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  • 1. Home Contents Index NP 47 RECORD OF AMENDMENTS The table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners amendments affecting this volume. Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user with corrections to this volume from these amendments. Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV) 2005 2006 2007 2008 IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows: Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations), Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents. All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
  • 2. Home Contents Index NP 47MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOLUME III The Ionian Sea bordering the western coast of Greece, including Patraïkós Kólpos and Korinthiakós Kólpos, and the Adriatic Sea TWELFTH EDITION 2005 PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
  • 3. Home Contents Index E Crown Copyright 2005 To be obtained from Agents for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications Copyright for some of the material in this publication is owned by the authority named under the item and permission for its reproduction must be obtained from the owner. Adriatic Pilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1861 First Edition Mediiterranean Pilot . . . 1880 Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1890 Third edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1899 Fourth edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1908 Fifth edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1919 Sixth edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1929 Seventh edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1946 Eighth edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1957 Ninth edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1970 Tenth Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1988 Eleventh Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2002 ii
  • 4. Home Contents Index PREFACE The Twelfth Edition of the Mediterranean Pilot Volume III has been prepared by Captain D.J.Conway Master Mariner. The UnitedKingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate information obtainedby and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices toMariners where appropriate. If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to usethem. This edition supersedes the Eleventh Edition (2002), which is cancelled. Information on currents has been based on data supplied by the Met Office, Exeter. The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:Greek Charts Greek Sailing Directions Volume A 1996 with supplement 4/2004 and corrections to 2005Croatian Charts Peljar 1 Jadransko More − Isto na Obala, 1999 with corrections to 2005 Peljar Za Male Brodove − Prvi Dio, 2002 with corrections to 2005 Peljar Za Male Brodove − Drugi Dio, 2003 with corrections to 2005 Adriatic Sea Pilot Volumes I and II (1st Edition) 2004, Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of CroatiaSlovenian ChartsItalian Charts Portolano del Mediterraneo, Volume 6 1994 with corrections to 2005 Portolano del Mediterraneo, Volume 1C 1991 with supplement 1998 and corrections to 2005Other publications Adriatic Pilot (4th Edition) 2004, T and D Thompson (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Greek Waters Pilot (9th Edition) 2004, Rod Heikell (Imray. Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Port Handbooks produced by Port Authorities Fairplay Ports Guide 2004−2005 Ports of the World 2005 Lloyds Maritime Guide 2004−2005 Lloyd’s Portcalls 2004 Whitaker’s Almanack 2005 The Statesman’s Yearbook 2005 Dr D.W.Williams United Kingdom National HydrographerThe United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeAdmiralty WayTauntonSomerset TA1 2DNEngland11th August 2005 iii
  • 5. Home Contents Index PREFACE The Eleventh Edition of the Mediterranean Pilot Volume III has been compiled by Mr D G Vaughan and contains the latest information received in the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office to the date given below. This edition supersedes the Tenth Edition (1988), which is cancelled. Information on climate, currents and ice has been based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Bracknell. The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted: Greece Charts Greek Sailing Directions Volume A 1996 with supplement 2/00 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Charts Sailing Directions for Small craft Volume 1 1989 Croatia Charts Peljar I. Jadransko More — IstoÅna Obala, 1999 Slovenia Chart Italy Charts Portolano del Mediterraneo, Generalità−Parte II 1979 Portolano del Mediterraneo, Volume 6 1994 Portolano del Mediterraneo, Volume 1c 1991 with supplement 1998 Other publications Adriatic Pilot (3rd Edition) 2000, T and D Thompson (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Greek Waters Pilot (8th Edition) 2001, Rod Heikell (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Ionian Waters Pilot (4th Edition) 1999, Rod Heikell (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Italian Waters Pilot (5th Edition) 1998, Rod Heikell (Imray, Laurie, Norie and Wilson Limited) Fairplay Ports Guide 2001−2002 Lloyd’s Ports of the World 2002 Lloyd’s Maritime Guide 2001−2002 Whitaker’s Almanac 2002 The Statesman’s Yearbook 2002 Times World Atlas 1994 Dr D W Williams United Kingdom National Hydrographer The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office Admiralty Way Taunton Somerset TA1 2DN England 29th August 2002 iv
  • 6. Home Contents Index CONTENTS PagesPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ivContents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vExplanatory notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiAbbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixGlossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiIndex chartlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix−xx CHAPTER 1Navigation and regulations Limits of the book (1.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Traffic and operations (1.7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Charts (1.19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Aids to navigation (1.26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pilotage (1.28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Radio facilities (1.30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Regulations (1.40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Signals (1.65) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Distress and rescue (1.68) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Countries and ports Greece (1.73) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Albania (1.88) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Serbia and Montenegro (1.96) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Croatia (1.105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Bosnia and Herzegovina (1.114) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Slovenia (1.122) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Italy (1.131) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.141) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Port services — summary (1.142) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Natural conditions Maritime topography (1.145) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.149) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Sea level and tides (1.156) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Sea and swell (1.159) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Sea water characteristics (1.162) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Climate and weather (1.167) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Climatic tables (1.196) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.219) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 CHAPTER 2Through Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 CHAPTER 3Eastern side of Ionian Sea from Ákra Taínaro to Ákra Mü tikas excluding Patraïkós Kólpos and Korinthiakós Kólpos . . . . . . . 73 CHAPTER 4Prokólpos Pátron, Patraïkós Kólpos and Korinthiakós Kólpos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 CHAPTER 5Eastern side of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas from Ákra Mü tikas to Lumi i Vjosës . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 CHAPTER 6Eastern side of the Adriatic Sea from Lumi i Vjosës to Rt Oðtra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 v
  • 7. Home Contents Index CONTENTS CHAPTER 7Eastern side of the Adriatic Sea from Rt Oðtra to Rt PloÅa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 CHAPTER 8Eastern side of the Adriatic Sea from Rt PloÅa to OtoÅiÆ Grujica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 CHAPTER 9Kvarnerski Zaljev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 CHAPTER 10Eastern and nortern sides of the Adriatic Sea from Rt Kamenjak to Grado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 CHAPTER 11Southern part of the east coast of Italy from Capo Santa Maria di Leuca to Pescara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 CHAPTER 12Northern part of the east coast of Italy from Pescara to Grado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 INDEXIndex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 vi
  • 8. Home Contents Index EXPLANATORY NOTES Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 grt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain informationneeded for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read inconjunction with the charts quoted in the text. This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, withoutthe use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weeklyeditions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the endof the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.CD−ROM Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements ofChapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should onlybe used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy existsbetween data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be reliedupon. Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, ithas not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD forthis purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligenceof the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of theUKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution. Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwisewithout the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed orcommercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Partieswhether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.References to hydrographic and other publications The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume. Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastalpassages. Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume. Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotageservices, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress andSafety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume. Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments andnotices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigationalwarnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas. The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals aswell as international flag signals.Remarks on subject matter Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too smallto show all the details clearly. Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Marinersshould consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts. Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted whereits use is more appropriate. Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exerciseareas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant fornavigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject. vii
  • 9. Home Contents Index EXPLANATORY NOTES Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in bracketsfollowing the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned. Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned. Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the eventbeing described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time whichmay be kept. Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance fornavigation or anchoring.Units and terminology used in this volume Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted. Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359° Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object. Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel. Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground. Winds are described by the direction from which they blow. Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow. Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile. Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated. Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”. Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted inAdmiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively beexpressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height. Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, theselatter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart. Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local timekept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking. Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal. Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over alarge area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may bemarked “conspic”. Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous. viii
  • 10. Home Contents Index ABBREVIATIONSThe following abbreviations are used in the text:AIS Automatic Indentification System kn knot(s)ALC Articulated loading column kW kilowatt(s)ALP Articulated loading platformAMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy System LASH Lighter Aboard Ship LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide°C degrees Celsius LF low frequencyCALM Catenary anchor leg mooring LHG Liquefied Hazardous GasCBM Conventional buoy mooring LMT Local Mean TimeCDC Certain Dangerous Cargo LNG Liquefied Natural GasCVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System LOA Length overall LPG Liquefied Petroleum GasDF direction finding LW Low WaterDG degaussingDGPS Differential Global Positioning System m metre(s)DW Deep Water mb millibar(s)DSC Digital Selective Calling MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Servicesdwt deadweight tonnage CentresDZ danger zone MF medium frequency MHz megahertzE east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost) MHHW Mean Higher High WaterEEZ exclusive economic zone MHLW Mean Higher Low WaterELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring MHW Mean High WaterENE east-north-east MHWN Mean High Water NeapsEPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon MHWS Mean High Water SpringsESE east-south-east MLHW Mean Lower High WaterETA estimated time of arrival MLLW Mean Lower Low WaterETD estimated time of departure MLW Mean Low WaterEU European Union MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps MLWS Mean Low Water Springsfeu forty foot equivalent unit mm millimetre(s)fm fathom(s) MMSI Maritime Mobile Service IdentityFPSO Floating production storage and offloading MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre vessel MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-CentreFPU Floating production unit MSI Marine Safety InformationFSO Floating storage and offloading vessel MSL Mean Sea Levelft foot (feet) MV Motor Vessel MW megawatt(s)g/cm3 gram per cubic centimetre MY Motor YachtGMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety SystemGPS Global Positioning System N north (northerly, northward, northern,GRP glass reinforced plastic northernmost)grt gross register tonnage NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organizationgt gross tonnage Navtex Navigational Telex System NE north-eastHAT Highest Astronomical Tide NNE north-north-eastHF high frequency NNW north-north-westHMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship No numberhp horse power nrt nett register tonnagehPa hectopascal NW north-westHSC High Speed CraftHW High Water ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition SystemIALA International Association of Lighthouse PEL Port Entry Light Authorities PLEM Pipe line end manifoldIHO International Hydrographic Organization POL Petrol, Oil & LubricantsIMO International Maritime Organization PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea AreasITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone RCC Rescue Co−ordination CentreJRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre RMS Royal Mail Ship RN Royal NavykHz kilohertz Ro-Ro Roll−on, Roll-offkm kilometre(s) RT radio telephony ix
  • 11. Home Contents Index ABBREVIATIONSS south (southerly, southward, southern, ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carriersouthernmost) UN United NationsSALM Single anchor leg mooring system UT Universal TimeSALS Single anchored leg storage system UTC Co-ordinated Universal TimeSAR Search and RescueSatnav Satellite navigation VDR Voyage Data RecorderSBM Single buoy mooring VHF very high frequencySE south-east VLCC Very Large Crude CarrierSPM Single point mooring VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting Systemsq square VTC Vessel Traffic CentreSS Steamship VTMS Vessel Traffic Management SystemSSE south-south-east VTS Vessel Traffic ServicesSSW south-south-westSW south-west W west (westerly, westward, western, westernmost)teu twenty foot equivalent unit WGS World Geodetic SystemTSS Traffic Separation Scheme WMO World Meteorological Organization WNW west-north-westUHF ultra high frequency WSW west-south-westUKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office WT radio (wireless) telegraphy x
  • 12. Home Contents Index GLOSSARIES GREECE Greek words found on charts and in sailing directionsGreek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Englishákra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cape, point limenískos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cove, small harbourakrópolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . citadel límni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lake, marshakrotírion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . promontory, cape limnothálassa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagoonaktí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shore, coastline lofískos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hillockalikí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saltpans lófos, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hill, −salykí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saltpans makrís, −í . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . long, tallámmos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sand mávros, −i, −on . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackanatolí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . east megálos, −i, −on . . . . . . . . . . . . biganatolikós, −í, −ón . . . . . . . . . . eastern mésis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . north−westandí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . opposite mésos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . middleangáli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small inlet, bay mikrós, í, −ón . . . . . . . . . . . . . . smallangirovólio (angirovólion) . . . . anchorage mólos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mole, breakwateráno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upper monastírion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small monastery, churchapiliótis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . east moní . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monasteryapováthra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landing place, wharf nisída (nisídha, nisís) . . . . . . . . isletáspros, −i, on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white nisídes, nisídhes . . . . . . . . . . . . isletsavathí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shoal nisí, nísos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islandáyios, ayía, áyion, áyioi, ayíou . Saint (m, f, n) Saints, holy nisiá, nísoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islandschersónisos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peninsula nótos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . southdíavlos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sound, channel ormískos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cove, small bay, inlet, creekdhiékplous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passage órmos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baydhíavlos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . channel, strait óros, −oi (óri) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountain, −sdhióriga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal, channel palaíos, −á, −ón . . . . . . . . . . . . olddhiórix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal páno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upperdhitikós, −i, −n . . . . . . . . . . . . . western peráma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ferry, passagedióryga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal, channel pétra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rock, stoneekklisía . