísvaton is a better Chart 180 route for low powered vessels NE−bound. 2.2 To ™zmir1 The following channels lead into the Aegean Sea from 2.7 W: 1 The route normally followed is via Stenó Mikónou. Stenó Elafonísou (36°25′N 22°57′E), the best and Alternative routes are via Stenó Dhísvaton and Stenó most direct route for vessels bound for Peiraiás or Kafiréa respectively. All three routes are about the same in destinations in the N Aegean. distance.2 Stenó Kithíron (36°04′N 23°10′E), sometimes used by Vessels SW−bound from ™zmir sometimes follow the vessels E−bound through the N part of Sea of route via Stenó Kafiréa to take advantage of the S or SW Crete. current, but this route is more exposed to N winds. Stenó Andikithíron (35°45′N 23°27′E), normally used by vessels E−bound through Sea of Crete. 2.3 From Irákleio1 Dhiórix Korínthou (37°57′N 22°57′E) (see To Vólos, Thessaloníki and Kavála Mediterranean Pilot Volume III for details) affords 2.8 significant savings in distance for vessels of suitable size 1 Via Stenó Kafiréa. and draught bound for Peiraiás or the N Aegean. The greatest savings are on passages from ports in the Adriatic To Alexandroúpoli, Çanakkale BoÕazÝ and ™zmir and on the W coast of Greece. Smaller savings are made 2.9 on passages from ports on the S coast of France and the W 1 Via Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia. coast of Italy, via Stretto di Messina. From Stenó Karpáthou From east 2.4 To Vólos and Thessaloníki1 The following channels lead into the Aegean Sea 2.10 from E: 1 Via Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia. Stenó Kásou (35°20′N 26°36′E), used by vessels W−bound through Sea of Crete or NW−bound to To Kavála, Alexandroúpoli, Çanakkale BoÕazÝ and Peiraiás. ™zmir2 Stenó Karpáthou (35°55′N 27°30′E), used by vessels 2.11 N−bound to the N Aegean. 1 Via Ákra Páppas. 51
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 2 SOUTH AEGEAN—PRINCIPAL ROUTES FROM STENÓ ELAFONÍSOU FROM IRÁKLEIO To Peiraiás To Peiraiás 2.12 Direct route1 Stenó Elafonísou (3.74). 2.19 Stenó Elafonísou to Saronikós Kólpos (5.33). 1 North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). Nisídha Áyios Yeóryios to Peiraiás approaches (6.16). Irákleio approaches to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (4.15). Peiraiás approaches (6.95). Vrakhonisídhes Anánes to Saronikós Kólpos (5.39). Nisídha Áyios Yeóryios to Peiraiás approaches (6.16). To Stenó Kafiréa Peiraiás approaches (6.95). 2.131 Stenó Elafonísou (3.74). Alternative route Stenó Elafonísou to Stenó Kéas (5.24). 2.20 Stenó Kéas (7.454). 1 North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). Stenó Kéas to Stenó Kafiréa (7.468). Irákleio approaches to Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou Stenó Kafiréa (7.472). (4.18). Thence as at 2.24. To Stenó Dhísvaton To Stenó Kafiréa 2.14 2.211 Stenó Elafonísou (3.74). 1 North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). Stenó Elafonísou to Stenó Sérifou and Stenó Kíthnou Irákleio approaches to Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou (5.19). (4.18). Stenó Sérifou (7.383). Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou (4.357). Passage between Nísos Síros and Nísos Yíaros Passage SE of Nísos Sífnos (7.192). (7.398). Passage between Nísos Sérifos and Nísos Síros Stenó Dhísvaton (7.430). (7.322). 2 Passage between Nísos Síros and Nísos Yíaros (7.398). To Stenó Mikónou Passage between Nísos Ándros and Nísos Yíaros 2.15 (7.412).1 Stenó Elafonísou (3.74). Stenó Kafiréa (7.472). Stenó Elafonísou to Stenó Sífnou (5.14). Stenó Sífnou (7.269). Stenó Sífnou to Stenó Mikónou (7.326). To Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia Stenó Mikónou (7.364). 2.22 1 North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). Irákleio approaches to Nísos Thíra (4.20). Stenó Sikínou−Íou and approaches (7.164). FROM STENÓ KITHÍRON Stenó Párou−Náxou (7.242). Passage SE of Nísos Míkonos (7.315). To Stenó Karpáthou 2.16 FROM STENÓ KÁSOU1 Stenó Kithíron (3.30). Stenó Kithíron to Stenó Karpáthou (4.11). Passage NE of Nisídha Sariá (8.32). To Irákleio 2.23 1 Offshore passage through Stenó Kásou (4.195). Stenó Kásou to Kólpos Mirambéllou approaches FROM STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON (4.219). Kólpos Mirambéllou approaches to Irákleio approaches (4.270). To Stenó Kásou North−east approach to Irákleio (4.159). 2.171 Stenó Andikithíron (3.20). Stenó Andikithíron to Stenó Kásou (4.5). To Peiraiás Offshore passage through Stenó Kásou (4.195). 2.24 1 Offshore passage through Stenó Kásou (4.195). Stenó Kásou to Nísos Thíra (4.26). To Irákleio Passage SW of Nísos Thíra (4.325). 2.18 Passage SW of Nísos Folégandros (4.331).1 Stenó Andikithíron (3.20). Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou (4.357). Passage N of Khersónisos Rodhopoú (4.44). Stenó Kimólou (4.360). Passage N of Khersónisos Akrotíri (4.62). 2 Stenó Kimólou to Saronikós Kólpos (5.256). Khersónisos Akrotíri to Irákleio approaches (4.69). Nisídha Áyios Yeóryios to Peiraiás approaches (6.16). North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). Peiraiás approaches (6.95). 52
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 2 FROM STENÓ KARPÁTHOU Passage W of Nísos Kós (8.305). Passage NE of Nísos Levítha (8.308). To Peiraiás Nísos Levítha to Ákra Páppas (8.310). 2.251 Passage NE of Nisídha Sariá (8.32). Stenó Karpáthou to Nisídhes Sofrána (4.313). Nisídhes Sofrána to Nísos Thíra (4.318). Thence as at 2.24. FROM RHODES CHANNEL To Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia 2.261 Passage NE of Nisídha Sariá (8.32). To Peiraiás Passage NE of Nisídha Sírna (8.109). 2.29 Passage NE of Nísos Astipálaia (8.282). 1 Rhodes Channel (8.85). Passage between Nísos Amorgós and Nisídha Kínaros Passage between Nísos Sümi and Nísos Tílos (8.118). (8.289). Passage between Nísos Tílos and Nísos Nísiros Nisídha Kínaros to Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia (8.295). (8.126). Nísos Nísiros to Nísos Astipálaia (8.134). 2 Passage NE of Nísos Astipálaia (8.282). To Ákra Páppas Passage between Nísos Astipálaia and Nísos Amorgós Western route (7.95). 2.27 Passage between Nísos Íos and Nísos Amorgós1 Stenó Karpáthou to passage between Nísos Amorgós (7.103). and Nisídha Kínaros, as at 2.26. Passage between Nísos Íos and Nísos Iraklía (7.107). Nisídha Kínaros to Ákra Páppas (8.300). 3 Passage S of Nísos Antíparos (7.206). Passage NE of Nísos Sífnos (7.198). Eastern route Passage between Nísos Sérifos and Nísos Síros 2.28 (7.322).1 Stenó Karpáthou to passage NE of Nisídha Sírna, as Stenó Sérifou (7.383). at 2.26. Thence as at 2.24. NORTH AEGEAN—PRINCIPAL ROUTES FROM STENÓ KAFIRÉA Via Stenó Pelagonísou 2.33 To Vólos 1 Stenó Kafiréa to Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha (10.15). 2.30 Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha to Stenó Pelagonísou1 Stenó Kafiréa to Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha (10.15). (10.53). Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha to Stenó Skopélou (10.38). Stenó Pelagonísou (10.178). South−east approach to Dhíavlos Tríkeri (10.64). Stenó Pelagonísou to Ákra Kassándra (10.268). Dhíavlos Tríkeri (10.73). Ákra Kassándra to head of Thermaïkós Kólpos Dhíavlos Vólou (10.191). (10.280). Vólos approaches (10.218). Thence as at 2.31. To Thessaloníki To Kavála 2.34 Via Stenó Alonnísou 1 Stenó Kafiréa to Nísos Skíros (Sküros) (11.158). 2.31 Passage E of Nísos Skíros (11.162).1 Stenó Kafiréa to Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha (10.15). Passage W of Nísos Áyios Evstrátios (11.180). Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha to Stenó Alonnísou (10.51). Passage W of Nísos Límnos (11.187). Stenó Alonnísou (10.147). Passage SW of Nísos Thásos (13.40). Passage NE of Nísos Skópelos (10.155). Passage W of Nísos Thásos (13.46). Stenó Skopélou to Ákra Dhermatás (10.251). Kólpos Kaválas (13.59).2 Ákra Dhermatás to head of Thermaïkós Kólpos (10.260). To Alexandroúpoli Head of Thermaïkós Kólpos (10.294). 2.35 Kólpos Thessaloníkis (10.311). 1 Stenó Kafiréa to Bozcaada (11.151). Passage between Nísos Límnos and Gökçeada Via Stenó Skopélou (13.102). 2.32 Passage between Gökçeada and Nísos Samothráki Stenó Kafiréa to Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha (10.15). (13.109). Vrakhonisídha Prasoúdha to Stenó Skopélou (10.38). Passage between Nísos Samothráki and Boztepe Stenó Skopélou (10.93). Burnu (13.195). Thence as at 2.31. Alexandroúpoli approaches (13.207). 53
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 2 To Çanakkale BoÕazÝ To Alexandroúpoli 2.36 2.421 Stenó Kafireá to Bozcaada (11.151). 1 Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia to Bozcaada, as at 2.43. Bozcaada to Karayer AdalarÝ (11.246). Bozcaada to Alexandroúpoli, as at 2.35. Karayer AdalarÝ to Çanakkale BoÕazÝ (11.265). To Çanakkale BoÕazÝ To ™zmir 2.43 2.37 1 Ákra Páppas to Nísos Psára (11.34).1 Stenó Kafiréa to Nísos Psára (11.145). Passages between Nisídha Andípsara, Nísos Psára and Passages between Nisídha Andípsara, Nísos Psára and Nísos Khíos (11.52). Nísos Khíos (11.52). Nísos Psára to W side of Nísos Lésvos (11.68). Passage N of Nísos Khíos (12.148). Passage W of Nísos Lésvos (11.72). Passage N of Karaburun YarÝmadasÝ (12.153). West side of Nísos Lésvos to Bozcaada (11.86). Outer part of ™zmir Körfezi (12.204). 2 Bozcaada to Karayer AdalarÝ (11.246). Eskifener Burnu to Pelikan BankÝ (12.235). Karayer AdalarÝ to Çanakkale BoÕazÝ (11.265). Pelikan BankÝ to ™zmir (12.257). To ™zmir 2.44 FROM STENÓ DHÍSVATON 1 Passage W of Nísos Ikaría (11.13). Nísos Ikaría to Çeîme Geçidi/Stenó Chíou (Khios To ™zmir Strait) (11.27). 2.38 Thence as at 2.39.1 Stenó Dhísvaton to Nísos Psára (11.141). Thence as at 2.37. FROM ÁKRA PÁPPAS FROM STENÓ MIKÓNOU To Thessaloníki 2.45 To ™zmir 1 Ákra Páppas to Nísos Skíros (Sküros) (11.107). 2.39 Passage E of Nísos Skíros (11.162).1 Stenó Mikónou to Çeîme Geçidi/Stenó Chíou (Khios Passage between Nísos Skíros and Nisídha Pipéri Strait) (11.137). (11.169). Ákra Gridhiá to Alev Ada (12.76). Thence as at 2.33. EÕriliman Geçidi (12.118). Thence as at 2.37. To Kavála 2.46 FROM VRAKHONISÍDHA KHTAPÓDHIA 1 Ákra Páppas to Nísos Skíros (11.107). Thence as at 2.34. To Vólos 2.40 To Alexandroúpoli1 Passage NE of Nísos Míkonos (11.112). 2.47 Passage NE of Nísos Tínos (11.117). 1 Ákra Páppas to Bozcaada, as at 2.43. Passage NE of Nísos Ándros (11.124). Bozcaada to Alexandroúpoli, as at 2.35. Thence as at 2.30. To Çanakkale BoÕazÝ To Thessaloníki 2.48 2.41 1 As at 2.43.1 Vrakhonisídha Khtapódhia to Stenó Kafiréa, as at 2.40. To ™zmir Stenó Kafiréa to Thessaloníki, as at 2.31, 2.32 or 2.49 2.33. 1 As at 2.44. 54
  • Home Contents Index NOTES 55
  • Home Contents Index Chapter 3 - South Aegean - western approaches 20´ 30´ 40´ 50´ 23° 10´ 20´ 30´ 40´ 50´ 50´ 1683 Pelopónnisos Yíthion 3.113 40´ 40´ Lakonikós Kólpos CHAPTER 5 3.98 30´ 30´ Ákra Stenó Maléas Ákra Elafonísou 3.74 Taínaro 20´ Nísos 20´ Kíthira 6 3.6 3.55 CHAPTER 4 10´ 10´ 3.47 Stenó Kithíron 3. 36° 0 36° 3.3 42 Nísos Andikíthira 50´ 3681 50´ 3. 26 0 3.2 Stenó Andikithíron 40´ 40´ 1030 30´ 30´ KRÍTI 3.7 20´ 20´ NP 49 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOL V 10´ 10´ 20´ 30´ 40´ 50´ Longitude 23° East from Greenwich 20´ 30´ 40´0506 56
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 SOUTH AEGEAN—WESTERN APPROACHES GENERAL INFORMATION Chart 1092, 1030 caused by the rock having been worn away to a depth of Area covered about 5 cm. Similar lines of erosion surround Vrákhos 3.1 Poréti and Vrakhonisídha Porí (3.33).1 The chapter index diagram shows the limits of the 3.3 chapter and routes described. 1 Nísos Kíthira (36°15′N 23°00′E) is a mountainous arid The chapter comprises the following sections: island of volcanic formation. Óros Mirmingári (36°14′N Stenó Andikithíron and S approach (3.7). 22°56′E), the summit of the island, is 506 m in height.2 Stenó Andikithíron to Stenó Elafonísou and Lakonikós Kólpos (3.25). Marine farms Stenó Elafonísou and W approach (3.64). 3.4 Lakonikós Kólpos (3.92). 1 Marine farms and associated moorings may be found anywhere close inshore within the area covered by this chapter. See 1.7. Topography 3.2 Natural conditions1 Nísos Andikíthira (35°52′N 23°18′E) is a rocky hilly 3.5 island which rises to an elevation of 378 m on its SW side. 1 Currents. The general direction of flow is W or SW, The coast consists of steep inaccessible cliffs, and the but the currents are irregular both in direction and rate. island has an arid appearance although the inner valleys are 3.6 cultivated. A remarkable feature of the island is a 1 Sea conditions. Winds from S raise high seas in the W uniformly straight horizontal line all round the coast about approaches. Stenó Kithíron (3.30) is particularly prone to 2 m above MSL. Similar in appearance to the high water rough conditions during strong winds from between S mark on rocky coasts subject to regular tides, the line is and W. STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON AND SOUTH APPROACH GENERAL INFORMATION 2 Khersónisos Gramvoúsa (35°33′N 23°36′E), a narrow peninsula 762 m in height, extends from the vicinity of Charts 1092, 1030 Órmos Koútris to Ákra Voúxa 7 miles N. Area covered 3.7 Sea conditions1 The area covered by this section comprises: 3.10 Passage W of Kríti (3.8). 1 During strong SW winds very heavy seas may be Stenó Andikithíron (3.20). encountered off the SW corner of Kríti. Winds from W create difficult conditions along the entire W coast of the island. PASSAGE WEST OF KRÍTI Directions General information Principal marks 3.11 Charts 3681, 1030, 1092 1 Landmarks: Route Radar domes (two conspicuous white domes) 3.8 (35°19′N 23°37′E).1 The route W of Kríti, which forms the S approach to Major light: Stenó Andikithíron, leads from the vicinity of 35°05′N Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light (white lantern house, 23°20′E to that of 35°40′N 23°20′E, about 35 miles N. 3 m in height) (35°39′N 23°35′E). Between Ákra Kriós (35°14′N 23°35′E) and Ákra Voúxa 24 miles N the coast is fringed with above and Passage west of Kríti below−water rocks lying close inshore. Nísidha Pondikonísi 3.12 (3.12) is the only offshore danger. 1 From the vicinity of 35°05′N 23°20′E the track leads N passing: Topography W of Ákra Kriós (35°14′N 23°35′E), a somewhat 3.9 bold termination of the mountains in the W part of1 The peaks of Levká Óri (35°18′N 24°02′E) (4.31) are Kríti. The cape is said to resemble a ram’s visible from a great distance, but there are few prominent forehead, but it is only 127 m in height and not features on the W side of Kríti. remarkable. Thence: The S part of the coast is backed by mountains more 2 W of Nísidha Elafónisos (4 miles WNW of Ákra than 1000 m in height, decreasing in elevation N and Kriós), a flat narrow islet lying close offshore. becoming relatively low E of Órmos Koútris (35°30′N Nísidha Elafónisos Light (metal framework tower 23°34′E). with gallery, 15 m in height) is exhibited from the 57
