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Np 25 british columbia pilot vol i 12ed 2004


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  • 1. NP 25RECORD OF AMENDMENTSThe table below is to record Section IV Notice to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.Sub paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume.Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)2005 2006 2007 2008IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONSThis is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users ofAdmiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’sHandbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.Home Contents Index
  • 2. NP 25BRITISH COLUMBIAPILOTVOLUME IThe coast of the United States of Americafrom Cape Flattery to Point Roberts, including Puget Sound;the coast of British Columbia from Point Robertsto Cape Caution, and Vancouver Island;and the intervening passages.TWELTH EDITION2004PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICEHome Contents Index
  • 3. iiE Crown Copyright 2004To be obtained from Agentsfor the sale of Admiralty Charts and PublicationsCopyright for some of the material inthis publication is owned by the authoritynamed under the item and permission for itsreproduction must be obtained from the owner.First published 1888. . . . . . . . . . .Second Edition 1898. . . . . . . . . . .Third Edition 1905. . . . . . . . . . . .Fourth Edition 1913. . . . . . . . . . . .Fifth Edition 1923. . . . . . . . . . . . .Sixth Edition 1935. . . . . . . . . . . . .Seventh Edition 1951. . . . . . . . . .Eighth Edition 1964. . . . . . . . . . . .Ninth Edition 1979. . . . . . . . . . . .Tenth Edition 1998. . . . . . . . . . . .Eleventh Edition 2001. . . . . . . . .Home Contents Index
  • 4. iiiPREFACEThe Twelfth Edition of the British Columbia Pilot, Volume I has been prepared by Captain R D Peddle, Master Mariner. TheUnited Kingdom Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriateinformation obtained by and assessed by it at the date shown below. Information received or assessed after that date will beincluded in Admiralty Notices to Mariners where appropriate If in doubt, see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of whatAdmiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them.This edition supersedes the Eleventh Edition (2001).Information on ice and currents has been based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Exeter.The following sources of information, other than UKHO publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:BritishFairplay Ports Guide 2004.Lloyd’s Ports of the World 2004.Lloyd’s Maritime Guide−Dry Dock Information 2001−2.The Statesman’s Yearbook 2004.Whitaker’s Almanac 2004.CanadianChartsSailing Directions British Columbia Coast (South Portion) Volume 1, Sixteenth Edition 1999.Sailing Directions PAC 200 First Edition 2002.AmericanChartsUnited States Coast Pilot 7, 36th Edition 2004.Dr D W WilliamsUnited Kingdom National HydrographerThe United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeAdmiralty WayTauntonSomerset TA1 2DNEngland15th October 2004Home Contents Index
  • 5. ivPREFACEThe Tenth Edition of the British Columbia Pilot, Volume I has been compiled by Captain J.H.Gomersall, Master Mariner, andcontains the latest information received in the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office to the date given below.This edition supersedes the Ninth Edition (1979) and Supplement No 9 (1997), which are cancelled.Information on currents has been based on data provided by the Meteorological Office, Bracknell.The following sources of information, other than UKHO publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:BritishFairplay Ports Guide 1998.Lloyd’s Ports of the World 1998.Lloyd’s Maritime Guide−Dry Dock Information 1997.The Statesman’s Yearbook 1998.Whitaker’s Almanac 1998.CanadianChartsSailing Directions British Columbia Coast (South Portion) Volume 1, Fifteenth Edition 1990.Small Craft Guide British Columbia Volume 1, Seventh Edition 1989.Small Craft Guide British Columbia Volume 2, Eighth Edition 1990.AmericanChartsUnited States Coast Pilot 7, 31st Edition 1997.J.P. CLARKE CB LVO MBERear AdmiralHydrographer of the NavyThe United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeAdmiralty WayTauntonSomerset TA1 2DNEngland22nd October 1998Home Contents Index
  • 6. vCONTENTSPagesPreface iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents v. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Explanatory notes vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Abbreviations ix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index chartlets xi & xii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 1Navigation and regulationsLimits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Navigational dangers and hazards (1.5) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Traffic and operations (1.14) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Charts (1.19) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Navigational aids (1.29) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pilotage (1.35) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Radio facilities (1.40) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Regulations (1.57) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Signals (1.91) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Distress and rescue (1.100) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Countries and portsUnited States of America (1.109) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Canada (1.118) 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.130) 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Port services — summary (1.131) 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Natural conditionsMaritime topography (1.135) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Currents and tidal streams (1.137) 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea level and tides (1.146) 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea and swell (1.147) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sea water characteristics (1.151) 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Climate and weather (1.154) 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Climatic tables (1.182) 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.191) 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 2Juan de Fuca Strait, including Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours 55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 3Puget Sound including Hood Canal, Lake Washington and waters East of Whidbey Island 83. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 4Rosario Strait, waters East of it, and the San Juan Islands 133. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 5South East Vancouver Island and adjacent watersincluding Haro Strait, Boundary Pass and channels leading North West 157. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 6Strait of Georgia — Southeastern part including Fraser River, Vancouver Harbour, Nanaimo and Howe Sound 199. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 7Strait of Georgia — Northwestern part including Malaspina Strait and Jervis Inlettogether with the channels and inlets leading Northward to Cordero Channel 245. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Home Contents Index
  • 7. CONTENTSviCHAPTER 8Discovery Passage, Johnstone Strait, Broughton Strait and adjacent islands 297. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 9Queen Charlotte Strait 327. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 10West coast of Vancouver Island, Cape Beale to Estevan Point including Barkley Sound and Clayoquot Sound 361. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 11West and Northwest coast of Vancouver Island, Estevan Point to Cape Sutilincluding Nootka Sound, Esperanza Inlet, Kyuquot Sound, Quatsino Sound and Scott Islands 403. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .APPENDICES AND INDEXAppendix I Canadian Shipping Act — extracts from Collision Regulations 440. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix II Canadian Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations 1995 448. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix III Canadian Quarantine Reporting Requirement 450. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix IV United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Bridge to Bridge Radio Telephone Regulations 451. . . . . . . .Appendix V United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Ports and Waterways Safety — General 452. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix VI United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Vessel Traffic Management 456. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix VII United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Navigation Safety Regulations 460. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix VIII United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas 465. .Appendix IX United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Escort Requirements for Certain Tankers 471. . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix X United States — Navigation and Navigable Waters — Danger Zones and Restricted Area Regulations 472. . . . . . . .Index 473. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Home Contents Index