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . church pirsós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beaconekvolí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . river mouth pólis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . city, townélos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marsh, swamp póros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ford, passage, soundepínio (epínion) . . . . . . . . . . . . small port porthmós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . narrows of a straitergostásio (ergostásion) . . . . . . factory potamós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rivereríthros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . red poúnda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pointéso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inner, inside prásinos, −i, −on . . . . . . . . . . . . greenévripos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tidal channel prokimáia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moleévros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . south−east provlítas (provlís) . . . . . . . . . . . pier, wharfexédra, exédhra . . . . . . . . . . . . jetty pü rgos (pírgos) . . . . . . . . . . . . . toweréxo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . outer, outside rákhi, -as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ridgeexoklísion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chapel réma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . streamfanós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . light révma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . current, streamfáros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lighthouse ríax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . brook, streamfroúrio, froúrion . . . . . . . . . . . . fort, stronghold simandír . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buoyglóssa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tongue skála . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small port, berth, landinggremnós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cliff, precipice skíron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . north−westífalos, i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . below water reef, −s skópelos, −oi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reef, −s, rock, −s (which coveríformos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roadstead and uncover)ikhthiotropío . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fishery, fishing stakes spílaio (spílaion, spiliá) . . . . . . caveipsilós, −í, −ón . . . . . . . . . . . . . high stavrós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . crossípsome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . height (elevated ground) stená . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . straitsísplous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . entrance (for vessels) stenó, stenón . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . straitisthmós . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isthmus télma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . swampkástro, kástron . . . . . . . . . . . . . castle, fortress teloníon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . custom housekatafanís, -és . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . conspicuous thálassa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seakáto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lower toúmba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moundkávos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cape, headland, promontory trókhalos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cairnkefalí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . head váltos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marshkhánia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . village vasilikós, −í, −ón . . . . . . . . . . . royalkhersónisos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peninsula vathís, −ía, −í . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deepkhorío (khoríon) . . . . . . . . . . . . village váthos, −oi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . depth, −skimatothrávstis . . . . . . . . . . . . . breakwater vorrás . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hillklímax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scale (of chart) vounó, −á . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hill, −s, mountain, −sklisoúra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pass, defile vráchoi, vrákhoi . . . . . . . . . . . . rocks (above and below water)koilás . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valley vrachonisída, vrakhonisídhakólpos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gulf (vrakhonisís) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocky isletkorifí . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak, summit vrachónisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocky islandkrímnos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cliff, precipice vráchos, vrákhos . . . . . . . . . . . rocklangádha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pass, deep valley xéra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reeflevkós, −í, ón . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white ü falos, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reef, −s, shoal, −sliménas (limín) . . . . . . . . . . . . . harbour, port zéfiros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . west xi
  • 13. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY ROMANIZATION SYSTEM FOR GREEK ELOT 743 System BGN/PCGN 1996 SystemThis romanization system supersedes the one which was approved by the BGN and the PCGN in 1962. It corresponds to thesystem devised by the Greek Organization for Standardization and approved for international use at the Fifth United NationsConference on the Standardization of Geographical Names in 1987. Greek Romanization Examples xii
  • 14. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Greek Romanization Examples xiii
  • 15. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Greek Romanization Examples xiv
  • 16. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY ALBANIA Albanian words found in charts and in sailing directionsNote: The Albanian nouns are given in four forms:1. The primary form of the indefinite singular, corresponding, for example, to ‘channel’ or ‘a channel’.2. The definite singular, corresponding, for example, to ‘the channel’.3. The indefinite plural, corresponding, for example to ‘channels’.4. The definite plural, corresponding, for example, to ‘the channels’.Obsolete spellings, which may be found on old charts, are given in brackets where appropriate.The words are arranged in alphabetical order according to the English alphabet. Albanian English1 2 3 4Birë (Bir) Bira (Biri) Bira Birat channelBisht Bishti Bishta Bishtat pointCekëtinë Cekëtina Cekëtina Cekëtinat shallows(Cektinë) (Cektina) (Cektina) (Cektinat)Çukë Çuka Çuka Çukat peak, summitFar Fari Fare Faret lighthouseFener Feneri Fenerë Fenerët lighthouseGji Gjiri (Gjiu) Gjinj Gjinjtë bayGrykë Gryka Grykë Grykët gorge, mouth, estuaryGur Guri Gurë Gurët rock xv
  • 17. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY Albanian English1 2 3 4Hundë Hunda Hundë Hundët cape, promontoryIshull Ishulli Ishuj Ishujt isle, islandIstëm Istmi Istme Istmet isthmusKep Kepi Kepa Kepat cape, promontory, peak, summitKodër Kodra Kodra Kodrat hillLagunë Laguna Laguna Lagunat lagoonLiman Limani Limane Limanet harbour, port, roadsteadLiqen Liqeni Liqene Liqenet lakeLumë (Lum) Lumi Lumenj Lumenjtë riverMajë Maja Maja Majat peak, summitMal Mali Male Malet mountainMol Moli Mole Molet moleNgushticë Ngushtica Ngushtica Ngushticat strait, channelPellg Pellgu Pellgje Pellgjet basin, bight, deepPërrau Përroi Përrenj Përrengtë streamPort Porti Porte Portet port, harbourRanishtë Ranishta Ranishta Ranishtat sandbankRrugë Rruga Rrugë Rrugët road, street, routeShën − − − SaintShkëmb Shkëmbi Shkëmbinj Shkëmbinjtë 1. rock, 2. cliff, crag(Shkamb) (Shkambi) (Shkambinj) (Shkambinjtë)Skelë Skela Skela Skelat harbour, dock, wharf, moleSqep Sqepi Sqepa Sqepat capeSukë Suka Suka Sukat hillock Notes on the pronunciation of the thirty six letters and digraphs in the Albanian alphabetAlbanian Approximate pronunciation Albanian Approximate pronunciationa As ‘a’ in ‘father’ n As ‘n’ in ‘net’b As ‘b’ in ‘bun’ nj As ‘ni’ in ‘onion’c As ‘ts’ in ‘cats’ o As ‘au’ in ‘daughter’ As ‘ch’ in ‘chin’ p As ‘p’ in ‘pen’d As ‘d’ in ‘den’ q As ‘t y’ in ‘hit you’e As ‘a’ in ‘late’ r As ‘r’ in ‘run’ë As ‘a’ in ‘about’ (but barely pronounced at rr As ‘rr’ in ‘terrify’ end of word) s As ‘s’ in ‘sit’f As ‘f’ in ‘fan’ sh As ‘sh’ in ‘shall’g As ‘g’ in ‘goat’ t As ‘t’ in ‘tin’gj As ‘g’ in ‘gentle’ th As ‘th’ in ‘thin’h As ‘h’ in ‘hen’ u As ‘oo’ in ‘loom’i As ‘ee’ in ‘meet’ v As ‘v’ in ‘van’j As ‘y’ in ‘yet’ x As ‘dz’ in ‘adze’k As ‘k’ in ‘kitten’ xh As ‘dg’ in ‘judge’l As ‘l’ in ‘let’ y As ‘u’ in French ‘du’ll As ‘ll’ in ‘fully’ z As ‘z’ in ‘zoo’m As ‘m’ in ‘man’ zh As ‘s’ in ‘pleasure’ xvi
  • 18. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY SERBIA and MONTENEGRO, CROATIA, BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA, SLOVENIA Words found on charts and in sailing directionsForeign word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Foreign word . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Englishbanak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bank, shoal most . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bridgebazen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basin naselje . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . settlement, local communitybijel, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white nov, −i, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . newblato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mud obala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quay, bank (of lake or river), coast,boka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mouth, gulf beachbrdo, −a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountain, −s otoÅiÆ, otoÅiÆi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islet, −sbreýuljak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hill otoÅje . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . archipelagobujica, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . torrent, −s otok, otoci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . island, −scrkva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . church pijesak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandcrn, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . black planina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . high land, mountainscrven, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . red pliÅina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shoalcjevovod, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pipeline, −s plitvac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rock, reefdolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valley, dale poluotok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peninsuladonji, −a, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lower poluotoÅiÆ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small peninsuladraga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valley, bay, cove potok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . streamdraýica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cove pristan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landing placedrvo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wood (timber) pristaniðte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landing place, harbour, portdvorac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castle, villa prolaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passagegaj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grove, copse put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . road, path, roadsteadgat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dam, dyke, mole, pier, weir rat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . capegaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ford rijeka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riverglavica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . knoll, summit, ridge rjeÅica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small river, streamglib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mud rt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cape, point, headlandgornji, −a, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upper rtiÅ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small cape, small point, smallGospa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Our Lady headlandgrad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . city, town samostan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monastery, conventgreben, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . submerged rock, −s, reef, −s, ridge, −s selo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . villageguri . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stone, rock sidriðte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anchorage, roadsteadhrid, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rock, −s, (above water) sjever, −ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . north, northern, northerlyhum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hillock, mound ðkolj, ðkoljiÆ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islet, reefistoÅni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eastern, easterly slapovi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fallsistok . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . east srednji, −a, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . middle, centralizvor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spring, well star, −i, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oldjezero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lake ðuma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wood, forestjug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . south sveti, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . holy, saintjuýni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . southern, southerly svetionik, svjetionik . . . . . . . . . lighthousekabel, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cable, −s tjesnac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strait, channelkal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mud ÷sÆe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . river mouth, estuarykamen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stone utvrda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fort, castlekanal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . channel, canal uvala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bay, inletkapela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chapel uvalica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small bay, small inlet, covekopno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . land veli, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . large, greatkuÆa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . house velik, −i, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . large, greatkula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tower vrata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passage, gatelaguna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagoon vrh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peak, topluÅica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small harbour zaliv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gulf, bayluka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . harbour, port, haven zaljev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gulf, baylukobran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breakwater zapad, −ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . west, western, westerlymali, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small zaton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baymanastir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monastery ýdrilo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pass, defilemjesto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . town, village zelen, −i, −a, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . greenmore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sea ýut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yellow Notes on the pronunciation of letters and digraphs in useLocal English Local EnglishA, a Like a in father L, l Like l in likeB, b Like b in board Lj, lj Like lli in millionC, c Like ts in tsar M, m Like m in moleC,Å Like ch in church N, n Like n in neverD, Æ Like tch in catch Nj, nj Like ny in canyonD, d Like d in down O, o Like o in operationDý, dý Like j in jug P, p Like p in pilotĒ,Ë Like g in page R, r Like rr in hurryE, e Like e in bed S, s Like s in yesF, f Like f in four ­, ð Like sh in shallG, g Like g in get T, t Like second t in totalH, h Like h in high U, u Like oo in goodI, i Like i in his V, v Like v in visibleJ, j Like y in yes Z, z Like z in hazyK, k Like c in coffee ¸, ý Like s in pleasure xvii
  • 19. Home Contents Index GLOSSARY ITALY Italian words found on charts and in sailing directionsItalian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Italian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Englishalto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . high manica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . channelancoraggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . anchorage marina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beach, port of an inland villageavamporto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . outer harbour masseria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tenancy including a number of farms montagna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountainbacino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basin, dock monte, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountain, −s, hill, −sbaia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baybanchina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quay, wharf, embankment naviglio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . navigable canal, ship canalbanco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandbank nero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blackbianc, −o, −a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white nord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . northbianch, −i, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . white nuovo, −a (novo, −a) . . . . . . . . newbocca, bocche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mouth, −s, estuary, −iesborgo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . suburb ovest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . westbraccio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . armbusa, or buso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlet paese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . country, village passagio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passage, crossingcala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlet, creek, cove penisola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peninsulacanale, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal, −s, channel, −s piazza . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . public squarecantiere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shipyard piccolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . little, smallcapo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cape, headland pietra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rock, stonecasa, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . house, −s poggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . height, hillcasino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small house ponente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . west, west windcastel, castello . . . . . . . . . . . . . castle, keep ponte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bridgechiesa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . church pontile, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jetty, −iescima . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . summit porticciolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small harbourcittà . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . city, town porto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . port, harbour, gate, entrancecolle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rising ground, hill promontorio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . promontorycolonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . settlement, holiday camp punta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . point, headlandcosta, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sea coast, −scroce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cross rada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . roadsteaddarsena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dockyard, wet dock rio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . streamdiga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dyke, breakwater, seawall riva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bank, shoredue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two rocca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rock, crag, tower, keep rocche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocksfaro, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lighthouse, −s rosso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . redfiume, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . river, −s rupe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . clifffoce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mouth of a riverfonda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . depth, anchorage sacca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enclosed bayforaneo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . outer san, santo, santa, sant’ . . . . . . . saint, holyfossa, −o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pit, ditch, water course sasso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stone, cragfumaiolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chimney scogliera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breakwater, above− and below−water rock, reefgiallo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yellow scoglio, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reef, −s, rock, −sgolfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gulf secca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandbank, shoalgrotta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cave secche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shoals seno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . small bay, coveinsenatura . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inlet, creek sud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . southisola, −e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . island, −sisolotto, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . islet, −s testa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . head, bluff torre, −i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tower, −slargo, laghi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lake, −s torrente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mountain streamlaguna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagoon tramontana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . north, north windlargo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wide, broad, open arealevante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . east val, valle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . valleylitorale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coast, shore vallone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . large valleylido . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shore vecchio, −ia, −i, −ie . . . . . . . . . old xviii