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 W end of the islet. A monument stands near the 3 Anchorage. The recommended berth is in a depth of light−structure. Thence: 16 m with Áyios Paraskeví church bearing 095° distant W of Ákra Xeóskalo (6 miles NW of Ákra Krios), 5 cables as indicated on the chart. A rock awash lies the W extremity of Kríti; thence: 2½ cables ENE of the berth.3 W or E of Nísidha Pondikonísi (35°35′N 23°29′E), an islet 164 m in height. An above−water rock is Órmos Gramvoúsa charted off the SW end of the islet. And: 3.16 W of Khersónisos Tigáni (5 miles E of Nísidha 1 Description. Órmos Gramvoúsa (35°36′N 23°35′E) is a Pondikonísi), a small rocky peninsula 122 m in bay which affords shelter for small vessels during N winds. height. Yellow cliffs at the head of a bay on the S The bay may be entered from W or N, the N entrance side of the peninsula are conspicuous (chart 3681). being the safest approach to the anchorage. Some Thence: protection from SW and W is provided by Vrákhoi Valénti4 W of Nisídha Gramvoúsa (5 miles ENE of Nísidha and Vrákhoi Arnaoúti, reefs of above and below−water Pondikonísi), a precipitous islet 124 m in height. rocks on the S and N side, respectively, of the W entrance, From W the islet may be identified by a but the bottom consists of a thin layer of sand over rock conspicuous ruined fort standing on its SW side and the holding is not good. For this reason the anchorage (chart 3681). Thence: is not recommended during SW gales, and is unsafe during W of Ákra Kokkála (35°39′N 23°35′E), the NW point W gales. of Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa, a bold and barren 3.17 islet 103 m in height. Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa 1 Directions: Light (3.11) is exhibited from the point. West entrance. The fairway, with a least width of 3.13 1½ cables, leads E passing:1 Useful marks: N of Vrákhoi Valénti, passing 1 cable N of the rocky Monastery (white church with belfry; white chapel) islet lying near the extremity of the reef; thence: (35°18′⋅7N 23°32′⋅0E), standing on a low rocky S of Vrákhoi Arnaoúti, passing not less than 5 cables mound at the head of Órmos Stómio, a small bay. off the S extremity of Nisídha Gramvoúsa. Ákra Koutrí (35°31′N 23°34′E), a cliffy headland. 2 North entrance. The fairway leads N and E of Nisídha (Directions continue for Stenó Andikithíron at 3.22 and Gramvoúsa, keeping about 3 cables off the islet in order to for the passage SW of Nísos Andikíthira at 3.27) avoid shallows extending about 2 cables off its E side. Useful marks: Vrakhonisídha Petalídha (35°36′⋅1N 23°35′⋅4E), a black rock 8 m in height. Anchorages Rocky islet (35°35′⋅8N 23°34′⋅6E), about 30 m in height, lying near the extremity of Vrákhoi Valénti. Chart 3681 3.18 Órmos Vrouleá 1 Anchorage. The recommended berth is in a depth of 3.14 9 m with Vrakhonisídha Petalídha bearing 140° distant1 Description. Órmos Vrouleá (35°15′N 23°33′E), entered 2½ cables. between Ákra Kriós and Nisídha Elafónisos 3 miles NW, In August 1981 HMY Britannia (4961 tons) anchored in affords temporary shelter during N and NE winds. In such a depth of about 13 m with Vrakhonisídha Petalídha conditions the bay is preferable to Órmoi Palaiochóras bearing 048° distant 3¼ cables. (35°14′N 23°41′E) (see Mediterranean Pilot Volume V), as it is not subject to violent squalls.2 Anchorage. The recommended berth is about 2 cables Side channel offshore abreast a remarkable cliff on the N side of the Charts 3681, 1030 bay. Off the NW side of the bay the bottom is rocky and Stenó Voúxas uneven; off the E side the depths are too great for 3.19 anchoring. 1 Stenó Voúxas (35°38′N 23°36′E) leads between Ákra Voúxa and Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa. The strait has a least Chart 3681 (see 1.8) depth of 12 m in the fairway, but the navigable channel is Órmos Koútris constricted to a width of less than 2 cables by a spit with a 3.15 depth over it of 5 m extending 1 cable off Ákra Voúxa and1 Description. Órmos Koútris (35°30′N 23°34′E) is by dangerous rocks extending 1 cable off the SE extremity entered between Ákra Koutrí and Ákra Toúzoula 2½ miles of Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa. The strait should not be used S. The N part of the bay affords good shelter during strong at night. NE winds, but the anchorage is unsafe for small vessels except when calm. Nisídha Petalídha, a low dark−coloured islet lying 2 cables SSW of Ákra Koutrí, and some rocks STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON partly awash on a bank extending 3½ cables SW of the islet, provide some protection from W winds. The bottom General information is for the most part sand, with sand and weed in places.2 A small harbour protected by two moles lies in the S Charts 3681, 1030 part of the bay, ¾ mile NE of Ákra Toúzoula. A light is Route exhibited from the head of the W mole. 3.20 Useful mark: 1 Stenó Andikithíron (35°45′N 23°27′E), the strait between Áyios Paraskeví church (conspicuous) (35°30′⋅3N Khersónisos Gramvoúsa (3.9) and Nísos Andikíthira (3.2), 23°34′⋅6E). leads from the vicinity of 35°40′N 23°20′E to that of 58
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 35°50′N 23°35′E about 16 miles NE. The strait has a least Stenó Andikithíron width of 16 miles, with marked changes of depth over 3.23 relatively short distances. The least charted depth is 75 m. 1 From the vicinity of 35°40′N 23°20′E the fairway leads NE passing: Natural conditions NW of Nísidha Pondikonísi (35°35′N 23°29′E) (3.12); 3.21 thence:1 See 3.5. 2 NW of Ákra Kokkála (35°39′N 23°35′E) (3.12); and: SE of Ákra Apolitárais (35°50′N 23°20′E), a level Directions projecting point 24 m in height at the S extremity (continued from 3.13) of Nísos Andikíthira. Ákra Apolitárais Light (3.22) is exhibited from the point. Principal marks 3.24 3.22 1 Useful mark:1 Major lights: Ákra Spathí (35°42′N 23°44′E) (4.47). Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light (35°39′N 23°35′E) (Directions continue for the passage NE of (3.11). Nísos Andikíthira at 3.43, for Stenó Andikithíron to Ákra Apolitárais Light (round tower on dwelling, 8 m Stenó Kásou at 4.9, for Kólpos Kissámou at 4.36, and in height) (35°50′N 23°20′E). for the passage N of Khersónisos Rodhopoú at 4.46) STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON TO STENÓ ELAFONÍSOU AND LAKONIKÓS KÓLPOS GENERAL INFORMATION uneven, with charted depths over it of 6 to 7 m, lies less than 5 cables NE of the rock. Charts 1092, 1030 (Directions continue for Stenó Kithíron at 3.32 Area covered and for the passage SW of Nísos Kíthira at 3.50) 3.251 The area covered by this section comprises: Anchorage Passage SW of Nísos Andikíthira (3.26). Angáli Kamaríla Stenó Kithíron (3.30). 3.29 Passage NE of Nísos Andikíthira (3.42). 1 Angáli Kamaríla (35°52′N 23°17′E) is a rocky Passage SW of Nísos Kíthira (3.47). indentation sometimes used by local craft seeking shelter Passage E of Nísos Kíthira (3.55). during strong N and NE winds. STENÓ KITHÍRON PASSAGE SOUTH−WEST OF NÍSOS ANDIKÍTHIRA General information Chart 1030 General information Route 3.30 Chart 1030 1 Stenó Kithíron (36°04′N 23°10′E), the strait between Route Nísos Andikíthira (3.2) and Nísos Kíthira (3.3), leads from 3.26 the vicinity of 35°55′N 23°00′E to that of 36°07′N1 The route SW of Nísos Andikíthira (3.2) leads from the 23°15′E, about 17 miles NE. The fairway has a least depth vicinity of 35°40′N 23°20′E to that of 35°55′N 23°00′E, of 25 m and a least width of 10 miles between islets and about 22 miles NW. dangers on each side. 2 The strait is unlit, but no difficulty should be Directions experienced by day. It is advisable to keep to the NW side (continued from 3.13) of the fairway and give a wide berth to the islets and dangers on the SE side. Principal marks 3.27 Natural conditions1 Major light: 3.31 Ákra Apolitárais Light (35°50′N 23°20′E) (3.22). 1 See 3.5. Passage south−west of Nísos Andikíthira Directions (continued from 3.27) 3.281 From the vicinity of 35°40′N 23°20′E the track leads Principal marks NW passing: 3.32 SW of Ákra Apolitárais (35°50′N 23°20′E) (3.23); 1 Landmarks (positioned from Vrakhonisídha Avgó): thence: Vrakhonisídha Avgó (36°06′N 23°00′E), an2 SW of Vrákhos Navtílos (35°56′N 23°13′E), a rugged egg−shaped islet 209 m in height. pointed rock about 3 m in height which from a Óros Kapsáli (4¼ miles NNW), a flat−topped distance has the appearance of a number of mountain 477 m in height. A prominent monastery scattered rocks. Submerged rocks lie close W and stands on the NW shoulder, whence steep rocky E of the above−water rock. A shoal, rocky and terraces descend to the coast. 59
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Main fairway S of Ákra Trákhilos (2 miles N), the termination of a 3.33 cliffy tongue of land projecting from the S coast of1 From the vicinity of 35°55′N 23°00′E the fairway leads Nísos Kíthira; thence: NE passing: 2 S of Ákra Grósso (2 miles NNE), a bold headland. A SE of Vrakhonisídha Avgó (36°06′N 23°00′E) (3.32). ruined windmill stands on the point. Thence: Vessels approaching from NW may pass N of the S of shoals and below−water rocks extending more islet, but at night it is advisable to pass S. Thence: than 1 cable off a small promontory (2¾ miles2 NW of Vrákhos Navtílos (35°56′N 23°13′E) (3.28); NE); thence: thence: 3 S and SE of Ákra Kapéllo (3½ miles SE), the SE NW of Vrákhos Poréti (1¼ miles NNW of Vrákhos extremity of Nísos Kíthira. During N and NE Navtílos), a cliffy islet 40 m in height with a few winds a heavy swell is experienced off the cape, rocks off its W end; thence: which should be given a wide berth. And:3 NW of Vrakhonisídha Porí (2½ miles NNE of NW of Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia (5¼ miles E) Vrákhos Navtílos), a rocky islet 126 m in height, (3.33). the largest of the islets and dangers on the SE side of the fairway. The islet is steep−to and surrounded Órmos Kapsáli by deep water except for Ífalos Vathí, a rocky Chart 1030 (see 1.8) shoal with a depth over it of 7 m lying 7½ cables General information N. Thence: 3.374 SE of Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia (36°07′N 23°06′E), 1 Description. Órmos Kapsáli (36°08′N 23°00′E) is a two rocky islets lying about 6 cables apart. The N small natural harbour entered between Ákra Trákhilos islet, the larger, is flat and 10 m in height. Except (3.36) and Ákra Grósso (3.36) about ¾ cable NE. The for a rock with a depth over it of 2⋅7 m lying harbour is the best anchorage in Nísos Kíthira, although the about 2 cables off the S side of the S islet, harbour is entirely exposed to S and SE winds which Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia are generally clear of frequently bring in a heavy swell. During strong winds dangers. It is possible to pass between the two from between SE and SW the harbour is unsafe. islets, but care is necessary as currents in the 2 Kíthira, the capital of Nísos Kíthira, stands on a hill vicinity are frequently strong and variable in about 700 m NW of the head of the harbour. The town has direction. a population of about 230. 3.34 Port Authority: Harbour Master, Kapsáli.1 Clearing bearings: Climate information. See 1.132 and 1.137. The line of bearing 276° of Vrakhonisídha Avgó (36°05′N 23°00′E) (3.32) passes S of Useful marks Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia. 3.38 The line of bearing 354° of the high E extremity 1 (Positioned from Órmos Kapsáli Light): (36°14′N 23°06′E) (3.56) of Nísos Kíthira passes E Órmos Kapsáli Light (tower on dwelling, 8 m in of Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia. height) (36°09′N 23°00′E), exhibited from the W2 Vrakhonisídha Andidhragonéra Light (36°14′N part of a small promontory fronting Kapsálion. 23°07′E) (3.58) visible bearing 005° or less leads Fort (large Venetian building) (5 cables WNW), E of Vrakhonisídhes Koufonísia, but the islets lie standing on a hill close SE of the town of Kíthira. beyond the nominal range of the light. (Directions continue for the passage E of Anchorage Nísos Kíthira at 3.57, for Stenó Kithíron to 3.39 Stenó Karpáthou at 4.12, and for 1 Anchorage can be obtained in a depth of 29 m, mud and Stenó Kithíron to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes at 4.14) sand, about 1½ cables SSW of Órmos Kapsáli Light. This is the best berth for vessels, but it is safe only under favourable conditions. During strong winds it is subject to Inshore passage north−west of Nísos Andikíthira violent squalls from the surrounding hills, and during S or 3.35 SE winds the swell is liable to cause a vessel to drag.1 From the vicinity of 35°53′N 23°12′E the track leads A rocky patch with a depth over it of 8⋅2 m lies ¾ cable NE passing (with positions given from Ákra Kefáli SW of Órmos Kapsáli Light. (35°54′N 23°16′E)): 2 Small vessels can anchor nearer the head of the harbour, SE of Vrákhos Navtílos (3¼ miles NW) (3.28); in a depth of 15 m, about 1 cable W of the light as shown thence: on chart 1030. NW or SE of Vrakhonisídha Psíra (4 cables NNW), a Small vessels can moor off Kapsálion in a depth of steep−to rocky islet; thence: about 7 m, sand with fair holding, sheltered from S and SE2 NW of Ákra Kefáli, the NW point of Nísos winds by the promontory fronting the village. Local Andikíthira, which is formed of red cliffs 220 m in knowledge is desirable for taking up this berth. height; thence: 3 Fishing boats are reported to shelter in a small cove on SE of Vrakhonisídha Porí (4 miles NNW) (3.33). the E side of the promontory fronting the village. Local knowledge is essential for entering the cove which is shallow and rocky with an entrance only 50 m wide. Inshore passage south−east of Nísos Kíthira 3.36 Berths1 From the vicinity of 36°06′N 22°58′E the track leads E 3.40 and NE passing (with positions given from Vrakhonisídha 1 A concrete quay 100 m in length is situated on the N Avgó (36°06′N 23°00′E)): side of the promontory fronting Kapsálion. A beacon stands N of Vrakhonisídha Avgó (3.32); and: at the W extremity of the quay. Depths alongside decrease 60
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 gradually from 5⋅5 m at the head of the quay to 0⋅9 m at 4 Useful marks (positioned from Ákra Kástro Light): its E end. Ákra Kástro Light (metal framework tower on white A short quay is situated about 40 m N of the pedestal, 6 m in height) (35°54′N 23°18′E), aforementioned quay, with a depth alongside of 1⋅1 m and exhibited from Ákra Kástro. landing steps at its N end. Vrakhonisídhes Thérmones (3 cables ENE), three rocky islets 9 m in height lying in the approach Port services from E. 3.411 Facilities: customs; post office. Anchorage Supplies: fresh water is sometimes available in small 3.46 quantities; provisions in limited quantities. 1 Anchorage may be obtained about 3 cables WNW of Communications: ferry services to Neápolis (3.87), Ákra Kástro Light, as shown on chart 1030. Small vessels Kastéllion (4.39) and Peiraiás (6.108). can obtain anchorage in depths from 11 to 18 m near the head of Órmos Potamós. The holding ground is uncertain. PASSAGE NORTH−EAST OF NÍSOS ANDIKÍTHIRA PASSAGE SOUTH−WEST OF NÍSOS KÍTHIRA General information General information Chart 1030 Charts 1030, 1092 Route Route 3.42 3.471 The route NE of Nísos Andikíthira (3.2) leads from the 1 The route SW of Nísos Kíthira (3.3) leads from the vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E to that of 36°07′N 23°15′E vicinity of 35°55′N 23°00′E to that of 36°23′N 22°45′E about 23 miles NW. about 30 miles NNW. Directions Topography (continued from 3.22) 3.48 3.43 1 The W coast of Nísos Kíthira is high with precipitous1 From the vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E the track leads cliffs. There are no distinctive features. NW passing: NE of Ákra Apolitárais (35°50′N 23°20′E) (3.23); Natural conditions thence: 3.49 NE of Ákra Vlikhádha (35°53′N 23°18′E), the NE 1 Sea conditions. See 3.6. point of Nísos Andikíthira; thence: Local weather. During NE winds, heavy squalls from NE of Vrakhonisídha Porí (35°58′N 23°14′E) (3.33). the high land are liable to be experienced close offshore. 3.44 Sailing vessels should maintain reduced sail in the lee of1 Useful marks: the island. Ákra Kástro Light (35°54′N 23°18′E) (3.45). Ákra Kefáli (35°54′N 23°16′E) (3.35). Directions (continued from 3.27) (Directions continue for the passage E of Nísos Kíthira at 3.57) Principal marks 3.50 Órmos Potamós 1 Landmark: Vrakhonisídha Avgó (36°06′N 23°00′E) (3.32). Chart 1030 (see 1.8) Major light: General information Ákra Taínaro Light (36°23′N 22°29′E) (3.71). 3.451 Description. Órmos Potamós (35°53′N 23°18′E), an inlet Passage south−west of Nísos Kíthira entered between Ákra Kástro and a point 5 cables WNW, is 3.51 the only harbour in Nísos Andikíthira. Ákra Kástro is 1 From the vicinity of 35°55′N 23°00′E the track leads formed of high steep cliffs, and the sides of the inlet are NNW passing (with positions given from Vrakhonisídha high and rocky. A small headland projecting from the W Avgó (36°05′N 23°00′E)): side of the inlet affords some protection from N, but with WSW of Vrakhonisídha Avgó (3.32); thence: strong N winds a heavy and dangerous swell reaches the WSW of Ákra Trákhilos (2 miles N) (3.36); thence: anchorage. WSW of Vrákhoi Gouroúnia (3¼ miles NNW), two2 Potamós, the principal village of Nísos Andikíthira, is rocks about 2 m in height lying close offshore; situated at the head of the inlet. The village has a thence: population of about 100. WSW of Ákra Pakhiá Moúri (4 miles NW); thence:3 A jetty, fronting the village, projects 40 m NE. On its W 2 WSW of Vrakhonisídhes Strongilá (Stronyilá) (6 miles side, 35 m S of its head, a spur 30 m in length extends at NW), two rocky islets lying about 3 cables apart right angles to the jetty. Between the spur and the shore to 7½ cables offshore; the S islet is 33 m in height, the S lies a small harbour, nearly circular in shape and the N islet is 30 m in height. Being comparatively about 60 m in diameter. Depths inside the harbour are small and low the islets are difficult to see against about 1⋅5 to 2⋅5 m. A reef with a minimum depth over it the high land of the coast at night and even by of about 1⋅2 m lies about 70 m NE of the jetty head. day, and should be given a wide berth. Thence: A breakwater, about 30 m long, extends from the coast 3 WSW of Vrakhonisídhes Líndho (7¼ cables NW), about 70 m NW of the main jetty. two islets lying 5 cables offshore; the S islet, the 61