  • 8. viiEXPLANATORY NOTESAdmiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 12 m or more in length. They amplify charted detail and containinformation needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intendedto be read in conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, withoutthe use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weeklyeditions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published in the last weekly edition for eachmonth. Those still in force at the end of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.CD−ROMStatus. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements ofChapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should onlybe used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy existsbetween data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be reliedupon.Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, ithas not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD forthis purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligenceof the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of theUKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwisewithout the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed orcommercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Partieswhether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.References to hydrographic and other publicationsThe Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastalpassages.Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotageservices, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress andSafety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.Admiralty Maritime Communications is a comprehensive guide on all aspects of maritime communications for the yachtsman and smallcraft user. It provides general information on Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), the management of VHF, MaritimeSafety Information, NAVTEX, Inmarsat and Radio Facsimile, and detailed information and procedures for marinas and harbours used bysmall craft.Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments andnotices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigationalwarnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals aswell as international flag signals.Remarks on subject matterBuoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too smallto show all the details clearly.Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Marinersshould consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.Home Contents Index
  • 9. EXPLANATORY NOTESviiiChart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted whereits use is more appropriate.Firing, practice and exercise areas. Except for submarine exercise areas, details of firing, practice and exercise areas are not mentionedin Sailing Directions, but signals and buoys used in connection with these areas are sometimes mentioned if significant for navigation.Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in bracketsfollowing the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the eventbeing described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time whichmay be kept.Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance fornavigation or anchoring.Units and terminology used in this volumeLatitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.Heights of objects refer to the height of the structure above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted inAdmiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively beexpressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, theselatter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local timekept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over alarge area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may bemarked “conspic”.Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.Home Contents Index
  • 10. ixABBREVIATIONSThe following abbreviations are used in the text.DirectionsN north (northerly, northward, northern,northernmost)NNE north-north-eastNE north-eastENE east-north-eastE eastESE east-south-eastSE south-eastSSE south-south-eastS southSSW south-south-westSW south-westWSW west-south-westW westWNW west-north-westNW north-westNNW north-north-westNavigationAIS Automatic Indentification SystemCVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic SystemDGPS Differential Global Positioning SystemGPS Global Positioning SystemITCZ Intertropical Convergence ZoneLanby Large automatic navigation buoyMCTS Marine Communications and Traffic ServicesCentresODAS Ocean Data Acquisition SystemSatnav Satellite navigationTSS Traffic Separation SchemeVDR Voyage Data RecorderVMRS Vessel Movement Reporting SystemVTC Vessel Traffic CentreVTS Vessel Traffic ServicesVTMS Vessel Traffic Management SystemOffshore operationsALC Articulated loading columnALP Articulated loading platformCALM Catenary anchor leg mooringCBM Conventional buoy mooringELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooringFPSO Floating production storage and offloadingvesselFPU Floating production unitFSO Floating storage and offloading vesselPLEM Pipe line end manifoldSALM Single anchor leg mooring systemSALS Single anchored leg storage systemSBM Single buoy mooringSPM Single point mooringOrganizationsEU European UnionIALA International Association of LighthouseAuthoritiesIHO International Hydrographic OrganizationIMO International Maritime OrganizationNATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationRN Royal NavyUKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic OfficeRadioAIS Automatic Indentification SystemDF direction findingHF high frequencyLF low frequencyMF medium frequencyMMSI Maritime Mobile Service IdentityNavtex Navigational Telex SystemRT radio telephonyUHF ultra high frequencyVHF very high frequencyWT radio (wireless) telegraphyRescue and distressAMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel RescueSystemEPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio BeaconGMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety SystemJRCC Joint Rescue Cooperation CentreMRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination CentreMRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-CentreSAR Search and RescueTidesHAT Highest Astronomical TideHW High WaterLAT Lowest Astronomical TideLW Low WaterMHHW Mean Higher High WaterMHLW Mean Higher Low WaterMHW Mean High WaterMHWN Mean High Water NeapsMHWS Mean High Water SpringsMLHW Mean Lower High WaterMLLW Mean Lower Low WaterMLW Mean Low WaterMLWN Mean Low Water NeapsMLWS Mean Low Water SpringsMSL Mean Sea LevelHome Contents Index
  • 11. ABBREVIATIONSxTimesETA estimated time of arrivalETD estimated time of departureUT Universal TimeUTC Co-ordinated Universal TimeUnits and miscellaneous°C degrees CelsiusDG degaussingdwt deadweight tonnageDZ danger zonefeu forty foot equivalent unitfm fathom(s)ft foot (feet)g/cm3 gram per cubic centimetreGRP glass reinforced plasticgrt gross register tonnagegt gross tonnagehp horse powerhPa hectopascalkHz kilohertzkm kilometre(s)kn knot(s)kW kilowatt(s)m metre(s)mb millibar(s)MHz megahertzmm millimetre(s)MW megawatt(s)No numbernrt nett register tonnageteu twenty foot equivalent unitVessels and cargoCDC Certain Dangerous CargoHMS Her (His) Majesty’s ShipHSC High Speed CraftLASH Lighter Aboard ShipLHG Liquefied Hazardous GasLNG Liquefied Natural GasLOA Length overallLPG Liquefied Petroleum GasMV Motor VesselMY Motor YachtPOL Petrol, Oil & LubricantsRMS Royal Mail ShipRo-Ro Roll-on, Roll-offSS SteamshipULCC Ultra Large Crude CarrierVLCC Very Large Crude CarrierHome Contents Index
  • 12. Chapter Index Diagram21022334566677783Cape FlatteryStateofWashingtonStateofWashingtonBritishColumbiaVancouverIslandJuan de FucaStraitNP 8THE PACIFIC COASTSOF CENTRAL AMERICA ANDUNITED STATES PILOTOlympiaTacomaSeattlePugetSoundEverettBellinghamNew WestminsterVancouverComoxPort San JuanPort AlberniContinued onIndex NP 25(b)ButeInletPowell RiverTobaInletTexadaIslandStrait ofGeorgiaNanaimoBarkleySound579494580464751194710043933495249504951495349544947xi47°48°49°50°51°122°123°Longitude 124° West from Greenwich125°122°123°124°125°47°48°49°50°51°NP 25(a)British Columbia Pilot Vol IHome Contents Index
  • 13. 21011119998877NP 8PACIFIC COASTS OF CENTRAL AMERICAAND UNITED STATES PILOTNP 26BRITISH COLUMBIAPILOT VOL IIBritishColumbiaVancouverIslandBarclaySoundClayoquotSoundNootkaSoundKyuquotSoundQuatsinoSoundTofinoGold RiverTahsisPort AlicePort HardyButeInletCapeCookCapeScottQueen Charlotte Strait5795815824945193310044943494449234947xii49°50°51°125°126°127°128°48°129°125°126°Longitude 127° West from Greenwich128°129°49°50°51°48°Chapter Index DiagramNP 25(b)British Columbia Pilot Vol IHome Contents Index
  • 14. 1LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATIONWhile, in the interests of safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its hydrographicpublications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:(a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and(b) that publication of the details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognitionof the international validity of the law or regulation.BRITISH COLUMBIA PILOTVOLUME 1CHAPTER 1NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONSCOUNTRIES AND PORTSNATURAL CONDITIONSNAVIGATION AND REGULATIONSLIMITS OF THE BOOKChart 48011.11 Area covered. This volume contains a description of thecoast of the United States of America from Cape Flattery(48°23′N, 124°44′W) E including Puget Sound, thence NWalong the coasts of British Columbia and Vancouver Islandto Cape Caution (51°10′N, 127°47′W).2 The seaward limits of this volume are defined asfollows:Latitude LongitudeCape Caution (51°10′N,127°47′W) W to position51°10′N 140°00′WThence S to position 48°25′N 140°00′WThence E to position 48°25′N 124°43′WThence S to Cape Flattery 48°23′N 124°44′WPRINCIPAL ROUTESGeneral comments1.21 The principal ocean shipping routes serving the areahave the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait as their focalpoint. From the inner part of the strait, the deep waterroutes continue S into Puget Sound (3.1), and N throughHaro Strait (5.9) and Boundary Pass (5.9), or throughRosario Strait (4.4), to the Strait of Georgia, thus providinga safe, deep approach to all the major ports in the area.2 Coastal vessels proceeding from Juan de Fuca Strait tothe Strait of Georgia can benefit from the weaker tidalstreams to be found in the route through Mayor Channel(2.178), Baynes Channel (2.184), Sidney Channel (5.58),Moresby Passage (5.79), Swanson Channel (5.87) andActive Pass (5.96); however this route is not without itshazards due to the numbers of pleasure craft in summerand the ferries in Active Pass.3 There is a considerable network of lesser routes, forsmaller vessels, through the numerous islands lyingbetween Vancouver Island and the mainland, giving accessto the smaller ports and the many mainland inlets as wellas providing sheltered passage between the SE and NWextremities of Vancouver Island. The only navigablechannel for large vessels, between the Strait of Georgia andQueen Charlotte Sound, is through Discovery Passage (8.6),Johnstone Strait (8.84) and thence either direct to GordonChannel, or through Goletas Channel (9.138) and ChristiePassage (9.149) to Gordon Channel (9.162). The limitingfactor on this route is the power cable spanning SeymourNarrows (8.51), which has a vertical clearance of 55 m. Itis advisable to be aware of the anchorages available on thisroute due to the prevalence of fog and the need to awaitslack water in the narrower parts.1.31 Caution. Details of the channels constituting the lesserroutes are given in the appropriate chapters, however itmust be continually borne in mind that some of the minorpassages have not been fully surveyed, and it is thereforeunwise to attempt them unless the text indicates that theyare suitable.Tanker routes1.41 Tanker Exclusion Zone. See 1.85.Home Contents Index