  • 20. Home Contents Index Chapter Index Diagram 17° 18° 19° 20° 21° 22° 23° 24° 196 1574 C R O A T I A 43° 43° 1580 Dubrovnik 7 1582 Bar 186 42° 42° A D R I A T I C S E A 6 2 Durrës 41° 11 41° ALBANIA Brindisi I TA LY Vlorë 2 5 40° 11 40° G R E E C E 5 eza I O N I A N S E A év 206 Pr 39° 39° NP 45 MEDITERRANEAN 2 3 1600 PILOT VOL I 4 Pátrai 38° 187 188 38° 1676 Kórinthos 203 37° 1092 Kalamáta 37° 3 2 189 3 NP 48 NP 49 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT 36° MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOL IV 36° VOL V 17° 18° 19° Longitude 20° East from Greenwich 22° 23° 24°0805 Mediterranean Pilot Vol III NP 47 (a) xix
  • 21. Home Contents Index Chapter Index Diagram 12° 13° 14° 15° 16° 17° 18° 19° 46° 46° S L O V E N I A 1471 204 Trieste Venezia Rijeka Chioggia 12 10 45° 45° 9 2719 201 9 202 Ravenna 2 Zadar 44° 2 44° 515 1467 8 C R O A T I A 1444 ˆ 2774 Sibenik Ancona 12 2711 Split 7 ˆ 43° A Ploce ˆ 43° 220 D R 2 2712 I Dubrovnik A 1574 7 Pescara T 1580 I 1443 11 C S 42° 186 42° E 1582 6 200 196 A 1443 I T A L Y 2 Bari 41° 41° 11 Brindisi 40° NP 46 40° MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOL II I O N I A N S E A 39° 39° NP 45 MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOL I 38° 187 188 38° 12° 13° 14° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 17° 18° 19°0805 Mediterranean Pilot Vol III NP 47 (b) xx
  • 22. Home Contents Index LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood: (a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and (b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition of the international validity of the law or regulation. MEDITERRANEAN PILOT VOLUME III CHAPTER 1 NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS COUNTRY AND PORTS NATURAL CONDITIONS NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS LIMITS OF THE BOOK small vessels at 1.3, and routes and navigational advice for small vessels commencing at 2.5. Charts 1439, 1440 2 Navigating amongst the many islands bordering the Area covered Croatian coast requires care, and can be dangerous in a 1.1 Bora (1.179).1 This volume contains Sailing Directions for all the waters of the Adriatic Sea, and the Ionian Sea bounded on Natural conditions the W and S by a line from: 1.3 Lat N Long E 1 Local knowledge and experience are of great value when navigating in the Adriatic. In winter the chief difficulties Capo Santa Maria di Leuca 39°48′ 18°22′ arise from the frequency of thick fogs and strong winds, S to position 37°45′ 18°22′ from the narrowness of the sea, and on the W side, from the lack of shelter in bad weather. Some parts of the E side Thence ESE to position 36°10′ 22°15′ are exposed to the Bora (1.179), but other parts provide Thence NE to Ákra Taínaro 36°23′ 22°29′ shelter and for this reason, in spite of the disadvantage of Thence N and NE through adverse currents, the E side is generally preferred. Pelopónnisos to the SE end of 37°55′ 23°00′ 2 In a small vessel the greatest care is necessary to avoid Dióryga Korínthou being caught in a Bora, shelter being sought at the earliest indication of its onset. The mariner should also guard against the Scirocco NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS (1.180) which is dangerous in some parts of the Adriatic. However there is generally ample warning of this wind, General navigation which invariably increases in strength gradually, normally 1.2 giving sufficient time to find suitable shelter.1 The navigation of the open waters covered by this volume is straightforward, but the proximity of high Former mined areas mountainous land to nearly all parts can make the winds 1.4 unpredictable. Even in fine weather this frequently causes 1 Dangers from mines exist: strong local squalls which can be dangerous due to the In a large area bordering the Albanian coast. For rapidity of their onset. See also natural conditions affecting details see 5.164. 1
  • 23. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 In two small areas off the Italian coast in the vicinity light-buoys (special) and sometimes with additional marker of Grado (45°41′N 13°23′E). For details see buoys, are situated close inshore along the Italian coast. 10.101 and 12.368. 2 Marine farms have been established in many sheltered In a small area NW of Otok −krada (44°29′N locations in the area covered by this book; the development 14°51′E). For details see 9.401. has been rapid and is continuing. The limits of the areas are shown on the appropriate The activity is carried out mainly in large fish cages; charts, with the exception of that off Otok −krada. very little of the structure is visible above the surface of the water, which makes them difficult to sight. Cables and pipelines The charted positions of the farms are approximate and 1.5 the area covered by individual farms and associated1 Submarine cables and pipelines are laid in many areas moorings can be extensive. Mariners are cautioned to keep described in this volume and particularly amongst the a good lookout, both visually and by radar, when islands bordering the Croatian coast. The cables and navigating in these areas. pipelines are shown on the charts and are mentioned in the text only if laid in the vicinity of anchorages. See also Exercise areas 1.40.2 Overhead cables are mentioned where the clearance Firing and practice areas beneath them may be a hazard to navigation. See The 1.11 Mariner’s Handbook (NP 100) for details concerning radar 1 A large number of areas exists in the waters described responses to be expected from overhead cables. in this volume, in which national naval or military exercises take place. In particular Italian naval surface units Piracy may be encountered exercising in the vicinity of Brindisi 1.6 (40°39′N 17°58′E), Ancona (43°37′N 13°31′E), Porto1 Attacks on vessels by armed thieves, in the Strait of Corsini (44°30′N 12°17′E), and in Gulf of Venice. Otranto and its approaches have been reported in 1995, Firing practices are normally promulgated by 1996, 1997 and 1998. navigational warning unless the area concerned is within territorial waters and declared permanently active. TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS Submarine operations and exercises 1.12 1 For general information on the characteristics of Traffic submarines, and visual signals to denote their presence, see Ferries The Mariner’s Handbook. 1.7 Information in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to1 International ferries. Passenger and vehicle ferries are Mariners relating to submarines applies in general to operated on scheduled services, some seasonal, across the foreign submarines and also gives details of procedures to Adriatic and into the Ionian Sea. Principal international be followed in emergency when dealing with a sunken ferry terminals include those located at the following ports submarine. described in this volume:2 Greece: Pátrai; Kérkira; Igoumenítsa. Marine exploitation Albania: Durrës. Offshore oil and methane gas fields Serbia and Montenegro: Bar. 1.13 Croatia: Dubrovnik; Split; Primoðten; Zadar; Mali 1 Extensive offshore oil and methane gas fields are Loðinj; Rijeka; Pula. situated off the Italian coast N of about latitude 42°N. Italy: Trieste; Brindisi; Bari; Pescara; Ancona; Rimini; Associated fixed and mobile structures and installations Venezia. may be encountered as much as 32 miles offshore, although3 Some services also extend to ports outside the area the majority lie within about 16 miles of the coast. An covered by this volume, including Istanbul and Genoa. oilfield has been established 27 miles WSW of Pula 1.8 (44°52′N 13°51′E).1 National ferries (passenger and vehicle): 2 Many of the structures are connected by submarine Greece: regular services are operated between the pipelines and power cables which are also laid to the coast. Greek mainland and Ioníoi Nísoi; there are The largest scale chart of the area concerned is the best frequent services across Stenó Ríon-Andírrion guide to the positions of the fixed structures and to the (4.72). prohibited areas in their vicinity. The positions of mobile Croatia: an extensive network of services are operated structures are published periodically by national notices to along the whole length of the mainland coast and mariners. amongst the off-lying islands. There are no special fairways through the fields. 1.9 For information upon types of structures see The1 High speed ferries may be encountered in some areas. Mariner’s Handbook. 1.14 Fishing 1 Aids to navigation. Production platforms and associated 1.10 structures generally carry all or some of the following:1 A considerable amount of offshore fishing is carried out Lights: Morse (U) 15 secs, 6 miles; fixed red aircraft in the Adriatic, particularly by night. An occasional tunny obstruction lights. fishery may be encountered off the Italian coast. These Fog signal: Morse (U) 30 seconds. fisheries are marked by boats or floats, all with IALA 1.15 special mark characteristics, including lights at night. A 1 Protection of offshore installations. Safety zones may number of shellfish breeding beds, usually marked by be established around the installations, prohibiting entry, 2
  • 24. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 anchoring or fishing as appropriate, under international law. 2 Publishing authorities: For details see The Mariner’s Handbook and Annual Greece: Hellenic Navy Hydrographic Service, TGN Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. 1040, ATHÍNAI. Serbia and Montenegro: Hidrografski Institut, Ratne Pipelines Mornarice, 85333 LEPETANE. 1.16 Croatia: Drýavni Hidrografski Institut, Zrinsko1 Gas from a damaged oil or gas pipeline could cause an Frankopanska 161, 21000 SPLIT. explosion or some other serious hazard. Pipelines are not 3 Slovenia: Ministry of Transport and Communications, always buried and their presence may effectively reduce the Maritime Division, Hydrographic Section, charted depth by as much as 2 m. Where pipelines are Langusova 4, 1000 Ljubljana. close together, only one may be charted. Mariners should Italy: Istituto Idrografico della Marina, Passo not anchor or trawl in the vicinity of a pipeline; they may Osservatorio 4, 16134 GENOA. risk prosecution if damage is caused. For further information see The Mariner’s Handbook. Greek orthography 1.22 Seismic surveys and scientific research 1 The names on Greek charts published prior to 1985 1.17 were given in Katharévousa, but on Greek charts dated1 Vessels engaged in seismic surveys, normally inside the after 1985 names may be found in either Katharévousa or 200 m depth contour, and other scientific research projects Demotikí (see languages at 1.80). Where names in may be encountered in the Adriatic and should be given a Demotikí are available they have been transliterated into wide berth. For further information see The Mariner’s Roman letters and used in this volume, and, as opportunity Handbook. The details of these operations are published by offers, they will be included on Admiralty charts. national notices to mariners and broadcast as NAVAREA 2 A further complication is introduced by the fact that in warnings. accordance with international agreement a revised system 1.18 of transliteration (ELOT 743) has been adopted for use1 Oceanographic buoys. A number of light-buoys with Greek geographical names and British Admiralty (special) are laid in mid-Adriatic for tidal prediction charts and publications are incorporating the resulting purposes in connection with the protection of Venezia changes as the opportunity provides. against flooding at high-water. Their positions are shown As a result of these ongoing changes, there may be on the charts. discrepancies between some names on the charts and those Wave-recorder buoys may be encountered off the Italian in this volume. For example, the Greek word for islet may coast; these light-buoys (special) are radar conspicuous and appear as Nisís, Nisídha or Nisída. should be passed at not less than 300 m. Datums Depths CHARTS 1.23 1 British Admiralty charts are reduced to the same level Admiralty charts as that used on national charts, which is normally LAT, 1.19 MLWS, or MSL. The datum is usually indicated on the1 The area described in this volume is covered by British chart. Admiralty charts which are largely compiled from Greek, Serbia and Montenegrin, Croatian, Slovenian and Italian Elevations Government charts. The source and date of the information 1.24 used is given under the title of each chart. 1 British Admiralty charts: see EXPLANATORY2 In certain areas where the British Admiralty charts show NOTES in the front of this volume. insufficient detail for navigation close inshore these Sailing Greek, Serbia and Montenegrin, Croatian, Slovene Directions have been written using foreign charts. These and Italian Government charts: Measured from MSL. are not quoted as reference charts in the text, which has Horizontal been written on the assumption that mariners wishing to 1.25 navigate in these areas will have provided themselves with 1 Differences in geographical positions of up to 1 minute suitable charts on which to do so. of longitude exist between some British Admiralty charts 1.20 based on old surveys and British and foreign charts based1 Caution: Albania. Owing to insufficient information it on newer surveys. Notes on the charts concerned give is not possible to ensure that Admiralty charts covering the details of the differences. coast of Albania and adjacent waters are up to date for When transferring positions to or from these charts it is new dangers or changes in aids to navigation. Mariners are advisable to do so by bearing and distance from a common therefore warned to exercise additional care when reference object and not by latitude and longitude. navigating these waters. 2 Modern metric British Admiralty charts are normally on the same horizontal datum as the corresponding foreign Foreign charts charts and this is usually indicated on the chart: 1.21 Greece—European Datum.1 Greek, Serbia and Montenegrin, Croatian, Slovenian and Serbia and Montenegro—Hermanskogel Datum. Italian Government charts, mainly of their own respective Croatia—Hermanskogel Datum. waters, may be obtained from the publishing authorities Italy—Monte Mario, Roma and ED50 Datum. listed below and in the Catalogue of Admiralty Charts. 3 Most British Admiralty charts in the area covered by These charts are not issued by the UKHO nor are they this volume are based on the European Datum (1950). corrected by Admiralty Notices to Mariners. Positions derived from satellite navigation systems are 3
  • 25. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 normally based on World Geodetic System 1984 datum, International Code of Signals by day and the appropriate and the difference between this and the horizontal datum of lights by night. the published chart is given in a note on the chart. General 1.29 AIDS TO NAVIGATION 1 Signals. A vessel requiring a pilot should display the signals laid down in The International Code of Signals. Local arrangement. Details of pilotage arrangements Lights for individual ports and waterways. are given in the text 1.26 describing the places concerned. See also Admiralty List of1 Navigational lights are the responsibility of the Radio Signals Volume 6 (3) for the larger and more appropriate national authorities. important ports. Major lights are those with a nominal range of 15 miles or more. Light-structures only are described in the body of this RADIO FACILITIES book. For further details of the lights, see Admiralty List of Lights Volume E. Satellite navigation systems 1.30 1 For details of available satellite navigation systems see Buoyage Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2. 1.27 There are no DGPS stations transmitting within the area1 In Greek, Albanian, Serbia and Montenegrin, Croatian, covered by this book. Slovenian and Italian waters the IALA Maritime Buoyage For differences in geographical positions where charts System Region A (red to port) has been implemented. and satellite navigation systems are based on different For details of the IALA system see The Mariner’s horizontal datums see 1.25. Handbook or IALA Maritime Buoyage System (NP 735). Radar beacons 1.31 PILOTAGE 1 Racons are mentioned in the appropriate geographical chapters. Details are given in Admiralty List of Radio National requirements Signals Volume 2. 1.281 Greece. Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels exceeding Radio stations 500 grt in most ports of consequence in Greek waters 1.32 described in this volume. 1 For full details on all radio stations which transmit in Albania. Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels on the area covered by this volume see Admiralty List of all parts of the Albanian coast. Radio Signals Volume 1 (1) and Volume 3 (1).2 Serbia and Montenegro. Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 500 grt in Serbia and Montenegrin ports and in Radio navigational warnings some coastal waters as described in the body of the book. Pilots for ports where pilotage is not compulsory can be NAVAREA III warnings obtained on request to pilot station at Bar. Pilotage is also 1.33 compulsory for vessels carrying dangerous chemical or 1 The area covered by this volume lies within the limits of combustible substances whilst proceeding between Serbia NAVAREA III. Details of warnings and a list of those in and Montenegrin ports and whilst within Serbia and force are issued by the Co-ordinator NAVAREA III, Montenegrin coastal waters. Instituto Hidrografica de la Marina, Cadiz, Spain.3 Croatia. Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over NAVAREA III warnings are broadcast through: 500 grt in Croatian ports and in some coastal waters as a) National coast radio stations. described in the body of the book. Pilots for ports where b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International pilotage is not compulsory can be obtained on request to SafetyNET). pilot stations at Dubrovnik (Gruý), Split and Rijeka. 2 For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Pilotage is also compulsory for vessels carrying dangerous Volumes 3 (1), 5. chemical or combustible substances whilst proceeding Coastal navigation warnings between Croatian ports and whilst within Croatian coastal 1.34 waters. Pilot boarding positions for such vessels proceeding 1 Warnings are broadcast in English and national to the principal ports from international waters are shown languages through national coast radio stations. For full on the charts and are as follows: broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals4 PloÅe 43°05′·0N 17°00′·0E. Volume 3 (1). Split 43°28′·2N 16°01′·0E. −ibenik 43°38′·7N 15°52′·3E. Local warnings Zadar 44°23′·3N 14°34′·6E. 1.35 Rijeka 45°11′·8N 14°29′·4E. 1 Local warnings cover the area within the limits of5 Slovenia. Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 500 grt jurisdiction of a harbour or port authority and may be entering or leaving Slovene ports. issued by those authorities. They may be issued in the Italy. Pilotage is compulsory for foreign vessels over national language only and supplement the coastal 500 grt, occasionally 400 grt, in most ports of consequence navigational warnings by giving information which the described in this volume. Pilot vessels are painted black ocean-going ship may normally not require. with a white band with “P” or “PILOT” painted on the For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals bow, stern and funnel, and display flag “H” of the Volume 3 (1). 4