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 larger, is 28 m in height with its N part nearly Órmos Palikári detached at about one third of its length, with 3.54 some small detached rocks off its S and W sides. 1 Órmos Palikári (36°17′N 22°55′E) is free of dangers and These islets are also difficult to make out and affords temporary anchorage during E winds. The should be given a wide berth. Thence: anchorage is untenable during W winds which raise a4 WSW of Ákra Limnióna (9½ miles NNW). turbulent sea. Vrakhonisídhes Axíni, two rocky islets, lie N of the point. The S islet, close N, is 9 m in height; PASSAGE EAST OF NÍSOS KÍTHIRA the N islet, 8 cables N, is 8 m in height. Thence: WSW of Ákra Koufóyialo (11¼ miles NNW), the N General information termination of remarkable dark cliffs which rise sheer from the sea to an elevation of 244 m. Close Chart 1030 S of the cape there is an inlet with a shingle beach Route at its head, backed by an extensive ravine forming 3.55 a break in the cliffs. Thence: 1 The route E of Nísos Kíthira (3.3) leads from the5 WSW of Ákra Plátanos (36°19′N 22°53′E), the W vicinity of 36°07′N 23°15′E to that of 36°24′N 23°15′E, point of Nísos Kíthira. Vrákhos Armenópetra, a about 17 miles N. rock 10 m in height lying close off the point, appears as a well−defined cone from both S and Topography N. 3.56 (Directions continue for Stenó Elafonísou at 3.79. 1 Óros Áyios Yeóryios (36°14′N 23°05′E) is the summit of Directions for Ákra Taínaro to Yíthion are an extensive headland 389 m in height forming the E given at 3.101, and for Ákra Ayía Marínas to extremity of Nísos Kíthira. A small chapel stands near the Yíthion at 3.122) summit which slopes steeply on its W side and which has a counter scarp of reddish earth about half−way down. Anchorages Directions (continued from 3.34 or 3.44) Ormískos Melidhóni 3.52 Principal marks1 Ormískos Melidhóni (36°09′N 22°57′E) can be used as 3.57 an anchorage by small vessels, but it is exposed to S 1 Major lights: winds. Ákra Spathí Light (36°23′N 22°57′E) (3.79). A small wharf is situated at the head of the bay. Ákra Maléas Light (36°27′N 23°12′E) (5.48). Passage east of Nísos Kíthira Órmos Faná Kopía 3.53 3.581 Description. Órmos Faná Kopía (36°15′N 22°55′E), a 1 From the vicinity of 36°07′N 23°15′E the track leads N bay entered between Ákra Limnióna (3.51) and Ákra passing: Koufóyialo 2¼ miles N, is the best anchorage on the W E of Vrakhonisídhes Dhragonéres (36°13′N 23°06′E), side of Nísos Kíthira. The bay affords good shelter from E two islets lying close off the E extremity of Nísos winds and some protection from W winds, but there is Kíthira. Vrakhonisídha Dhragonéra, the S islet, is usually a swell and the backwash from the cliffs creates a 39 m in height and, being the larger of the two, confused sea in the anchorage. will be sighted first from E. Vrakhonisídha2 Directions. The approach from S passes: Andidhragonéra, the N islet, is 20 m in height. W of the S islet of Vrakhonisídhes Axíni (3.51). A From a short distance the two islets are very rocky shoal with depths over it from 2 to 5 m, on similar in appearance, each having a dip in the which the sea nearly always breaks, extends NW middle between two hummocks and each being of the islet for more than 3 cables. Thence: covered with scanty grass and low scrub. W and N of the N islet which has deep water on Vrakhonisídha Andidhragonéra Light (metal those sides. framework, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the3 The passage between the S islet of Vrakhonisídhes Axíni NE extremity of the N islet. and the coast should not be used as the depths are uneven. (Directions continue for Stenó Andimílou at 5.11, The passage between Vrakhonisídhes Axíni, though for Stenó Sífnou at 5.16, for Stenó Sérifou and deep, is not recommended without local knowledge. Stenó Kíthnou at 5.21, for Stenó Kéas at 5.27, The approach from N passes 5 cables W of Ákra for Saronikós Kólpos at 5.35, and for Koufóyialo (3.51). Ákra Maléas to Ákra Yérakas at 5.48) Anchorage. The recommended anchor berth is in a depth of 29 m with: Órmos Ayíou Nikoláou and approaches4 The S islet of Vrakhonisídhes Axíni bearing SW, open NW of a projecting point on the SE side of Chart 1030 (see 1.8) the bay; and: General information Vrákhos Armenópetra (4½ miles NNW) (3.51) bearing 3.59 NNW, open WSW of the cliffs near Ákra 1 Description. Órmos Ayíou Nikoláou (36°13′N 23°04′E) Koufóyialo. indents the coast of Nísos Kíthira between Ákra Mothonaío Landing. The shores of the bay are steep, and landing is and cliffs 98 m in height about 2½ miles WSW. The bay possible only when calm. A track leads inland to the small affords anchorage for vessels, although a heavy swell enters village of Mitála. during onshore winds between NE and SW. 62
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Caution. Owing to the imperfect nature of the survey, Dhragonéres and the coast of Nísos Kíthira affords the chart must be used with caution. temporary anchorage for coasters in depths from 20 to 37 m. Local knowledge is necessary for using the Directions anchorage which may be approached as follows: 3.60 2 From S, by a channel 4 cables in width between1 The approach from N leads S and W passing (with Vrakhonisídha Dhragonéra and the main island. positions given from Limenískos Ayíou Nikoláou Light Foul ground exists in the S part of the channel, (36°13′⋅4N 23°05′⋅0E)): and a shoal with depths over it from 5⋅5 to 7 m E of Vrakhonisídha Andidhragonéra (2 miles ENE) extends across the N part. (3.58); thence: 3 From E, by the channel between Vrakhonisídha2 E and S of Vrakhonisídha Dhragonéra (1½ miles E) Dhragonéra and Vrakhonisís Andidhragonéra which (3.58). An above−water rock, on which the sea is 5 cables wide with deep water. breaks heavily during NE winds, lies close off the 4 From N, by a channel 2 cables in width and with a E extremity of the islet. Thence: depth in the fairway of 24 m between S of Ákra Mothonaío (4½ cables ESE), a low Vrakhonisídha Andidhragonéra and the main shelving point which should be given a berth of at island. It is necessary to keep to the E side of the least 2 cables in order to avoid below−water rocks channel in order to clear a rocky shoal extending a extending about 1 cable SW. short distance from a point on the W side.3 Useful marks: Limenískos Ayíou Nikoláou Light (metal column on white pedestal, green band, 6 m in height) Harbour (36°13′⋅4N 23°05′⋅0E). 3.63 Fort (1½ cables NNW). 1 Ormískos Avlémonas (36°13′⋅5N 23°05′⋅0E) is a small Cliffs, 98 m in height (2 miles SW). natural harbour which is completely safe in all weathers, although a troublesome swell sometimes enters. Anchorages 2 Rocks extend about ½ cable off the SE entrance point. 3.61 A short distance within the entrance the harbour is only1 Órmos Ayíou Nikoláou. The recommended berth is in a ½ cable wide, but farther in it widens to form a sheltered depth of 31 m, sand and mud, with Limenískos Ayíou basin in which small vessels moor in depths of about 5 m. Nikoláou Light bearing 066° distant 4 cables. A mole, with reported depths of about 2 m alongside its 3.62 NE face, projects 30 m SE from the head of the bay.1 Inshore of Vrakhonisídhes Dhragonéres. An anchorage The village of Avlémonas is situated on the NW side of (36°13′⋅9N 23°06′⋅5E) lying between Vrakhonisídhes the harbour, and has a population of about 50. STENÓ ELAFONÍSOU AND WESTERN APPROACH GENERAL INFORMATION WESTERN APPROACH TO STENÓ ELAFONÍSOU Charts 1092, 1030 General information Area covered Charts 1092, 1030 3.64 Route1 Stenó Elafonísou and its W approach are taken as 3.66 extending from the vicinity of 36°10′N 22°15′E to that of 1 The W approach to Stenó Elafonísou leads from the 36°24′N 23°15′E about 52 miles ENE. vicinity of 36°10′N 22°15′E to that of 36°23′N 22°45′E The section comprises: about 28 miles ENE. Western approach to Stenó Elafonísou (3.66). Stenó Elafonísou (3.74). Topography 3.67 1 Khersónisos Manís (36°42′N 22°27′E), the peninsula Traffic regulations separating Messiniakós Kólpos from Lakonikós Kólpos, is 3.65 rugged and mountainous. The mountain range is for the1 Owing to the heavy traffic in Stenó Elafonísou, E−bound most part flat−topped and gradually increases in elevation vessels should keep: from S to N. The mountains may be seen from a great S of a line between Ákra Taínaro (36°23′N 22°29′E) distance, but during SE winds their summits are often and Ákra Spathí (22½ miles E) until near the latter hidden by cloud. cape; thence: Traffic regulations On the S side of the fairway of Stenó Elafonísou 3.68 (36°25′N 22°57′E). 1 See 3.65.2 West−bound vessels should keep: On the N side of the fairway of Stenó Elafonísou; Natural conditions thence: 3.69 N of a line between Ákra Zóvolo (36°26′N 23°08′E) 1 Currents. See 3.5. Near Ákra Taínaro the current is and Ákra Taínaro (32 miles W) until near the latter usually W−going at a rate of about 1 kn. cape. Sea conditions. See 3.6. 63
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Local winds. During strong N winds heavy squalls may A coastal route NE of Nísos Kíthira leads from the be experienced near the coast in the vicinity of Ákra vicinity of 36°24′N 23°00′E to that of 36°17′N 23°09′E, Taínaro. about 10 miles SE. Topography Directions 3.75 Principal marks 1 The NE coast of Nísos Kíthira is generally high with a 3.70 few sandy spots.1 Landmarks: 2 Nísos Elafónisos (36°29′N 22°58′E) is a barren island Ákra Taínaro (36°23′N 22°29′E), the termination of a 276 m in height. dark grey marble peninsula which rises gradually 3 Khersónisos Élous (36°42′N 22°55′E) is a mountainous to a summit 314 m in height at 1¾ miles N and peninsula separating Stenó Elafonísou and Lakonikós then falls abruptly towards a low isthmus Kólpos from the W part of the S Aegean. Within the head separating it from the main part of Khersónisos of Órmos Vátika, which opens from the N side of Stenó Manís 1 mile farther N. Seen from W or E at Elafonísou, there is a low fertile plain backed by an distances of more than about 12 miles, Ákra amphitheatre of hills rising to 716 m in height at 5 miles N, Taínaro appears as the extremity of a whence a chain of hills more than 750 m in height extends wedge−shaped island. From due S the extremity of SE to the coast in the vicinity of Ákra Maléas. the cape cannot be identified because of the high Traffic regulations land behind it. 3.762 Ákra Grósso (36°28′N 22°22′E), a cape with steep 1 See 3.65. cliffs forming regular terraces, which is prominent from S of Ákra Taínaro. Natural conditions3 Óros Miniátika (36°37′N 22°26′E), a flat−topped 3.77 mountain 1213 m in height. In good visibility the 1 Currents. See 3.5. Near Ákra Maléas the current is mountain is often the first land to be sighted by usually W−going at a rate of about 1 kn, but direction and vessels approaching from W. Care must be taken rate vary with the wind. not to mistake its S slopes for the high land within Sea conditions. See 3.6. Ákra Taínaro which becomes visible on closer approach. Local weather 3.71 3.781 Major light: 1 Strong winds and changes of weather are frequent in Ákra Taínaro Light (square tower on dwelling; 16 m Stenó Elafonísou. in height) (36°23′N 22°29′E). A shift of wind is often experienced off Ákra Maléas. If W of the cape the wind is from NW, to E of the cape it West approach to Stenó Elafonísou will often be blowing from N to NE. 3.72 2 Heavy squalls, light winds or calms may be experienced1 From the vicinity of 36°10′N 22°15′E the approach leads in the lee of the high land near Ákra Maléas. ENE passing: In bad weather or prior to a N gale, Korifí Krithína, a SSE of Ákra Taínaro (36°23′N 22°29′E) (3.70). The summit 784 m in height (4 miles NW of Ákra Maléas) is cape is steep−to and clear of dangers on its S side. usually shrouded by dense masses of cloud which roll Ákra Taínaro Light (3.71) is exhibited from the down the mountain at great speed quickly followed by very cape. strong winds.2 Useful mark: Ákra Spathí Light (36°23′N 22°57′E) (3.79). Directions (Directions continue for Stenó Elafonísou at 3.79. (continued from 3.51 or 3.72) Directions for Ákra Taínaro to Yíthion are given at Principal marks 3.101, and for Ákra Ayía Marínas to Yíthion at 3.122) 3.79 1 Landmark: Landing place Ákra Spathí Lighthouse (round tower and dwelling, 3.73 25 m in height) (36°23′N 22°57′E).1 In fair weather it is possible to land on the E side of 3.80 Ákra Taínaro, close to the lighthouse. A rock 2 m in height Major light: lies close offshore 4 cables NNE of the cape. Ákra Spathí Light—as above. Main fairway STENÓ ELAFONÍSOU 3.81 General information 1 From the vicinity of 36°23′N 22°45′E the fairway leads E passing (with positions given from Ákra Spathí Light Charts 1092, 1030 (36°23′N 22°57′E)): Routes N of Ákra Karavoúyia (1½ miles WSW), a point 3.74 fronted by a dangerous rock and a flat black islet1 Stenó Elafonísou (36°25′N 22°57′E), the strait between 2 m in height lying about 1½ cables N, which Nísos Kíthira (3.3) and Khersónisos Élous (3.75) is deep should be given a wide berth; thence: and clear of offshore dangers. S of Ákra Ayía Marínas (5 miles NNW), the SW The main fairway of the strait leads from the vicinity of point of Nísos Elafónisos; thence: 36°23′N 22°45′E to that of 36°24′N 23°15′E, about 2 N of Ákra Spathí, the N point of Nísos Kíthira, 24 miles E. which consists of steep salient cliffs 100 m in 64
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 height. Ákra Spathí Light (3.79) is exhibited Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring and fishing are 3 cables S of the extremity of the point. A rocky prohibited within 2½ cables either side of a submarine shoal with a depth over it of 5 m lies 1½ cables N power cable which is landed in the bay, as shown on the of the point, and the point should be given a berth chart. of at least 5 cables. Thence:3 S of Ákra Frángos (4¾ miles NNE), a cliffy point Órmos Vátika forming the SE extremity of Nísos Elafónisos; 3.84 thence: 1 Description. Órmos Vátika (36°30′N 23°01′E), entered S of Ákra Zóvolo (9 miles ENE), the S extremity of between Ákra Frángos and Ákra Áyios Ilías 4¾ miles E, is Khersónisos Élous. A small chapel stands 1 mile deep and clear of dangers other than those charted close WNW of the point. Ákra Zóvolo Light (white offshore. The bay affords good temporary anchorage for lantern house, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the vessels waiting for adverse winds to moderate. With S point. Thence: winds a heavy swell sets in, but there is always sufficient4 S of Ákra Maléas (36°26′N 23°12′E) (5.49). The cape warning to enable vessels to leave the bay. should be given a wide berth in order to allow sea 2 Useful marks (positioned from Órmos Vátika Light): room for vessels approaching from N, and to avoid Órmos Vátika Light (metal framework, 2 m in height) the W−going current. At night course should not (36°29′⋅4N 23°03′⋅9E), exhibited from a small be altered N until Ákra Maléas Light (36°27′N promontory on the E side of the bay. 23°12′E) is visible bearing 345° or less. Vessels Lákhion (1 mile ENE), a village standing at an under sail should also give the cape a wide berth, elevation of about 200 m. not only because of the violent gusts frequently Vrákhos Stavrós Light (4 miles WNW) (white round experienced in the vicinity during N and NE winds hut with metal framework, 5 m in height) exhibited but also because of the light and variable winds from Vrákhos Stavrós, a rock lying close off the which often prevail near its high coasts. NE extremity of Nísos Elafónisos. (Directions continue for Stenó Andimílou at 5.11, 3.85 for Stenó Sífnou at 5.16,for Stenó Sérifou and 1 Anchorages. On the E side of Órmos Vátika the bottom Stenó Kíthnou at 5.21, for Stenó Kéas at 5.27, for is rocky in places and the holding is uncertain. The usual Saronikós Kólpos at 5.35, and for Ákra Maléas anchorage is off the town of Neápolis (3.87) in a depth of to Ákra Yérakas at 5.48) 27 m. Recommended berths during strong winds are as Coastal route north−east of Nísos Kíthira follows: 3.82 During NE or E winds, at the head of the bay,1 From the vicinity of 36°24′N 23°00′E the route leads SE 5 cables offshore, in depths from 18 to 22 m, sand. passing (with positions given from Ákra Spathí Light 2 During SW or W winds Órmos Lévki, a cove on the (36°23′N 22°57′E)): W side of the bay, is a useful and convenient SW of Ákra Zóvolo (9 miles ENE) (3.81); thence: anchorage.2 NE of Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos (9 miles SE), a During winds between SSW and W, in the NW narrow rocky islet 29 m in height but low at its S corner of the bay about 2½ cables E of Nisídha end. Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos Light (metal Petrí (36°30′⋅9N 22°59′⋅3E). Local mariners framework, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the N consider this berth to be safe in all winds. extremity of the islet. Thence: Chart 1030 (see 1.8)3 NE of Vrákhos Fidhonísi (10 miles SE), a rock 13 m in height; a wreck whose bow is visible is situated Palaiókastro on the W side of the rock. Except for a small rock 3.86 close off the SE side of Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos, 1 Description. Palaiókastro (36°30′N 23°04′E) is a small there is deep water between the islet and Vrákhos port on the E side of Órmos Vátika. Liménas Palaiókastro, Fidhonísi. Thence: the harbour, lies in a small cove close E of Órmos Vátika NE of Vrakhonisídha Andidhragonéra (36°14′N Light (3.84), protected from W by a mole 110 m in length 23°07′E) (3.58). with depths of 5⋅2 m alongside its E face. A small fishing harbour lies at the head of the cove. Anchorages and harbours on the northern side Neápolis of Stenó Elafonísou 3.87 2 Description. Neápolis (36°31′N 23°04′E), is a small port Chart 1030 situated on the NE side of Órmos Vátika. The town has a Órmos Sarakíniko population of about 2631. 3.83 3 Berth. A jetty 180 m long extends SW from the shore.1 Description. Órmos Sarakíniko (36°28′N 22°58′E), a Depths alongside range from 6 m near the head of the jetty bay indenting the S coast of Nísos Elafónisos, affords to 1 m near its root. About 30 m from the jetty head on its shelter from N and NE winds. A small area near the NE S side there is a ramp with a depth of 5 to 6 m alongside. head of the bay is also partly protected from SE winds by Sunken blocks extend 10 m to seaward from the jetty head. Ákra Eléna, a rounded and moderately high promontory It is planned (2006) to widen and extend the end of the with the appearance of an island but which is connected to jetty 51 m NW. the coast by a low sandy isthmus. 4 About 1 cable NW of the jetty there is a small quay2 Anchorage. The recommended berth is in depths from about 25 m long with a ramp and a depth of less than 1 m 15 to 20 m about 6 cables NW of Ákra Eléna as shown on alongside, which is used by local shipping. A small fishing the chart. The holding ground is uncertain, and better harbour with depths of less than 1 m lies 4 cables NW of anchorage may be obtained in Órmos Vátika (3.84). the quay. 65