  • 15. CHAPTER 12NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDSCoastal conditions1.51 Fog may occur in any season. See 1.175.Onshore setting currents can occur in the entrance toJuan de Fuca Strait. See 1.143.Navigation amongst kelp1.61 See The Mariner’s Handbook for details.Log booms1.71 Log booms towed by tugs may often be met along thecoasts or in the confined waterways of British Columbia.These rafts are usually at the end of a long tow line whichmight constitute a hazard in poor visibility.Drifting logs1.81 Drifting logs are a constant menace to navigation,especially in the inner passages, and small vessels inparticular are advised to exercise extreme caution whenmaking way at night. All sizes of logs to over 20 m inlength, as well as brush, are likely to be met in thechannels, sometimes singly but more often there are manyof different sizes concentrated in a fairly small area. Suchconcentrations are usually to be found where there are tidalswirls and eddies. Occasionally an entire tree, completewith branches and foliage, might be encountered, usuallyduring the early summer when rivers are in their freshetstage and have great quantities of debris carried down inthem. Storms and extreme tides are mostly responsible fordrifting logs which are washed off beaches. During calmweather, logs may be found lying in any direction relativeto the channel, although, if there is any sea they usually liein the trough of the waves.2 A particular hazard is the “deadhead”, which is a logthat has become so waterlogged it is almost entirelysubmerged. It usually assumes a vertical position with itsupper end awash, or just below the surface. During daylighta “deadhead” is often invisible unless there is a slight seaor swell to cause it to break the surface.3 Notification of dangers to navigation, such as large logsor deadheads, are often broadcast as Navigation Warningsfrom MCTS Centres.Mariners are requested to notify the nearest MCTSCentre of any such hazard to navigation which theyencounter.Barges under tow1.91 It is the practice on the British Columbia Coast for pickup lines to be trailed astern of barges under tow. A pick upline might be up to 110 m in length with the end markedby a fluorescent buoy. All vessels should pass astern oftowed barges at a sufficient distance to clear such trailinglines. The Canadian modifications to lights carried bybarges under tow, or being pushed, are given in Rule 24 ofthe International Regulations for Preventing Collisions atSea, with Canadian Modifications in Appendix I.Booming grounds1.101 A booming ground is a term used mainly in Canadianwaters where logs are temporarily held and stored formaking up into rafts. The area is usually enclosed by aboom to retain the logs.Seaplanes1.111 There are a number of seaplane operating areas situatedin the area described in this pilot and in recent years thenumber of serious incidents between vessels and seaplaneshas increased.2 It should be understood that at a particular stage intaking off, or in landing, a seaplane is committed andunable to change its intended action at the last moment.Also adverse weather conditions are generally morerestrictive to a seaplane on the water than to a ship.Passing close to, or ahead of, a seaplane whose engines areoperating creates an obvious hazard.3 Mariners should, where possible, avoid seaplaneoperating areas particularly in conditions of poor visibility.Overhead cables1.121 Overhead cables are mentioned in the text where theclearance beneath them may be a hazard to navigation.Some of these cables carry high voltages and sufficientclearance must be allowed when passing underneath them.Mariners are advised that the actual clearance of anoverhead cable may differ from its charted value due tochanges in atmospheric conditions, water levels and inwinter by the ice and snow conditions.2 For information on safety clearances and the radarresponses to be expected see The Mariner’s Handbook.Obstructions1.131 Fish havens, which might be found off the coast of theUnited States, are artificial reefs composed of scrapmaterials of all kinds, rising 3 m or more above the seabed. Some are small and others might extend for aconsiderable distance. Care should be exercised in theirvicinity.TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONSTrafficVessel Traffic Services1.141 Vessel Traffic Service Scheme with full radarsurveillance is maintained for the control of shipping, fordetails, and list of reporting points, see Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5). Positions of reporting points areshown on the charts.2 The system is operated by the Canadian and UnitedStates Coastguards based ashore at Vessel Traffic Centres(VTC) (in Canada these are known as MarineCommunications and Traffic Services (MCTS) Centres).Canadian/United States agreement provides jointco-operative VTS in the waters through which theinternational boundary runs; these waters comprise Juan deFuca Strait, Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the S end ofthe Strait of Georgia.FishingFishing vessels1.151 Mariners are advised that fishing vessels of several typesmight be encountered off the coasts described in thisvolume. The principal types of fishing gear used in BritishColumbia waters are purse seine, gillnet, longline, trollingand otter trawling; details on these types of equipment aregiven in The Mariner’s Handbook.Home Contents Index
  • 16. CHAPTER 132 The greatest concentration of fishing vessels may beexpected as follows:La Pérouse Bank(48°35′N, 125°45′W),Swiftsure Bank(48°33′N, 125°00′W) and offEstevan Point (49°23′N, 126°32′W)(within the 100 m depth contour).April 15th to30th September.Juan de Fuca Strait. April 15th to1st November.Fraser River and approaches. Approximately1st July to1st Novemberand sporadicallythroughout the year.3 Mariners are warned that from about June to November,large factory ships may be encountered off the W coast ofVancouver Island at various distances between CapeFlattery and Estevan Point; these ships may be fishing,working cargo or drifting.4 Fishing vessels will, as far as possible, keep clear of therecommended shipping lanes, but no vessel should passunnecessarily close to those engaged in fishing. If intendingto pass through any of the foregoing areas mariners shouldcontact a MCTS Centre giving her position, intended routeand speed for rebroadcast to the fishing fleet. SeeAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5) for theappropriate MCTS Centre. Mariners are also requested tocommunicate with Fisheries Patrol Vessels on VHFChannel 16 for an exchange of information and assistancein making a safe passage through fishing areas.5 Four blasts on the whistle or siren is the recognisedsignal to warn fishing vessels of approaching traffic. Ifcommitted to passing over a fishing net, the mariner shouldstop engines immediately and keep her course until clear.For special lights and signals used by fishing vessels,see 1.91. Fishermen sometimes use quick-flashing lights ontheir net floats and care must be taken not to confuse theselights with lighted aids to navigation.Marine farms1.161 The establishment of aquaculture facilities in Canada’snavigable waterways has reached high concentration levelsin many areas. Every mariner is advised to exercise cautionand give a wide berth to the yellow cautionary buoysmarking the perimeters of the approved aquaculture sites.2 Any mariner wishing to obtain detailed informationconcerning the positions of aquaculture facilities shouldcontact the regional Navigation Protection Program officeof the Canadian Coastguard. For the Pacific region theaddress is as follows:3 NWPP Division,300−555 West Hastings Street,Vancouver, B.C.,V6B 5G3CanadaExercise areas1.171 Naval operations including missile firing, gunnery andbombing practice may occur in the area covered by thisvolume; they are mentioned in the appropriate chapters.Notice of exercises and firing practices, giving the areasinvolved with the nature and duration of the exercise andspecified navigational rules are issued in local Notices toMariners and radio navigation warnings.2 Warships in formation or vessels in convoy. Theprecautions necessary when approaching warships information or vessels in convoy are described in TheMariner’s Handbook.Submarines1.181 Mariners are warned that submarines might beencountered within the area covered by this book,particularly in the Juan de Fuca Strait and adjacent waters.They may be surfaced or dived, operating independently, orwith surface ships and/or aircraft. See 1.94 and 1.98.CHARTSAdmiralty charts1.191 Some of the Admiralty charts covering areas embracedby this volume, although kept amended for important detailfrom Canadian and United States sources, are in someinstances based on earlier incomplete surveys. A number ofchannels and inlets between the NE side of VancouverIsland and the mainland are no longer covered byAdmiralty charts.2 There are large scale Admiralty charts of the US portsof Seattle, Tacoma, Olympia and Everett with good largescale coverage through the approaches to them inAdmiralty Inlet and Puget Sound. There is also goodcoverage of the Canadian ports of Victoria, NewWestminster, Vancouver and its approaches through the SEpart of the Strait of Georgia, and Nanaimo.Foreign charts1.201 In certain areas where Admiralty charts show insufficientdetail for navigation close inshore, these Sailing Directionshave been written using US and Canadian charts. Some ofthese charts are not quoted as reference charts in the text,which has been written on the assumption that marinerswishing to navigate in these areas will have providedthemselves with suitable charts on which to do so.Canadian charts1.211 Canadian charts and publications can be obtained fromchart agents as listed in Canadian Annual Notice toMariners No 14, amended by Canadian Notices toMariners. They are also obtainable from the followingaddress:2 Canadian Hydrographic Service,Chart Distribution Office,9860 West Saanich Road,Sidney, B.C.,V8L 4B2CanadaUS charts1.221 US charts and publications of the National OceanService (NOS) and unclassified charts of the NationalGeospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) can be obtainedfrom chart agents in US and foreign ports, or by mail orderfrom the following address:Home Contents Index