  • 26. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Radio weather services 2 The Convention consists of 5 annexes. Annex I (Oil), Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III METAREA III warnings/bulletins (Harmful Substances carried at Sea in Packaged Form) and 1.36 Annex V (Garbage from Ships), which contains special1 The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has provisions for the Mediterranean Sea, are mandatory; established a global service for the broadcast of high seas Annex IV (Sewage from Ships) is optional. weather warnings and routine weather bulletins, through the The Mediterranean Sea is defined as a Special Area for Enhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET Service. the purpose of the Convention. MARPOL 73/78 and METeorological service AREAS (METAREAS) are Annexes are described in detail in The Mariner’s identical to the 16 NAVAREAS within the World-Wide Handbook. Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS).2 Each METAREA has a designated National General regulations Meteorological Service responsible for issuing high seas Port regulations weather warnings and bulletins. The designated authorities 1.42 are not necessarily in the same country as the NAVAREA 1 At most of the ports of any consequence in this volume co-ordinators. Weather warnings and routine bulletins are vessels are subject to local regulations. Only the more broadcast through: important of such regulations are given in the appropriate3 a) National coast radio stations. part of the book and mariners are advised to obtain a copy b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International of the full regulations before or on arrival at the ports SafetyNET). concerned. For broadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volumes 3 (1) and 5. Quarantine 1.43 Meteorological broadcasts by radio-facsimile 1 Quarantine regulations are enforced at all the more 1.37 important ports described in this volume. International1 The area covered by this volume lies within the Quarantine Messages can be sent to all Greek and all radio-facsimile broadcast coverage area of national coast Italian ports. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals radio-facsimile stations. For broadcast details see Admiralty Volume 1 (1). List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1). Greece National weather services Prohibited areas 1.38 1.441 National weather warnings and weather bulletins are 1 Mariners are warned that passage is restricted, and a issued through national coast radio stations. For broadcast control of navigation exercised by Greek Naval Authorities, details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1). in certain areas within Greek territorial waters. The areas concerned are shown on the charts and mentioned in the Radio medical advice appropriate part of the body of this volume. 1.39 1.451 Mariners may obtain medical advice by radio through 1 Naval Authorities. A naval headquarters is situated at the International Radio-Medical Centre (CIRM) in Rome. Pátrai with a subordinate command in Kérkira. For further information, and for details of the coast radio Defence installations stations see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1). 1.46 1 Severe penalties may be imposed on persons found REGULATIONS taking photographs or collecting hydrographic information within 10 km of a Greek naval or military fortified installation. Where these regulations apply in the vicinity of International regulations the prohibited areas, they may also be applicable outside Submarine cables and pipelines those areas or within channels passing through the areas. 1.40 Albania1 Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to avoid anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of submarine Navigation in territorial waters and harbours cables or pipelines. 1.47 See The Mariner’s Handbook for information on the 1 Vessels from Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Slovenia and Italy are required to signal their ETA 48 hours Cables, together with advice on the action to be taken in in advance; vessels from other countries, 5 days in advance. the event of fouling a cable or pipeline. The ports of Sarandë (5.125), Durrës (6.16), and Shëngjin (6.63) are open to all foreign vessels. Foreign Pollution vessels wishing to enter these ports must contact the coast 1.41 radio station at Durrës, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals1 General information. The International Convention for Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3) before entering Albanian territorial the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 1973 was adopted waters. by the International Conference on Marine Pollution 2 Vessels must enter the ports by recommended tracks. convened by IMO in 1973. It was modified by the Protocol Foreign vessels within Albanian territorial waters are not of 1978 relating thereto and adopted by the International allowed to contact other vessels, approach other vessels, or Conference on Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention move berth without permission of the Harbour Authorities. convened by IMO in 1978. The convention, as modified by 3 Regulations concerning the illegal emigration of the protocol, is known as MARPOL 73/78. Albanian citizens towards Italian territory have been issued 5
  • 27. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 and apply to vessels of all flags in Albanian territorial given with the description of the localities concerned in the waters. All merchant ships entering or leaving Albanian body of this volume. territorial waters will be contacted by Italian warships or Italian Coast Guard vessels which will carry out inspection Lights displayed by vessels of the Serbia procedures. and Montenegrin Navy4 Vessels must be prepared to submit the following 1.52 information: 1 In addition to their normal navigation lights, Serbia and Name. Montenegrin naval vessels operating in company, may show International call sign. fixed or flashing red, green, blue or white lights from their Flag. masts, visible at ranges up to 2 miles all round the horizon. Last port of call and date of departure.5 Destination(s) in Albania and ETA. Croatia General description of cargo. Pollution Number of crew. 1.53 Number of illegal emigrating Albanians (if any). 1 Any discharge of harmful waste material overboard, in For vessels leaving Albanian territorial waters, their Croatian waters, should be reported to the nearest harbour destination(s) in Italy and ETA (if possible). master’s office.6 On the basis of information given by the inspection co-ordinator, appropriate action will be taken based on the Restricted areas following: 1.54 (a) for vessels bound for Albanian territorial waters 1 A number of areas in which navigation is prohibited are masters will be advised on the necessity for situated in Croatian waters. These areas are described in ensuring the absence of illegal Albanian emigrants the appropriate part of the body of this volume. In addition when departing Albanian ports. there are also a number of areas where under-water7 (b) for vessels leaving Albanian territorial waters and activities are prohibited. declaring their destination to be an Italian port, 2 National parks. The following are designated as the vessel can be inspected to confirm the absence National parks in which there are restrictions and to which of illegal Albanian emigrants. special regulations apply: (c) for vessels leaving Albanian territorial waters and Otok Mljet (7.113). declaring their destination to be other than an Rijeka Krka (8.193). Italian port, the vessel will not be stopped but Otok Kornat (8.211). may be followed to confirm that their course has Luka TelaðÆica (8.267). not changed towards an Italian port. Brijuni Otoci (10.14).8 In International waters, vessels flying Albanian or Italian flags can be subject to the right of approach and visit by Notice of ETA Italian warships. Vessels flying other flags may be subject 1.55 to the right of approach by Italian warships in accordance 1 Vessels entering Croatian waters should give 24 hours with International Maritime Law. Consequential actions can notice of their ETA through any Croatian coast radio be carried out in accordance with Article 110 of the Law of station. the Sea Convention 1982. Speed restrictions 1.56 Serbia and Montenegro 1 Speed restrictions are in force in a number of places in the internal waters of Croatia. Details are given with the Pollution description of the localities concerned in the body of this 1.48 volume.1 Any discharge of harmful waste material overboard, in Serbia and Montenegrin waters, should be reported to the Bosnia and Herzegovina nearest harbour master’s office. Pollution Prohibited areas 1.57 1.49 1 Any discharge of harmful waste material overboard, in1 A number of areas in which navigation is prohibited are Bosnia and Herzegovina waters, should be reported to the situated in Serbia and Montenegrin waters. These areas are nearest harbour master’s office. described in the appropriate part of the body of this volume. In addition there are also a number of areas where Slovenia under-water activities are prohibited. Pollution 1.58 Notice of ETA 1 Any discharge of harmful waste material overboard, in 1.50 Slovenian waters, should be reported to the nearest harbour1 Vessels entering Serbia and Montenegrin waters should master’s office. give 24 hours notice of their ETA via the Serbia and Montenegro coast radio station. Restricted areas 1.59 Speed restrictions 1 Two areas in which anchoring and navigation is 1.51 prohibited by power-driven craft are situated in Slovenian1 Speed restrictions are in force in a number of places in waters. These areas are described in the appropriate part of the internal waters of Serbia and Montenegro. Details are the body of this volume. 6
  • 28. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Notice of ETA 2 All such vessels are required to send a report to the Port 1.60 Captain before entering territorial waters, maintain contact1 Vessels calling at Slovenian harbours should give with him, advising him of any navigational defects, and to 24 hours notice of their ETA through any coast radio employ a pilot outside compulsory pilotage areas whenever station. Vessels carrying dangerous goods should send ETA conditions of cargo or navigation require. 48 hours prior to arrival. For details see Admiralty List of For further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Radio Signals Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3). Volume 6 (3). Weapons and arms Italy 1.64 1 All vessels carrying arms, and ammunition, must declare Pollution them and obtain ministerial permission before entering 1.61 Italian territorial waters. Such vessels should provide full1 All vessels navigating in Italian waters should report details to their agents at least 4 days before entering pollution by noxious substances, and accidents which could territorial waters. lead to such pollution. Details of addressees and form of report are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1). SIGNALS Restricted areas Storm signals 1.62 Greece, Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia,1 A number of restricted areas to which entry is prohibited Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Slovenia exist off the coast, as shown on the charts. These areas are 1.65 described in the appropriate part of the body of this 1 No visual storm warning signals are used in these volume. countries.2 The following are designated as Marine Nature Reserves in which there are restrictions and to which special Italy regulations apply: 1.66 An area known as ‘Torre Guaceto’ centred on position 1 The following visual storm signals may be displayed at 40°44′N 17°48′E and comprises of three zones. Italian ports: Zone A — marked by light-buoys (special), entry and fishing prohibited. Zone B — entry and fishing prohibited. Zone C — entry by powered craft prohibited; fishing permitted by an authorised method.3 Isola Pianosa (42°13′N 15°45′E) (11.267) has full reserve status. The sea area is marked by light-buoys (special). Only the following activities are permitted with prior authorisation from the Harbour Master at Manfredonia (11.211): Navigation, approach and stopping of craft, for scientific purposes and guided visits. Bathing and immersion with or without breathing apparatus.4 Isole Tremiti (42°07′N 15°30′E) (11.268) comprises of two zones in which only the following activities are permitted with prior authorisation from the Harbour Master at Manfredonia (11.211): Zone B — the sea area surrounding Isola Caprara and the W coast of Isola San Domino, between Punta Provvidenza and Punta Secca, out to the 70 m depth contour. Fishing by rod and line or by weighted line; navigation; immersion and Storm signals Italy (1.66) underwater photography.5 Zone C — the remaining sea area out to the 70 m International signals depth contour. Fishing is prohibited unless previously authorised. Serbia and Montenegro 1.67 Vessels carrying dangerous cargoes 1 Boka Kotorska. Vessels over 150 m in length navigating 1.63 in Boka Kotorska (6.154) are required to display flag signal1 Special regulations are in force for vessels entering or ‘ZV’ of the International Code of Signals. leaving the following Italian ports, Trieste, Monfalcone, Brindisi, Bari, Barletta, Manfredonia, Termoli, Vasto, DISTRESS AND RESCUE Ortona, Pescara, Ancona, Falconara Marittima, Venezia and Port Nogaro. They apply to tankers of 1600 grt and over Coastguard services carrying petroleum, gas and other flammable cargoes, either 1.68 totally or partially laden and including those empty but not 1 The Greek Port Officer Service, the Italian Corps of yet declared gas-free. Capitaneria di Porto, and similar organisations in Serbia 7
  • 29. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 and Montenegro, Croatia and Slovenia are the nearest co-ordinates rescue and salvage operations in Croatian equivalents to the British Coastguard system. The Italian waters. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals service is a quasi-naval organisation with a representative Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3). Some Croatian Port Authorities in even the smallest ports where they are known as operate special rescue craft. Delegazione del Spiaggia. 1.71 1 Slovenia. The Harbour Master’s office in Koper Rescue services co-ordinates rescue and salvage operations in Slovenian 1.69 waters. For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals1 There are no lifeboat services equivalent to the British Volumes 1 (1) and 6 (3). organisation in the area covered by this volume. 1.72 Greece. Search and rescue is co-ordinated by the 1 Italy. Life saving is organised by the Corps of Ministry of Mercantile Marine. In the waters covered by Capitaneria di Porto in conjunction with the local fishing this volume, life-saving is organised by the Harbour fleets and other shipping in the area. Authorities at Kalamáta, Pílos, Pátrai, Préveza, Kérkira and The Italian Automated Search and Rescue system in the larger islands. (ARES) is in operation. Non-Italian vessels in the 1.70 Mediterranean are encouraged to participate. For details see1 Croatia. The Harbour Master’s office in Rijeka Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1). 8
  • 30. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 COUNTRIES AND PORTS GREECE Greek army advanced to within 60 miles of Ankara before being repulsed. General description In 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne returned Eastern Thrace 1.73 and Izmir to Turkey and provided for the exchange of1 Greece, known to the Greeks as Ellás, is a maritime Greek and Turkish minorities. During the 1939 to 1945 state in the SE of Europe and comprises a number of war, Greece was occupied by the Italians and Germans. regions. It is bounded on the N by Albania and the Government Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, on the E by Turkey 1.78 and the Aegean Sea, on the S by the Eastern Mediterranean 1 On gaining independence a monarchy was established Sea, and on the W by the Ionian Sea. The capital is which lasted until 1924 when a Republic was proclaimed. Athínai (Athens). The monarchy was restored in 1935, but after various 1.74 vicissitudes it was finally terminated by referendum on 8th1 Mainland. The limits of mainland Greece lying within December 1974. Since then Greece has been a Presidential the area covered by this volume extend from Ákra Taínaro Parliamentary Republic with a governmental structure (36°23′N 22°29′E) in the S to the border with Albania, similar to those in most European countries. The President, about 230 miles NNW, in the N, which incorporates who is Head of State, is elected by Parliament for a term coastlines of the following regions of Greece: of five years. The President appoints a prime minister, and2 Pelopónnisos, formerly known as Morea, a large on the latter ’s advice, the remaining members of peninsula connected to the rest of the mainland by government. The President is advised by the Council of the an isthmus 3 miles wide at Kórinthos. Republic. Central Greece. Ípiros formerly Epirus. Population 1.75 1.791 Islands. About one fifth of the total area of Greece 1 Population about 10⋅6 million (2000). consists of more than 1400 islands of which about 170 are inhabited. The principal island group lying within this Language volume are Ioníoi Nísoi (Ionian Islands) which lie adjacent 1.80 to the coast and include, from S to N: Zákinthos, 1 Greek is the official language of the country. The Kefallinía, Itháki, Léfkas (Levkás), Paxoí and Kérkira. modern language contains many features of classical Greek which has existed for 3000 years. National limits 2 In the nineteenth century a form of Greek known as Katharévousa was devised to purify the language and 1.76 return it to a form nearer to that of the ancient dialect from1 Greece claims a limit of 6 miles, measured from normal which it developed. However, Katharévousa never became baselines, for both its territorial waters and fisheries widely established and in 1976 it was abolished as a jurisdictions. For further details, see Annual Summary of language of university instruction and government. The Admiralty Notices to Mariners. form of present day spoken Greek, which has become the language of modern literature, is generally termed History Demotikí. 1.77 3 Apart from Greek, the languages most commonly1 From the end of the political independence of the city understood are English, French and Italian. states of ancient Greece to the early years of the nineteenth century Greece was ruled successively by the Roman, Physical features Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. 1.81 The Greek War of Independence began in 1821 and 1 General terrain. The Greek mainland is mountainous. continued until 1829 when, by the Treaty of Adrianople, Much of the country is dry and rocky, and little more than Turkey finally recognized the independence of Greece. At one quarter of the land is arable. In some of the that time the country comprised Pelopónnisos, Central mountainous regions, especially Pelopónnisos, there are Greece, Kikládhes Nísoi and Nísoi Vórioi Sporádhes. extensive tablelands. In its general aspect the country2 The Greek vision was to bring all Greeks of the presents a series of striking and interesting contrasts; fertile declining Ottoman Empire into the new state. The tracts covered with vineyards, olive groves, cornfields or realisation of this idea took many years, and its pursuit forests lie close to rugged heights and rocky precipices. created tensions between Greece and its neighbours, 1.82 particularly Turkey, which have persisted to the present 1 Coast. A number of significant gulfs indent the coasts time. The principal secessions of territory to Greece after of Greece described in this volume. With few exceptions independence were as follows: the characteristic features of the coasts are a high and3 1864 Ioníoi Nísoi, by Britain. picturesque seaboard, sparsely populated, with deep-water 1881 Thessalía and Ípiros, by Turkey. close inshore. The exceptions are chiefly in the vicinity of 1913 Makedhonía, Kríti and Eastern Sporadhes, by the entrances to Patraïkós Kólpos (38°15′N 21°30′E) and Turkey. Amvrakikós Kólpos (38°58′N 20°57′E) where the land is 1918 Thráki, by Bulgaria. low and marshy. Everywhere the interior is lofty and 1947 Dhodhekánisoi, by Italy. visible from a distance of 60 to 80 miles to seaward.4 In 1920 Eastern Thrace and Izmir were ceded to Greece 1.83 by the Treaty of Sèvres. 1 Rivers. The rivers which enter the sea on the W coast In 1921–22 the Greeks took the offensive against the are of little commercial importance or of interest to the Turks in pursuit of their claims in Anatolia. From Izmir the mariner, and few are navigable even by boats. 9
  • 31. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Industry and trade Population 1.84 1.921 Agriculture. Greece remains a predominantly 1 Population about 3⋅5 million (2000). agricultural country with about one fifth of the working Language population employed in agriculture. Principal products are: 1.93 tomatoes, olives and olive oil, cereals, sugar beet, cotton, 1 The Albanian language is divided into two dialects: citrus and other fruits, vegetables, grapes and wine, Gheg, spoken N of Gryka e Shkumbinit (41°01′N 19°26′E), livestock, dairy produce. and Tosk in the S. Thus many places have two forms of Fishing. The total catch in 1998 was 128 328 tonnes, name, and many are still also known by an Italian form. mainly from sea fishing. Since 1945 the official language has been based on Tosk.2 Manufacturing industries have increased considerably in recent (1997) years and employ about one seventh of the Physical features labour force. Principal industries, many newly established, 1.94 include: textiles; sugar; canned and processed fruits, 1 General terrain. Except for a flat rolling coastal plain, cement, chemicals, plastics, clothes and leather goods, most of the country consists of rugged hills and high domestic electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, mining, mountains, often covered in scrub or forest. iron, steel and aluminium products, shipbuilding. 2 Coast. South of Kepi i Gjuhëzës (40°25′N 19°17′E) the 1.85 coast is generally high and steep-to. Northward the coast is1 Natural resources. Greece produces a variety of ores generally low and sandy, backed by the coastal plain and and minerals, the principal of which are: bauxite, iron and bordered by depths which are relatively shallow and which iron pyrites, nickel, manganese, mangesite, sulphur, chrome, in places are subject to change. The coast is sparsely lead, zinc. Oil has been found and several refineries are in inhabited except in the vicinity of the few ports. operation. Everywhere the high mountains of the interior are visible 1.86 from a long distance seaward.1 Exports. About one third are accounted for by 3 Rivers. Lumi i Bunes (41°51′N 19°22′E) (6.77), part of agricultural products and one half by industrial products. which forms the border with Serbia and Montenegro, is the Principal items are: mineral ores, textiles, fruit and only river of navigational importance, being accessible by vegetables, cement, pharmaceuticals, tobacco. coasters. 1.87 Industry and trade1 Imports are chiefly fuel oils. 1.95 1 Agriculture is the principal economy, main products ALBANIA being: wheat, maize, sugar-beet, potatoes and fruit. Fishing. In 1998 there was an aggregate catch of General description 2683 tonnes (marine and freshwater). 1.88 Industry. Industry is slowly changing from state to1 Albania, known to the Albanians as Shqipërisë, with a private ownership. In 1993 industrial output was estimated coast line of about 150 miles on the SE side of the at 20 per cent of total capacity. With some external help, Adriatic, is bounded on the S by Greece, on the N by chemical and engineering industries are being expanded. Serbia and Montenegro and on the E by Macedonia. The Principal industries are: processing of agricultural products, capital is Tiranë. textiles, oil products and cement. National limits 2 Natural resources. The considerable mineral wealth of 1.89 the country is increasingly being exploited by the mining of1 Albania claims a limit of 12 miles, using straight chrome, copper, ferro-nickel, bitumen and coal. Oil is baselines, for both its territorial waters and fisheries produced and refined at Kucove, which is connected by jurisdiction. For further details, see Annual Summary of pipeline with the port of Vlorë. Almost a third of the Admiralty Notices to Mariners. country is forested with oak, elm, pine, and birch trees, which are cropped for material use. History Exports. Small quantities of minerals and crude oil. 1.901 In 1912, after more than four centuries of Ottoman rule, SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO Albania gained its independence, becoming first a Republic General description and then a Kingdom until occupied by Italy, and 1.96 subsequently by Germany, during 1939 to 1945 war. At the 1 Serbia and Montenegro lies on the E side of the Adriatic end of the war the partisan leader Enver Hoxha seized Sea, bounded by Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, control of the government and declared the country a Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Albania. The Socialist Republic; industry was nationalised, agriculture federal capital is Belgrade. collectivised and churches closed. Shortly thereafter, Albania became a client state of the former USSR until National limits 1961 and then China until 1977. With liberalisation in 1.97 China, Albania broke ties and became almost isolated from 1 Serbia and Montenegro claims a limit of 12 miles, using world affairs. In 1991 an opposition Democratic Party was straight baselines, for both its territorial waters and fisheries formed to stand in the elections to the National Assembly. jurisdictions. For further details, see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. Government Internal waters of Serbia and Montenegro are the sea 1.91 areas between the mainland and the baseline of the1 After several constitutional changes over the last four territorial waters, including the harbours and bays on the centuries, Albania once again became a democracy in 1992. mainland and islets, and a river delta. 10