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Facilities: customs; post office. 2 A fishing harbour, protected by a jetty and a breakwater, Supplies: provisions in small quantities. lies near the root of the mole. A tower stands close S of Communications: ferry services to Órmos Kapsáli the village. (3.37), Kastéllion (4.39), and Peiraiás (6.108). Anchorage. Vessels can anchor off the harbour in a depth of 22 m. During NE winds they seek shelter W of Anchorages Ákra Spathí (3.89). 3.88 3 Berths. The mole is quayed on its NW and W sides.1 Anchoring is prohibited within 100 m of submarine The NW face has a depth alongside of 4 m, and the W power cables laid across the channel as shown on chart side has depths from 1⋅5 to 4 m. Depths within the fishing 1030. harbour are less than 1 m and are subject to silting.2 Small vessels may obtain anchorage as follows: During W winds: E of the small harbour of Elafónisos in a depth of 5 m. Órmos Dhiakófti During SE winds: NW of the small harbour. 3.91 During N winds: SW of a ferry pier (about 5 cables 1 Description. Órmos Dhiakófti (36°16′N 23°04′E) is a N of Elafónisos) on the N side of the channel, in a small bay formed between the coast of Nísos Kíthira and depth of 3⋅6 m. The bottom is hard sand, fair Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos (3.82). The bay is protected holding ground. from all winds other than from between N and E, and affords good temporary shelter for a vessel of considerable Anchorages and harbours on the southern side size. A bridge with a vertical clearance of 1 m connects the of Stenó Elafonísou S end of Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos to the coast, crossing a Chart 1030 rocky bar with a depth of 0⋅4 m over it which serves as an West of Ákra Spathí excellent breakwater during S winds. 3.89 2 The settlement of Dhiakófti is situated at the head of the1 Description. A shallow cove (36°23′N 22°57′E) situated bay. close W of Ákra Spathí (3.81) and open NW affords Useful mark: landing in suitable conditions. During NE winds, when Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos Light (36°16′N 23°05′E) landing is not possible at Ayía Pelayía (3.90), the cove is (3.82). used for landing passengers and cargo from coasters Anchorage. The recommended berth is in a depth of serving the N part of Nísos Kíthira. 22 m midway between Vrakhonisídha Makrónisos and the2 Directions. When approaching the cove, care is coast, with the N extremity of the islet bearing about 055° necessary to avoid a rock awash lying 2 cables offshore distant 3 cables. about 4 cables W of Ákra Spathí. 3 Berth. A quay, about 130 m long and with depths of 6⋅2 m alongside, lies on the W side of Vrakhonisídha Chart 1030 (see 1.8) Makrónisos. From the NW end of the quay a breakwater Ayía Pelayía extends WSW for about 150 m. A light (metal framework 3.90 tower, red band) is exhibited from the end of the1 Description. Ayía Pelayía (36°19′N 22°59′E), a small breakwater. village, is the principal harbour and ferry port serving the 4 A shoal with a least charted depth of 3⋅8 m over it lies N part of Nísos Kíthira. The village is fronted by a mole 1½ cables S of the breakwater. projecting N from the shore for 160 m thence NE for 60 m. A fishing shelter enclosed by a curved breakwater with A light (metal framework tower on white pedestal, red depths of 2 m at its head projects from the SW side of the band, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the mole head. bay near the village of Dhiakófti. LAKONIKÓS KÓLPOS GENERAL INFORMATION Topography 3.93 Charts 1092, 1030 1 Lakonikós Kólpos is bordered on the W by Khersónisos Description Manís (3.67), and on the E by Khersónisos Élous (3.75). 3.92 The principal topographical features are:1 Lakonikós Kólpos (36°30′N 22°40′E), the E of two large Korifí Khavalás (36°42′N 22°53′E), a rugged peak gulfs indenting the S coast of Pelopónnisos is entered 520 m in height. A remarkable steep−sided between Ákra Taínaro (36°23′N 22°29′E) and Ákra Ayía flat−topped rock 309 m in height stands close W of Marínas (22 miles ENE). the summit.2 There are many temporary anchorages within the gulf. 2 Khersónisos Xilís (36°41′N 22°49′E), a small Those on the W side are suitable for W−bound vessels peninsula surmounted by Lofískos Xilís, a peak waiting for strong W winds to moderate; those on the E 321 m in height. From S the peak appears as an side afford shelter for NE−bound vessels unable to round island in the form of a truncated cone and from a Ákra Maléas (36°26′N 23°12′E) during strong N or NE distance of 12 miles some white rocks on the winds. Órmos Skoútari (36°38′N 22°32′E) (3.111) is the summit could be mistaken for a ruined castle, but best anchorage. from W the appearance is different. To S of the The port of Yíthion (36°46′N 22°34′E) (3.113) is peak the land is comparatively low, terminating at situated at the NW head of the gulf. a distance of about 1½ miles in Ákra Xilís (3.125) 66
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 which is joined to the base of the peak by an ÁKRA TAÍNARO TO YÍTHION isthmus.3 Pedhíon Foinikí (36°44′N 22°51′E), a cultivated plain General information with numerous villages lying between Korifí Khavalás and Óros Kourkoúla 7½ miles NNW and Chart 1092 extending to the E side of Khersónisos Élous. Parts Routes of the plain are occasionally flooded in winter. 3.98 Óros Kourkoúla (36°49′N 22°50′E), an easily 1 The coastal route from Ákra Taínaro to Yíthion leads distinguishable round−topped peak 915 m in height. along the E coast of Khersónisos Manís from the vicinity Two peaks situated about 1 mile S of the summit of 36°22′N 22°34′E to that of 36°46′N 22°35′E, about of Óros Kourkoúla are prominent, and from these 24 miles N. peaks the range slopes S in low flat hills to The offshore route for vessels bound from W of Nísos Pedhíon Foinikí. Kíthira leads from the vicinity of 36°23′N 22°45′E to that4 Élos plain (36°50′N 22°40′E), lying at the mouth of a of Yíthion, about 25 miles NNW. The offshore depths are valley extending inland from the head of the gulf considerable, and there are no known dangers. which is 8 miles wide. Within a sandy beach the Topography coast is low and marshy, but the valley is well 3.99 cultivated and is backed by lofty mountains. 1 See 3.93. Potamós Evrótas flows through the valley and enters the gulf by several mouths. A red cliff is Local weather situated at the E end of the sandy beach. 3.1005 Óros Távyetos (36°57′N 22°21′E), 2404 m in height, 1 See 3.94. the highest peak of Távyetos Mountains. Except during the summer, the summit is nearly always Directions covered with snow and is frequently enveloped in clouds. Principal marks 3.101 1 Major lights: Ákra Taínaro Light (36°23′N 22°29′E) (3.71). Local weather Ákra Spathí Light (36°23′N 22°57′E) (3.79). 3.941 General information. The weather in Lakonikós Kólpos Ákra Taínaro to Órmos Skoútari is usually fair, the normal sea and land breezes being 3.102 experienced. Cloud is rare. 1 From the vicinity of 36°22′N 22°34′E the track leads N Visibility is normally extremely good, and is sometimes passing (with positions given from Ákra Taínaro): the cause of distances being under−estimated. Fog occurs E of Ákra Taínaro (36°23′N 22°29′E) (3.70); thence: occasionally in the early morning but disperses as soon as E of Ákra Kistérnes (1 mile NE), a promontory with the temperature starts to rise. a sharp rounded summit 105 m in height,2 Squalls. During strong winds, squalls blow down the prominent from S; thence; mountain slopes on both sides of the gulf. The squalls are 2 E of Pórto Káyio Light (2¾ miles N) (3.109); thence: particularly violent on the W side of the gulf, and can be E of Órmos Melingáni Light (metal tower on white dangerous for small vessels. pedestal, green band; 5 m in height) (7½ miles N), 3.95 exhibited from the NW entrance point of Órmos1 Winter. The usual winds of the area prevail. On the E Melingáni; thence: side of the gulf winds from E and SE are fairly frequent 3 E of Ákra Stavrí (36°37′N 22°32′E), the E extremity during the day, but on the W side they occur less of a bluff reddish promontory 577 m in height. frequently. Gales from S do not affect the head of the gulf; the sea moderates and the wind decreases greatly, becoming Órmos Skoútari to Ákra Mavrovoúni light in the vicinity of Yíthion. 3.103 3.96 1 From the vicinity of 36°37′N 22°34′E the track leads1 Spring. In about mid−April, with a high steady NNE passing: barometer, strong winds from NE accompanied by thick ESE of Ákra Paganiá (36°39′N 22°33′E), a bold cape mist has been known to last for 36 hours. 120 m in height forming the extremity of a 3.97 promontory which is a nearly flat tableland. The1 Summer. During the early summer, S and SW winds cape should be given a berth of at least 5 cables in prevail and are noticeably stronger on the W side of the order to clear Ífalos Paganiá, a reef with a least gulf. They are accompanied by a slight reduction in depth over it of 9 m lying on a rocky ledge which visibility, and for their duration the surrounding peaks are extends 2 cables offshore. Thence: covered by cloud. At times these winds blow continuously 2 ESE of Ákra Mavrovoúni (36°44′N 22°35′E), a low for three or four days, causing a fairly heavy swell on the reddish point which may be passed at a distance of E side of the gulf. Generally, however, these winds blow 2½ cables. A rock 2 m in height, on which the sea up at about 1100 and moderate during the night. In nearly always breaks, lies close off the S extremity mid−summer, S winds are not strong and rarely reach the of the point. A village situated on rising ground head of the gulf, although the accompanying swell may be about 5 cables NW of the point is visible from all felt. Light N winds, accompanied by very clear visibility, directions. blow for short periods during the summer. At these times 3.104 the almost complete absence of cloud results in a 1 Useful mark: considerable rise in temperature within the gulf. Tower (36°42′N 22°32′E) (3.112). 67
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Ákra Mavrovoúni to Yíthion In the N part of the harbour with Pórto Káyio Light 3.105 bearing 158° distant about 2½ cables. This is a1 From the vicinity of 36°44′N 22°36′E the track leads good berth, but the depths are more than 55 m. NNW passing: 5 Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 150°, astern, of ENE of Nisídha Kranái (36°45′N 22°35′E), an islet the left tangent of the coast (5 cables SSE of Pórto Káyio lying off the S part of Yíthion to which it is Light), open NE of the light, passes NE of the rocky shoal. joined by a causeway about 1 cable in length. Village. Páliros, with a population of about 100, stands Nisídha Kranái Light (octagonal tower on on a hill 5 cables S of the harbour but is somewhat hidden dwelling, 23 m in height) is exhibited from the E from the anchorage. The hamlet of Pórto Káyio stands on end of the islet. the S side of the bay. 3.106 Small coasters call occasionally.1 Useful mark: Órmos Kolokithiás Tower (36°48′N 22°37′E) (3.127). 3.110 1 Description. Órmos Kolokithiás (36°36′N 22°30′E) is Anchorages between Ákra Taínaro and Yíthion entered between Ákra Kolokithiá, the S extremity of the Chart 1092 (see 1.8) bluff reddish promontory (3.102), and a point 2 miles SW. Liménas Asomátou Squalls frequently blow down from high land on each side 3.107 of the bay which, being open SSE and very exposed, is not1 Description. Liménas Asomátou (36°24′N 22°29′E) a good anchorage and should not be used except in case of affords good shelter during W and N winds and is less necessity. The bay is largely unsurveyed. subject to violent squalls than other anchorages on the W 2 Village. Kótronas, with a population of about 350, is side of Lakonikós Kólpos as the surrounding hills are not situated close E of a promontory projecting 2 cables from high. The bay is about 300 m in diameter with depths from the head of the bay. 18 to 30 m in the outer part, decreasing to 5 m within Órmos Skoútari 150 m of the shore in three small inlets at its head. A small 3.111 settlement is situated near the head of the bay. Marble from 1 Description. Órmos Skoútari (36°38′N 22°32′E), entered a quarry nearby is exported. between Ákra Stavrí (3.102) and Ákra Paganiá (3.103), is2 Anchorage. Vessels of an appropriate size can anchor in the best anchorage in Lakonikós Kólpos. The head of the the NW corner of the bay, securing with a line to the bay is well protected from all directions except SE, and as shore. the bottom is mud it is considered a secure anchorage. The Ormískos Vathí NW part of the bay affords the best shelter as squalls from 3.108 high land to the W are there less severe than elsewhere.1 Description. Ormískos Vathí (36°25′N 22°30′E), though 2 Local winds. During the summer, winds from SW or W well protected from S by Ákra Kistérnes (3.102), is inferior predominate. By day these winds can raise a considerable to Liménas Asomátou (3.107) as an anchorage. The inlet is sea on the E side of the bay, but at night they usually very narrow with considerable depths, and is subject to moderate. heavy squalls from all directions. Village. Skoútari, with a population of about 250, stands2 Anchorage. Vessels of an appropriate size could obtain on the slopes of a hill 77 m in height at the head of the fair anchorage in a depth of 20 m near the head of the inlet bay. where there is a width of only about ½ cable. 3 Anchorage. Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 20 m near the head of the bay. Pórto Káyio Facilities: post office in Skoútari. 3.109 Supplies: provisions in limited quantities.1 General information. Pórto Káyio (36°26′N 22°29′E) is Órmos Vathí a natural harbour which affords excellent shelter for small 3.112 vessels. It is considered to be a better anchorage than either 1 Description. Órmos Vathí (36°42′N 22°33′E) indents the Liménas Asomátou (3.107) or Ormískos Vathí (3.108). coast between Ákra Krommidhára and Ákra Mavrovoúni The position of the harbour may be identified by a 4 miles NNE. The bay affords no shelter, but temporary headland of red rock 2½ cables N of Pórto Káyio Light. anchorage may be obtained either S or N of a projection of2 The space available for anchoring is restricted by a the coast at the W head of the bay. rocky shoal lying in the middle of the harbour. The shoal 2 Useful mark: has two heads which can be distinguished by the colour of Tower (36°42′N 22°32′E), standing on the projection the water over them. of the coast. Useful marks: Anchorage. The berths are in depths from 24 to 26 m Pórto Káyio Light (white round hut, 2 m in height) within 5 cables of the shore. To seaward of the berths the (36°26′N 22°29′E). depths increase rapidly. Tower (5¾ cables WSW of the light). Building (former monastery) (4 cables NW). Yíthion3 Anchorage. Recommended berths are as follows: In the S part of the harbour in a depth of 31 m with Chart 1683, plan of Yíthion Pórto Káyio Light bearing 085° distant about General information 2 cables. This berth is sheltered from E winds, and 3.113 is the best berth in the harbour. 1 Description. Yíthion (36°46′N 22°34′E), the principal4 In the S part of the harbour, closer inshore, in a port of Lakonikós Kólpos, comprises a deep−water depth of 9 m, sand. A berth suitable for small anchorage and an artificial harbour for the use of coasters vessels. and fishing vessels. The port serves the town of Spárti and 68