  • 17. CHAPTER 142 Federal Aviation Administration,National Aeronautical Charting Office,Distribution Division (AVN−530),6303 Ivy Lane, Suite 400,Greenbelt,MD 20770–6325USACanadian Charts and Nautical PublicationsRegulations, 19951.231 See 1.78.United States Navigation Safety Regulations1.241 See 1.71.DatumsVertical1.251 Depths on most modern Admiralty charts are reduced toChart Datum, which is approximately the level of LowestAstronomical Tide. Older charts use a number of differentdatums, which are normally shown on the chart.US charts are reduced to MLLW, MLW or MSL, asshown on the chart.Canadian charts are reduced to Chart Datum, as shownon the chart.2 Drying heights on most modern Admiralty charts areshown as being above chart datum. Older charts use anumber of different datums, which are normally shown onthe chart.3 Elevations on most modern Admiralty charts are shownas being above MHWS or MHHW. On many US chartsand older Admiralty charts elevations are shown as beingagainst MHW; an exception to this is in the LakeWashington Ship Canal where, above the locks, verticalclearances are referred to the Mean Water Level of the lakewhich is 6⋅4 m (21 ft) above MLLW.Horizontal1.261 Differences in latitude and longitude, in some cases byas much as 20 seconds, exist between Admiralty chartsbased on 19th century surveys and more modern British,Canadian and American charts. The more modern Britishcharts are referred to North American Datum 1927 orNorth American Datum 1983 and notes on these chartsgive details of the differences between the World GeodeticSystem 1984 Datum and the datum of these charts.2 For older charts it has proved to be impossible toprovide such details because of internal inconsistencies andwhen transferring positions between charts, it is advisableto do so by bearing and distance from a common referenceobject, and not by latitude and longitude.1.271 Canadian charts are currently being converted fromNorth American Datum 1927 (NAD 27) to North AmericanDatum 1983 (NAD 83). The differences in position of thesame point between NAD 27 and NAD 83 is up to 110 mon the Pacific coast.NAD 83 is considered equivalent to World GeodeticSystem 1984 (WGS 84).2 New Canadian charts and new editions of Canadiancharts will have a note indicating whether the chart isbased on NAD 27 or NAD 83 and will contain sufficientinformation to allow conversion from one datum to theother.DepthsDepth terms used in United States waters1.281 Federal project depth is the design dredging depth of achannel. This depth may, or may not, be the goal ofmaintenance dredging after completion of the channel.Where a federal project exists only the project depth isgiven.2 Controlling depth of a channel is the least depth withinthe limits of the channel. It restricts the safe use of thechannel to draughts of less than that depth.3 Centreline controlling depth of a channel applies onlyto the centreline; lesser depths may exist in the remainderof the channel.4 Mid-channel controlling depth of a channel is thecontrolling depth of only the middle half of the channel.For the latest controlling depth, charts and local port andpilotage authorities should be consulted.5 Depths alongside wharfs are usually those reported bythe owner or operator of the wharf. Local authoritiesshould be consulted for the latest controlling depths.AIDS TO NAVIGATIONLights1.291 Navigational lights are the responsibility of the nationalauthorities in Canada and the United States; in bothcountries this is the Coastguard. Major lights are those witha nominal range of 15 miles or more.2 Light-structures only, with their elevation or height, aredescribed in this volume; for further details of lights seeAdmiralty List of Lights Volume G.It should be kept in mind that brilliant shore lights usedfor advertising and other purposes, particularly those indensely populated areas, can make it difficult to identify anavigational light.3 Light sectors. In British Columbian waters it should bekept in mind that because the chart or light list does notindicate any limitations to the arc of visibility of a light, itdoes not necessarily follow that it is not obscured on somebearings. Trees grow rapidly on the west coast of Canadaand it is quite possible for a light erected in a cleared areasome years ago to become obscured in some sectors by anew growth of trees. For this reason the CanadianHydrographic Service no longer shows arcs of visibility forlights on its charts except those which have colour sectorsor are deliberately sectored at the light source.LandmarksChange in appearance1.301 Caution is necessary when evaluating the descriptionsgiven in this volume concerning landmarks, such as trees,and the colour and shape of buildings and other marks.New buildings might have been erected and old trees orhouses destroyed, so that marks, which at one time mighthave been conspicuous on account of their isolation, shapeor colour, may no longer exist or may now be difficult toidentify.Home Contents Index
  • 18. CHAPTER 15BuoyageGeneral1.311 Mariners should not rely on buoys being in their chartedpositions all the time. Buoys should be regarded as warningmarkers and not as infallible navigation marks. Theposition of any buoy might not be as charted due to storm,collision, or undersea features such as shoals, reefs, orledges, which tend to render the buoy being easilydisplaced. Mariners should always navigate their vessels byvisual bearings and radar distances of fixed shore objects,by soundings or through the use of satellite or radionavigation systems whenever possible, rather than relyingon buoys.2 Due to their widespread use, the term radar reflector isnot included in the description of buoys in the text.It should be noted that although the in-going tidalstreams actually meet in the vicinity of Sentry Shoal(49°55′N, 125°00′W), this has no effect on buoyage whichshould be treated as though the in-going streams continuein a N-going direction beyond this point.IALA Maritime Buoyage System1.321 The IALA Maritime Buoyage System Region B (red tostarboard) is used in Canadian and United States waters,however, in minor locations where aids to navigation areprivately maintained, non-IALA buoys and marks may stillbe encountered.For full details of the system see The Mariner’sHandbook and IALA Maritime Buoyage System, NP735.Canadian Special Purpose Buoys1.331 In addition to IALA buoys, special purpose buoys,which do not have any lateral or cardinal significance areused in Canadian waters. They may comprise variousshapes of lighted or unlighted buoys and may displayyellow reflective material. All special purpose buoys mayexhibit a yellow flashing light.2 Special purpose buoys include:Anchorage buoys used to mark the extremities of adesignated anchorage area.Cautionary buoys used to mark areas such as racingcourses, exercise areas, seaplane bases, etc.Skin divers buoys used to mark areas in which skindivers are operating.3 Keep-out buoys used to mark certain areas such asswimming areas where boats are prohibited.Information buoys used to display information suchas a locality name.Control buoys used to indicate a speed limit, nomooring, etc.4 Mooring buoys used for mooring or securing vessel,seaplanes, etc.Hazard buoys used to mark areas of random hazardssuch as shoals and rocks.Ocean Data Acquisition (ODAS) Buoys1.341 ODAS Buoys, used for the collecting of weather andoceanographical data, are moored in a number of locationsoff the coasts covered by this pilot.Large ODAS buoys should be given a clearance of atleast 1 mile, or 2½ miles by vessels towing underwatergear.For further information see Appendix I and TheMariner’s Handbook.PILOTAGEGeneral1.351 Pilotage in the coastal waters of Canada, covered by thisvolume, is compulsory for vessels (including tug and tow)over 350 grt and pleasure yachts over 250 grt. For coastalwaters of the United States of America covered by thisvolume it is compulsory, with a few exceptions, for allforeign vessels and for US vessels engaged in the foreigntrade.Canada1.361 Pilot boarding grounds are established as follows:Victoria 7 cables SSE of VH Light-buoy(48°22′⋅5N, 123°23′⋅6W)Barkley Sound At the entrance toTrevor Channel off Cape Beale(48°47′N, 125°13′W).Prince Rupert(see British ColumbiaPilot Volume II)Brown Passage, about1½ miles N of Triple Island(54°19′N, 130°53′W).Other positions by arrangement.2 Compulsory pilotage is waived in respect of vesselsentering a coastal area for the purpose of embarking a pilotuntil the boarding ground is reached and similarly, ondeparture, after the pilot has disembarked.3 Procedure for ordering a pilot. See Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5) for details.1.371 Pilot boarding. Pilot boats do not cruise on theboarding ground, instead they leave the pilot stationonshore in time to meet the vessel at the boarding ground.In clear weather, a vessel wishing to embark a pilotshould hoist the International Code Flag G by day andmake four long flashes on a signal lamp at night. In fog orlow visibility she should sound four long blasts on thewhistle or siren at intervals in order to guide the pilot boat.Should rough weather at Cape Beale prevent a pilotfrom boarding, the vessel should follow the pilot boat intomore sheltered waters where embarkation is morepracticable.2 Vessels embarking a pilot at sea are requested to complywith Regulation 17, Chapter V of the InternationalConvention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS),regarding the provision of pilot ladders. However, theCanadian Pilot Ladder Regulations, which apply to everyCanadian ship, differ from the SOLAS regulations withregard to the height of the point of access to the ship.3 Section 6 (3) of the Canadian Regulations states “Wherethe distance from the water to the point of access to theship is more than 5 m, access from the pilot ladder to theship shall be by means of an accommodation ladder orother equipment that provides equally safe and convenientaccess to the ship”.The Canadian authorities strongly recommend that theheight the pilot must climb by pilot ladder be reduced fromthe 9 m stipulated in SOLAS, to the 5 m required in theCanadian Pilot Ladder Regulations.See also The Mariner’s Handbook.Home Contents Index