  • 32. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 History Coast. Backed by the high mountains of the Dinaric 1.98 Alps the mainland coast is generally high and picturesque,1 The country was formed in 1918 of Serbia, Montenegro, with steep cliffs in places. It is frequently indented, deeply Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Dalmatia and Slovenia. It in many places. Close inshore depths vary considerably. was proclaimed The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and River. Lumi i Bunes (41°51′N 19°22′E) (6.77), part of Slovenes, with a constitutional monarchy under the Serbian which forms the border with Albania, is the only river of royal house. Internal difficulties between the various navigational importance, being accessible by coasters. national parties led to a breakdown in government in 1929 Industry and trade and King Alexander proclaimed a royal dictatorship, 1.104 changing the name of the country to Yugoslavia—the Land 1 Agriculture forms an important part of the country’s of the Southern Slavs. He was murdered in Marseille in economy and in 1991 about one million people were 1934 and a regency followed until his son, King Peter, was employed on the land. Principal products are: various types declared of age in 1941. Almost immediately the country of grain, sugar-beet, potatoes, fruit and livestock. was invaded by the Axis Powers. Fishing. In 1998 there was an aggregate catch of2 At the end of World War II in 1945, the Communist 10 544 tonnes. Party under General Tito emerged supreme and set up a 2 Industry. Main products include: pig iron, steel, cement, provisional government. Elections were held and the plastics, artificial fertilisers, sugar refining, sulphuric acid, Communists were returned to office. The monarchy was machinery, vehicles, ship-repairing, oil refining and a abolished and Yugoslavia declared a Federal Peoples variety of consumer goods. Tourism is also an important Republic with a constitution modelled on that of the Soviet part of the economy. Union of 1936. 3 Natural resources. Important mineral deposits, mainly3 Relations with the USSR, having never been without in the central and SE regions of the country are being friction, deteriorated and in 1948 Yugoslavia was expelled mined, and include: lignite and copper; crude oil and gas from the Cominform. Economic aid was given by western are also produced. There are large forest areas throughout nations and Yugoslavia set out on its own “road to the country. socialism”. New constitutions were adopted in 1953 and Exports: metal products, machinery, mineral ores, 1963, the latter changing the name of the country to The transport equipment, chemicals, agricultural products. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Imports: transport equipment, electrical goods, machinery agricultural produce, foodstuffs. National status 1.991 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed from CROATIA the dissolution of The Socialist Federal Republic of General description Yugoslavia by Serbia and Montenegro on 27th April 1992. 1.105 On 14th March 2002 the leaders of Serbia, Montenegro and 1 Croatia, lies on the E side of the Adriatic Sea, bounded the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia signed an agreement to by Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia maintain a joint state under the name of Serbia and and Herzegovina. The capital is Zagreb. Montenegro. National limits Government 1.106 1.100 1 Croatia claims a territorial waters limit of 12 miles,1 The Federal parliament consists of two chambers: the using straight baselines. For further details, see Annual Chamber of the Republics has forty members, twenty each Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. elected from the assemblies of Montenegro and Serbia. Its assent is necessary to all legislation. The Chamber of History Citizens has one hundred and thirty eight members, elected 1.107 by universal suffrage. 1 See 1.98. The head of state is the Federal President. On 6th July National status 2000 members of the parliament voted to change the 1.108 constitution, establishing a system under which the 1 Following a referendum on 19th May 1991, Croatia president is directly elected for up to two four-year terms. declared its independence from The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 30th May 1991. Population 1.101 Government1 Population (1991): 9⋅3 million (Serbia); 615 000 1.109 (Montenegro). 1 Executive power is vested in a president and government. The president is directly elected for five-year Language terms. Legislative power is vested in the 151-member 1.102 Chamber of Representatives, whose members are directly1 The official language is Serbian. Serbian is written in elected for a four-year term. the Cyrillic alphabet. There are also substantial Albanian Population and Hungarian-speaking minorities. 1.110 1 Population about 4⋅5 million (2000). Physical features 1.103 Language1 General terrain. Inland there are high mountain ranges, 1.111 fertile plains, and dense forests. 1 The official language is Croatian. 11
  • 33. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Physical features Government 1.112 1.1171 General terrain. Inland there are high mountain ranges, 1 Following the Dayton Peace Treaty signed in Paris on fertile plains, and dense forests. 14th December 1995 the government structure was Coast. Backed by the high mountains of the Dinaric established as follows: Alps the mainland coast is generally high and picturesque, Heading the state is a three-member Presidency with with steep cliffs in places. It is frequently indented, deeply a rotating president. The Presidency is elected by in many places. Close inshore depths vary considerably. direct universal suffrage, and is responsible for From the vicinity of Dubrovnik (42°40′N 18°05′E) to foreign affairs and the nomination of the prime RijeÅki Zaljev (45°15′N 14°25′E) the coast is bordered minister. everywhere by islands, islets, rocks, and shoals, which There is a two-chamber parliament, the Chamber of render navigation intricate. The islands and islets are good Representatives and the Chamber of Peoples. marks.2 Because of coastal indentations and islands the actual Population length of coastline is nearly 10 times greater than if 1.118 measured in a direct line. 1 Population about 4⋅3 million (2000). Rivers. Rijeka Neretva (43°01′N 17°27′E) (7.407) is the Language most important river in Croatia. There are several other 1.119 rivers of less importance including Rijeka Krka (43°46′N 1 The official language is Serbo-Croat. 15°51′E) (8.193). Physical features Industry and trade 1.120 1.113 1 General terrain. Inland there are high mountain ranges,1 Agriculture forms an important part of the country’s fertile plains, and dense forests. economy and 409 647 people (1993) were employed on the Coast. Backed by the high mountains of the Dinaric land. Principal products are: grain of various varieties, Alps the coast is generally high and picturesque, with steep sugar-beet, potatoes, tobacco, fruit, wine and livestock. cliffs in places. Close inshore depths vary considerably. Fishing. In 1998 there was an aggregate catch of 22 323 tonnes. Industry2 Industry. Main products include: cement, textiles, 1.121 food-processing, ship building and repair, oil refining and a 1 Agriculture forms an important part of the country’s variety of consumer goods. Tourism is also an important economy. Principal products are: potatoes, grain of various part of the economy. varieties, vegetables and livestock.3 Natural resources. Important mineral deposits are being Fishing. In 1998 there was an aggregate catch of mined, and include: coal, lignite and salt; crude oil and gas 2500 tonnes (freshwater). are also produced. There are large forest areas throughout 2 Industry. Main products include: cement, aluminium, the country. crude steel, vehicles and a variety of consumer goods. Exports: machinery, transport equipment, clothing, food, Tourism is also an important part of the economy. live animals, mineral fuels and lubricants, plastics. Natural resources. Important mineral deposits are being Imports: machinery, mineral fuels and lubricants, mined, and include: iron ore, bauxite and lignite. There are chemicals, foodstuffs. large forest areas throughout the country. SLOVENIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA General description 1.122 General description 1 Slovenia, with a coastline of 19 miles is situated on the 1.114 S side of Golfo di Trieste (10.97), at the head of the1 Bosnia and Herzegovina, lies on the E side of the Adriatic Sea. It is bounded on the W by Italy, on the N by Adriatic Sea, bounded by Croatia to the N and W and Austria, on the E by Hungary and on the S by Croatia. The Serbia and Montenegro to the E and S. The capital is capital is Ljubljana. Sarajevo. The country, with a coastline of 11 miles in length, is National limits inland but extends through Croatia by a corridor about 1.123 2 miles wide to the coast in Kanal Mali Ston (7.422) and 1 Slovenia claims a territorial waters limit of 12 miles. For Zaljev Klek-Neum (7.435). further details, see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. The median line in the Gulf of Trieste, is History shown on Chart 1471. 1.115 History1 See 1.98. 1.124 1 See 1.98. National status 1.116 National status1 Following the secession of Slovenia and Croatia in 1991, 1.125 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia collapsed. 1 Following a referendum on 23rd December 1990, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared itself independent on 5th Slovenia declared its independence from The Socialist April 1992. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 25th June 1991. 12
  • 34. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Government Rome was added to the Kingdom in 1870, and became the 1.126 capital the following year. During the war of 1914 to 19181 The head of state is the president, elected for a five-year Italy fought against Germany, and at the peace received term. Executive power is vested in the Prime Minister and some former Austrian territory, including Trieste, along the Cabinet of Ministers. The lower house of the legislature, NE frontier. In 1922 Mussolini came to power and in the the National Assembly, has ninety members directly elected subsequent years established a Fascist Government with the for a four-year term. The upper house, the forty-member monarch as titular Head of State. Italy entered the war of National Council, has an advisory role. 1939 to 1945 on the side of Germany in 1940 but in 1943, after being invaded by the Allies, signed as armistice and Population thereafter supported the Allies. Hostilities against the 1.127 occupying German forces continued until the end of the1 Population about 2⋅0 million (2000). war in Europe, and during this period Mussolini was executed by resistance fighters. A referendum in 1946 Language terminated the monarchy and declared a Republic. At the 1.128 peace treaty in 1947 Italy lost to Yugoslavia much of the1 The official language is Slovene. territory gained after the 1914 to 1918 war, but retained Trieste. Physical features 1.129 Government1 General terrain. Inland there are high mountain ranges 1.134 and dense forests. 1 By the constitution of 1947 the elected parliament Coast. Backed by the high mountains of the Julian Alps consists of a Chamber of Deputies and the Senate elected the coast is generally high and picturesque, with steep cliffs for 5 years. The President of the Republic is elected, in a in places. joint session of both chambers of the parliament, for 7 years. Industry and trade 1.130 Population1 Agriculture forms an important part of the country’s 1.135 economy. Principal products are: potatoes, grain of various 1 Population about 57⋅5 million (2000). varieties, sugar-beet, fruit, wine and livestock. Language Fishing. In 1999 there was an aggregate catch of 1.136 3215 tonnes (marine and freshwater). 1 Italian, a Romance language derived from Latin, is used Industry. Main products include: cement, aluminium, throughout the country but with numerous dialects showing crude steel, vehicles and a variety of consumer goods. French, Spanish, German and Arabic influences. Tourism is also an important part of the economy.2 Natural resources. Important mineral deposits are being Physical features mined, and include lignite. There are large forest areas 1.137 throughout the country. 1 General terrain. Beyond a coastal plain the interior of Exports: road vehicles and parts, furniture and a variety the country is rugged and mountainous with the Appennine of consumer goods. Range forming a spine which runs the full length of the Imports: road vehicles, machinery, petroleum and peninsula. North of Promontorio del Gargano (41°50′N petroleum products, and iron and steel. 16°10′E) the Appennines approach the coast, and Monte Amaro (11.301) and Monte Corno (12.13), the highest peaks, can be seen from a great distance in clear weather. ITALY 2 Coast. The Italian Adriatic seaboard NW from Cap General description Santa Maria di Leuca (39°48′N 18°22′E) as far as the 1.131 vicinity of Ravenna (44°25′N 12°13′E) is generally1 Italy, known to the Italians as Italia, comprises a large uniformly low with sandy beaches except in the vicinity of peninsula projecting SE into the Central Mediterranean, and Promontorio del Gargano, and Monte Conero (43°33′N forming the W side of the Adriatic Sea, Sicilia and 13°36′E), both of which, being high, are excellent marks. Sardegna, and about 70 other smaller islands. Its N frontier Natural harbours and roadsteads are scarce, but there are is bounded by France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. many harbours which have been adapted to accommodate The capital is Roma. the busy trade carried on by local coasting vessels. Only a few harbours are accessible by ocean-going vessels. The National limits coast is generally thickly populated with many tourist 1.132 resorts and facilities.1 Italy claims a limit of 12 miles, using straight baselines, 3 Northward from Ravenna the coast is low, sandy and for both its territorial waters and fisheries zone. For further everywhere backed by a marshy plain intersected by details see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to numerous canals, rivers, and channels which form a Mariners. The median line in Gulf of Trieste, is shown on network of inland waterways. The delta of Fiume Po, and Chart 1471. Laguna di Venezia form a major part of this area. 1.138 History 1 Depths offshore are regular and shallower than on the 1.133 Croatian coast except in the vicinity of the high features1 After the fall of the Roman Empire, the country previously described. However the great number of rivers consisted of a number of independent states until unified as entering the Adriatic along the Italian seaboard NW of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 under a constitutional Monte Conero bring down quantities of sand and mud monarchy of the House of Savoy, the rulers of Piedmont. causing the shore to be encumbered with shoals, and nearly 13
  • 35. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 all the harbours to be obstructed to some extent. The coast Place and position Remarks is easily navigated in fine weather and can be safely approached sufficiently near for identification of its most Kólpos Argostolíou Large sheltered anchorage prominent objects which may generally be seen from a (3.115) with small ports distance of 10 to 12 miles offshore. (38°08′N 20°26′E) 1.139 Argostólion (3.121)1 Rivers and inland waterways. The network of inland Lixoúrion (3.120) waterways N of Ravenna are widely used and afford access Vathí (3.148) Small natural landlocked by coasting vessels to destinations considerable distances (38°22′N 20°43′E) harbour inland, while Venezia (12.297) is accessible by large vessels. Fiume Corno, entered at Porto Buso (45°43′N Préveza (3.252) Small port and ferry 13°15′E) and leading to Porto Nogaro (12.370) is the only (38°57′N 20°45′E) terminal river accessible by ocean-going vessels. Patraïkós and Korinthiakós Kólpos Mesolongíon (4.28) Small artificial landlocked Industry and trade (38°22′N 21°25′E) harbour 1.140 Pátrai (4.41) Major commercial port;1 Agriculture is a significant part of the Italian economy (38°15′N 21°44′E) international ferry but in 1987 employed a smaller proportion of the labour terminal; open anchorage force than previously. Principal products are: grain, sugar-beet, grapes, olives, citrus fruits, vegetables, rice, Itéa (4.84) Sheltered bay with small cheese and wine. (38°26′N 22°25′E) port and several bulk ore Fishing. In 1994 the Italian fishing fleet comprised berths 15 798 powered craft. In 1998 there was an aggregate catch Thísvi (4.108) Small natural landlocked of 315 593 tonnes. (38°13′N 22°57′E) harbour2 Industry. Textile, clothing and leather industries are the largest and most important. Other notable manufacturing‘ Kórinthos (4.134) Small artificial3 industries include: Iron, steel, motor vehicles, (37°57′N 22°56′E) commercial port shipbuilding, machinery, cement, chemicals, consumer West coast and North Ionian Isles goods. Tourism is also an important part of the economy. Natural resources. Italy is generally poor in natural Igoumenítsa (5.58) Landlocked international resources and little is exported. Principal deposits worked (39°30′N 20°16′E) ferry terminal are: Iron pyrites, iron ore, sulphur, lignite. Oil and methane Kérkira (5.74) Large commercial, gas reserves are exploited off the Adriatic coast but known (39°38′N 19°55′E) international ferry deposits and production are insufficient to meet all national terminal, open anchorage requirements. There are large forest areas throughout the Albania country.4 Exports: metal products and machinery; textiles and Durrës (6.16) Artificial harbour, leather goods; wood, paper and rubber goods; transport (41°19′N 19°27′E) principal port of the equipment; chemicals; foodstuffs. country; international ferry Imports: metal products and machinery; chemicals; terminal transport equipment; mineral ores; wood, paper and rubber Serbia and Montenegro goods; textiles and leather goods. Bar (6.101) Major commercial port, (42°05′N 19°05′E) international ferry terminal. Boka Kotorska (6.154) Series of landlocked PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS (42°23′N 18°32′E) basins affording sheltered AND ANCHORAGES anchorage 1.141 Bijela (6.201) Shipyard for larger Place and position Remarks vessels Greece Tivat (6.205) Shipyard and small port West coast and South Ionian Isles Kotor (6.232) Small port. Kalamáta (3.21) Medium artificial Croatia (37°01′N 22°07′E) commercial port Órmos Navarínou (3.57) Sheltered anchorage with South of Rt PloÅa (43°30′N 15°58′E) (36°56′N 21°41′E) small port Luka Gruý (7.34) Commercial port for Pülos (3.65) (42°40′N 18°05′E) Dubrovnik in well sheltered inlet; Katákolon (3.88) Small artificial international ferry terminal (37°39′N 21°19′E) commercial port with open anchorage PloÅe (7.375) Major artificial harbour; Zakínthos (3.95) Small artificial (43°03′N 17°26′E) under development (1992) (37°47′N 20°54′E) commercial port with Split (7.641) Major commercial port; open anchorage (43°31′N 16°26′E) Croatian Naval Base 14