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 surrounding district 20 miles N. The town has a population Port working: 0800−1200, 1400−1800. Local holiday on of about 7000. February 2nd.2 Traffic. In 2002 the port was used by 36 vessels with a total dwt of 119 926 tonnes. Port Authority: Yíthion Port Authority, Harbour Office, ÁKRA AYÍA MARÍNAS TO YÍTHION GR−232 00 Yíthion, Greece. The harbour office is situated near the root of the mole. General information3 Useful marks (positioned from Nisídha Kranái Light): Charts 1030, 1092 Nisídha Kranái Light (36°45′N 22°35′E) (3.105). Route Conspicuous ruins (turret) (1¼ cables W). 3.119 Conspicuous church (5½ cables W), standing on the 1 The route from Ákra Ayía Marínas to Yíthion leads summit of the hill behind the town. along the W coast of Khersónisos Élous and the head of Limín Yíthiou mole light (4 cables NW) (3.115). Lakonikós Kólpos from the vicinity of 36°26′N 22°54′E to that of 36°46′N 22°35′E, about 25 miles NW. Anchorage 3.114 Topography1 The anchorage fronts the S part of Yíthion and is 3.120 protected from S by Nisídha Kranái, but there is a nasty 1 See 3.93. sea during E winds. The bottom is mud. Depths decrease rapidly towards the shore. Local weather Anchoring should be avoided near an area of foul 3.121 ground, the position of which is approximate, charted about 1 See 3.94. 2¾ cables N of Nisídha Kranái Light.2 The best berth is in a depth of 31 m with Nisídha Directions Kranái Light bearing 161° distant 3 cables. Small vessels can anchor closer inshore in a depth of Principal marks 26 m with Nisídha Kranái Light bearing 138° distant 3.122 2 cables. 1 Major lights: Ákra Taínaro Light (36°23′N 22°29′E) (3.71). Harbour Ákra Spathí Light (36°23′N 22°57′E) (3.79). 3.1151 Limín Yíthiou fronts the N part of Yíthion. The harbour Passage north−west of Elafónisos is protected from E by a mole extending from the shore for 3.123 200 m N thence 125 m NE; thence 40 m N. A light (metal 1 Fromthe vicinity of 36°26′N 22°54′E the track leads N framework tower, red band) is exhibited from the head of and NE passing (with positions given from Ákra Ayía the mole. The NW and W sides of the mole are quayed, Marínas (36°28′N 22°56′E)): and a quay fronts the town on the S and W sides of the W of Ákra Ayía Marínas (3.81); thence: harbour. The harbour is reported to be safe in all weathers, Wof Nisídha Sofía (7 cables NW), an islet 12 m in although violent gusts are experienced during NE winds height lying on the NW end of the coastal bank and a swell enters during E winds. which extends about 2 cables from the W side of2 In 1993 works were in progress on the W side of the Elafónisos; thence: harbour. 2 NW of Nisídha Porí (1¾ miles N), an islet 18 m in height, the SW and largest of Vrakhonisídhes Poriá Directions which lie on the coastal bank extending up to 3.116 5 cables off the NW side of Elafónisos; thence1 Care is necessary when approaching the harbour NW of Nisídha Élli (2¼ miles N), the NE of entrance as the depths decrease rapidly. Vrakhonisídhes Poriá. If berthing alongside the mole, it is advisable to stop about 4 m off the quay and haul alongside as the base Elafónisos to Órmos Xilís blocks project below water. If possible, vessels should be 3.124 trimmed with a slight list towards the quay to avoid contact 1 From the vicinity of 36°31′N 22°56′E the route leads with the submerged blocks. NW passing (with positions given from Ákra Kélendhi (36°34′N 22°56′E)): Berths SW of Ákra Kélendhi, a small but prominent 3.117 headland 103 m in height on which stands a1 Mole: NW face has a depth alongside of about 7⋅7 m conspicuous tower. To SE of the headland the and is used by ferries; W face has depths coast is low, but to NW it becomes high and alongside of about 3⋅2 to 5⋅3 m but less than 2 m mountainous. Thence: near its root. 2 SW of Vrakhonisídha Gláros (3 miles NW), a rocky Town quay: depths less than 1 m alongside. islet lying about 3 cables offshore. Rocks about 1 m in height lie near the extremity of a bank, Port services with depths over it from 3⋅6 to 7⋅3 m, which 3.118 extends 3 cables S of the islet. Thence:1 Facilities: customs; post office. 3 SW of Ákra Liriótika (3¾ miles NW), inland of Supplies: fresh water and provisions, both in limited which stands a conspicuous tower; thence: quantities. SW of Ákra Arkhángelos (Arkhányelos) (36°38′N Communications: ferry services to Kissamos (4.39) and 22°52′E), a tongue of land with a hill near its Peiraiás (6.108); nearest airport at Kalámai (120 km NW). extremity. 69
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 3 Órmos Xilís to Elaía of 18⋅3 m (4 cables NNW of Ákra Arkhángelos) lies in the 3.125 approach to the anchorage from NNW.1 From the vicinity of 36°37′N 22°50′E the track leads NW and N, keeping at least 5 cables offshore and passing: Órmos Xilís SW of Ákra Xilís (36°39′N 22°49′E), a round−topped 3.131 and comparatively low promontory forming the 1 Description. Órmos Xilís (36°40′N 22°51′E) is entered termination of Khersónisos Xilís (3.93). Ákra Xilís between Ákra Xilís (3.125) and Ákra Koukouriánikon Light (metal framework tower on white pedestal, 2½ miles E. 5 m in height) is exhibited at the extremity of the The small settlement of Plítra is situated on the NE side point; the light is visible between 191° and 042°. of the head of Órmos Xilís. The submerged ruins of an Thence: ancient town lie nearby. A mole projects 230 m SW from2 W of Ákra Moláon (36°45′N 22°48′E); an islet 12 m the shore at Plítra. The mole is quayed on its NW side, and in height lies close offshore. a light (metal framework, 2 m in height) is exhibited from its head. Elaía to Yíthion 2 Caution. The coast between Órmos Arkhángelos (3.130) 3.126 and Plítra is fringed by a narrow rocky bank which should1 From the vicinity of 36°45′N 22°47′E the track leads W be given a wide berth. for about 9 miles passing: Useful mark: S of Vrakonisídhes Trinísia (36°47′N 22°37′E), three Ákra Xilís Light (36°39′⋅5N 22°49′⋅4E) (3.125). black islets lying on a bank extending about 3 Anchorage. The recommended anchorage is in depths 5 cables offshore. from 22 to 33 m, sand, with the summit of Lofískos Xilís2 Caution. A shallow bank fronts the delta of Potamós (36°40′⋅9N 22°49′⋅1E) (3.93) bearing about 266°, as Evrótas (3.93) at the head of the gulf. The coast should not indicated on chart 1030. A dangerous wreck, the position be approached within a distance of 1 mile, and continuous of which is approximate, lies about 2¼ cables NNE of sounding is advisable. Ákra Xilís Light. 3.1271 Useful marks: Anchorage north of Khersónisos Xilís Tower (36°48′N 22°37′E), standing on a cliffy point. 3.132 Hotel (36°47′⋅0N 22°34′⋅6E). 1 During SE winds temporary anchorage may be obtained Nisídha Kranái Light (36°45′N 22°35′E) (3.105). in the lee of the neck of Khersónisos Xilís (36°41′N 22°49′E) (3.93). The berth is in a depth of 15 m about Anchorages and harbours 2¾ miles NNW of Ákra Xilís Light, 4 cables offshore. Anchorage off Ákra Kélendhi Elaía 3.128 3.1331 Anchorage in a depth of 22 m may be obtained about 1 Description. Elaía (36°45′N 22°48′E) is a small port 7½ cables NNW of Ákra Kélendhi (36°34′N 22°56′E) with an exposed anchorage and a shallow harbour which is (3.124), 5 cables offshore. protected from W by a short mole projecting from the N side of Ákra Moláon (3.125). A light (metal framework Anchorage off Vrakhonisídha Gláros tower on white pedestal, green band; 4 m in height) is 3.129 exhibited from the head of the mole.1 Anchorage may be obtained off Vrakhonisídha Gláros 2 Elaía is only a village, but the buildings are prominent (36°36′N 22°54′E) (3.124) as follows: from W. The town of Moláoi, with a population of about In a depth of 18 m, 5 cables SE of the islet. 2500, is situated 4 miles NE of the port on the slopes of In a depth of 20 m, 5 cables NW of the islet. Óros Kourkoúla. 3 Anchorage. The depths off Elaía are somewhat irregular. Órmos Arkhángelos Vessels should anchor about 5 cables W of the village in a 3.130 depth of not less than 22 m, taking care to avoid a shallow1 Description. Órmos Arkhángelos (Arkhányelos) spit which extends from a low sandy point N of the (36°38′N 22°52′E), entered between Ákra Arkhángelos village. (3.124) and a point 1 mile NNE, affords shelter from SW winds but is open NW. The village of Arkhángelos, with a Anchorage north−east of Vrakhonisídhes Trinísia small church, is situated at the S head of the bay. 3.1342 Anchorage. The recommended berth is in a depth of 1 Small vessels can obtain anchorage between about 38 m 3½ cables NE of Ákra Arkhángelos, as Vrakhonisídhes Trinísia (36°47′N 22°37′E) (3.126) and the indicated on chart 1030. A small bank with a depth over it coast NE. Local knowledge is necessary. 70
  • Home Contents Index NOTES 71
  • Home Contents Index Chapter 4 - South Aegean - southern part 30´ 24° 30´ 25° 30´ 26° 30´ 27° 1030 Nísos Políagos CHAPTER 5 Nísos Mílos Nísos Vrakhonisídhes Folégandros CHAPTER Anánes 35 4 .3 30´ 4.3 31 1541 7 30´ Nísos Níisos Anáfi CHAPTER Thíra Nisídha 8 Sírna 4.13 4. 3 Sténo 1037 25 Karpáthou Nisíidhes Khristianá 4.318 4.313 Nísidhes 4.2 Sofrána 4.1 36° 2 36° 5 CHAPTER 3678 4.20 372 Nisídha Sariá 4.44 3681 85 2 4. 4.30 26 2 4.62 4. Sténo Andikithíron 4.69 4.34 Khersónisos 4.48 Kólpos Akrotíri Khaníon Nísos 4.74 Kárpathos 3679 1707 Chaniá 30´ 1706 30´ 4.149 4.29 Soúda 1706 4.275 4.219 4.86 59 4 .1 8 rió1532 4.274 1707 23 mbo 1707 4 .2 Ó.Fr y & L. E ´ 43 Réthymno Nísos 4.19 4.2 Irákleio Kásos 4.200 4.170 Kólpos 5 1707Mirambéllou 1707 Agíos Nikólaos NP 49 Siteía NP 49 K R Í T I MEDITERRANEAN PILOT Sténo VOL V MEDITERRANEAN PILOT Kásou VOL V 35° 35° 30´ 24° 30´ Longitude 25° East from Greenwich 26° 30´ 27° 0506
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 SOUTH AEGEAN—SOUTHERN PART GENERAL INFORMATION Charts 1091, 1093, 1095 throughout its length by a mountain range. About two Area covered thirds of the island is a barren stony waste off which water 4.1 drains at once in torrents to the sea. The rivers are1 The chapter index diagram shows the limits of the numerous, but consist solely of these torrents, swollen by chapter and routes described. rain in winter and by melting snows in spring. Arable land The chapter comprises the following sections: is found only in Pedhías Messará, a plain on the S side of Offshore routes (4.4). the island; in the country overlooking Kólpos Kissámou, at Stenó Andikithíron to Irákleio approaches (4.30). the NW end of the island; in the hilly lands behind Chaniá, Irákleio and approaches (4.141). Réthymno and Irákleio, all three of which are situated on2 Stenó Kásou (4.193). the N coast; and in the isthmus of Ierápetra, near the E end Stenó Kásou to Irákleio approaches (4.216). of the island. Stenó Kásou to Stenó Karpáthou (4.281). Stenó Karpáthou to Nísos Thíra (4.312). Nísos Thíra to Stenó Kimólou (4.324). Marine farms Chart 1091 4.3 Topography 1 Marine farms and associated moorings may be 4.2 encountered anywhere close inshore within the area covered1 Nísos Kríti (35°15′N 24°45′E) is a large island traversed by this chapter. See 1.7. OFFSHORE ROUTES GENERAL INFORMATION Submarine exercise area 4.7 Charts 1030, 1091, 1095 1 See 4.64. 4.41 The following offshore routes traverse the S part of the Natural conditions S Aegean: 4.8 Stenó Andikithíron to Stenó Kásou (4.5). 1 See 4.32. Stenó Kithíron to Stenó Karpáthou (4.11). Stenó Kithíron to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (4.13). Directions (continued from 3.24)2 Irákleio approaches to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (4.15). Irákleio approaches to Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou Principal marks (4.18). 4.9 Irákleio approaches to Nísos Thíra (4.20). 1 Major lights: Stenó Kásou to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (4.22). Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light (35°39′N 23°35′E) Stenó Kásou to Nísos Thíra (4.26). (3.11). Ákra Apolitárais Light (35°50′N 23°20′E) (3.22). Ákra Drépano Light (35°29′N 24°15′E) (4.81). Ákra Sídheros Light (35°19′N 26°19′E) (4.204). Stenó Andikithíron to Stenó Kásou 4.10 STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON TO 1 From the vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E the track leads E STENÓ KÁSOU passing: N of Khersónisos Rodhopoú (35°36′N 23°44′E) General information (4.45); thence: N of Khersónisos Akrotíri (35°35′N 24°10′E) (4.63); Charts 1030, 1091 thence: Route 2 N of Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142); thence: 4.5 N or S of Nisídha Avgó (35°36′N 25°34′E) (4.273);1 The route from the NE end of Stenó Andikithíron to the thence: NNW end of Stenó Kásou leads from the vicinity of N of Nisídhes Yianisádhes (35°20′N 26°10′E) (4.220); 35°50′N 23°35′E to that of 35°30′N 26°30′E, about thence: 143 miles E. N of Ákra Sídheros (35°19′N 26°19′E) (4.205). (Directions are given for the offshore passage through Topography Stenó Kásou at 4.198 and directions continue for 4.6 the offshore passage NW of Nísos Kásos and1 See 4.31 and 4.217. Nísos Kárpathos at 4.286) 73
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 STENÓ KITHÍRON TO Submarine exercise area STENÓ KARPÁTHOU 4.16 1 See 4.64 and caution on chart. General information Charts 1030, 1091, 1099 Directions Route Chart 1091 4.11 4.171 The route from the NE end of Stenó Kithíron to the 1 The route is direct, passing close to no known dangers. NNW end of Stenó Karpáthou leads from the vicinity of Useful marks: 36°07′N 23°15′E to that of 36°10′N 27°15′E, about Ákra Stavrós (35°26′N 24°58′E) (4.137). 193 miles E. Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142). Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (36°33′N 24°09′E) (5.12). Directions (Directions continue for Vrakhonisídhes Anánes to (continued from 3.34) Saronikós Kólpos at 5.42) 4.121 From the vicinity of 36°07′N 23°15′E the track leads E passing: IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES TO STENÓ POLIAÍGOU−FOLEGÁNDROU S of Nisídhes Khristianá (36°15′N 25°12′E) (4.330); thence: General information S of Nisídha Pakhiá (36°16′N 25°50′E) (4.321); thence: Charts 1095, 1091, 10932 S of Nisídha Makrá (36°16′N 25°53′E) (4.321); Route thence: 4.18 N of Nisídhes Sofrána (36°05′N 26°24′E) (4.314); 1 The route from the NW end of Irákleio NW approach to thence: Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou leads from the vicinity of S of Vrakhonisídhes Trianísia (36°18′N 26°45′E) 35°30′N 25°05′E to that of 36°38′N 24°42′E, about (4.314); thence: 70 miles NNW. N of Ákra Paraspóri (35°54′N 27°14′E) (8.35). (Directions are given for the passage NE of Directions Nisídha Sariá at 8.35 and for the passage between Chart 1091 Nísos Khálki and Nísos Tílos at 8.106) 4.19 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°05′E the track leads STENÓ KITHÍRON TO NNW passing: VRAKHONISÍDHES ANÁNES WSW of Nisídhes Khristianá (36°15′N 25°12′E) (4.330); thence: General information WSW of Ákra Asprópounda (36°38′N 24°52′E) Chart 1093 (4.333); thence: ENE of Vrákhoi Kténia (36°38′N 24°35′E) (4.337). Route 2 Useful marks: 4.13 Ákra Stavrós (35°26′N 24°58′E) (4.137).1 The route from the NE end of Stenó Kithíron to Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142). Vrakhonisídhes Anánes leads from the vicinity of 36°07′N Nísos Folégandros (36°37′N 24°55′E) (7.18). 23°15′E to that of 36°30′N 24°18′E, about 55 miles ENE. Nísos Mílos (36°41′N 24°27′E) (7.14). (Directions continue for Directions Stenó Poliaígou−Folegándrou at 4.358) (continued from 3.34) 4.141 From the vicinity of 36°07′N 23°15′E the track leads IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES TO ENE passing: NÍSOS THÍRA SSE of Ákra Maléas (36°26′N 23°12′E) (5.49); thence: General information SSE of Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (36°33′N 24°09′E) Chart 1091 (5.12). Route (Directions continue for the passage S of 4.20 Nísos Mílos at 4.336) 1 The route from the NNW end of Irákleio NW approach to Nísos Thíra leads from the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°05′E IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES TO to that of 36°25′N 25°05′E, about 55 miles N. VRAKHONISÍDHES ANÁNES Directions General information Charts 1091, 1037 Charts 1091, 1093 4.21 Route 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°05′E the track leads N 4.15 passing:1 The route from the NW end of Irákleio NW approach to W of Nisídhes Khristianá (36°15′N 25°12′E) (4.330); Vrakhonisídhes Anánes leads from the vicinity of 35°30′N thence: 25°05′E to that of 36°30′N 24°18′E, about 70 miles NW. W of Ákra Akrotíri (36°22′N 25°21′E) (4.328). 74
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 42 Useful marks: STENÓ KÁSOU TO NÍSOS THÍRA Ákra Stavrós (35°26′N 24°58′E) (4.137). Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142). General information Nísos Thíra (36°22′N 25°28′E) (7.31). (Directions continue for the passage SW of Chart 1091 Nísos Folégandros at 4.332, for the passage between Route Nísos Thíra and Nísos Íos at 7.92, for 4.26 Stenó Sikínou−Íou and approaches at 7.165 1 The route from the NNW end of Stenó Kásou to a and for Stenó Folegándrou−Sikínou and position about 12 miles SE of Nísos Thíra leads from the approaches at 7.175) vicinity of 35°30′N 26°30′E to that of 36°10′N 25°35′E, about 60 miles NW. STENÓ KÁSOU TO VRAKHONISÍDHES ANÁNES Directions (continued from 4.199) General information Charts 1091, 1037 Principal marks Route 4.27 1 Major light: 4.22 Ákra Sídheros Light (35°19′N 26°19′E) (4.204).1 The route from the NNW end of Stenó Kásou to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes leads from the vicinity of 35°30′N Stenó Kásou to Nísos Thíra 26°30′E to that of 36°30′N 24°18′E, about 122 miles 4.28 WNW. 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 26°30′E the track leads NW passing: Directions SW of Vrakhonisídhes Oúnianisia (35°50′N 26°28′E), (continued from 4.199) two rocky islets which on some bearings appear as Principal marks two hummocks close together and which may 4.23 sometimes be seen at a distance of 20 miles.1 Major lights: Vrakhonisídhes Oúnianisia Light (metal framework Ákra Sídheros Light (35°19′N 26°19′E) (4.204). on round hut, 5 m in height) is exhibited from the Ákra Akrotíri Light (36°22′N 25°21′E) (4.327). summit of the W end of the E islet. Thence: 2 SW of Vrakhonisídha Kamilonísi (35°52′N 26°14′E), Stenó Kásou to Vrakhonisídhes Anánes a low rocky islet which can be seen at distances of 4.24 up to 15 miles. The islet is yellowish in colour1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 26°30′E the track leads and, except for a few stunted bushes, is devoid of WNW passing: vegetation. Vrakhonisídha Kamilonísi Light (metal NNE of Nisídhes Yianisádhes (35°20′N 26°10′E) framework, 4 m in height) is exhibited from the (4.220); thence: middle of the SE side of the islet. The E side of SSW of Vrakhonisídha Kamilonísi (35°52′N 26°14′E) the islet is accessible, and affords shelter from NW (4.28); thence: and N gales. Thence:2 NNE of Nisídha Avgó (35°36′N 25°34′E) (4.273); SW of Nisídha Pakhiá (36°16′N 25°50′E) (4.321). thence: 4.29 SSW of Nisídhes Khristianá (36°15′N 25°12′E) 1 Useful marks: (4.330). Nisídhes Yianisádhes (35°20′N 26°10′E) (4.220). 4.25 Nisídhes Khristianá (36°15′N 25°12′E) (4.330).1 Useful marks: Nísos Anáfi (36°23′N 25°46′E) (7.21). Nísos Mílos (36°41′N 24°27′E) (7.14). Nísos Thíra (36°22′N 25°28′E) (7.31). Vrakhonisídhes Anánes (36°33′N 24°09′E) (5.12). (Directions continue for the passage SW of (Directions continue for Nísos Thíra at 4.326 and for the passage between Vrakhonisídhes Anánes to Saronikós Kólpos at 5.42) Nísos Amafi and Nísos Thíra at 7.66) STENÓ ANDIKITHÍRON TO IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES GENERAL INFORMATION Órmos Soúdas (4.86). Órmos Soúdas to Ákra Lianós Kávos (4.114). Chart 1091 Ákra Lianós Kávos to Irákleio approaches (4.135). Area covered 4.301 The area covered by this section comprises: Topography Kólpos Kissámou (4.34). 4.31 Passage N of Khersónisos Rodhopoú (4.44). 1 Between Ákra Voúxa (35°38′E, 23°36′E) and Irákleio Kólpos Khaníon (4.48). about 77 miles ESE the coast of Kríti is high except at the Passage N of Khersónisos Akrotíri (4.62). head of some of the extensive gulfs and bays. The coast is2 Khersónisos Akrotíri to Irákleio approaches (4.69). backed by an almost continous range of mountains which Northern approach to Órmos Soúdas (4.74). extends for the length of the island. 75