  • 19. CHAPTER 16United States1.381 Pilotage for Puget Sound and all adjacent US waters isprovided by PUGET SOUND PILOTS. Pilots board about1½ miles NNE of Ediz Hook Light (48°08′⋅4N,123°24′⋅1W).2 Procedure for ordering a pilot. See Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5) for details.1.391 Pilot boarding. The pilot station is located on EdizHook about 9 cables W of the E end of the spit; in NWweather a vessel should be prepared to obtain a lee S ofEdiz Hook.In clear weather, a vessel wishing to embark a pilotshould hoist International Code flag G by day. In fog orlow visibility, one long, one short and one long blastshould be sounded on the whistle or siren. At night thepilot station will exhibit three lights vertically, the highestand lowest of which will be red and the middle one green,to indicate that the pilot boat is on her way to the vesselThe pilot ladder is to be rigged in accordance withRegulation 17, Chapter V of the International Conventionfor the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).RADIO FACILITIESSatellite navigation systemsGlobal positioning system1.401 The Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS), a militarysatellite navigation system owned and operated by theUnited States Department of Defense provides world wideposition fixing.The system is referenced to the datum of the WorldGeodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore positionsobtained must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum of thechart being used.For further information see Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 2.Differential Global Positioning System1.411 DGPS compares the position of a fixed point, referred toas the reference station, with positions obtained from aGPS receiver at that point. The resulting differences arethen broadcast as corrections to suitable receivers toovercome the inherent limitations of GPS.2 The Canadian Coastguard transmit DGPS correctionsfrom Sandspit (53°12′N, 131°47′W), Alert Bay (50°35′N,126°56′⋅5W), Tofino (Amphitrite Point) (48°55′N,125°32′W) and Richmond, B.C. (49°06′N, 123°11′W).Positions obtained using these DGPS corrections shouldonly be referred to a chart using NAD 83 as its horizontaldatum. See 1.27. DGPS receivers must be set to the WGS84 datum in order to obtain optimum positioning acuracy.For further details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 2.Global Navigation Satellite System1.421 The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System(GLONASS) is similar to GPS in that it is a space-basednavigation system which provides world wide positionfixing. The system is referenced to the Soviet GeocentricCo-ordinate System 1990 (SGS–90) and as for GPSpositions must be adjusted, if necessary, to the datum ofthe chart being used.2 For further information see Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 2.Caution1.431 Satellite navigation systems are under the control of theowning nation which can impose selective availability ordowngrade the accuracy to levels less than that availablefrom terrestrial radio navigational systems. Thereforesatellite navigation systems should be used with caution.Other radio aids to navigationMarine radiobeacons1.441 Marine radiobeacons are located in the approaches to afew ports and small craft harbours, as shown on the charts,but their numbers are now declining.Racons1.451 Racons, to assist in landfall and coastal navigation,transmit from several salient points on the coast and fromfairway light-buoys in the approaches to harbours andestuaries. These racons are mentioned in the text and areshown on the charts.For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Loran-C1.461 Loran-C is a low frequency electronic position fixingsystem using pulsed transmissions at 100 kHz. The systemhas a greater range than its predecessor, Loran A, and alsoprovides considerably more accurate fixes. The area withinthis volume is covered by the Canadian West Coast Chain.2 For further details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 2.Radio stations1.471 For full details of all the radio stations in the areacovered by this volume see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 1(2).Radio navigational warningsLong range warnings1.481 The area covered by this pilot lies within the limits ofNAVAREA XII. Details of warnings and a list of those inforce are issued by the Co-ordinator NAVAREA XII,United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.2 NAVAREA XII Warnings are broadcast through:(a) Guam Radio and Honolulu Radio.(b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling InternationalSafetyNET).(c) NAVTEX. Depending upon the area affected,NAVAREA XII Warnings may also be transmittedthrough NAVTEX.For details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 3(2).Coastal warnings1.491 Coastal warnings issued by National Co-ordinators,covering a region or portion of NAVAREA XII, aretransmitted through national coast radio stations. For fullbroadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 3(2).Home Contents Index
  • 20. CHAPTER 17Local warnings1.501 Local warnings cover the area within the limits ofjurisdiction of a harbour or port authority and may beissued by those authorities. They may be issued in thenational language only and supplement the coastal warningsby giving information which the ocean-going ship maynormally not require. For full broadcast details seeAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).Radio weather reports1.511 The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) hasestablished a global service for the broadcast of high seasweather warnings and routine weather bulletins, through theEnhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET service.METeorological service AREAS (METAREAS) areidentical to the 16 NAVAREAS within the World-WideNavigational Warning Service (WWNWS).2 Each METAREA has a designated NationalMeteorological Service responsible for issuing high seasweather warnings and bulletins. The designated authoritiesare not necessarily in the same country as the NAVAREACo-ordinators.3 Weather warnings and routine bulletins are broadcastthrough:(a) National coast radio stations.(b) SafetyNET.For full broadcast details see Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 3(2).Local Weather Services1.521 Environment Canada Weather Radio and United StatesNOAA Weather Radio provide continuous VHF weatherbroadcast services within the area covered by this pilot. Forbroadcast details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 3(2).Internet Weather Services1.531 Weather information for the area covered by this pilot isavailable through the Internet. For full details see AdmiraltyList of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).MAriner REporting Program (MAREP)1.541 The Mariner Reporting Programme (MAREP) is ascheme to give mariners at sea the opportunity to reporttheir local weather conditions and to receive up to dateweather forecasts and warnings.2 For details on MAREP see Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 3(2).Automatic Identification Systems1.551 Details of Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) aregiven in The Mariner’s Handbook and Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5).Radio medical advice1.561 Mariners can obtain medical advice by radio through theInternational Radio-Medical Centre (CIRM) in Rome.In US waters, the US Coastguard will respond to DHMEDICO or RADIOMEDICAL messages addressed to itand will provide advice available locally, or will refer themessage to CIRM in Rome.In Canadian waters, any MCTS Centre will providemedical advice upon request.For details and further information see Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 1(2).REGULATIONSInternational regulationsInternational Boundary1.571 The parallel of latitude 49°N, the international boundarybetween Canada and the United States of America, emergesfron the continent at Boundary Bluff. Thence the boundarypasses through Boundary Pass, Haro Strait and Juan deFuca Strait. The approximate route is shown on the charts.Submarine cables and pipelines1.581 Mariners are warned that every care should be taken toavoid anchoring or trawling in the vicinity of submarinecables or pipelines on account of the serious consequenceswhich would result from fouling them. See The Mariner’sHandbook for information on the International Conventionfor the Protection of Submarine Cables, together withadvice on the action to be taken in the event of fouling acable or pipeline.Pollution1.591 The International Convention for the Prevention ofPollution from Ships 1973 was adopted by the InternationalConference on Marine Pollution convened by IMO in 1973.It was modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating theretoand adopted by the International Conference on TankerSafety and Pollution Prevention convened by IMO in 1978.The convention, as modified by the protocol, is known asMARPOL 73/78.2 The Convention consists of 6 annexes. Annex I (Oil),Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III(Harmful Substances carried at Sea in Packaged Form),Annex IV (Sewage from Ships) and Annex V (Garbagefrom Ships) are mandatory; Annex VI (Air Pollution) isoptional.MARPOL 73/78 and Annexes are described in detail inThe Mariner’s Handbook.3 Facilities for the disposal of oily waste, where known,are mentioned under the appropriate port in the body of thebook.Traffic separation schemes1.601 TSS’s exist for the Juan de Fuca Strait and approaches,Puget Sound and approaches, Strait of Georgia, JohnstoneStrait, Broughton Strait and off Discovery Island. Theseschemes are shown in magenta on the appropriate chartsand are referred to in the appropriate geographical chaptersof this book. TSS’s consist of two types, ones which arecompulsory and ones which are recommended. Theprovisions of Rule 10 of the International Regulations forPreventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 apply but the Canadiancompulsory schemes are further modified by provisions thatfall under the heading Rule 10 Traffic Separation Schemes- Canadian Modifications extracts of which are given inAppendix I.2 All TSS’s are listed in the Annual Summary of AdmiraltyNotices to Mariners, which indicates which schemes havebeen adopted by IMO. In the interests of safe navigationthe Canadian Authorities recommend that traffic should useHome Contents Index