  • 36. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1Place and position Remarks Place and position RemarksGradska Luka (7.667) Passenger and Monfalcone (10.211) Large commercial port; international ferry (45°47′N 13°33′E) shipyard terminals East coastSjeverna Luka (7.669) Main commercial docks; shipyard Brindisi (11.50) Large commercial port, (40°39′N 17°58′E) under development (2002);North of Rt PloÅa international ferry−ibenik (8.151) Medium commercial port terminal; Italian Naval(43°44′N 15°54′E) in landlocked basin BaseZadar (8.593) Medium commercial port; Monopoli (11.98) Small protected(44°07′N 15°14′E) international ferry terminal (40°57′N 17°18′E) commercial and fishing and coastal traffic in port national inlet Bari (11.122) Large artificial commercialLuka Gaýenica (8.609) Deepwater artificial (41°08′N 16°51′E) harbour; international ferry harbour with main terminal commercial docks for Molfetta (11.167) Small protected Zadar (41°12′N 16°36′E) commercial and fishingKvarner portZaljev Raða (9.116) Deep inlet affording Barletta (11.174) Small protected(44°57′N 14°04′E) sheltered anchorage; (41°20′N 16°17′E) commercial and fishing several alongside berths port for specialised cargoes Manfredonia (11.211) Large artificial commercialPlomin-Luka (9.150) Deep inlet with bulk (41°38′N 15°55′E) port; open anchorage(45°08′N 4°11′E) cargo terminal and Ortona (11.308) Small protected developing (2002) Ro-Ro (42°21′N 14°25′E) commercial and fishing terminal portRijeka (9.230) Major artificial port and Pescara (11.316) Small protected(45°20′N 14°25′E) international ferry terminal (42°28′N 14°14′E) commercial and fishing with number of port at river mouth; specialised subsidiary international ferry terminal ports in RijeÅki Zaljev Ancona (12.57) Large artificial commercialUrinj (9.277) Deepwater oil terminal on (43°37′N 13°31′E) harbour; international ferry open coast terminal; Italian NavalBakarski Zaljev (9.294) Landlocked basin with Base; shipyard; under deepwater oil and bulk development (1999) mineral terminals, Ro-Ro berth Falconara Marittima API Oil Jetty Terminal, (12.88) and deepwater oilOmiðaljski Zaljev (9.325) Landlocked basin with (43°38′N 13°23′E) terminals seaward of deepwater oil terminal Falconara MarittimaUvala Sapan (Port Dina) Open harbour with LPG Pesaro (12.121) Small protected(9.354) and chemical terminals (43°55′N 12°54′E) commercial and fishingWest coast of Istra port at river mouthPula (10.26) Landlocked basin with Offshore Oil Terminals Deepwater berths seaward(44°52′N 13°51′E) sheltered anchorage; (12.153) of Porto Corsini medium commercial port; Ravenna (12.164) Large commercial canal shipyard; Croatian Naval (44°30′E 12°17′E) port entered at Porto Base; international ferry Corsini terminal Gulf of Venice Slovenia Chioggia (12.268) Medium commercial portKoper (10.119) Major commercial port; (45°13′N 12°17′E) within Laguna di Venezia(45°33′N 13°44′E) under development (1999) Venezia (12.297) Major all purpose Italy (45°26′N 12°20′E) commercial port complexGulf of Trieste comprising a number of separate dock areasTrieste (10.150) Major and extensive all within Laguna di Venezia;(45°39′N 13°46′E) purpose commercial port; Italian Naval Base; shipyard; Italian Naval shipyards; international Base; international ferry ferry terminals terminal 15
  • 37. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1Place and position Remarks Place and position RemarksSan Leonardo (12.337) Oil terminal Trieste (10.189) Graving dock (No 4)Porto Marghera (12.338) All types of commercial 170 000 dwt (300 000 grt) operations and specialised Brindisi (11.80) Floating dock (GO 10) cargoes 2000 tonnesPorto Commerciale General cargo; passenger Monopoli (11.104) Patent slip; 150 tonnes(12.339) traffic and Italian Navy Mola di Bari (11.118) Patent slip; 150 tonnes in canals adjacent to City of Venezia. Bari (11.148) Patent slip; 500 tonnes Molfetta (11.173) 1000 tonnes PORT SERVICES — SUMMARY Ortona (11.315) Patent slip; 150 tonnes Pescara (11.323) Patent slip; 150 tonnes Docking facilities San Benedetto del Tronto Patent slip; 150 tonnesRepairs of all kinds (12.32)1.142 Ancona (12.83) Floating dock;Place Largest underwater repair 1500 tonnes displacement facility and lifting Senigallia (12.113) Patent slip; 150 tonnes capacity Fano (12.120) Patent slip; 400 tonnesDurrës (6.43) Floating dock; 18 000 dwt Pesaro (12.127) Patent slip; 800 tonnesBijela (6.204) Floating dock; 33 000 tonnes displacement Rimini (12.146) Patent slip; 200 tonnes (26 500 dwt) Ravenna (12.199) Graving dockTivat (6.211) Floating dock; Goro (12.241) Slip; 150 grt 3000 tonnes (reported) Chioggia (12.293) Patent slip; 300 tonnesKotor (6.236) Slipway; 150 grt Venezia (12.340) Graving dock (No 3)Gruz (7.64) Slip; 400 grt 75 000 dwt.Split (Sjeverna Luka) Floating dock;(7.687) 4500 tonnes displacement Other facilitiesTrogir (7.712) Floating dock; 11 000 tonnes displacement Deratting (28 000 dwt) 1.143 1 Deratting certificates and deratting exemption−ibenik (8.189) Patent slip; 450 grt certificates are issued at:Uvala Lamjana Vela Floating dock; Pátrai (4.41), Durrës (6.16), Bar (6.101), PloÅe(8.369) 8500 tonnes displacement (7.375), Split (7.641), Sibenik (8.151), Zadar (25 000 dwt) (8.593), Mali Loðinj (9.60), Rijeka (9.230), Pula (10.26), Koper (10.119), Trieste (10.150), BrindisiMali Loðinj (9.66) Floating dock; (11.50), Bari (11.122), Pescara (11.316), Ancona 7000 tonnes displacement (12.57) and Venezia (12.297). (13 000 dwt) 2 Deratting exemption certificates only are issued at:Cres (9.149) Floating dock; 1000 tonnes Kalamáta (3.21) Katákólon (3.88), Zakínthos (3.95),Rijeka and vicinity: Argostólion (3.121), Léfkas (Levkás) (3.228), Préveza (3.252), Itéa (4.84), Kórinthos (4.134),Rijeka (9.260) Kérkira (5.74), Luka Gruý (7.34), Umag (10.93), Floating dock in Luka Manfredonia (11.211), Ortona (11.308), SanLuka MartinðÆica (9.275) MartinðÆica; 60 000 dwt Benedetto del Tronto (12.26), Pesaro (12.121), and (24 000 tonnes Ravenna (12.164).Luka Kraljevica (9.316) displacement) Measured distancesRovinj (10.39) Patent slip; 400 grt 1.144Izola (Koper) (10.116) Floating dock; 1 Otok Ciovo (7.670). 8500 tonnes displacement Venezia (12.320). 16
  • 38. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 NATURAL CONDITIONS MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY CURRENTS, TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW Currents in the Mediterranean Charts 1439, 1440 General remarks Chart 4300 1.145 Inflow and outflow1 Ionian Sea, lying between the W coast of Greece and E 1.149 coasts of Sicilia and S Italy, forms one of three major 1 The Mediterranean receives from the rivers that flow basins in the Mediterranean and at its centre is a small into it, only about one third of the amount of water that it abyssal plain with depths of over 4000 m. A relatively loses by evaporation. Still greater losses of water result large portion of the sea has depths of over 3000 m and its from a sub-surface outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar shelf area is very narrow. On the W side it shelves steeply which removes from Mediterranean Sea to Atlantic Ocean from the Sicilian/Malta sill while along the E side it is the highly saline and dense water resulting from characterised by a series of deep depressions forming part evaporation. These losses are compensated by a strong of the Hellenic Trench. The bottom appears to be surface inflow from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. composed of calcareous muds, with occasional outcrops of 2 A similar, though much less pronounced, pattern prevails sand especially along the E edge. between Mediterranean and Black Seas; water flowing out 1.146 of the Mediterranean through Çanakkale BoÔazi (40°01′N1 Adriatic Sea is entered from the Ionian Sea through the 26°10′E) at depth, and into it at the surface. Strait of Otranto, vicinity of 40°10′N 19°00′E, and extends General circulation NW to Golfo di Trieste. It is characterised in its S half by 1.150 the South Adriatic Basin, an abyssal plain reaching depths 1 The general pattern of surface currents results to a large of over 1200 m. At the S end of this basin it connects with extent from the Mediterranean being divided into two the Ionian Sea through a relatively narrow strait between basins, connected by the Sicilian Channel and Stretto di Italy and Albania where depths are in the region of 600 to Messina, and from the inflow through the Strait of 1000 m. North of the South Adriatic Basin the Adriatic Gibraltar. shallows to form a shelf with depths of less than 200 m. 1.151 The edge of the shelf is somewhat indefinite. A chain of 1 West Mediterranean. From the straits of Gibraltar an small and widely dispersed islands rises near the shelf edge E-going current flows along the coast of Algeria and forms and extends across the Adriatic just N of Promontorio del the S flank of a counter-clockwise circulation in the W Gargano. In the vicinity of OtoÅiÆ Jabuka (43°05′N Mediterranean. Part of this current continues ESE through 15°28′E), and well inside the edge of the shelf, there is a the Sicilian Channel. For details see Mediterranean Pilots transverse basin with depths of up to about 270 m. Vols I and II.2 The chief sediment source for the N part of the Adriatic 1.152 is Fiume Po. Mud is found to the E of the delta of Fiume 1 East Mediterranean. From the Sicilian Channel some Po and SE along the Italian coast spreading across the part of the ESE-going current diverges S into the Gulf of Adriatic in the vicinity of the transverse basin. Sand, and Sirte, but the main stream continues ESE along the coasts sandy mud, are found at the head of the Adriatic, along the of N Cyrenaica and Egypt to the Nile Delta. This is Croatian side of the shelf, and also in the basin beyond the opposed by the outflow from the Aegean Sea between Kríti shelf. and the Greek mainland which also contributes a little to the N flow in the E Ionian Sea and thence into the SE Seismic activity Adriatic. It also opposes the ESE sets of the primary 1.147 current to SE of Sicilia.1 An earthquake belt passes through the Mediterranean 2 For further details see Mediterranean Pilots Volumes IV and affects parts of Greece, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia and V. and Bosnia Herzegovina. Severe earthquakes have occurred Conditions affecting currents in the past in the South Ionian Islands, Nísos Léfkas 1.153 (Levkás) and Amvrakikós Kólpos. As recently as 1979 a 1 With a few exceptions, the climatological wind field number of ports in Serbia and Montenegro, (formerly over the Mediterranean in different seasons supports the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), S of latitude 42°30′N, general circulation described. However, winds can vary were severely damaged and the coastline changed. A considerably, especially during winter, and local drift warning to this effect is given on the relevant charts. currents opposed to the general circulation may develop There is no volcanic activity in the Adriatic area. when the wind has been strong and persistent from an unusual quarter. Local magnetic anomalies 1.148 Currents and tidal streams in the Adriatic Sea1 Magnetic anomalies occur off the Croatian coast in the Chart 1440 following areas: 1.154 Between Stonski Kanal (42°47′N 17°47′E) and Split 1 From the data available, the primary circulation of the (43°31′N 16°26′E). Adriatic is anti-clockwise with much variability. The Near the islands between OtoÅiÆ Jabuka (43°05′N in-going flow enters on the E side of the Strait of Otranto 15°28′E) and Otok Vis, 26 miles E. and progresses erratically N along the W coast of Albania North of latitude 44°N. then onwards towards Pula in the N. There are many2 The anomalies in the N region are less intense than deviations through the islands, but the main direction is those farther S. Caution is advised if navigating by NW with variable currents fanning out towards the W in magnetic compass, particularly during magnetic storms. central parts. 17
  • 39. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 12 At times, due to local winds and external pressure 2 East side of the Adriatic. Sea level is affected effects, interaction between in and out-going flows produce considerably by meteorological conditions. In strong SE marked but limited eddies. Strong offshore winds reduce winds there is sometimes a rise of 0·3 to 0·6 m. inshore water levels but once they cease, the water returns West side of the Adriatic. Sea level is affected by local with increased flow through the narrow channels. The circumstances and prevailing winds. Bora (1.179) gales converse also applies when, after the cessation of persistent cause a rise in sea level along the Italian coast. onshore winds, water driven into narrow channels is At Venezia, meteorological conditions sometimes raises released, and the resultant outflow is often strong. the sea level by more than 1m above the general level, or3 The inshore current continues NW around the Gulf of cause a fall sufficient to uncover the mud of the lagoon; Venezia before joining the main SE going flow offshore in see further details commencing at 12.265. the vicinity of Pesaro (43°55′N 12°54′E) and Ancona (43°37′N 13°31′E). This SE flow is thought to have a moderate constancy throughout the year. It is emphasised Tides that wind and tide working together with any existing 1.157 current may increase the rate considerably. This effect is 1 West coast of Greece. The range of the tide is particularly evident on the E side of the Adriatic with a insignificant. rising tide and strong SE winds, and along the W side of East side of the Adriatic. On the coasts of Serbia and the Adriatic with a falling tide and strong NW winds. Montenegro and Croatia the range of the tide is about4 The shape of the coast may also result in changes to 0·3 m at springs. both the direction and rate of currents. This occurs off the West and north sides of the Adriatic. From Otranto to coast between Termoli (42°00′N 15°00′E) and Vieste Pesaro, the range of the tide is about 0·3 m at springs. (41°53′N 16°11′E) where the SE-going flow is turned E, Thence N it increases until it is about 0·8 m at Venezia and and enhances any eddies in the central part of the Adriatic. Trieste. About 72 per cent of current observations from the region recorded rates of less than 0⋅5 kn and 23 per cent between 0⋅6 and 1 kn. Currents in excess of 2 kn are very rare Seiches except in or near coastal waters where wind and 1.158 topography may produce higher rates over short distances. 1 Seiches sometimes occur in the Adriatic, (see The5 Heavy rainfalls over long periods, as well as the influx Mariner’s Handbook). A particularly violent seiche of melted water in spring and early summer from Alpine occurred at Stari Grad (43°11′N 16°35′E) in September areas also contribute to inshore currents. The total 1977, when a deep low-pressure trough moved slowly SE constituent, although small, becomes increasingly evident across the area from the N part of the Adriatic. Shortly towards the northern part of the Adriatic. The general effect after the passage of the front, the water level fell suddenly is for the flood tide to increase the NW-going inflow and by more than 2 m rising again a few minutes later by reduce the SE-going outflow, whilst the out-going tide may 2·7 m. These oscillations continued for several hours, with weaken the inflow and increase the outflow. each cycle lasting about 10 minutes and being made up of about 4 minutes slack at both the high and low levels and about 1 minute for each fall and rise. Current diagrams 1.1551 In the current diagrams 1.155.1 to 1.155.3, arrows SEA AND SWELL indicating the Predominant Direction and Constancy are shown, which are defined as follows: Predominant Direction. The mean direction within a General information continuous 90° sector containing the highest 1.159 proportion of observations from all sectors. 1 For definitions of sea and swell, and the terminology Constancy, as indicated by the thickness of the used in describing their characteristics, see The Mariner’s arrows, is a measure of its persistence; e.g. low Handbook. constancy implies marked variability in rate and, particularly, the direction of the current. Sea conditions 1.160 1 Sea waves are generated locally by the wind and can be SEA LEVELS AND TIDES very variable in direction. Strong winds often give rise to short, steep and very rough seas and are a well known feature of this region. The Bora (1.179) gives particularly Sea level unpleasant conditions in the N Adriatic and, as the onset of 1.156 these strong NE winds is often abrupt and violent; slight1 Central Mediterranean. The MSL may fall as much as seas may give way to very rough conditions within a short 0·4 m below normal in the Central Mediterranean during period of time. February, March and April annually. 2 The Scirocco (1.180) which can blow from the SE, and West coast of Greece. Over the whole of the Ionian Sea parallel to the W and E coasts of the Adriatic, may raise a S wind causes a rise in water level of about 0·3 m while rough seas and become progressively worse towards the N N winds cause a fall of about the same amount. If the of the area. winds are strong and prolonged the resulting elevation or In all areas, but most frequently between autumn and depression is correspondingly greater. This is most marked winter and only occasionally in summer, strong winds may in Stenón Kerkíras where a rise or fall of about 1 m is give rise to squalls and rough seas where the winds are experienced. funnelled down steep-sided valleys to seaward. 18
  • 40. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 10° 15° 20° KEY Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 45° Arrows indicate the predominant direction. 45° The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% Probable direction when observation count is low see Diagram (1.155.3) 40° 40° 10° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Predominant surface currents MAY to SEPTEMBER (1.155.1) 10° 15° 20° KEY Average rate in knots is indicated in figures. 45° Arrows indicate the predominant direction. 45° The constancy of a current is indicated by the thickness of the arrow thus: High constancy >75% Moderate constancy 50%-75% Low constancy <50% Probable direction when observation count is low see Diagram (1.155.3) 40° 40° 10 Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Predominant surface currents NOVEMBER to MARCH (1.155.2) 19
  • 41. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 16° 30´ 17° 30´ 30´ 30´ 43° 43° 16° 30´ Longitude 17° East from Greenwich 30´ Predominant surface currents throughout the year (1.155.3) 20
  • 42. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 9 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 16 5 17 40° 40° 5 3 3 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Swell distribution JANUARY (1.161.1) 22
  • 43. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 34 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend: 0.1-2.2 4.3-6.2 8.3+ 3 2.3-4.2 6.3-8.2 Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 20 26 15 40° 40° 6 6 6 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Swell distribution JULY (1.161.2) 23
  • 44. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 Swell conditions near river estuaries where ice formation is possible in 1.161 mid-winter. Temperatures rise rapidly in April and May and1 Due to the relatively confined waters of the Adriatic, with the greatest increases in the N. Sea surface heavy swell or long swells are rare (see diagrams 1.161.1 temperatures usually reach a maximum of around 24° to and 1.161.2) but the Bora (1.179) can give rise to 25°C in August and with only small temperature considerable NE to NW swells. The onset of a Scirocco differences across the whole of the region. Between (1.180) is sometimes preceded by a SE swell in the October and December the sea temperatures decrease, with Adriatic, and may persist for a time after the wind has the greatest falls in the N of the area. abated. 1.165 Moderate W swells, resulting from strong W winds over 1 Variability. In shallow coastal waters and inlets, the the central part of the Mediterranean, can affect the W variation can be appreciable. Prolonged NE to NW winds coast of Greece and the S approaches to Strait of Otranto. may result in abnormally low sea temperatures, particularly in winter, and prolonged SW to SE winds may give rise to unusually high sea temperatures. Variability is generally greatest in the N part of the Adriatic where sea surface temperatures can, on rare occasions, differ from the mean SEAWATER CHARACTERISTICS by as much as 6°C. Salinity Colour 1.162 1.1661 Ionian Sea. In the area of the Ionian Sea covered by 1 When undisturbed the colour of the Adriatic is darker this volume the mean sea surface salinity is about 38·5 % than the general colour of the Mediterranean, and is of a with little or no seasonal variation. greenish hue.2 Adriatic Sea. The mean sea surface salinity of the S and central ports of the Adriatic is uniform at about 38 to 38·5 % with little or no seasonal variation. In the N part of the Adriatic the mean salinity generally decreases and has a CLIMATE AND WEATHER seasonal variation. In the vicinity of the Gulf of Venice the maximum is 36 % in winter, and the minimum 34 % in summer. In the vicinity of large rivers salinity of less than the mean value may be found. In general salinity increases General information with depth and exceeds 39 % near the bottom of the S part 1.167 of the Adriatic. 1 The following information on climate and weather should be read in conjunction with the information contained in The Mariner’s Handbook, which explains in more detail many aspects of meteorology and climatology Density of importance to the mariner. 1.163 Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, are1 Ionian Sea. The variations in mean sea surface density regularly broadcast in various languages of the region and are slight and mainly seasonal, the maximum, about also in English; for details see Admiralty List of Radio 1·0285 g/cm3, being attained in winter, decreasing to a Signals Volume 3 (1). minimum of about 1·02575 g/cm3 in summer. Adriatic Sea. Values of mean sea surface density are seasonal throughout the Adriatic and attain their maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Geographic variations General conditions are generally not great. 1.1682 The greatest mean density is found in the central part of 1 There is a very marked seasonal variation in all parts of the Adriatic with a value of about 1·029 g/cm3 in winter the region. A warm or hot season from June to September and 1·026 g/cm3 in summer. In the S part the mean density contrasts with a cool season from November to April whilst is only slightly less being somewhat similar to that found October and May can be regarded as transitional months. in the Ionian Sea. In the N part a mean density in winter The period between June and September is normally hot of 1·0285 g/cm3 is only slightly less than elsewhere in the and dry with light winds in the S and central parts of the Adriatic, but at other seasons is notably less, particularly in region. In the N of the area thundery spells bring rain in the vicinity of the Gulf of Venice where in late spring and the summer months and although this period is not free summer it falls to 1·022 g/cm3. from strong winds the incidence is low and duration is usually brief. The winter is by comparison cool and wet although it is only in the N and inland in the E where very low temperatures can be expected. Sea surface temperature 2 Strong winds are not uncommon in all areas and it is in 1.164 winter that the most violent and prolonged gales of the1 Diagrams 1.164.1 to 1.164.4 show the mean sea surface Bora (1.179) type occur in the Adriatic. Fog is most temperature for February, May, August and October. The frequent over the cold waters of the N Adriatic in this sea surface temperature usually falls to a minimum in season, particularly with S winds but elsewhere the February and with a mean temperature over the more open incidence of fog is low. Prolonged periods of fine settled N waters of around 9°C and 15°C in the S. In the extreme weather are common particularly in the S and central parts, N of the Adriatic, exceptionally cold waters are to be found but on occasions, especially at the end of the warm season 21