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 The principal groups of mountains in the W half of the Directions island are as follows: (continued from 3.24)2 Levká Óri (35°18′N 24°02′E) which rise to elevations Principal marks of more than 2000 m and dominate the W end of 4.36 the island. The mountains appear as a broad mass 1 Landmark: of crests with a serrated outline, bare white rock in Church, conspicuous (35°31′⋅0N 23°43′⋅5E). summer and snow−covered in winter. Pákhnes, the Major light: summit, is 2454 m in height, but Sóros Griás, Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light (35°39′N 23°35′E) 2322 m in height and situated 2 miles NE of (3.11). Pákhnes, is more easily distinguished owing to its somewhat conical form. Kólpos Kissámou3 Ídhi Óros (35°14′N 24°46′E) culminates in three lofty 4.37 peaks near the middle of the island. Tímios 1 From the vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E the approach and Stavrós, the W peak, has an elevation of 2456 m fairway lead SSE and S to the head of the gulf passing and is the highest point in Kríti. When seen from (with positions given from Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light NW the summit is conical, but from N and NE it (35°39′N 23°35′E)): appears broad. Clouds covering the summit portend ENE of Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa (3.12); and: NW winds in summer and rain in winter. 2 WSW of Ákra Spathí (8¼ miles ENE) (4.47); thence: E of Ákra Voúxa (1½ miles SSE) (3.8); thence: Natural conditions W of Ákra Nisí (7¼ miles ESE), a small projection 4.32 on which stands a church.1 Wind and sea. Conditions off the N coast of Kríti are 4.38 similar to those of the remainder of the S Aegean. 1 Useful mark: During the winter, winds from NW and NE predominate, Harbour mole, on the E side of Ákra Kavonís. sometimes blowing very strongly and raising heavy seas. Limenískos Kavonísi Winds from S also blow strongly and cause small vessels to seek shelter; a sudden veer to N is common. General information2 During the summer, S winds are light and occur less 4.39 frequently than in winter. The Etesians (1.114), which blow 1 Description. Limenískos Kavonísi (35°31′N 23°38′E) is from NW, can create difficult conditions although they are a small artificial harbour fronting the E side of Ákra less strong than in the central Aegean and moderate Kavonís. The harbour is protected from NE by a mole towards the W part of Kríti. 380 m long, and from E by a breakwater constructed of 4.33 riprap; a light is exhibited from the head of each. The1 Currents. For most of the year the current off the N shelter is good in all weathers, even during strong N winds, coast of Kríti is predominately W−going, but in autumn or but a swell sometimes enters. winter the direction of flow may be reversed. 2 Town. Kíssamos is situated 1 mile SE of the harbour. In 1991 the town had a population of about 3000. A ruined Venetian fort stands near the town. Function. The harbour serves as the port for Kíssamos and the surrounding district. Olive oil and wine, the KÓLPOS KISSÁMOU principal products of the locality, are exported. Traffic. In 2005 the port was used by 5 vessels with a total dwt of 8 166 tonnes. General information Berths 4.40 Chart 3681 1 Mole (SW side): length 345 m, depth alongside 6⋅5 m. Description Broad quay (extending SW from root of mole): length 4.34 200 m; depth alongside 6⋅5 m.1 Kólpos Kissámou (35°35′N 23°40′E), a gulf entered between Ákra Voúxa and Ákra Spathí, 8 miles ENE, is Port services deep and clear of dangers other than those charted close to 4.41 the shore. 1 Facilities: customs; post office. The town of Kissamos is situated at the head of the Supplies: fresh water and other supplies in limited gulf. quantities. Communications: weekly ferry service to Yíthion (3.113); regular air services to Athens international airport Topography from Soúda airport. 4.351 The sides of Kólpos Kissámou are formed by the high Anchorages promontories of Khersónisos Gramvoúsa (3.9) and 4.42 Khersónisos Rodhopoú (4.45). The head of the gulf is a 1 Caution. The bottom of Kólpos Kissámou is mostly marshy plain fronted by a sandy shore and backed by sand and the holding is bad. The gulf is unsafe during N gently sloping cultivated ridges. winds, particularly for sailing craft.2 Ákra Kavonís (35°31′N 23°38′E), a low rocky projection A stranded wreck lies about 1 mile WSW of Ákra at the SW corner of the gulf, is backed by high ground. Kavonisi. A remarkable crescent−shaped cave, which is prominent 2 Anchor berths. The best anchorage in N gales is in the from E, is situated about 3½ miles S of Ákra Voúxa. SE part of the gulf, off Ákra Sidhéris (35°32′N 23°43′E), 76
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 in a depth of not less than 31 m; the bottom is mud and KÓLPOS KHANÍON the holding is better than elsewhere. Temporary anchorage may also be obtained: General information3 In Ormískos Áyios Sóstis (35°35′⋅5N 23°36′⋅2E), a Chart 3681 small indentation on the W side of the gulf, which Description affords shelter for small vessels in depths from 3 4.48 to 9 m. The space available is limited and local 1 Kólpos Khaníon (35°35′N 23°55′E) is a large gulf knowledge is necessary. entered between Ákra Spathí (35°42′N 23°44′E) and Ákra In Órmos Amiydhaliá (35°34′⋅3N 23°43′⋅4E), a small Mavromoúri about 18 miles ESE. The gulf is deep and indentation on the E side of the gulf. clear of known dangers other than those charted close4 In the SW corner of the gulf (35°31′⋅5N 23°37′⋅5E), offshore. The port of Chaniá (4.52) is situated at the SE W of Ákra Kavonís. The shores of this part of the corner of the gulf. gulf are fringed with below−water rocks. Topography Angirovólio Kastélliou 4.49 4.43 1 The gulf is bordered on the W by Khersónisos1 Angirovólio Kastélliou (35°30′⋅4N 23°39′⋅4E)) is an Rodhopoú (4.45) and on the E by Khersónisos Akrotíri anchorage abreast the town of Kíssamos (4.39). Temporary (4.63). anchorage in a depth of 8 m may be obtained about 600 m The head of the gulf is relatively low and is not visible offshore NNE of the town, as indicated on the chart. from a distance of more than about 10 miles. The buildings2 Historical note. An ancient mole which formed part of of Chaniá, standing on the low part of the coast, can be the harbour of the old town of Kíssamos is situated about seen from 9 or 10 miles. 750 m W of the present town. The mole is about 6 m in The prominent peaks of Levká Óri (4.31) lie about height, but the harbour is choked with sand and almost 13 miles inland. dries. Caution 4.50 PASSAGE NORTH OF 1 Kólpos Khaníon is almost entirely exposed to N winds KHERSÓNISOS RODHOPOÚ which cause heavy seas and difficult conditions at its head. Vessels at anchor should put to sea without delay on warning of a N gale, or when a rapid veer to N is General information indicated by a sudden rise in barometric pressure during or Chart 3681 immediately after strong winds and rain from SW. Route 4.44 Directions (continued from 4.47)1 The route N of Khersónisos Rodhopoú leads from the 4.51 vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E to that of 35°45′N 23°55′E 1 For navigating Kólpos Khaníon the charts are sufficient about 17 miles ESE. guide. Topography Useful marks: 4.45 Goniás Monastery (35°33′N 23°47′E) (4.59).1 Khersónisos Rodhopoú (35°36′N 23°44′E) is a Nisídha Áyioi Theódhoroi (35°32′N 23°56′E) (4.61). remarkable high peninsula projecting nearly 10 miles N Monument, conspicuous (35°32′N 24°04′E). from the general line of the coast of Kríti. Ónikhas, the Chaniá summit, is 749 m in height. Cloud over the peninsula is a portent of S or SW winds. Charts 1707, plan of Chaniá; 3681 General information Directions 4.52 (continued from 3.24) 1 Description. Chaniá (Khaniá) (35°31′N 24°01′E) is a small port comprising an exposed outer anchorage and a Principal marks shallow harbour at the SE corner of Kólpos Khaníon. The 4.46 town was founded by the Venetians in 1252 and stands on1 Major light: the site of ancient Kydonia. The old Venetian town was Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light (35°39′N 23°35′E) built around a central walled citadel, standing on a broad (3.11). promontory on the S side of the harbour, and enclosed by walled fortifications parts of which survive. Numerous Passage north of Khersónisos Rodhopoú stone−vaulted galleries were built around the harbour in the 4.47 sixteenth century; a few of these remain and are used as1 From the vicinity of 35°50′N 23°35′E the track leads warehouses. Chaniá was the capital of Kríti from 1841 ESE passing: until 1970; it is now the capital of Chaniá prefecture and is NNE of Ákra Spathí (35°42′N 23°44′E), the the commercial centre of the W part of Kríti. termination of Khersónisos Rodhopoú, which may 2 Function. The port formerly served the rich agricultural be identified by a small tumulus−like conical hinterland of the W part of Kríti, but most of the functions hillock 370 m in height surmounting its bluff have been transferred to the deeper and more sheltered port extremity. Ákra Spathí is covered by the red sector of Limín Soúdas (4.107) 3 miles SE. (239°−255°) of Nisídha Ágria Gramvoúsa Light. Port Authority. Port Authority of Chaniá, 21 Akti (Directions continue for Kólpos Khaníon at 4.51 and Tompazi, Chaniá, Kríti. The Harbour Master’s office is for the passage N of Khersónisos Akrotíri at 4.67) situated on the main quay at the foot of the citadel. 77
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Limiting conditions Port services 4.53 4.581 Outer anchorage. The anchorage off Chaniá is unsafe 1 Repairs: limited facilities; slipway with lifting capacity during strong N winds. (See caution at 4.50). of 150 tonnes. Harbour. The normal maximum permissible draught for Other facilities: customs; post office; hospitals at entering the harbour is 3 m. The largest vessel reported to Chaniá. have entered is 43 m long with a draught of 4 m. Strong Supplies: fuel oil in small quantities; fresh water at the NW and N winds create dangerous conditions in the main quay; fresh provisions. entrance making entry almost impossible. Within the 2 Communications: daily ferry service from Limín harbour manoeuvring room is very limited. The harbour Soúdas; daily air service to Athens international airport provides good shelter except during strong N winds when a from Soúdha airport. swell enters.2 Abnormal water levels. Winds from S raise the sea Harbours and anchorages level by about 0⋅6 m; winds from N reduce the level by about 0⋅6 m. Chart 3681 (see 1.8) Limenískos Kolimvário 4.59 Arrival information 1 Limenískos Kolimvário (35°33′N 23°47′E), at the SW 4.54 corner of Kólpos Khaníon, is an artificial harbour fronting1 Anchorage. The best holding ground off Chaniá is in the village of Kolimvárion. depths of about 37 m, but temporary anchorage may be 2 Harbour. The N mole, about 240 m in length, extends obtained in lesser depths closer inshore. A rocky patch with ENE from the shore; the E breakwater, 300 m in length, depths from 31 to 33 m over it, lying 010° distant 6 cables extends NNE then N; a light is exhibited from the head of from the head of the mole (35°31′⋅2N 24°01′⋅0E), should each. The harbour entrance between the two is 60 m wide. be avoided. Within the harbour there are quays and a Ro−Ro ramp; an2 Pilots and tugs are not available. inner harbour is formed by a broad mole extending ESE Local knowledge is essential for entering the harbour. from the root of the main quay. 3 The harbour has not been surveyed, and depths within it are not known; local knowledge is necessary. Chart 1707, plan of Chaniá Anchorage. Safe anchorage with winds between S and Harbour W may be obtained off the harbour. 4.55 A wreck with a depth of 3 m over it lies 2½ cables SE1 The harbour, which fronts the old walled part of Chaniá, of the harbour entrance. is protected from N by a ledge of rocks on which a mole 4 Useful mark: and sea wall have been built. A light (masonry tower, 18 m Goniás Monastery (conspicuous white building with in height) is exhibited from the head of the mole. The dome and tower) (35°33′N 23°47′E), which shows harbour entrance has an effective width of only 70 m up well against the background of hills. owing to shallows on each side. The fairway of the Chart 3681 entrance channel has depths of about 12 m, but within the entrance the depths decrease rapidly to about 3⋅5 m. Órmos Ménies2 A detached breakwater lies 200 m NW of the harbour 4.60 entrance; a light (metal framework with gallery and 1 Órmos Ménies (35°40′N 23°46′E), an inlet at the mouth column, green band, 5 m in height) is exhibited from its E of a rocky glen 3 cables SW of Ákra Skála, affords head. sheltered anchorage for small vessels with winds between Another harbour for small vessels (not charted) lies SW and N. Depths are from 7 to 9 m, but the room 5 cables W of Chaniá. The harbour is protected by two available for anchoring is very limited and local knowledge moles, from the heads of which lights are exhibited. is essential. Nisídha Áyioi Theódhoroi 4.61 Basins and berths 1 Nisídha Áyioi Theódhoroi (35°32′N 23°56′E), a barren 4.56 islet 157 m in height lying 5 cables offshore at the head of1 Western basin lies close within the harbour entrance. Kólpos Khaníon, affords protection from N winds. The basin is fully quayed, but depths alongside are less Temporary anchorage may be obtained in the lee of the NE than 2 m. During N gales an inconvenient and sometimes extremity of the islet. dangerous swell enters this part of the harbour. 4.571 Eastern basin, the old Venetian harbour, is separated PASSAGE NORTH OF from the W basin by two short moles. The entrance KHERSÓNISOS AKROTÍRI between the heads of the moles, on which lights are exhibited, is 46 m wide with a depth of 3⋅5 m in General information mid−channel; the N side of the entrance is shallow.2 The main quay, situated at the SW corner of the E Chart 3681 basin, has a charted depth alongside of between 2⋅7 m and Route 2⋅8 m, and can accommodate a vessel about 60 m long. 4.62 This quay is reasonably sheltered, but it is not fully 1 The route N of Khersónisos Akrotíri leads from the protected from the swell which enters the harbour during N vicinity of 35°45′N 23°55′E to that of 35°41′N 24°15′E gales. about 17 miles ESE. 78
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Topography but was reported (1977) to be difficult to see in 4.63 daylight.1 Khersónisos Akrotíri (35°35′N 24°10′E) is a peninsula (Directions continue for Khersónisos Akrotíri to projecting about 8 miles NE from the line of the coast. Irákleio approaches at 4.72 and for the High and bold on its NE side, the peninsula appears as an Northern approach to Órmos Soúdas at 4.80) island when seen from a distance. The coast is rocky and precipitous. KHERSÓNISOS AKROTÍRI TO2 Sklópa, the summit of Khersónisos Akrotíri, is a IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES remarkable conical mountain 526 m in height. Cloud over the high part of Khersónisos Akrotíri is a General information portent of NE winds. Chart 1091 Submarine exercise area Route 4.64 4.691 A submarine exercise area extends for about 10 miles N 1 The route from Khersónisos Akrotíri to Irákleio and 15 miles E of Khersónisos Akrotíri between the approaches leads from the vicinity of 35°41′N 24°15′E to meridians of 24°00′E and 24°30′E. See Note on chart. that of 35°30′N 25°05′E, about 42 miles ESE. Natural conditions Topography 4.65 4.701 Local magnetic anomaly. An abnormal magnetic 1 See 4.115 and 4.136. variation has been experienced off Khersónisos Akrotíri. Submarine exercise area 4.66 4.711 Sea and current. During N winds, heavy seas are likely 1 See 4.64 and note on chart. to be encountered off the N coast of Khersónisos Akrotíri and the current is uncertain. Directions (continued from 4.68) Directions (continued from 4.47) 4.72 Principal marks 1 From the vicinity of 35°41′N 24°15′E the track leads 4.67 ESE passing:1 Landmark: NNE of Ákra Drépano (35°28′⋅6N 24°14′⋅6E) (4.82); Conspicuous radio masts (red light, 89 m in height) thence: (35°33′⋅1N 24°10′⋅4E), standing on the summit of NNE of Ákra Khondrós Kávos (35°26′N 24°42′E) Sklópa. (4.137); thence: 2 NNE of Ákra Stávros (35°26′N 24°58′E) (4.137); thence: NNE of Ákra Dhías (35°25′N 25°01′E) (4.137). 4.73 1 Useful mark: Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142). (Directions continue for the passage N of Nisídha Dhía at 4.147 and for the NW approach to Irákleio at 4.151) NORTHERN APPROACH TO ÓRMOS SOÚDAS General information Radio masts on Sklópa (4.67) Charts 1706, plan of Órmos Soúdas and Approaches; 3681 (Original dated 2000) Route (Photograph − HMS Scott) 4.74 1 The N approach to Órmos Soúdas leads from the vicinity of 35°41′N 24°15′E to approximate position Passage north of Khersónisos Akrotíri 35°29′N 24°11′E, about 12 miles SSW. 4.681 The N coast of Khersónisos Akrotíri should be given a Topography wide berth during N winds. 4.75 From the vicinity of 35°45′N 23°55′E the track leads 1 Khersónisos Akrotíri (35°35′N 24°10′E) is described at ESE passing: 4.63. Sklópa and the NE part of the peninsula are readily NNE of Ákra Tripití (35°36′N 24°07′E), a bluff identified from N. headland forming the N extremity of Khersónisos 2 Drapanokefála (Dhrapanokefála) (35°26′⋅8N 24°14′⋅3E), Akrotíri; thence: a flat−topped summit 527 m in height 2 miles S of Ákra2 NNE of Ákra Maléka (35°35′⋅3N 24°10′⋅5E), a bluff Drépano, is a good feature for identifying the position of headland forming the NE extremity of the Órmos Soúdas. A long roll of cloud over the summit in peninsula. Ákra Maléka Light (metal framework winter is a portent of strong SE winds in front of a tower; 6 m in height) is exhibited from the point, depression. 79