  • 21. CHAPTER 18the TSS’s, as far as circumstances permit, by day andnight, in all weather conditions. Further information onTSS’s is given in IMO publication Ship’s Routeing and inThe Mariner’s Handbook.Vessel Traffic Services1.611 See 1.14.United States of AmericaUnited States Coastguard1.621 The US Coastguard includes among its duties:Enforcement of the laws of the United States ofAmerica, including those of navigation andneutrality on the high seas and the coastal andinland waters of the United States and itspossessions.Administration of the Oil Pollution Act.2 Establishment and administration of anchorages.Inspection and Documentation of vessels.Operation of aids to navigation.Operation of AMVER (Automated Mutual AssistanceVessel Rescue System).Search and Rescue operations.Publication of Light Lists and Local Notices toMariners.3 Coastguard Marine Safety Office. The CoastguardMarine Safety Office, which combine the functions ofCaptain of the Port and Marine Inspection Office, in thearea of the United States covered by this volume is situatedat the following address:1519 Alaskan Way South, Seattle, Washington98134–1192.4 The US Coastguard maintains a vigilant watch andinspects vessels to ensure pollution and safety regulationsare complied with, and it is necessary to obtain theirpermission in order to carry out activities within a portsuch as tank cleaning, gas freeing, and immobilisation of avessel.Code of Federal Regulations1.631 The United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)governs all marine regulatory requirements and should beconsulted for detailed information on any of the followingsummarised regulations, or any other US FederalRegulation.Selected extracts from Title 33 CFR are given inAppendices IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X to this volume.Pollution of the sea1.641 Oil and hazardous substances. The Federal WaterPollution Control Act and the Fishery Conservation andManagement Act of 1976, prohibit the discharge of oil orany hazardous substance into any United States waters tothe limits of the Exclusive Economic Zone (200 miles fromthe coast). Any spillage which does occur must be reportedimmediately to the nearest US Coastguard station by radio,or by an established nationwide toll free telephone number,viz.: 1–800–424–8802.2 There are a number of provisions in the act which, ifnot satisfied, means that any vessel bunkering must becompletely surrounded by boom containment equipment;the high cost of renting such equipment being leviedagainst the vessel.Chemicals or detergents may not be used to clean up oilspills without the approval of the Coastguard.3 Vessels are required to have on board, and available forinspection, an International Oil Pollution Certificateverifying compliance with Marpol 73/78 and that all thenecessary equipment is fitted and operational, and also tomaintain an Oil Record Book reporting all oil transfers anddischarges.4 Garbage and Refuse. Strict regulations apply to thestorage and removal of ships’ garbage in US TerritorialWaters and US law prohibits the discharge of all types ofrefuse into navigable waters. Liquid sewage may only bedischarged from shore facilities. All garbage must becontained in tight, leak-proof receptacles inside the ship’srail, and must only be removed under the direction of aninspector from the Animal and Plant Health Service.1.651 Escort requirements for certain tankers. In accordancewith the US Oil Pollution Act (OPA 90) it is required thatladen single hull tankers of 5000 grt and over must beescorted by at least 2 suitable escort vessels. Thisrequirement applies to those navigable waters of the UnitedStates within Haro Strait, Rosario Strait, the Strait ofGeorgia, Puget Sound, Hood Canal, and that part of Juande Fuca Strait E of New Dungeness Light. For details seeAppendix IX to this volume.Area to be Avoided1.661 An Area to be Avoided has been established off theWashington coast.2 In order to reduce the risk of marine casualties andresulting pollution damage to the environment of theOlympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, all vessels,including barges carrying cargoes of oil or hazardousmaterials, and all vessels of 1600 grt and over solely intransit should avoid the area bounded by a line connectingthe following points:3 48°23′⋅3N, 124°38′⋅2W48°24′⋅2N, 124°38′⋅2W48°26′⋅2N, 124°44′⋅7W48°26′⋅2N, 124°52′⋅8W48°24′⋅7N, 124°55′⋅7W47°51′⋅7N, 124°15′⋅5W47°07′⋅7N, 124°47′⋅5W47°07′⋅7N, 124°11′⋅0WSee also the Pacific Coasts of Central America andUnited States Pilot.4 This Area to be Avoided does not apply to any warship,naval auxiliary, barge (whether towed by a government orcommercial tug), or other vessel owned or operated by acontracting government and used, for the time being, onlyon government non-commercial service.Reports to the Coastguard1.671 United States regulations governing Ports and WaterwaysSafety are published under the Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) and apply within United States waters. Extracts fromthe following are contained in Appendix V:2 Notice of arrival.Notice of arrival/departure of vessels carrying certaindangerous cargoes.Notice of hazardous conditions.Home Contents Index
  • 22. CHAPTER 19Vessel Arrival Inspections1.681 Vessels subject to US Quarantine, Customs, Immigrationand Agricultural Quarantine Inspections generally makearrangements in advance through ships’ agents. Governmentofficials conducting such inspections are stationed at mostmajor ports. Unless otherwise directed, officials usuallyboard vessels at their berths.Quarantine and customs1.691 Quarantine. All vessels arriving in the United States aresubject to inspection by the Public Health Service. Vesselssubject to routine boarding for quarantine inspection areonly those which have had on board during the 15 daysprior to the date of expected arrival or during the periodsince departure (whichever period of time is the shorter)the occurrence of death or illness amongst passengers orcrew (including those who have disembarked or have beenremoved). The master of a vessel must report suchoccurrences immediately by radio to the quarantine stationat or nearest to the port at which the vessel will arrive. Inaddition, the master of a vessel carrying 13 or morepassengers must report by radio 24 hours before arrival thenumber of cases (including nil) of diarrhoea in passengersand crew recorded in the ship’s medical log during thecurrent voyage. All cases that occur after the 24 hour reportmust also be reported not less than 4 hours before arrival.2 An ill person means a person who:Has a temperature of 38°C (100°F), or greater,accompanied by a rash, glandular swelling, orjaundice, or which has persisted for more than48 hours; orHas diarrhoea, defined as the occurrence, in a 24 hourperiod, of three or more loose stools or of agreater than normal (for the person) amount ofloose stools.3 Any death or illness occurring during a vessel’s stay in aUS port must be reported immediately to the nearestquarantine station.Specific public health laws, regulations, policies andprocedures may be obtained by contacting US QuarantineStations, US Consulates, or the Chief Program Operations,Division of Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control,Atlanta, Georgia 30333.A special signal code, which forms part of theInternational Code of Signals, is given in Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 1(2).4 Reciprocal quarantine inspection has been arrangedbetween the United States and Canada, whereby vesselsfrom foreign ports, destined for both Continental UnitedStates and Canadian ports within the Juan de Fuca Strait,shall undergo quarantine inspection by the officers of thegovernment at the primary port of arrival, such inspectionbeing sufficient, in ordinary circumstances, for entry at theport of the other government without re-inspection, onpresentation of the necessary documents.5 Deratting and deratting exemption certificates can beobtained at Seattle.1.701 Customs. Vessels are entered and cleared at any port ofentry or customs station so described under an individualport heading. However, entry at a customs station is withprior authorisation only from the Customs Service districtdirector.2 Yachts of foreign countries having a reciprocalagreements with the United States may be granted cruisinglicences, enabling them to cruise in the designated watersof the United States without having to enter and clearformally at each port visited.Navigation Safety Regulations1.711 The general purpose of the United States NavigationSafety regulations is to set a minimum level of navigationalpractice and equipment, so as to reduce the risk of casualtyto vessels, bridges and other structures on or in navigablewaters, or any land structure or shore area immediatelyadjacent to those waters; and to protect the navigablewaters and resources therein from environmental harmresulting from damage to a vessel or structure.2 The regulations require all self-propelled vessels over1600 tonnes grt navigating in United States waters to carryup-to-date charts, Sailing Directions, Light Lists, TideTables and Tidal Current Tables. United States charts andpublications are not mandatory, provided up-to-date foreigngovernment charts of an adequate scale and foreignpublications containing equivalent information are carried inlieu.3 In general Admiralty charts and publications, includingAdmiralty Tide Tables which contain Tidal Stream Tableswhere appropriate, meet these requirements but the chartservice does not include cover of all United States portsand their approaches.The regulations are reproduced in Appendix VII and anup-to-date synopsis of them, with explanatory notes, ispublished in Annual Admiralty Notice to Mariners No 22.Communication between vessels1.721 For information on the United States Bridge-to-BridgeTelephone Act, see Appendix IV.Regulated Navigation Areas1.731 A Regulated Navigation Area, Safety Zone, SecurityZone or a Restricted Waterfront Area may be establishedon the authority of the United States Coastguard.For descriptions of these areas and zones seeAppendix VIII.1.741 Tank vessel navigation restrictions. Tankers larger than125 000 dwt bound for a port or place in the United Statesmay not operate in the regulated navigation area embracedby Puget Sound and adjacent waters. See Appendix VIII.Conservation of Wildlife and Habitat1.751 National Wildlife Refuges are clearly marked on UScharts and are closed to the public. A minimum distance of200 yards clearance from the refuge is requested.Canadian RegulationsCanadian Collision Regulations1.761 The International Regulations for Preventing Collisionsat Sea (1972) are modified in Canadian waters by theCanadian Shipping Act-Collision Regulations, seeAppendix I.Shipping Casualties Reporting Regulations1.771 When in Canadian waters, any shipping casualty,accident or dangerous occurrence should be reported byradio to the Transportation Safety Board without delay. AsHome Contents Index