  • 45. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° 9 45° 10 45° 11 12 13 12 40° 40° <14 14 14 15 15 >15 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.164.1) 24
  • 46. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° 45° 17 45° 17 18 <18 18 40° 40° <18 18 >18 18 18 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Mean sea surface temperature (°C) MAY (1.164.2) 25
  • 47. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° 45° 45° 24 25 25 25 40° 40° >26 25 26 26 26 >26 >26 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.164.3) 26
  • 48. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° 45° 15 45° 16 17 17 18 40° 40° 18 19 19 19 20 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Mean sea surface temperature (°C) OCTOBER (1.164.4) 27
  • 49. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 and in winter, the weather may rapidly deteriorate and give A common development area is the NW Mediterranean way to dangerous and violent conditions with little (Gulf of Lyons, Ligurian Sea and the Po Valley) often as a warning. result of an invasion of cold air from N or NW. 2 Depressions originating in this area most frequently Pressure move SE to affect the Ionian Sea and the E Mediterranean 1.169 whilst others transfer to the Adriatic before moving towards1 Average distribution of pressure at mean sea level in the Balkans or Greece. The movement of depressions is January and July is shown in the accompanying diagrams sometimes difficult to predict when they become slow 1.169.1 and 1.169.2 and illustrate the typical mean pressure moving or stationary before quickly transferring elsewhere. fields for the cool and warm seasons. From November to March pressure is usually lower over Fronts the Mediterranean Sea than over the surrounding land 1.174 masses. By June the W extension of Asian anticyclone to 1 Most depressions have associated frontal systems but in Europe has normally collapsed and, together with an E general warm fronts are weak features (see The Mariner’s extension of the Azores anticyclone (1.171), results in a N Handbook for a full description of warm, cold fronts and to NW airflow over the central Mediterranean. occlusions). Cold fronts are often very active and can give 1.170 rise to violent conditions with severe squalls and1 Variability. It is emphasised that the diagrams 1.169.1 thunderstorms. The passage of a cold front may herald the and 1.169.2 depict average pressure distributions of very arrival of a vigorous outburst of cold air and in the variable pressure patterns which may change markedly Adriatic usually precedes the onset of a Bora (1.179). from day to day. This is particularly so in the cool season 2 The movement of a front is sometimes impeded by a when mobile depressions, troughs and ridges of high mountain range (e.g. the Alps) and in the lee of the high pressure cross the region. ground the front may advance in narrow sectors, as streams2 There is a small diurnal variation of pressure of about of cold air are funnelled through valleys in the mountains, 1 hPa. Maxima occur at about 1000 and 2200 local time and subsequently diverge. Secondary cold fronts or troughs and minima at around 0400 and 1600. Mobile depressions of low pressure may follow behind the main cold front as or ridges of high pressure often obscure the diurnal further outbreaks of cold air arrive. These often occur with variation. spells of Bora winds when each cold front may be accompanied by a violent squall followed by a renewed Anticyclones increase in the strength of the wind. In each case the cold 1.171 front may have little cloud or precipitation associated with1 The Azores anticyclone, the sub-tropical high pressure it because of the dryness of the continental air. Thus the belt centred over the Atlantic, has a major controlling mariner should be particularly wary, as there may be little influence on the climate of the Mediterranean. In the cool warning of the approach of a secondary front other than a season, when the anticyclone is centred at its most S small preliminary fall of the barometer and a temporary latitude, a ridge often extends E to Spain or North Africa. decrease in the wind. Atlantic depressions moving E along the N flank of the anticyclone often moves into the Mediterranean from the Winds NW to bring disturbed weather to the region. 1.1752 In late spring and summer the Azores anticyclone 1 Average distribution. Wind roses showing the usually intensifies and with a ridge frequently extending frequency of wind distribution for several areas of the ENE towards the Alps. This ridge effectively forces Adriatic and Ionian Seas in January, May and July and Atlantic depressions farther N away from the Mediterranean October are given in diagrams 1.175.1 to 1.175.4. and normally results in settled summer conditions. 1.1763 In winter a W extension of the Asian anticyclone to 1 Adriatic. In the extreme N of the area winds can be central Europe is common and is often the source of very very variable in all seasons but with the highest frequency cold air, which frequently invades the Mediterranean during of strong winds from the NE in the cool season. Winds this period. When a ridge of high pressure extends to the from SE are not uncommon. Farther S the winds blow Balkans or central Europe, it can induce strong N to NE mainly from the NW or SE but with a high frequency of winds over the N Adriatic and Aegean. NW winds in the summer months. There is a well-marked seasonal variation in mean wind strength from about Depressions force 2 to 3 in the warm season to force 4 in the cool 1.172 season. Fresh to strong winds may occur throughout the1 Mobile depressions frequently affect the area in the year in all parts but are infrequent in the warm season. cool season and are usually small in area when compared 1.177 with the major depressions of the N Atlantic but may 1 Ionian Sea. Winds can be very variable but with a high nevertheless be vigorous features that rapidly intensify to frequency of NW winds in the warm season and with a give very stormy conditions. Depressions are normally less slightly higher frequency of W and NW winds at other common in summer and are usually much less intense than times. Fresh to strong winds can occur at any time but are those of the winter months, however, a tropical cyclone unusual in the warm season. Mean wind strengths range was reported for the first time to the SW of Greece in mid from around force 2 to 3 in summer to force 4 in winter. 1990’s. 1.178 1.173 1 Special regional winds. Diagram 1.178 shows the1 Principal tracks and development areas of depressions names of the main regional winds of the Mediterranean are shown in diagram 1.173 and give the yearly average which are described as follows: number of depressions for each source area. A number of 1.179 depressions enter the W Mediterranean from the N Atlantic 1 Bora is the name for a cold dry N to NE wind that can but the majority develop in the Mediterranean basin itself. blow with great strength and mainly affects the Adriatic in 28
  • 50. Home Contents Index 10° 5° 0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 50° 50° HIGH 1020 1018 45° 45° LOW 1016 40° 40° CHAPTER 1 LOW29 1020 1016 35° HIGH 35° 30° 30° 25° 25° 10° 5° Meridian 0° of Greenwich 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° Mean barometric pressure (hPa) JANUARY (1.169.1)
  • 51. Home Contents Index 10° 5° 0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 50° 50° 45° 45° HIGH 18 40° 40° 10 CHAPTER 130 10 14 1012 1 01 LOW 35° 6 35° 10 101 10 06 08 0 30° 30° 25° 25° 10° 5° Meridian 0° of Greenwich 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° Mean barometric pressure (hPa) JULY (1.169.2)
  • 52. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 131 Mediterranean Sea - Typical tracks of depressions (1.173)
  • 53. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 13 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: 4 Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 8 5 5 40° 40° 3 2 2 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Wind distribution JANUARY (1.175.1) 32
  • 54. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 23 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: 4 Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 17 12 14 40° 40° 10 5 6 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Wind distribution MAY (1.175.2) 33
  • 55. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20 EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 26 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: 4 Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 18 11 13 40° 40° 9 4 5 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Wind distribution JULY (1.175.3) 34
  • 56. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind from 45° any direction is given according to the scale: 45° 12 0% 10 20 30 40 50% This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend: 4 Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms. 12 9 9 40° 40° 7 5 5 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.175.4) 35
  • 57. Home Contents Index 10° 5° 0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 50° 50° E U R O P E ra Bo 45° 45° Tr ra am Bo Mi on str ta al na Va Libeccio rd M Sc ar ar iro ac in cc o n te 40° Le va cio 40° ec Lib CHAPTER 1 Scirocco36 ale Etesians (Summer) eg Gr l a ve nd Ve Leveche Scirocco Levanter Sc Scirocco Vendavel (K iroc Scirocco i) c o (Chil ha co 35° Sciroc m 35° M mm sin (S Et mm el ) te e r) u (S es Sc m u ia er) s ir i n oc hili) co occo (C Scir Ghibli Ghibli Kha msin 30° 30° N O R T H A F R I C A 25° 25° 10° 5° Meridian 0° of Greenwich 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° Mediterranean Sea - Main regional winds (1.178)
  • 58. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 the cool season. It is usually much less frequent and persistent but they can blow strongly when a depression is weaker in summer but on relatively rare occasions it may located over the N Adriatic, particularly in winter. Deep give rise to a brief period of strong to gale force winds. depressions may give rise to heavy seas and poor visibility Conditions favourable for a Bora are high or rising pressure on the E coasts of the Adriatic with particularly hazardous to the N and E of the Adriatic with low pressure over Italy conditions on the coast of Istra. Squalls and shifting winds and/or the Adriatic Sea. are likely near the Fiume Po delta and in the lee of the2 The Bora is felt most strongly in Gulf of Trieste and mountainous areas along the E coast of Italy. along the N coast of Croatia. The winds can be particularly 1.185 violent where the mountains fall steeply to the sea or 1 Coastal wind. Winds in coastal areas are largely where the cold air is funnelled down through narrow controlled by the general pressure distribution of the area valleys towards the sea. Winds can reach hurricane force as but within about 20 miles of the coast land and sea breezes they blow offshore and although they moderate significantly often produce significant local modifications to both the to seaward they can give rise to high seas in the N Adriatic wind strength and direction, see The Mariner’s Handbook. and along the Italian coast between Venezia and Ancona. Straits. Headlands and steep sided valleys may cause local3 The onset of a Bora is usually sudden and sometimes in increases in wind strength due to funnelling, and when the conjunction with the passage of a cold front. On occasions Bora (1.179) is blowing strongly, extremely violent winds a cloud cap over the mountains may herald the onset of a may be encountered offshore in the N near the mouths of Bora with possible violent squalls. On other occasions the valleys. onset of the Bora may bring thundery, rain or snow but 1.186 once established the weather is typically cold, clear and 1 Land and sea breezes are very pronounced in all parts dry. In winter a Bora may last for several days with of the area in the warm season. Even in the cool season occasional lulls between periods of gale force winds. The they are sometimes apparent in fine, settled weather, mariner should be alert to the possible approach of a particularly in the S. In summer the sea breeze usually secondary cold front which may arrive with little warning commences in the mid-forenoon and gradually freshens and may result in further violent squalls and gale force until mid-afternoon when it commonly reaches force 3 to 4. winds; precursory signs may be a slight dip in the Thereafter it weakens and eventually ceases shortly after barometer and a temporary decrease in the wind. In sunset. The direction is usually onshore in the morning but summer the Bora usually only lasts a few hours and very will often slowly veer during the day to blow almost rarely longer than a day. parallel to the coastline. The land breeze often begins in 1.180 the late evening and reaches maximum strength in the early1 Scirocco or Sirocco, is the name applied to a S to SE hours of the morning and fades around sunrise. It is wind from N Africa, which bring warm, humid and normally lighter than the sea breeze but it may, on oppressive and uncomfortable conditions to the Adriatic occasions, be reinforced by katabatic winds in the cool and Ionian Seas. A Scirocco may blow at any time of the season when cold air drains from high ground inland from year but is most frequent in the N Adriatic from March to the coast. At other times the sea and land breezes may June and in autumn and winter in the S Adriatic. The onset strengthen or weaken the prevailing wind. is usually gradual and may be preceded by a SE swell and a rise in sea level. Winds are sometimes strong and may reach gale force particularly in the S Adriatic and give rise Gales to heavy seas and a moderate swell in the N. A Scirocco 1.187 wind often brings with it low cloud, rain, poor visibility 1 Gales (force 8 and above) are rare between late May and and sometimes fog, particularly in winter. It may also bring early September in all parts of the region. In September, dust from the deserts of N Africa. In summer it may last October, April and May, the frequency of gales is around 2 for about 3 days and up to 9 days in winter but to 3 % in the N Adriatic and 1 to 2 % elsewhere. In the occasionally longer. winter months, the frequency of occurrence increases to 1.181 around 4 to 6 % in the N Adriatic and the Ionian Sea and1 Maestro, Maestrale, Mestral, are alternative names to 2 to 4 % in central and S areas of the Adriatic. applied to the SW to NW winds of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. Although the NW wind may become strong at times it does not have the violent characteristics of the famous Cloud Mistral of the W Mediterranean. 1.188 1.182 1 The summer is well known for fine summer weather1 Gregale is the name for a cool, strong NE wind between June and September when there is on average 1 to affecting the central Mediterranean including the Ionian 2 oktas of cloud over the S Adriatic and Ionian Sea during Sea. It is most frequent in the cool season with high the day and which usually disperses in the evening to give pressure over the Balkans and low pressure over the S clear skies overnight. Over N Adriatic the average summer central Mediterranean. The weather is similar to that cloud cover is around 3 to 4 oktas but reduces to 2 to associated with the Bora (1.179). 4 oktas in July and August. When thunderstorms affect the 1.183 area, particularly in the N, the skies often become cloudy1 Etesian winds are summer season winds more usually to overcast for relatively short periods. In general there is associated with the Aegean but which also extend to the E usually slightly more cloud on the coasts than over the Ionian Sea as light to moderate winds from between N and open seas, see the climatic tables for mean cloud amounts. W, and are the result of high pressure over the W 1.189 Mediterranean and low pressure over Iraq. 1 In the winter months between November and February, 1.184 the average cloud amount is around 4 to 5 oktas over the S1 Libeccio is an Italian name for winds from W and SW. Adriatic, Ionian Sea and just offshore between Ravenna and In the Adriatic these winds are neither frequent nor Ancona, and between 3 to 4 oktas elsewhere. Cloudy to 37
  • 59. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 overcast skies are usually associated with mobile Air temperature depressions but generally these conditions do not last for 1.194 long before more broken skies return. alternate with period 1 Over the open sea in January the mean air temperature of fair weather and small amounts of cloud. Overcast skies is around 7° to 8° C over the N Adriatic, about 11° C in do not usually persist for long. central parts and 13° to 14° C over the Ionian Sea, and in2 Winds from the N sector are usually associated with August, normally the warmest month, rises to around 23° cumulus-type cloud and broken skies. S winds may bring to 24° C, 24° to 25° and 26° C respectively. In coastal low cloud and fog to windward coasts and, particularly in areas the seasonal and diurnal variations of temperature are winter, low cloud may persist for several days on the N greater than over the open sea, although sea breezes have and NW coasts of the Adriatic. an important moderating influence which inhibit excessive afternoon temperatures in summer, see the climatic tables 1.197 to 1.218 for the mean and extreme temperatures for a number of coastal stations in the area. Precipitation 2 Wind direction has an important bearing on temperature. 1.190 Lowest temperatures tend to be associated with N to NE1 General information. Appreciable amounts of rain fall winds whilst S winds usually bring higher temperatures. in all parts of this region, and the E coast of the Adriatic is Some of the hottest and most unpleasant conditions are one of the wettest parts of the Mediterranean. Average associated with the Scirocco (1.180). rainfall ranges from around 500 to 800 mm on the W coast 3 Frost is not unusual in the N Adriatic during the winter of the Adriatic, to 800 to 1600 mm on the E coast. Mobile months where extreme temperatures as low as - -14° to depressions and associated fronts bring precipitation to all - -16° C have been recorded in January and February. The areas between autumn and spring whilst thundery showers frequency and severity of frosts steadily decreases towards account for a large part of the precipitation in summer over the S of the area. On the E coast of the S Adriatic and the N and central areas. NW Greece, temperatures occasionally fall to around - C-1°2 Over the S Adriatic and the Ionian Sea rainfall is low in in winter but this is very unlikely over the Ionian Sea. summer with July being the driest month. Rainfall steadily increases during September with October to December normally being the wettest period. In central and N areas rainfall is more evenly spread throughout the year due to Humidity 1.195 the frequency of thundery showers in summer and mobile 1 Humidity is inversely related to air temperature; thus depressions in winter. The autumn tends to be the wettest high humidity is usually associated with low temperatures period and early summer the driest except for the NE coast and vice versa. Maximum humidity normally occurs around of Italy where the driest months are often January and dawn and the minimum in the early afternoon. Over the February and the wettest August and November. open sea the mean value of the humidity usually falls to a3 Much of the rainfall in the region occurs as heavy minimum of about 70 to 72 % in January and reaches a downpours of short duration and with prolonged rain maximum of around 76 to 78 % in May and early June. In relatively infrequent. However, periods of heavy rain do coastal areas the humidity tends to be highest in the occasionally occur with falls of about 130 mm in 24 hours morning in winter and lowest on summer afternoons. and with Rijeka having recorded 269 mm in 24 hours. 2 There is no significant variation of humidity across the 1.191 region but wind direction is often an important factor. Low1 Snow is rarely reported along the coasts of W Greece humidity tends to be associated with N winds, particularly and S Italy but on the E coast of the S Adriatic snow in the N of the region. The air is often dry, due to a long occurs on around 1 to 2 days each winter, and farther N continental track and the drying-out of the air on passing near Trieste about 6 days each winter. However, over the over the mountain ranges of the area. In contrast S winds high ground just inland from the E coast of the Adriatic such as the Scirocco (1.180) may follow a long sea track snow is much more frequent and persistent in winter. and be both warm and humid, and can result in 1.192 unpleasantly oppressive conditions with fog in the N of the1 Thunderstorms occur throughout the region and are region where the moist warm air flows over a relatively most frequent in N and central areas in summer. The cool sea. In calm conditions with clear skies, fog is summer frequency is between 6 and 10 per month in the N. possible in the early morning, particularly in autumn. Along the coast of Greece thunderstorms are most frequent in autumn and winter, with a frequency of between 6 and 8 per month in November and December. Climatic tables 1.196 1 The tables which follow give data for several coastal Fog and visibility stations that regularly undertake weather observations. 1.193 Some of these stations have been re-sited and so the1 The frequency of fog is highest in the N Adriatic position given is the latest available. between November and April with a frequency of around 2 It is emphasised that these data are average conditions 4 per cent of occasions over the open sea. Over the and refer to the specific location of the observing station Adriatic and the Ionian Sea the frequency of fog is less and therefore may not be totally representative of the than 2 per cent throughout the year. Visibilitiy of over conditions over the open sea or in approaches to ports in 5 miles is recorded on around 94 to 96 % of occasions in their vicinity. the S except for the month of May when the frequency is The following comments briefly list some of the slightly lower. Over the N Adriatic the frequency is around differences to be expected between conditions over the 88 % of occasions but slightly lower in mid to late winter, open sea and the nearest reporting station. See The due mainly to mobile depressions transiting the region. Mariner’s Handbook for further details: 38