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Submarine exercise area Northern approach to Órmos Soúdas 4.76 4.821 See 4.64 and note on chart 3681. 1 From the vicinity of 35°41′N 24°15′E the approach leads S and SW passing: Prohibited area E of Ákra Maléka (35°35′⋅3N 24°10′⋅5E) (4.68), 4.77 thence:1 See 4.88 and note on chart 3681. E and SE of Ákra Tourkáki (35°32′⋅5N 24°12′⋅2E), the E extremity of Khersónisos Akrotíri. A ruined Natural conditions fort and a radio mast (red lights) stand about 4.78 5 cables SW of the point. Thence:1 See 4.65. 2 NW of Ákra Drépano (Dhrépanon) (35°28′⋅6N 24°14′⋅6E), a bold headland rising towards Measured distance Drapanokefála (4.75). Ákra Drépano Light (4.81) 4.79 is exhibited 2 cables SW of the extremity of the1 A measured distance is established on the SE side of headland. Thence: Khersónisos Akrotíri as follows: SE of Nisída Palaiósouda (35°30′⋅0N 24°10′⋅8E), an North−east limit marks: beacon (white, triangle islet 23 m in height surmounted by a beacon topmark) (35°31′⋅1N 24°11′⋅1E) and a similar (4.79). beacon standing on higher ground bearing 300° distant 3½ cables. Chart 1706, plan of Órmos Soúdas and Approaches2 South−west limit marks: beacon (white, triangle 4.83 topmark; 3 m in height) (35°30′⋅0N 24°10′⋅9E) 1 Useful marks (positioned from Nisída Soúda Light): standing on the summit of Nisída Palaiósouda Prison building at Kalámi (1 mile S). (4.82), and a similar beacon standing on higher Factory (1¾ miles SSE), standing near the sandy ground bearing 300° distant 8½ cables. shore NW of the village of Kalüves.3 Distance: 1852 m. (Directions continue for Órmos Soúdas at 4.99 and for Running track: 030°/210°. Órmos Soúdas to Ákra Lianós Kávos at 4.117) Anchorages Directions (continued from 4.68) Ormískos Maráthi 4.84 Principal marks 1 Ormískos Maráthi (35°30′⋅2N 24°10′⋅4E), a small bay 4.80 lying between Ákra Pelegrí and a point 6½ cables WSW,1 Landmarks: affords good anchorage for small vessels during winds Conspicuous radio masts (35°33′⋅1N 24°10′⋅4E) between W and NE. There are depths of 10 m in the (4.67). middle of the bay, decreasing towards the shore. The Conspicuous radio mast (red lights) (35°28′⋅2N bottom is muddy sand. The anchorage lies NW of Nisída 24°14′⋅4E) about 2 cables S of Ákra Drépano Light Palaiósouda (4.82). (4.81). 2 The channel N of Nisída Palaiósouda is obstructed by a2 Nisída Soúda (Soúdha) (35°29′⋅4N 24°09′⋅2E), an rocky ledge with a charted depth over it of 2⋅5 m islet 31 m in height with prominent white cliffs (2¾ cables WSW of Ákra Pelegrí). and surmounted by a ruined fort. Nisída Soúda Small harbour. A dog−legged mole which has a total Light (three−sided white metal framework tower on length of about 120 m extends SSE thence SW from a pedestal, green band, 5 m in height) is exhibited position about 4 cables W of Ákra Pelegri. There is a shoal from the S extremity of the islet. patch with a least depth of 1⋅2 m over it, close SW of the Disused fort (conspicuous) (35°28′⋅0N 24°08′⋅9E), head of the mole. standing on rising ground above Ákra Soúda.3 Church (conspicuous) (35°27′⋅3N 24°10′⋅3E), standing Ormískos Loutráki in the middle of the village of Kalüves (Kalívai). 4.85 4.81 1 Ormískos Loutráki (35°30′⋅0N 24°10′⋅0E) is a cove Major light: 1 cable in width situated close W of Ormískos Maráthi. Ákra Drépano Light (white octagonal tower on There is a depth of about 10 m in the entrance, decreasing dwelling, 10 m in height) (35°28′⋅5N 24°14′⋅4E). evenly towards the W corner of the cove which is sandy. Fort Nisída Soúda from E. (4.80) (Original dated 1999) (Photograph − HMS Exeter) 80
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Radio Mast Light Ákra Drépano from N. (4.82) (Original dated 2001) (Photograph − HMS Trafalgar) ÓRMOS SOÚDAS The town of Soúda extends along the S side of the head of the bay. The town has a population of about 5000. General information Function 4.87 Chart 1706, plan of Órmos Soúdas and Approaches 1 Órmos Soúdas is a naval and commercial port. Description The naval port comprises: 4.86 NATO fuel depot (35°30′N 24°09′E) (4.103).1 Órmos Soúdas (Soúdhas) (35°29′N 24°07′E), entered Anchorage and moorings (35°30′N 24°05’E) (4.105). between Ákra Soúda (Soúdha) (35°28′⋅4N 24°09′⋅0E) and Naval base and dockyard (35°29′⋅3N 24°05′⋅0E) Ákra Kalógeros, 1½ miles NNE, is one of the largest and (4.106). safest natural harbours in the E Mediterranean affording 2 The commercial port (35°29′⋅5N 24°04′⋅5E) (4.107) shelter for vessels of all sizes. serves Chaniá and the rich hinterland of the W part of2 Barren hills rise steeply on each side of the bay. From Kríti. Exports include citrus fruits, olive oil, soap, wine and the head of the bay a plain, covered with olive trees, market garden produce. Imports include seeds, potatoes, extends W towards Chaniá. sugar and timber. Disused fort Zoúrva Ákra Soúda Nisída Soúda Ákra Kalógeros Entrance to Órmos Soúdas from E. (4.86) (Original dated 2001) (Photograph − Lt. Cdr. T.C. Tulloch, Canadian Navy) 81
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Approach and entry Pilots and tugs 4.88 4.951 Restricted areas. Órmos Soúdas is a Greek fortified 1 Pilotage is not compulsory for vessels entering Órmos area (1.46). Entry into the restricted area is prohibited Soúdas. except as detailed below. Naval pilots are available and, by arrangement, will Navigation channel. A navigation channel 2 cables in board vessels on arrival in position 35°29′N 24°11′E. width extends through the restricted area, from approximate Naval tugs of up to 1200 hp are available and, by position 35°29′N 24°11′E to the S side of the head of the arrangement, will assist merchant vessels. bay, as indicated on the chart.2 During daylight hours passage through this channel is Regulations concerning entry free to Greek vessels, but foreign vessels must obtain the 4.96 prior permission of the naval authorities, which should be 1 It is reported that berthing and unberthing are restricted sought through the Harbour Master, Chaniá. At night, other to daylight hours only. See also 4.88. than in exceptional circumstances, only Greek warships are permitted to use the channel. Harbour A restricted area also surrounds Ákra Drépano and Entrance channel both areas are shown on the chart. 4.97 1 The navigation channel (4.88) through the restricted area Traffic leads between the S end of Nisída Soúda (4.80) and Ákra 4.89 Soúda 9 cables S. The least depth in the fairway is a foul1 In 2005, 54 vessels with a total dwt of 274 243 tonnes patch with a depth over it of 24⋅5 m (4¼ cables SSE of used the port. Nisída Soúda). Port Authority Foul areas 4.90 4.981 The naval authorities regulate the movement of all 1 Foul areas extend from: vessels entering and leaving Órmos Soúdas. Ákra Kalógeros (35°29′⋅8N 24°10′⋅1E) to the shore The commercial port is under the jurisdiction of the Port 2½ miles S. of Chaniá Authority (4.52). A position 3 cables W of Ákra Kalógeros to the shore 2 miles S. Limiting conditions A position about 3½ miles WNW of Ákra Kalógeros to the shore 1½ miles SSW. Controlling depth 4.91 Directions1 The controlling depth for entering Órmos Soúdas is the (continued from 4.83) least depth in the fairway of the main entrance channel Principal marks (4.97). 4.99 1 Landmarks: Abnormal water levels Water tower (red and white), the position of which is 4.92 approximate (35°30′⋅9N 24°07′⋅8E).1 Winds from S raise the sea level by about 0⋅4 m; winds Flagstaff (35°29′⋅3N 24°04′⋅9E) of dockyard signal from N reduce the level by about 0⋅4 m. station. Local weather 2 Flour mill (conspicuous dark grey building, red light) 4.93 (35°29′⋅4N 24°04′⋅4E). The light was reported1 Órmos Soúdas is protected from the full force of N (1994) to be white. winds. When the wind is from NW or N at sea, it tends to Silo (red light) (35°29′⋅5N 24°04′⋅3E). blow from W or WNW at reduced strength within the bay. 4.100 During the summer, land and sea breezes develop when Major light: the Etesians (1.114) are not very strong. The land breeze is Ákra Drépano Light (35°28′⋅5N 24°14′⋅4E) (4.81). a light W wind and blows in the early morning; the sea Órmos Soúdas breeze blows towards the head of the bay in the afternoon 4.101 until sunset when it becomes calm. Hot winds often blow 1 From approximate position 35°29′N 24°11′E the fairway down from the land. leads W and WNW passing:2 Winds from S are very gusty and sometimes interrupt S of Nisída Soúda (35°29′N 24°09′E) (4.80); and: boat traffic, especially from January to March. N of Ákra Soúda (9 cables S). A light−buoy 2 cables On the N side of the bay the wind is often very N of the point marks a submerged ancient mole different from that outside or in the middle of the bay, with a depth over it of 1⋅6 m. A light−buoy mainly because of the high land. (special) is also established 2½ cables N of the3 Climate information. See 1.132 and 1.144. point. Thence: 2 NNE of Provlís Adhrías (35°29′⋅5N 24°04′⋅7E), a pier Arrival information projecting NNE from the central part of Soúda. A light (white metal column, 6 m in height) is Signal station exhibited from the head of the pier. A foul patch, 4.94 the remains of a wreck, with a depth over it of1 A signal station (conspicuous flagstaff) (35°29′⋅3N 12⋅3 m lies 075° distant 5⋅9 cables from the head 24°04′⋅9E) is situated in the dockyard. of the pier. 82
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Disused fort Ákra Soúda from N. (4.97) (Original dated 2001) (Photograph − HMS Trafalgar) 4.102 buoy (special) is moored on the S edge of this1 Useful marks (positioned from the head of Provlís bank. Thence: Adhrías): SE of a shallow bank (2½ cables E) extending about Ágios Ioánnis church (white building) (2½ miles ¾ cable from the shore close W of the W end of ESE). the quay. A rock with a depth of 6⋅1 m over it lies Radio mast (red and white bands, red lights) on the S edge of this bank. (8½ cables W). 3 Useful marks (positioned from Ákra Pondadhoúra): Cemetery (9½ cables NW). Beacon, standing on Ákra Pondadhoúra. White church (conspicuous) (2¾ cables E), standing close W of the W end of the quay. Berths NATO fuel depot 4.1031 Description. The NATO fuel depot consists of two berthing areas. The E Refuelling Wharf, (35°29′⋅9N 24°08′⋅9E) has two berths; K 10 and K 12 (W to E); with a total length of about 450 m and depths alongside from 13 to 15 m. There is a ramp at the W end. The W berth, known as Refuelling Jetty (4 cables W of Refuelling Wharf), consists of one berth, K 14, 300 m in length with depths of 13 m alongside. In addition there is a berth, K8, at Vlytés Jetty (4.104). Caution. The berths at Refuelling Wharf and Refuelling Jetty are protected by floating booms which are opened as required to allow vessels to berth and unberth. Directions. Refuelling Wharf is approached from SW, passing (with positions given from Ákra Pondadhoúra (35°29′⋅9N 24°08′⋅4E)): Conspicuous White Church − W. of2 NW of Nisída Léon (5½ cables SE), a small islet Refuelling Wharf (4.103) lying off the NW side of Nisída Soúda; and: (Original dated 1999) SE of a bank with depths over it of less than 10 m extending 1½ cables SE from Ákra Pondadhoúra; a (Photograph − HMS Exeter) 83
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Mole (6¼ cables E). Supplies Church (white building with red roof) (5½ cables E). 4.112 4.104 1 Fuel oil at the fuel depot. Vlytés Jetty (35°30′⋅3N 24°04′⋅4E), K8, has a depth Fresh water is laid on to berths at the fuel depot and the of 5⋅3 m at its head. A light (white metal column, commercial port, and can be supplied by water boat to green band, 8 m in height) is exhibited from the vessels not alongside. head of the jetty. A mooring buoy lies about Provisions. 1 cable ENE. Communications 4.113 Anchorage and moorings 1 Ferry service (Ro−Ro) daily to Peiraiás (6.108); air 4.105 service daily to Athens international airport from Soúda1 The anchorage (35°30′N 24°05′E) for warships is at the airport situated near Stérnes. head of the bay, clear of the foul area shown on the chart. Numbered mooring buoys are laid in the anchorage. It is reported that, for merchant vessels awaiting daylight ÓRMOS SOÚDAS TO for berthing, Soúda port control recommend anchoring in ÁKRA LIANÓS KÁVOS position 35°28′⋅5N 24°11′⋅0E or within the sector ½ mile E to ½ mile SE from that position. General information Charts 1706, 3681, 3678 Chart 1706, plan of Limín Soúdas Route Naval base and dockyard 4.114 4.106 1 The route from Órmos Soúdas to Ákra Lianós Kávos1 Soúda naval base and dockyard (35°29′⋅3N 24°05′⋅0E) leads from the vicinity of 35°29′N 24°11′E to that of are situated between Provlís Adhrías and a position about 35°30′N 24°39′E, about 23 miles E. 4¼ cables ESE. The yard has alongside berths for naval vessels under repair, a dry dock and a floating dock. Topography 4.115 1 Drapanokefála (35°26′⋅8N 24°14′⋅3E) is described at Commercial port 4.75. 4.107 Between Ákra Drépano (35°28′⋅6N 24°14′⋅6E) and Ákra1 Limín Soúdas (Soúdhas) (35°29′⋅5N 24°04′⋅5E), the Lianós Kávos 20 miles E the coast recedes to form a bight commercial port, comprises Provlís Adhrías and quays within the head of which the land is relatively low. fronting reclaimed land extending 3 cables WNW. General Vrísonos (35°19′N 24°30′E), a mountain 859 m in depths alongside are from 7 to 9 m. In 2000 reclamation height, lies about 3 miles inland. Cloud covering the work was in progress to the W of the commercial port. summit is a portent of NW winds in summer and rain in2 Merchant vessels may anchor W of Provlís Adhrías, as winter. directed by the port authority. Submarine exercise area Chart 1706, plan of Órmos Soúdas and Approaches 4.116 Other berths and landing places 1 See 4.64 and note on chart. 4.1081 Órmos Tsifté Monastíri. A wharf (35°30′⋅4N 24°06′⋅6E) Directions (continued from 4.83) fronts the E entrance point of Órmos Tsifté Monastíri, a cove on the N side of the bay. The wharf is about 140 m Principal marks long with a depth alongside of 10 m. 4.117 4.109 1 Major light:1 Agíos Nikólaos Jetty (35°30′⋅3N 24°05′⋅5E) has depths Ákra Drépano Light (35°28′⋅5N 24°14′⋅4E) (4.81). from 4⋅9 to 5⋅7 m alongside its outer part. A light (white metal column, 9 m in height) is exhibited from the head of Órmos Soúdas to Ákra Lianós Kávos the jetty. 4.118 1 From the vicinity of 35°29′N 24°11′E the track leads ENE and E passing: Port services NNW and N of Ákra Drépano (35°28′⋅6N 24°14′⋅6E) (4.82); thence: 2 N of Réthymno (35°22′N 24°29′E) (4.121); thence: Repairs N of Ákra Lianós Kávos (35°25′N 24°39′E), a rocky 4.110 headland. A conspicuous hotel and a marina are1 Repairs to naval vessels can be effected in the dockyard. situated on the W side of the headland. The floating dock is 110 m long, 20 m wide and has a 4.119 lifting capacity of 2600 tonnes. 1 Useful mark: Ákra Khondrós Kávos Light (35°26′N 24°42′E) Other facilities (4.137). 4.111 4.1201 Customs; post office. 1 Caution. Because of the low coast between Réthymno Compass adjustment: shore marks are shown on the and Ákra Lianós Kávos, it is advisable for vessels E−bound chart. from Réthymno at night to make good a NE course until in Government and naval hospitals at Chaniá. the white sector (097°−270°) of Ákra Khondrós Kávos 84