  • 23. CHAPTER 110soon as possible thereafter a written report should beforwarded. Copies of Shipping Casualties ReportingRegulations may be obtained from any shipping office.For further details see Canadian Annual Notice toMariners No 31, amended by Canadian Notices toMariners.Canadian Charts and Nautical PublicationsRegulations1.781 Regulations are in force concerning the carriage ofcharts and publications in Canadian waters, seeAppendix II.A Provisional List of Charts is published in CanadianAnnual Notice to Mariners No 13 which lists the Canadiancharts to be used in any given area together with equivalentAdmiralty charts acceptable under the regulations. Anychart in the list marked REFERENCE may not be used fornavigation in Canadian waters.2 Annual Summary of Admiralty Notice to Mariners No 21provides an up to date summary of the regulations withexplanatory notes and reprints Canadian Annual NoticeNo 13 giving a brief synopsis.It must not be assumed that when a Canadian chart isnot quoted, the Admiralty chart which is quoted will meetthe requirements of the Canadian regulations.Minor Waters of Canada1.791 The following sheltered waters are specified as MinorWaters of Canada and in them it is an offence to handle avessel recklessly, or in a manner, or at a speed which isdangerous to navigation, life or limb:2 Alberni Inlet and the E channel of Barkley Sound asfar W as Bamfield Inlet.Quatsino Sound and all waters connected therewith asfar W as Koprino Harbour.False Creek, Vancouver, E of Burrard Bridge.3 Jervis Inlet inside a line drawn between ThunderPoint and Ball Point and all waters connectedtherewith not seaward of Fox Island in TelescopePassage, including Agamemnon Channel andPender Harbour inside a line drawn betweenFearney Point and Moore Point.Quarantine1.801 The Canadian quarantine reporting requirements aregiven in Appendix III.Customs1.811 Reporting requirements. A master or person in chargeof a vessel, upon arriving in Canada from a foreign port,must immediately report to the nearest Custom office. Incase of emergency, and if Customs cannot be immediatelycontacted, then the nearest office of the Royal CanadianMounted Police should be notified. Customs officers alsoassume immigration services and in certain ports representHealth and Welfare Canada in the matter of exemption,extension and issuing of de-ratting certificates.1.821 Customs Offices. For customs purposes the followingare ports of entry: Campbell River, Nanaimo, NewWestminster, Port Alberni, Port Hardy, Powell River,Vancouver and Victoria. In addition, where demand justifiesit, customs offices are maintained at a number of smallerports.Pollution of the sea1.831 General information. The attention of mariners isdrawn to the provisions of the Canadian Oil PollutionPrevention Regulations, Garbage Pollution PreventionRegulations and the Pollutant Substances PollutionPrevention Regulations. These regulations, which arestrictly enforced, expressly forbid the discharge from shipsof oil, oily mixtures, garbage or substances, listed in theregulations as pollutants, into Canadian waters or fishingzones.2 Any discharge or the danger of a discharge of oil, oilymixture, or a pollutant substance must be reported by thequickest means available to a pollution prevention officeror to a steamship inspector.For further information a copy of the CanadianRegulations should be consulted.Air pollution regulations. Black smoke emissions byships are not allowed within 1 mile of the Canadian coast.3 International Convention on Civil Liability for OilPollution Damage 1992 (CLC) requires all vessels coveredby the convention to carry a certificate showing that acontract of insurance, or other security that satisfies therequirements of the 1992 CLC, is in force in respect of theship. It should be noted that the area of application hasbeen extended to include voyages to off-shore terminalswithin the Exclusive Economic Zone and, therefore, therequirements for certification under the 1992 CLC mayinclude ships that may have been exempt under the 1969CLC. A 1992 CLC certificate is required for all sea-goingships carrying, in bulk as cargo, more than 2000 tons(equivalent to 2040 tonnes) of: crude oil; fuel oil; heavydiesel oil; lubricating oil or any other persistenthydrocarbon mineral oil that enters or leaves a port oroff-shore terminal within Canadian waters or the exclusiveeconomic zone of Canada.4 A certificate can be issued by:(a) the Marine Safety Directorate, Transport Canadafor Canadian vessels.(b) for ships registered in States that are party to the1992 CLC, by the government of that State.(c) for vessels registered in States that are party tothe 1969 CLC, the 1992 CLC shall be issued byeither: the government of a State that is party tothe 1992 CLC; the government of the flag state orby the Marine Safety Directorate, TransportCanada.5 (d) for vessels that are registered in States that arenot party to either the 1969 or 1992 CLCconvention: the government of a State that isparty to the 1992 CLC or the Marine SafetyDirectorate, Transport Canada. Application formsand additional information can be obtained fromany Transport Canada Maritime Safety Office.6 Oil Spill Response. Amendments to the CanadianShipping Act now require oil tankers of over 150 grt andall other vessels of over 400 grt, trading in Canadianwaters, to have in place an arrangement with a certified oilspill response organisation. All such vessels must carry adeclaration naming the spill response organisation alongwith the ships insurer and those persons authorised toimplement the vessels oil pollution emergency plan and theclean up arrangement.Home Contents Index
  • 24. CHAPTER 111Dumping at sea1.841 Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act andRegulations a permit is required before dumping at sea,loading for the purpose of dumping at sea, for the disposalof a substance at sea or on ice, or by incineration at sea.Permits are issued on receipt of the appropriate applicationform and fee. For more details mariners should contacttheir ships agent. Heavy fines may be imposed forcontravention of the Act.2 In the case of an emergency situation the requirementfor a permit is waived but a report must be made in theprescribed form. Emergency situations are deemed to existonly where there is danger to human life at sea or to anyship or aircraft.Tanker Exclusion Zone1.851 A Tanker Exclusion Zone (TEZ) has been established offthe W coast of Canada as a result of the discontinuance ofthe Trans Alaska Pipeline Tanker Routes.2 The purpose of the TEZ is to keep all laden tankers Wof the zone boundary in an effort to protect the shorelineand coastal waters from unacceptable risk of pollution inthe event of a tanker becoming disabled while in transit.3 The zone is defined as follows:The Canadian/Alaskan border from the coast to54°00′N, 136°17′W, thence:to 51°05′N, 132°30′W, thence:to 48°26′N, 126°14′W, thence:to 48°28′N, 124°59′W.Protection of wildlife1.861 Conservation of Marine Mammals. The FederalDepartment of Fisheries and Oceans is responsible forensuring the protection and conservation of marinemammals within Canadian waters. The Fisheries Actprohibits any form of harassment of cetaceans, includingrepeated attempts to pursue, disperse, and herd whales, inaddition to any repeated intentional act of negligenceresulting in the disruption of their normal behaviour.Harassing whales may force them away from their habitatat critical times in their annual reproduction and feedingcycles, and might cause them injury.Marine Parks1.871 British Columbia’s marine parks are intended to provideessential facilities for the boating public. These areasshould be treated as heritage centres and accorded care andrespect.Closure of ports and Examination Service1.881 Closure of port. Should it be necessary for theCanadian Department of National Defence to take controlof certain Canadian ports, the signals described at 1.74 willbe displayed at or near the ports concerned.Masters of vessels approaching the entrance to acontrolled port should not enter a declared Dangerous Areaor approach boom defences without permission, nor shouldthey anchor or stop in a Dangerous Area or prohibitedanchorage unless instructed to do so.2 Masters are advised to communicate with any CanadianGovernment or Port Authority vessel in the area toascertain the recommended approach route to the port.Examination Services Vessels and Traffic Control Vesselswear the distinguishing flag of the Examination Service andthe Canadian National Flag.The flag of the Examination Service consists of a flagwith a white and red centre, horizontally divided and ablue border.1.891 If ordered to anchor in an Examination Anchorage,Masters are warned that it is forbidden, except for thepurpose of avoiding an accident, to act as follows withoutprior permission being obtained from the ExaminationOfficers:Lower a boat.Communicate with the shore or any other ship.Move the ship.Work cables.Allow any person or thing to leave the ship.2 Any passenger or member of the crew who hasembarked outside Canada must be examined by theCanadian Immigration Officer before effecting admission toCanada.Other regulations in force. Nothing in theseprecautionary regulations is to be taken as over-ruling anyregulations issued by local authorities at particular ports, orby routeing authorities of the Canadian Department ofNational Defence. See Marpol Annex 1, Reg. 26.1.901 Movement control signals. The following signals maybe displayed from a conspicuous position at or near theports concerned or by an Examination Service or TrafficControl Vessel.When exhibited by Examination Vessels these signalswill be carried in addition to normal navigation lights:a) Entrance to the port prohibited.By day.Three red balls disposed vertically.By night.Three flashing red lights disposed vertically andvisible all round the horizon.2 b) Entrance to the port permitted.By day.No signal.By night.Three green lights disposed vertically and visible allround the horizon.3 c) Movement of shipping within the port or anchorageprohibited.By day.A blue flag.By night.A red light, green light, red light, disposed verticallyand visible all round the horizon.Home Contents Index