  • 60. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 13 Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea than on land, although funnelling in narrow inlets can result in an increase in wind strength. Precipitation along hilly wind facing coasts can be considerably higher than at sea to windward. Similarly precipitation in the lee of high ground is generally less.4 Air temperature over the sea is less variable than over the land. Topography has a marked effect on local conditions. 39
  • 61. Home Contents Index CHAPTER 1 15° 20° 1.218 1.210 VENEZIA / TRIESTE TESSERA v v PORTOROZ / SECOVLJE 1.209 v RIJEKA / OMISALJ 1.207 45° 45° PULA AIRPORT 1.208 1.217 PUNTA MARINA 1.216 ZADAR / ZEMUNIK 1.206 RIMINI 1.215 FALCONARA 1.205 SPLIT / RESNIK 1.204 1.214 DUBROVNIK / CILIPI v PESCARA TIVAT 1.203 1.202 1.213 DURRËS BARI / PALESE MACCHIE 1.212 BRINDISI 1.201 VLORË 40° 40° 1.211 S. MARIA DI LEUCA 1.200 KÉRKIRA AIRPORT 1.199 AKTION AIRPORT 1.198 ANDRAVIDA AIRPORT Lim it of NP 47 1.197 METHÓNI AIRPORT 35° 35° Longitude 15° East from Greenwich 20° Location of climatic stations (1.196) 40
  • 62. Home Contents Index 1.197 WMO No 16734 METHÓNI (36° 50′ N, 21° 42′ E) Height above MSL − 34 m Climatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0800 1400 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0800 1400 0800 1400 0800 1400 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1018 15 8 18 2 78 66 4 5 117 13 21 41 8 4 3 5 6 10 2 4 4 12 10 7 8 30 21 5 10 11 1 | 4 February 1017 15 7 18 2 77 65 4 5 82 11 17 40 13 5 1 4 9 8 2 4 3 11 14 8 12 30 18 1 10 12 1 | 5 March 1016 16 8 20 3 78 66 4 4 66 8 15 34 14 4 1 1 11 14 5 2 2 11 12 8 9 37 1 8 11 | | 4 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 19 11 24 6 73 64 4 4 32 5 9 16 15 7 2 1 13 23 16 1 1 7 13 6 9 45 18 1 8 12 | | 341 May 1014 22 14 27 9 75 68 3 3 14 2 4 5 9 6 2 2 21 35 16 | 1 5 9 5 7 48 24 | 7 12 | | 1 June 1013 25 18 31 14 73 68 2 2 3 1 3 2 6 2 2 1 27 44 14 | | 2 3 3 7 56 29 | 7 13 | | 1 July 1012 28 20 34 17 71 67 1 1 | 0 5 4 2 1 1 1 28 40 20 1 | | | 2 6 61 30 | 7 13 | | 1 August 1012 29 21 33 17 72 65 1 1 4 1 8 9 5 1 1 1 16 38 21 | | 1 1 2 6 63 27 | 7 13 | | 1 September 1015 27 19 30 15 73 62 2 2 30 2 12 25 5 3 1 1 10 27 18 | 1 1 5 6 12 51 24 | 6 12 | | 3 October 1017 24 15 28 10 76 62 3 4 102 7 16 46 14 4 1 1 5 8 6 1 2 6 14 6 13 41 16 | 7 10 | 0 6 November 1017 19 12 23 7 80 66 5 5 114 9 12 46 14 8 2 3 7 5 3 2 3 8 15 12 11 31 17 2 9 10 | | 8 December 1018 16 9 19 4 80 67 5 5 142 13 10 50 12 4 4 5 6 7 2 3 5 12 11 9 8 27 20 6 9 9 1 | 8 Means 1016 21 13 35* 0§ 76 66 3 3 _ _ 11 26 10 4 2 2 13 22 10 1 2 6 9 6 9 44 22 1 8 12 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 706 72 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 | 45 Extreme values _ _ _ 41† −7‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 15 15 15 15 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 63. Home Contents Index 1.198 WMO No 16682 ANDRAVIDA (37° 55′ N, 21° 17′ E) Height above MSL − 12 m Climatic Table compiled from observations, 1997 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0800 1400 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0800 1400 0800 1400 0800 1400 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 14 5 17 −1 87 63 4 4 8 7 7 23 9 3 2 1 41 29 7 2 5 15 10 2 6 23 5 8 | | 4 February 1017 14 5 19 −1 86 60 4 5 11 6 5 26 11 3 2 1 36 32 9 1 7 14 11 2 12 11 5 11 | | 4 March 1016 16 7 22 1 88 58 4 4 10 9 2 23 10 2 1 1 42 35 8 1 3 11 15 5 14 8 4 10 | 1 3 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 19 9 25 4 86 57 4 4 11 4 2 19 12 2 | 1 49 27 3 1 2 10 18 5 31 5 4 10 | | 342 May 1014 24 13 31 8 82 51 3 3 14 4 3 7 7 2 1 3 61 33 3 1 | 7 17 4 33 3 3 10 0 1 1 June 1014 28 16 33 13 77 47 2 2 20 3 1 3 6 3 | 4 60 35 1 1 1 5 12 2 41 2 3 10 0 | 1 July 1013 30 18 34 15 78 47 <1 1 18 3 3 4 4 1 | 1 67 39 1 | | 2 6 3 47 1 2 10 | 1 1 August 1013 31 19 34 15 79 47 1 1 12 2 2 9 3 | | 1 69 39 2 | | 4 6 2 47 1 2 10 | | 1 September 1015 28 16 33 12 83 49 2 2 5 1 2 15 6 2 1 1 67 38 2 1 | 5 12 2 38 2 2 10 | | 2 October 1018 24 13 29 7 86 52 3 3 5 5 5 22 6 2 1 1 54 38 8 1 2 8 12 2 20 8 3 9 | 1 4 November 1017 18 10 23 3 89 64 4 5 6 7 7 30 9 3 1 2 36 31 7 2 7 16 11 3 10 13 5 9 | 1 5 December 1018 15 7 19 0 88 65 4 5 7 6 8 27 12 2 2 1 36 31 9 2 8 12 11 3 5 20 5 8 | 1 5 Means 36* −3§ _ _ 11 5 4 17 8 2 1 1 51 34 5 1 3 9 12 3 25 8 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 6 39 Extreme values _ _ _ 39† −6‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 64. Home Contents Index 1.199 WMO No 16643 AKTION AIRPORT (38° 37′ N, 20° 46′ E) Height above MSL − 4 m Climatic Table compiled from observations, 1997 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0800 1400 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0800 1400 0800 1400 0800 1400 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1020 13 7 17 1 82 62 4 4 9 59 5 2 2 3 1 2 18 9 35 6 7 3 5 7 3 25 8 8 1 1 4 February 1018 13 6 18 1 80 60 4 5 12 47 6 5 3 2 2 2 21 8 26 4 8 6 9 17 3 20 8 9 1 1 3 March 1017 15 8 21 4 81 59 4 4 8 42 6 4 2 3 2 1 32 7 18 4 5 6 20 26 3 12 7 9 1 2 3 CHAPTER 1 April 1015 18 11 24 6 81 63 4 4 5 35 4 5 3 3 4 1 41 3 8 1 4 8 29 37 2 9 5 11 | 1 343 May 1015 22 14 29 9 79 65 3 3 5 38 5 2 3 3 5 2 38 1 6 2 3 4 31 42 4 6 5 11 | 1 2 June 1015 26 18 32 12 76 62 2 2 6 34 1 1 1 6 6 4 41 2 4 | 1 4 38 47 2 2 4 13 | 1 2 July 1014 29 20 34 17 73 60 1 1 7 38 2 1 | 3 3 3 44 1 3 | 1 1 33 55 5 2 4 13 | 1 2 August 1014 29 21 34 17 75 58 1 1 7 43 3 | 1 2 1 2 42 1 6 | | 1 31 57 3 1 4 13 | | 2 September 1016 27 18 31 14 78 58 2 2 9 44 5 2 1 1 1 1 37 2 8 1 1 4 30 48 3 3 5 11 | | 3 October 1019 23 15 28 11 79 56 3 3 9 54 7 2 1 1 1 1 24 4 19 5 4 7 19 28 5 11 7 9 | 1 4 November 1018 18 11 24 6 81 64 4 4 8 53 7 6 3 3 1 2 18 6 32 2 9 5 9 12 5 21 8 8 1 1 6 December 1019 14 8 19 4 82 65 4 5 9 60 4 5 2 3 2 1 16 9 40 5 5 3 4 5 2 26 9 8 1 1 5 Means 1017 21 13 35* 0§ 79 61 3 3 _ _ 8 45 4 3 2 3 2 2 31 4 17 3 4 4 22 32 3 11 6 10 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 11 39 Extreme values _ _ _ 37† −3‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 65. Home Contents Index 1.200 WMO No 16641 KÉRKIRA AIRPORT (39° 37′ N, 19° 55′ E) Height above MSL − 4 m Climatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0800 1400 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0800 1400 0800 1400 0800 1400 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 14 5 18 −1 88 67 4 4 132 11 3 | 3 14 5 3 2 2 67 7 4 9 23 16 4 2 4 33 3 6 | 2 4 February 1017 14 6 19 0 85 63 4 4 136 11 4 2 3 14 8 2 2 4 61 9 5 8 30 16 3 6 5 19 4 8 | 1 4 March 1016 16 7 21 1 86 62 4 4 98 9 2 2 5 13 7 2 2 3 66 9 5 8 27 21 5 5 5 16 3 7 | 2 4 CHAPTER 1 April 1013 19 9 24 4 87 61 4 4 62 7 3 1 1 10 9 1 1 3 72 8 3 6 20 21 7 8 9 17 3 8 | 1 444 May 1014 24 14 29 9 85 59 3 3 36 4 2 1 1 9 6 1 2 4 75 6 7 7 18 18 8 14 9 13 2 7 | 1 2 June 1014 28 17 32 13 81 53 2 2 14 2 5 2 2 8 2 1 1 4 75 12 4 8 17 20 9 13 11 8 2 8 | | 2 July 1013 31 19 36 16 80 49 1 1 7 1 1 2 | 2 | 1 1 3 90 13 5 9 16 12 14 14 8 8 t1 7 0 1 2 August 1013 32 20 35 16 83 50 1 1 18 2 2 1 | 4 1 1 | 4 86 10 4 5 15 17 15 18 11 5 1 8 0 | 3 September 1015 28 17 32 13 88 57 2 2 75 4 1 1 2 5 4 1 2 3 83 6 3 5 22 25 11 12 8 9 1 7 | 1 4 October 1018 24 14 28 8 88 60 3 4 148 8 1 | 3 12 8 2 1 2 71 4 2 5 31 20 7 5 6 19 3 7 | 1 5 November 1017 18 10 23 4 87 67 5 5 181 11 1 1 4 15 8 3 3 3 63 6 4 11 25 18 6 3 5 22 4 7 | | 7 December 1018 15 7 19 0 87 67 5 5 180 13 2 2 5 16 6 1 2 3 63 8 1 9 26 12 4 2 6 31 4 6 | 1 5 Means 1016 22 12 37* −2§ 85 60 3 3 _ _ 2 1 2 10 5 2 2 3 73 8 4 8 22 18 8 8 7 17 3 7 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1087 83 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 11 46 Extreme values _ _ _ 42† −10‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 15 15 15 15 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 66. Home Contents Index 1.201 WMO No 13622 VLORË (40° 28′ N, 19° 29′ E) Height above MSL − 5 m Climatic Table compiled from 8 years observations, 1983 to 1990 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 14 4 20 −1 74 59 4 5 1 6 29 3 9 2 1 | 49 10 7 11 5 8 9 3 13 34 4 5 1 1 2 February 1017 14 5 20 −1 71 55 5 5 3 8 25 9 6 1 1 1 47 8 6 8 5 15 7 7 23 21 5 6 2 1 1 March 1016 16 6 23 2 74 55 4 5 2 3 26 3 7 2 1 | 56 3 6 5 4 15 11 13 24 19 3 6 1 1 2 CHAPTER 1 April 1015 20 9 26 4 73 55 5 5 3 5 18 4 6 3 2 1 59 5 2 4 2 14 18 14 35 8 3 7 1 1 245 May 1015 24 13 31 8 73 58 4 4 2 5 26 5 3 5 2 2 52 4 1 2 2 10 14 23 40 3 2 8 1 1 1 June 1015 27 16 32 12 69 53 3 3 3 2 24 3 5 2 2 5 55 7 2 1 2 8 11 27 40 3 2 8 | | 2 July 1015 31 18 35 15 68 46 1 1 1 4 15 3 | 1 1 3 74 4 1 | 1 3 11 23 53 5 1 9 | 1 1 August 1015 30 18 35 14 72 46 1 1 1 3 18 2 | 2 | 1 72 8 1 1 | 6 11 23 50 2 1 8 | 1 1 September 1017 28 15 32 11 79 51 2 2 3 2 15 2 1 | | 3 75 4 | 1 1 6 11 28 43 5 1 7 1 1 2 October 1020 23 12 28 7 78 58 3 4 1 6 27 3 5 1 1 2 54 8 2 5 4 9 8 17 33 14 3 5 1 1 3 November 1018 18 9 23 3 75 59 5 4 1 3 34 5 10 1 | | 45 6 13 9 3 9 8 3 25 23 4 6 1 1 3 December 1019 15 6 20 1 74 60 4 5 3 4 40 4 5 1 1 1 41 7 10 23 4 7 10 2 8 30 4 4 1 | 1 Means 1017 22 11 36* −2§ 73 55 3 4 _ _ 2 4 25 4 5 2 1 1 56 6 4 6 3 9 11 15 32 14 3 7 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 10 21 Extreme values _ _ _ 40† −4‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 67. Home Contents Index 1.202 WMO No 13611 DURRËS (41° 18′ N, 19° 27′ E) Height above MSL − 12 m Climatic Table compiled from observations, 1990 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0700 1200 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1200 0700 1200 0700 1200 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1018 13 5 17 −1 75 62 4 5 124 10 27 2 10 16 10 | 1 1 32 19 3 5 16 16 3 7 3 30 6 7 1 | | February 1017 13 5 17 −1 71 57 5 5 101 10 34 2 10 14 9 2 1 | 29 26 3 6 14 14 5 9 2 22 7 9 1 1 1 March 1016 15 8 21 2 74 58 5 5 88 11 32 2 6 13 10 2 2 1 32 25 1 6 5 17 7 25 3 10 6 10 | 1 | CHAPTER 1 April 1014 18 11 23 6 74 61 5 5 62 8 22 3 5 13 14 1 3 2 37 17 1 2 4 11 14 38 9 5 5 11 | | 146 May 1015 22 15 28 11 76 65 4 4 50 6 13 3 3 13 13 1 3 1 51 12 1 1 2 8 11 51 7 6 4 10 | | | June 1014 25 18 30 14 75 64 4 3 32 4 16 2 7 13 16 2 4 1 39 11 1 1 1 8 5 57 12 5 5 10 0 1 1 July 1014 29 21 33 16 71 59 2 1 14 2 21 2 3 6 9 1 3 1 56 19 | | | 5 1 62 11 3 3 11 | 1 | August 1014 28 20 32 17 73 60 2 2 29 3 19 1 6 9 4 | 5 3 55 14 | 1 1 3 6 59 15 3 3 10 0 1 | September 1016 26 18 29 14 76 62 2 2 56 3 22 2 5 8 5 | 1 1 55 20 1 2 1 10 9 44 7 6 4 9 0 | | October 1019 22 14 26 7 77 59 4 3 132 7 31 3 6 8 3 1 2 | 46 20 2 4 4 11 5 27 13 14 4 8 | 1 1 November 1017 17 9 22 2 76 60 5 4 152 13 36 2 9 12 11 2 | 2 26 31 | 5 13 12 2 10 3 25 6 8 | 1 2 December 1018 14 6 18 1 74 63 5 5 140 13 37 3 6 16 7 | 1 2 29 31 1 5 17 12 | 6 2 26 6 7 | 1 1 Means 1016 20 12 34* −3§ 74 61 4 4 _ _ 26 2 6 12 9 1 2 1 41 20 1 3 6 11 6 33 7 13 5 9 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 980 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 8 7 Extreme values _ _ _ 39† −5‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 8 8 8 8 40 10 8 8 8 8 8 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 68. Home Contents Index 1.203 WMO No 13457 TIVAT (42° 24′ N, 18° 44′ E) Height above MSL − 5 m Climatic Table compiled from 15 years observations, 1983 to 1997 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1020 12 3 17 −4 83 59 4 4 6 13 6 31 7 3 1 1 33 8 14 4 8 8 10 10 17 20 4 5 | 1 1 February 1018 13 3 18 −3 80 55 4 4 7 17 10 23 7 3 3 2 30 9 12 5 7 10 24 11 13 9 4 7 | 1 3 March 1017 15 5 21 −1 81 53 4 4 7 11 7 26 8 1 2 2 36 5 8 2 8 13 37 13 10 3 4 8 | 1 2 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 18 8 24 2 81 54 4 4 7 10 7 22 8 1 2 3 41 7 6 3 8 13 43 13 6 3 3 8 0 | 247 May 1015 23 12 28 6 80 54 3 4 5 8 7 17 6 3 1 1 53 2 4 1 4 11 52 13 10 3 2 7 0 1 2 June 1014 27 15 32 10 76 53 2 3 5 8 5 11 7 2 1 2 58 3 2 1 5 8 54 15 10 2 2 7 | 1 3 July 1014 30 18 34 13 69 46 1 2 5 12 3 12 3 1 1 1 62 2 4 | 2 5 60 16 9 2 2 8 | | 2 August 1014 30 17 34 13 74 47 1 2 7 8 6 20 2 1 2 2 52 3 2 1 3 6 65 13 7 3 2 8 0 | 3 September 1016 26 14 30 9 83 51 2 3 4 9 7 29 5 1 | 1 44 4 2 1 3 9 56 13 10 2 2 7 | 1 3 October 1018 22 11 27 4 84 55 3 3 3 11 10 28 6 1 1 1 38 4 4 1 6 12 37 14 14 10 3 6 | 1 3 November 1017 17 7 22 0 85 60 4 4 4 14 11 27 8 3 1 2 30 6 8 3 8 12 16 11 15 20 4 5 | 1 3 December 1018 13 4 17 −3 81 61 4 4 6 13 9 29 6 1 1 2 33 9 10 3 9 7 7 9 18 28 4 4 | 1 2 Means 1016 21 10 35* −5§ 80 54 3 3 _ _ 5 11 7 23 6 2 1 2 43 5 6 2 6 9 39 13 11 9 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 9 29 Extreme values _ _ _ 38† −8‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 69. Home Contents Index 1.204 WMO No 14474 DUBROVNIK / CILIPI (42° 34′ N, 18° 16′ E) Height above MSL − 165 m Climatic Table compiled from 12 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1995 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 12 5 17 −1 67 60 4 4 139 11 8 46 31 9 3 1 | 2 1 4 21 9 17 12 10 15 11 1 10 9 | | 3 February 1016 12 5 16 −1 66 58 5 5 125 11 8 40 34 13 1 2 1 1 2 6 13 7 24 12 14 11 12 1 11 9 1 | 4 March 1016 14 7 19 3 69 58 5 4 105 10 9 34 38 11 2 | 1 3 2 4 10 4 21 22 18 12 9 | 9 9 | 1 3 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 18 10 22 5 64 54 4 4 105 9 7 25 37 21 2 1 1 4 3 4 6 3 22 25 15 15 10 1 8 10 | 1 348 May 1014 21 13 27 7 65 57 4 4 76 8 5 24 36 21 4 1 1 6 4 2 3 2 14 24 22 22 10 0 7 9 | | 4 June 1014 25 17 30 12 60 55 3 3 48 4 8 33 24 19 3 1 1 8 3 3 2 2 10 23 22 26 13 0 7 8 | | 4 July 1014 29 21 33 17 51 48 1 1 28 3 11 41 25 10 1 | | 4 7 1 4 1 6 19 30 23 16 0 8 8 0 | 4 August 1014 28 20 32 16 54 50 1 2 39 3 8 40 32 7 2 1 1 7 2 2 1 2 7 18 31 25 14 0 8 8 0 | 4 September 1016 25 17 29 13 60 53 2 2 104 6 8 44 32 7 2 | 1 2 3 2 2 2 8 26 28 21 11 0 7 8 0 | 3 October 1020 21 13 27 8 66 56 3 3 158 9 9 41 38 8 1 | | | 4 4 7 6 13 17 22 23 8 | 8 8 | | 4 November 1017 16 9 22 3 68 58 4 4 192 14 13 44 27 10 3 1 | 1 1 5 15 7 19 14 13 13 15 | 10 8 | | 5 December 1019 13 6 17 0 69 60 4 4 182 14 11 45 29 8 3 1 | 2 2 7 18 12 14 10 10 12 16 2 10 8 | | 3 Means 1016 20 10 34* −3§ 63 56 3 3 _ _ 8 38 32 12 2 1 1 3 3 4 9 5 15 18 19 18 12 | 9 9 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1301 102 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 3 44 Extreme values _ _ _ 36† −7‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 13 13 13 13 30 12 13 13 13 13 13 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 70. Home Contents Index 1.205 WMO No 14444 SPLIT / RESNIK (43° 32′ N, 16° 18′ E) Height above MSL − 21 m Climatic Table compiled from 13 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1995 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 12 4 16 −3 69 54 4 4 83 9 34 14 5 6 2 | 2 19 19 7 16 19 18 6 7 3 11 14 5 6 | | 2 February 1017 12 4 16 −3 68 52 5 5 68 8 31 15 10 6 1 | 3 18 16 4 11 23 16 8 13 2 5 7 5 7 | 1 3 March 1015 15 6 19 0 69 51 5 5 75 8 27 19 7 7 1 1 1 13 24 5 10 23 23 6 23 3 5 2 5 7 | 1 2 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 18 9 22 4 69 53 5 5 66 8 19 19 17 7 1 1 2 9 25 3 10 20 21 7 30 5 4 2 4 8 0 | 449 May 1014 22 13 27 8 67 53 4 5 56 6 11 18 16 9 2 2 1 9 33 4 6 15 16 9 36 7 5 2 3 7 0 | 4 June 1014 26 16 32 12 62 47 3 4 51 6 9 18 14 6 1 2 1 9 39 5 6 8 9 6 54 5 5 1 3 7 | | 4 July 1014 31 20 35 16 56 40 2 3 28 3 10 23 8 5 1 1 1 5 47 1 5 8 7 5 59 8 5 1 2 8 | | 4 August 1014 30 19 34 15 59 41 2 3 50 4 16 18 8 1 1 1 1 8 45 5 1 9 9 4 59 7 5 1 2 8 | | 5 September 1016 26 16 30 11 71 46 3 3 61 5 29 11 6 3 1 | 3 9 38 3 5 14 16 5 46 5 4 3 3 7 | | 4 October 1020 22 12 26 6 73 52 4 4 79 7 30 15 6 5 | | | 17 27 3 10 23 18 9 29 2 3 5 4 6 | 1 3 November 1017 16 7 21 2 71 52 4 4 108 10 36 17 4 7 2 | 1 18 15 10 15 19 22 12 8 1 5 9 5 6 | | 4 December 1019 13 5 17 −1 70 54 4 5 100 10 29 24 6 6 | | 1 17 16 7 18 20 18 6 6 2 7 15 5 6 | | 2 Means 1016 20 11 36* −4§ 67 50 4 4 _ _ 23 18 9 6 1 1 1 12 29 5 10 16 17 7 31 4 5 5 4 7 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 825 84 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 4 41 Extreme values _ _ _ 37† −6‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 13 13 13 13 30 13 13 13 13 13 13 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 71. Home Contents Index 1.206 WMO No 14431 ZADAR / ZEMUNIK (44° 06′ N, 15° 21′ E) Height above MSL − 82 m Climatic Table compiled from observations, 1995 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1020 11 1 15 −7 86 64 4 4 4 19 31 17 2 3 3 3 19 8 22 18 17 3 6 17 7 2 4 7 | 5 2 February 1018 11 1 17 −7 86 62 4 4 5 25 29 12 2 3 7 2 16 8 27 17 15 6 5 13 8 2 4 8 | 4 2 March 1017 15 3 20 −3 85 54 4 4 2 26 32 14 3 2 4 3 14 6 21 8 22 9 11 15 8 0 5 9 | 2 1 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 18 7 23 0 85 52 4 4 4 16 33 16 5 3 6 3 16 4 16 9 24 13 16 14 3 0 4 10 | 1 350 May 1014 22 10 28 4 86 56 4 4 3 16 31 19 3 3 7 4 14 4 13 5 19 19 13 23 5 0 3 8 | 1 4 June 1015 26 13 31 6 82 52 3 3 4 14 28 20 2 1 7 4 20 7 6 6 13 16 21 25 7 | 3 7 0 1 5 July 1015 31 16 35 10 72 39 2 2 4 22 25 12 2 1 9 3 22 3 16 6 5 12 22 26 9 0 3 7 | 1 3 August 1015 30 16 35 10 80 43 2 2 3 20 21 16 3 2 4 4 26 6 11 6 10 12 21 28 7 0 3 8 0 1 5 September 1017 26 13 31 7 87 51 3 3 2 20 24 12 2 3 4 1 33 6 13 5 14 14 20 24 4 0 3 7 0 3 4 October 1020 21 9 26 1 88 56 3 3 4 22 27 12 3 | 3 3 25 5 19 10 17 7 13 21 8 1 4 7 | 5 3 November 1018 15 4 20 −3 86 62 4 4 4 24 29 16 3 2 2 2 18 5 29 13 19 4 4 14 10 2 4 7 | 2 4 December 1020 11 2 17 −5 85 66 4 4 4 23 29 14 4 2 2 3 20 6 25 19 16 3 4 16 8 3 5 7 | 4 1 Means 1017 20 8 36* −9§ 84 55 3 3 _ _ 4 20 28 15 3 2 5 3 20 5 18 10 16 10 13 20 7 1 4 8 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 30 37 Extreme values _ _ _ 38† −12‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 72. Home Contents Index 1.207 WMO No 14317 RIJEKA / OMIªALJ (45° 13′ N, 14° 35′ E) Height above MSL − 85 m Climatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1950 to 1995 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month 1 mm or more in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1021 9 3 14 −3 69 56 4 5 103 8 10 24 12 19 8 2 | 4 21 12 17 11 13 10 9 10 7 12 5 6 | 1 1 February 1018 9 3 16 −4 69 53 4 5 98 8 13 29 13 13 6 1 1 5 19 10 23 10 10 9 6 17 7 9 5 7 | 1 1 March 1017 13 6 18 1 65 49 4 5 117 11 13 26 14 14 4 1 2 4 24 10 23 8 8 10 13 17 9 3 5 7 | 1 1 CHAPTER 1 April 1014 16 9 22 4 71 51 5 5 116 10 10 15 13 15 7 1 3 3 32 10 14 7 12 14 11 21 9 3 4 6 | | 151 May 1014 21 13 27 8 75 52 5 5 112 10 11 11 10 19 8 4 4 3 31 8 9 7 11 11 14 29 11 1 3 6 | | 2 June 1014 24 15 29 10 71 48 4 4 118 9 11 16 12 11 3 2 4 6 36 7 9 6 11 5 12 33 15 3 3 5 | | 3 July 1014 29 19 34 15 64 39 2 3 80 8 15 17 8 8 2 6 3 3 38 7 15 5 8 5 14 35 11 | 3 6 0 0 2 August 1015 28 19 33 14 67 41 3 3 99 7 11 18 13 7 3 2 5 3 38 7 14 6 6 5 14 34 13 1 3 6 0 | 4 September 1017 24 15 29 11 78 50 3 4 175 9 5 17 12 14 3 2 2 1 45 6 11 8 11 8 10 33 11 2 3 5 0 1 2 October 1020 19 12 25 6 77 52 4 4 205 11 8 21 13 11 6 4 1 2 35 5 15 8 12 11 9 19 14 7 4 5 0 | 2 November 1018 14 7 19 1 74 56 4 5 178 10 8 22 19 15 6 2 | 2 26 10 20 10 18 10 7 11 8 10 5 6 0 1 1 December 1019 10 4 17 −2 71 58 4 5 154 10 11 23 12 15 6 2 1 3 27 19 23 11 15 8 3 8 6 19 5 6 0 1 | Means 1017 18 10 34* −5§ 71 50 4 4 _ _ 10 20 13 14 5 2 2 3 31 8 16 8 11 9 10 22 10 6 4 6 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1555 111 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 6 20 Extreme values _ _ _ 36† −9‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ observations 13 13 13 13 30 13 13 13 13 13 13 * Mean of highest each year † Highest recorded temperature | Rare § Mean of lowest each year ‡ Lowest recorded temperature { All observations
  • 73. Home Contents Index 1.208 WMO No 14307 PULA AIRPORT (44° 54′ N, 13° 55′ E) Height above MSL − 63 m Climatic Table compiled from observations, 1995 Average Average Mean Number Temperatures cloud Precipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from wind of days humidity cover speed with Average pressure at MSL No. of days with Month in each month in each month 0700 1300 Mean highest mm or more Mean lowest daily min. daily max. Thunder Average Mean Mean Gale 0700 1300 0700 1300 0700 1300 Fog fall Calm Calm NW SW NW SW NE SE SE NE W W E N S E S N hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots January 1019 9 1 14 −6 80 64 4 5 12 28 20 6 3 5 4 4 18 4 20 17 6 9 9 23 8 4 5 7 0 3 1 February 1017 10 1 15 −5 80 60 5 5 7 43 22 5 2 2 2 5 13 4 23 22 9 8 11 17 4 2 5 8 0 3 1 March 1016 13 3 18 −4 76 55 4 4 9 37 28 4 4 2 | 3 13 1 22 19 16 12 12 15 4 | 6 9 0 2 1 CHAPTER 1 April 1013 16 7 21 1 78 57 5 5 4 26 38 10 2 3 1 3 14 1 9 23 22 12 17 15 1 | 5 9 0 1 252 May 1014 21 11 26 5 76 57 5 4 4 23 35 6 4 3 4 4 17 1 8 24 15 16 15 17 3 | 5 8 | | 4 June 1014 24 14 30 9 72 55 4 4 8 28 27 4 3 3 3 3 21 1 11 14 18 13 14 23 6 1 4 7 0 | 6 July 1015 29 18 33 13 65 44 2 2 7 38 24 3 1 1 2 3 21 1 10 20 13 15 14 23 5 | 5 7 | | 4 August 1014 29 17 33 12 69 46 2 3 7 44 25 4 | 1 1 1 17 1 10 26 16 11 17 17 3 | 4 7 | | 6 September 1016 25 14 28 8 79 53 3 3 6 34 32 5 1 1 3 | 17 | 11 19 16 10 17 22 5 | 4 7 | 1 5 October 1020 20 10 25 4 81 59 4 4 7 36 25 3 6 2 2 3 17 2 14 22 15 10 11 21 5 1 5 7 | 2 3 November 1017 14 6 19 −1 80 61 5 5 8 34 26 5 7 3 1 2 15 3 15 27 9 6 13 17 8 3 5 7 | 2 3 December 1019 11 3 15 −3 80 65 5 5 11 33 21 4 4 2 5 4 17 3 22 18 6 7 11 19 9 5 5 7 | 3 1 Means 1016 18 9 34* −7§ 76 56 4 4 _ _ 8 33 27 5 3 2 2 3 17 2 14 21 14 11 13 19 5 1 5 8 _ _ _ Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 17 37 Extreme values _ _ _ 35† −10‡ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ No. of years ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„