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Light. Course may then be altered to pass N of Ákra Directions Lianós Kávos. 4.125 (Directions continue for Ákra Lianós Kávos to 1 No difficulty should be experienced in entering the Irákleio approaches at 4.137) harbour in fair weather, but great care is necessary in handling craft of relatively deep draught during strong winds. 4.126 1 Useful marks (positioned from the dome (35°22′⋅4N Réthymno 24°28′⋅3E)): Dome (conspicuous) of the fort. Charts 1707, plan of Réthymno; 3678 Ágios Nikólaos church (conspicuous) (4¼ cables General information SSW). 4.121 2 Minarets and a clock tower (conspicuous) (from1 Description. Réthymno (Réthimnon) (35°22′N 24°29′E) 2½ to 4 cables SE), standing in the middle of the is a small port comprising an exposed outer anchorage and town. an artificial harbour. The town, standing on a promontory Chimney (8½ cables ESE). and fronted by a Venetian fort, is prominent from seaward. The town has a population of about 23 300. Berths2 Function. Owing to silting of the harbour and the 4.127 improvement in road communications, the port has lost 1 North mole. A quay with a maximum depth alongside much of its former importance. Exports include olive oil, of 6⋅6 m extends along the S and SE faces of the N mole. vegetable oil, soap, cheese products and wine. Imports Vessels drawing 5⋅5 m or less can berth alongside, but care include household goods and general merchandise. should be taken to allow for a narrow shelf which projects3 Traffic. In 2005, the port was used by 97 vessels with a from the face of the quay near MSL at certain points. total of 180 732 dwt. Works are in progress (2004) to extend the S face NE for Port Authority: Port Authority of Réthymno, 293 approximately 115 m. Arcadiou Street, GR−741 00 Réthymno. The Harbour 4.128 Master’s office is situated near the inner harbour (4.130). 1 West quay, L−shaped and with 200 m of berthing space, situated 2½ cables SW of the head of the N mole. Depths alongside are 5⋅6 and 7⋅6 m. There is a Ro−Ro ramp at the Limiting conditions W corner. 4.122 4.1291 Outer anchorage. The anchorage off Réthymno can be 1 South mole. The W side is quayed for 120 m from the considered safe only during fair weather in summer or with head of the mole; depths alongside are from 5⋅4 to 7 m, settled S winds. and there are two Ro−Ro ramps. A quay projecting 140 m Harbour. The harbour accommodates vessels up to WSW from the mole has a Ro−Ro ramp and depths of 7⋅0 150 m LOA, but is safe only during S winds. A heavy to 7⋅7 m on its N side, and a depth of 3⋅9 m at its head. swell enters during gales or strong N winds, and the sea 2 The S side of the quay and the inner part of the W side breaks over the N mole during N gales. of the mole form a basin, quayed on three sides, with2 Abnormal water levels. Winds from S raise the sea depths of 1⋅4 to 3⋅1 m alongside. The basin is currently level by 0⋅3 to 0⋅5 m; winds from N reduce the level by being converted into a marina (2004). 0⋅3 to 0⋅5 m. 4.130 Local winds. The Etesians (1.114) blow from NW in 1 Inner harbour. The old Venetian port, known locally as the vicinity of the port. Mandráki, is entered 2½ cables W of the head of the S mole. The entrance has a depth of about 3 m, but it is constantly silting. Arrival information 4.123 Port services1 Outer anchorage. A good anchor berth is about 4.131 3 cables NNW of the head of the N mole (35°22′⋅5N 1 Facilities: customs; post office; hospital. 24°29′⋅1E) in a depth of 16 m, sand. The holding ground is Supplies: fresh water (near W quay); fresh provisions. good, and during the summer vessels at anchor with a good Fuel available by road tanker. scope of cable are able to ride out the Etesians although they roll considerably.2 Current. Off Réthymno the current is usually E−going at a rate of about ½ kn. Anchorages Pilotage is not available. Chart 3681 Órmos Almiroú Harbour 4.132 4.124 1 Description. Órmos Almiroú (35°23′N 24°18′E) is1 Liménas Rethímnis is an artificial harbour formed by a entered between Ákra Drépano and Ákra Kórakas 9½ miles N mole extending NE and E from the shore for 730 m and SE. The W side of the bay is cliffy and steep−to. The S a S mole extending N from the shore for 380 m; a light is side is sandy with depths of less than 10 m within about exhibited from the head of each mole. The harbour is open 3½ cables of the shore. A light−buoy (special) is E. The SW part of the harbour is shallow, with depths of established 4 miles NW of Ákra Kórakas. less than 2 m within ½ cable of the shore, and the harbour 2 Restricted area. A restricted area surrounds Ákra is subject to silting. Drépano as shown on the chart. 85
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Anchorage. Good temporary anchorage, in suitable Directions depths on a clear sandy bottom, may be obtained off the S (continued from 4.120) shore of the bay. 4.137 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 24°39′E the track leads E passing: Angirovólion Yeoryioúpoleos N of Ákra Khondrós Kávos (35°26′N 24°42′E), a 4.133 rocky headland. Ákra Khondrós Kávos Light1 Description. Angirovólion Yeoryioúpoleos (35°22′N (white lantern house, 4 m in height) is exhibited 24°16′E), an anchorage off the mouth of Potamós Almirós from the cape. Thence: at the head of Órmos Almiroú, affords good shelter during 2 N of Ákra Stavrós (35°26′N 24°58′E), a rocky strong W winds. headland terminating in a low salient point with a2 Useful marks (positioned from Nisídha Áyios Nikólaos long tongue. A chapel stands on the headland. (35°20′⋅0N 24°15′⋅9E)): Ákra Stavrós Light (metal framework tower with Nisídha Áyios Nikólaos, an islet 3 m in height gallery, 6 m in height) is exhibited from the point. surmounted by a white chapel, lying close off the Thence: mouth of Potamós Almirós and connected to the S 3 N of Ákra Dhías (35°25′N 25°01′E), a rocky entrance point of the river by a stone causeway. headland 62 m in height forming the NE extremity3 Yeoryioúpoleos (white houses and ruined fort) (400 m of the high rugged coast extending E from Ákra SW), a small village situated on the S side of the Lianós Kávos. An isolated rock lying off Ákra mouth of Potamós Almirós, visible from a distance Dhías has the appearance of a vessel under sail of 10 miles. when viewed from W at a distance. Anchorage. The holding ground of sand and mud is 4.138 good. A good berth is in a depth of about 15 m with the 1 Useful marks: chapel on Nisídha Áyios Nikólaos bearing 220° distant Radio mast, the position of which is approximate 550 m, as indicated on the chart. (35°24′⋅8N 24°44′⋅9E).4 Directions. The mouth of Potamós Almirós is shallow Hotel (conspicuous) (35°25′N 24°39′E) (4.118). and obstructed by unmarked dangers. The harbour should Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E) (4.142). only be entered when calm, and local knowledge is (Directions continue for the passage N of essential. Nisídha Dhía at 4.147 and for the Berths. A mole projects 200 m NE from a position NW approach to Irákleio at 4.151) 100 m W of the S entrance point of Potamós Almirós, parallel to the stone causeway. Fishing vessels drawing less than 2 m are reported to berth on the NW side of this mole. Anchorages Chart 3678 Órmos Panórmou Órmos Rethímnis 4.139 4.134 1 Description. Órmos Panórmou (35°25′N 24°41′E), a1 Órmos Rethímnis (35°22′N 24°29′E), entered between small bay entered close W of Ákra Khondrós Kávos Réthymno (4.121) and a point 7 miles ENE, affords good (4.137), affords shelter from winds between SE and S. The temporary anchorage. The bottom consists of clear sand white buildings of the village of Pánormos, situated at the and depths decrease gradually towards the shore. head of the bay, are prominent. 2 Anchorage. Small vessels may anchor in depths from 3⋅5 to 7 m, noting that a reef with a depth over it of 2⋅5 m lies 260° distant 8 cables from Ákra Khondrós Kávos Light. Larger vessels anchor farther offshore in depths from ÁKRA LIANÓS KÁVOS TO 9 to 14 m. IRÁKLEIO APPROACHES Landing place. A small harbour for fishing vessels with an E entrance 40 m wide, is formed by two moles extending 140 m NE and 32 m N from the shore at the centre of the bay. A light is exhibited from the head of General information each. Chart 3678 Route Órmos Balí 4.135 4.1401 The route from Ákra Lianós Kávos to Irákleio 1 Description. Órmos Balí (35°25′N 24°47′E), though approaches leads from the vicinity of 35°30′N 24°39′E to open NE, affords reasonable shelter for small vessels that of 35°30′N 25°05′E, about 21 miles E. during the Etesian winds of summer which in the locality blow from between NNW and N. Local knowledge is necessary for entering the bay. A monastery and other Topography buildings stand near the head of the bay. A small harbour 4.136 is protected by a 55 m mole at the head of which a light is1 Between Ákra Lianós Kávos (35°25′N 24°39′E) and exhibited. Ákra Dhías 18 miles E the coast is high and rugged, 2 Anchorage. The recommended berth is in a cove on the backed by the peaks of Ídhi Óros (4.31). Spurs from the W side of the bay below two sharp peaks. Small vessels mountains extend to the coast and terminate as rocky may anchor off the entrance of the cove in depths from 11 headlands. to 13 m and secure to the shore under the N entrance point. 86
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 IRÁKLEIO AND APPROACHES GENERAL INFORMATION gallery, 5 m in height) is exhibited close within the extremity of the point. Thence: Chart 3678 N of Ákra Anginára (2 miles ESE), the E point of Area covered Nisídha Dhía; thence: 4.141 N of Nisídha Paximádhi (3½ miles ESE) (4.164).1 The area covered by this section comprises: (Directions are given for Kólpos Mirambéllou Passage N of Nisídha Dhía (4.145). approaches to Irákleio approaches at 4.273 North−west approach to Irákleio (4.149). and for Kólpos Malión at 4.275) North−east approach to Irákleio (4.159). Irákleio (4.170). NORTH−WEST APPROACH TO IRÁKLEIO Topography General information 4.1421 Nisídha Dhía (35°27′N 25°13′E), an island lying about Chart 3678 6 miles NNE of Irákleio, is a mass of limestone, entirely Route bare and sterile, with a summit 268 m in height. The N 4.149 coast of the island is precipitous. The S coast is also steep, 1 The NW approach to Irákleio leads from the vicinity of but is indented by four small bays. The island is 35°30′N 25°05′E to that of 35°22′N 25°10′E, about 9 miles uninhabited and is a sanctuary for wild goats. SSE. 4.1431 Between Ákra Dhías (35°25′N 25°01′E) and the head of Topography Kólpos Irákleio, about 5 miles SSE, the land rises steeply 4.150 to elevations of more than 500 m. Stroúmboulas (35°20′N 1 See 4.142−4.144. 25°00′E), a conical mountain, is 801 m in height. 4.144 Directions (continued from 4.73 or 4.138)1 Between the head of Kólpos Irákleio (35°21′N 25°03′E) and Ákra Khersónisos, about 17 miles E, the land is Principal marks comparatively low as it lies between the foothills of Ídhi 4.151 Óros (4.31) and those of Dhíkti Óros (4.217). Yioúktas 1 Landmarks: (35°14′N 25°09′E), a mountain 811 m in height, lies about Rogdhiá (35°22′N 25°01′E), a prominent village 6 miles S of Irákleio. standing on the side of a mountain. Oil storage tanks (35°21′N 25°03′E). PASSAGE NORTH OF NISÍDHA DHÍA 4.152 Major light: General information Irákleio aero light (35°20′N 25°11′E) (4.183). Chart 3678 North−west approach to Irákleio Route 4.153 4.145 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°05′E the approach leads1 The route N of Nisídha Dhía leads from the vicinity of SSE passing: 35°30′N 25°05′E to that of 35°30′N 25°30′E, about WSW of Ákra Korakiá (35°27′N 25°11′E), the W 20 miles E. point of Nisídha Dhía, thence: 2 ENE of a headland (35°24′N 25°03′E) with two Topography projecting points. Ákra Tripití, the N point, is 82 m 4.146 in height and recognizable by its rugged and1 See 4.142. barren appearance. Ákra Panayía, the SE point, is 70 m in height with a more even top than Ákra Directions Tripití and with some vegetation on it. Thence: (continued from 4.73 or 4.138) ENE of a light−buoy (special) (35°23′0N 25°08′0E). 4.154 Principal marks 1 Useful marks: 4.147 Ákra Stavrós Light (35°26′N 24°58′E) (4.137).1 Major light: Ákra Mármara Light (35°28′N 25°13′E) (4.148). Irákleio aero light (35°20′N 25°11′E) (4.183). Ákra Stavrós Light (Nisídha Dhía) (35°26′N 25°14′E) (4.164). Passage north of Nisídha Dhía Limín Irákleio outer mole light (35°21′⋅2N 25°09′⋅4E) 4.148 (4.184).1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°05′E the track leads E (Directions continue for Irákleio at 4.182) passing (with positions given from Ákra Mármara (35°28′N 25°13′E)): Kólpos Irákliou (Irákleio) N of Nisídha Petalídhi (1¼ miles W), a rocky islet 19 m in height lying 7 cables off the NW coast of Chart 3678 (see 1.8) Nisídha Dhía. The passage inshore of the islet is Description almost closed by a reef partly above water. 4.155 Thence: 1 Kólpos Irákliou (Irákleio) (35°22′N 25°05′E) indents the2 N of Ákra Mármara, the N point of Nisídha Dhía. coast between Ákra Panayía and Irákleio 5 miles SE. A Ákra Mármara Light (white pyramidal tower with light−buoy (special) is moored 2 miles NNW of Límin 87
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Irákleio outer mole light (4.184). An outfall, marked by a Directions light−buoy (special) (not charted), extends 750 m N from a (continued from 4.273) position about 1 m W of Irákleio harbour. A dangerous wreck with a least depth of 2 m over it lies 3⋅6 miles W of Principal marks Irákleio harbour on the S shore of Kólpos Irákleio. 4.162 1 Landmarks: Radar aerial (two dishes, red lights) (35°19′N Anchorage 25°19′E), standing on the summit of a hill 323 m 4.156 in height.1 Anchorage may be obtained as follows: 4.163 In a depth of about 50 m, sand, in the middle of the Major light: bay 2½ miles SE of Ákra Panayía. Irákleio aero light (35°20′N 25°11′E) (4.183).2 In depths from 27 to 46 m about 1¾ miles S of Ákra Panayía from 2 to 3 cables offshore abreast North−east approach to Irákleio Palaiókastron (35°22′⋅0N 25°02′⋅3E), a ruined 4.164 Venetian fort standing on a rock at the mouth of a 1 From the vicinity of 35°30′N 25°30′E the approach leads valley. This berth affords good shelter from the WSW passing: NW Etesian winds of summer, but it is unsafe in NNW of Ákra Khersónisos (35°20′N 25°23′E) winter. (4.276); thence: 2 SSE of Nisídha Paximádhi (35°26′N 25°17′E), a rocky islet 44 m in height; thence: Linoperámata oil terminal SSE of Ákra Stavrós (35°26′N 25°14′E), the S point 4.157 of Nisídha Dhía. Ákra Stavrós Light (white lantern1 Description. Linoperámata oil terminal (35°21′N house, 4 m in height) is exhibited about 1½ cables 25°03′E) fronts oil fuel installations at the head of Kólpos NNW of the extremity of the point. Irákleio. Two piers, about 2 cables apart, project NE from (Directions continue for Irákleio at 4.182) the shore. Lights are exhibited from the heads of the piers. Four submarine pipelines extend up to 720 m seaward from Anchorages south of Nisídha Dhía positions between and SE of the piers; an obstruction with a depth of 3⋅5 m over it lies at the seaward end of the SE Chart 3678 (see 1.8) pipeline. General information2 Berths. Vessels secure stern−to mooring buoys laid in 4.165 depths of about 7 m near the offshore ends of the oil 1 Four small bays indenting the S coast of Nisídha Dhía pipelines. (4.142) provide good shelter from N winds. All but the W−most of the bays, which are described in the following paragraphs, are good anchorages. Rodía Irákliou Useful mark: 4.158 Ákra Stavrós Light (35°26′N 25°14′E) (4.164).1 Rodía Irákliou (35°21′⋅4N 25°02′⋅6E) is a small fishing harbour with a boat harbour immediately S of it. Lights are Órmos Agrílias exhibited from both harbour entrances. 4.166 1 Órmos Agrílias (35°25′⋅8N 25°14′⋅0E) is entered between Ákra Stavrós and Mesaíos Kávos 6½ cables WNW. Recommended berths are as follows: NORTH−EAST APPROACH TO IRÁKLEIO At the entrance of the bay, in a depth of about 73 m, with Mesaíos Kávos bearing 264° distant 2¼ cables. General information 2 Near the centre of the bay, in depths of more than 26 m, where several vessels could lie to single Chart 3678 anchor with their sterns secured to the shore; the holding ground is good, and even with S winds Route vessels should not drag their anchors. 4.159 At the head of the bay, suitable for small vessels,1 The NE approach to Irákleio leads from the vicinity of ¾ cable offshore in a depth of about 31 m. This 35°30′N 25°30′E to that of 35°22′N 25°10′E, about berth has restricted swinging room and is not 18 miles WSW. entirely safe. Topography Órmos Mesaíos 4.160 4.1671 See 4.142−4.144. 1 Órmos Mesaíos (35°26′N 25°13′E), entered between Mesaíos Kávos and Ákra Krímnos 8 cables WNW, is the best of the anchorages S of Nisídha Dhía. Prohibited anchorage 2 The berth is in the middle of the outer part of the bay 4.161 in a depth of 69 m, as indicated on the chart. If1 Anchoring is prohibited in a submarine cable area, approaching the berth at night it is recommended to make indicated on the chart, extending 1¼ miles offshore from for a position midway between the E and W sides of the 2½ to 4½ miles E of the head of Limín Irákleio outer mole bay and to anchor when Ákra Stavrós Light is obscured (35°21′⋅2N 25°09′⋅4E). bearing 112½°. 88
  • Home Contents Index CHAPTER 4 Ormískos Panayía, an arm extending NE from the head Maximum size of vessel handled of Órmos Mesaíos, provides excellent shelter for small 4.176 vessels which secure stern to either shore. 1 Vessels drawing up to 11 m can be accommodated in the harbour. Largest vessel handled: LOA 215 m; 16 355 GRT. Órmos Kápari 4.168 Local weather1 Órmos Kápari (35°26′⋅3N 25°12′⋅3E), entered between 4.177 Ákra Krímnos and Marrack Point 5 cables WNW, is the Local winds. The Etesians (1.114), which predominate most sheltered of the anchorages S of Nisídha Dhía. It is in summer and blow from NW, freshen at sunrise and suitable for vessels less than 100 m in length. The bottom reach full strength shortly after noon raising a considerable consists of sand and shells. sea; the winds moderate at night. During the summer it may be advisable for vessels to enter harbour early in the Órmos Ayíou Yeoryíou day before the Etesians have reached full strength. Winds 4.169 from E cause a scend at the quays in the SW part of the1 Órmos Ayíou Yeoryíou (35°26′⋅4N 25°11′⋅7E), entered harbour. 4 cables ESE of Ákra Korakiá, is not suitable as an anchorage owing to rapidly shoaling depths at its head. Arrival information Notice of ETA IRÁKLEIO 4.178 1 ETA should be sent 48, 24 and 12 hours in advance. General information Outer anchorage 4.179 Charts 1707, plan of Irákleio; 3678