  • 25. CHAPTER 112SIGNALSCanadaFishing gear1.911 The marking of fishing gear in Pacific Coast watersunder Canadian jurisdiction is as follows:2 a) A gillnet operated from a commercial fishing vesselhas attached to each end of it:i) by day, a buoy painted iridescent or plain orangeand not less than 125 cm (50 inches) incircumference.ii) by night, a lantern showing a white light.3 b) A longline used in fishing is marked by a buoyattached to each end of the line.c) A crab, shrimp or prawn trap, set singly is markedby a buoy.Fishing vessels1.921 Additional signals for fishing vessels. In Canadianwaters or fishing zones along the Pacific coast additionalsignals are prescribed for a vessel engaged in fishing inclose proximity to another vessel or vessels engaged infishing.Special visual signals and special sound signals, seeAnnex II of Appendix I to this volume.Diving operations1.931 Areas in which divers are operating are marked bydiving buoys (1.33). A small vessel tending divingoperations displays a rigid replica of the International CodeFlag A indicating that she is unable to keep out of the wayof other vessels.2 A red flag, with a white diagonal stripe, is frequentlyused to indicate scuba or other diving activity. This flag,despite its general use, is not a substitute for the lights andshapes required under The International Regulations forPreventing Collisions at Sea (1972); however, if sightedvessels should keep well clear and proceed with caution.Canadian submarines1.941 Canadian submarines conform closely to the warningsignals procedure applicable to British submarines. Theirindicator buoys are similar and operate on the samefrequency.In the event of an accident involving a submarine thenearest naval authority or coast radio station should beinformed immediately.2 For further information see the Annual Summary ofAdmiralty Notices to Mariners or the Annual Edition ofCanadian Notices to Mariners.Lights on Canadian warships1.951 Mariners are cautioned that warships have beenexempted from the requirement to carry the secondsteaming light prescribed by the International Regulationsfor Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) and that warshipsmay exhibit additional lights or signals, these are describedin the Annual Edition of Canadian Notices to Mariners.Hydrographic and Seismic Survey Vessels1.961 An orange buoy, usually attached to the end of thebuoyant cable sensing device, is towed astern of surveyvessels. The buoy displays a white light and carries a radarreflector.United States of AmericaNaval vessels1.971 Certain types of United States Navy vessels whichcannot comply fully with the requirements as to the numberand positioning of navigation lights, will comply as closelyas possible in accordance with Rule 1 (e) of theInternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea(1972). They may also exhibit other lights such as colouredrecognition lights, special coloured flashing lights, orlanding lights for aircraft or helicopters (details are given inthe Annual US Notices to Mariners). When darkenedduring naval manoeuvres, navigation lights will beexhibited temporarily, if possible, on the approach of othershipping.1.981 Submarine identification. US Navy submarines areequipped with signal ejectors which may be used to launchidentification signals, including emergency signals. Twogeneral types of signals may be used; smoke floats whichburn on the surface, and parachute flares or stars whichrise to a height of about 100 to 125 m before descending.The colour of the smoke, flare or star has the followingmeaning:2 Green indicates firing, or simulated firing, of atorpedo.Yellow indicates that the submarine is preparing torise to periscope depth; surface vessels shouldstand clear, keeping their propellers turning.3 Red indicates an emergency on board the submarineand that she will try to surface immediately ifpossible. Surface vessels should clear the area butstand by to render assistance after the submarinehas surfaced. In the case of repeated red signals,or if the submarine fails to surface within areasonable time, she may be presumed to bedisabled on the bottom; surface vessels should thenbuoy the location, advise US Naval authorities andpost lookouts to search for a submarine markerbuoy.4 White. Two white flares/smoke in succession indicatethat the submarine is about to surface, usuallyfrom periscope depth (non-emergency procedure).Surface vessels should clear the vicinity of thesubmarine.5 Submarine marker buoy for the US Navy consists of acylindrically shaped object about 1 m (3 ft) by 2 m (6 ft)with a connecting structure; the buoy is paintedinternational orange. The buoy may be accompanied by anoil slick to attract attention and if an object of thisdescription is sighted, it should be investigated and the USNaval Authorities advised immediately. See the AnnualSummary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners No 8 for furtherdetails.Home Contents Index
  • 26. CHAPTER 113Survey vessels and buoy tenders1.991 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA) vessels engaged in survey operations which limittheir ability to manoeuvre, and US Coastguard vesselshandling or servicing aids to navigation, each exhibit thelights and shapes required by Rule 27 of the InternationalRegulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972).DISTRESS AND RESCUEGeneral information1.1001 The radio watch monitoring international distressfrequencies, which certain classes of ship are required tomaintain when at sea, is one of the most important factorsin the arrangements for the rescue of mariners and otherpeople in distress at sea. For general informationconcerning distress and safety, including helicopterassistance, see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices toMariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.GMDSS1.1011 The Global Maritime Distress System (GMDSS) enablesSearch and Rescue authorities on shore, in addition toshipping in the immediate vicinity of a vessel in distress, tobe rapidly alerted to an incident so that assistance can beprovided with the minimum of delay.2 For full details see Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 5.Ship reporting systemsAutomated Mutual-assistance VEssel Rescue System1.1021 The Automated Mutual-assistance VEssel Rescue(AMVER) system, operated by the United StatesCoastguard, is a maritime mutual assistance organizationwhich provides important aid to the development andco-ordination of Search and Rescue (SAR) efforts in manyoffshore areas of the world. Participation in the system isvoluntary.Details are given in Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 1(2).Rescue servicesUnited States of America1.1031 United States Coastguard conducts and/or co-ordinatessearch and rescue (SAR) operations. SAR vessels andaircraft have special markings, including a wide stripe ofred-orange, and a small stripe of blue, on the forward partof the hull or fuselage. US Coastguard stations providelookout, communications and/or patrol functions to assistvessels in distress. The national VHF–FM Distress Systemprovides continuous radio coverage outwards to 20 miles onVHF Channel 16.2 Coastguard District. The limits of the CoastguardDistrict covered by this volume, and the address of theDistrict Commander, are as follows:3 Thirteenth District; coastal waters and tributaries ofOregon and Washington.915 Second Avenue, Jackson Federal Building,Seattle, Washington 98174–1067.The address is a Rescue Co-ordination Centre (RCC).4 Coastguard stations, including air stations, arementioned in the relevant chapters covering Washingtonstate.For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.Canada1.1041 The Canadian Coastguard (CCG) in conjunction with theCanadian Forces (CF) have overall responsibility forco-ordination of federal aeronautical and maritime Searchand Rescue (SAR) activities in Canada, including Canadianwaters and the high seas off the coasts of Canada. The CFprovides dedicated SAR aircraft in support to marine SARincidents. The CCG co-ordinates maritime SAR activitieswithin this area and provides maritime SAR vessels instragetic locations. Joint Rescue Co-ordination Centres(JRCC) are maintained at Victoria, B.C., Trenton, Ont. andHalifax, N.S. These centres are staffed 24 hours a day byCanadian Forces and Canadian Coastguard personnel. EachJRCC is responsible for an internationally agreeddesignated area known as a Search Rescue Region (SRR)and, in addition, Maritime Rescue Sub-Centres (MRSC),staffed by Coastguard personnel are maintained at St,John’s, Nfld. and at Québec, Qué. to co-ordinate localmarine SAR operations.2 Contact is established through the Canadian CoastguardRadio Stations which provide coverage on all maritimedistress frequencies; for details see Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 5.3 All Canadian Government ships and aircraft areavailable for SAR duties when required, as are allCanadian registered ships. In addition the CanadianCoastguard operates a number of specialised vessels on thewest coast of Canada whose primary mission is SAR.Canadian Coastguard cutters and vessels can easily beidentified by their red hulls and white or yellowsuperstructures.1.1051 Canadian Coastguard vessels, specialised in SARconduct regular patrols in areas of concentrated fishing,commercial, recreational and other maritime activities offthe Pacific Coast.2 Specialised SAR craft are stationed at:Ganges, Vancouver (False Creek), Powell River(Westview), Parksville (French Creek), CampbellRiver, Port Hardy, Tofino, and at Bamfield.One SAR Hovercraft is available at Sea Island,Vancouver.3 During the summer months, between mid May and earlySeptember, the Canadian Coastguard supplement theirrescue vessels with rubber boats which can be transportedto any launching area in the event of an emergency.1.1061 Air rescue unit. The Canadian Armed Forces maintainfixed wing and rotary wing aircraft, dedicated and equippedfor SAR, at Comox.Canadian Forces fixed wing aircraft are capable ofdropping inflatable liferafts and survival equipment. Thecomplete drop, which will be upwind, consists of a line305 m long with a 10 man liferaft at each end and anumber of survival packages in between; the liferafts willinflate upon contact with the water.2 Helicopter evacuation can be hazardous and should onlybe used to prevent death or permanent injury. For themethods used see Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices toMariners.Home Contents Index
  • 27. CHAPTER 1141.1071 The Canadian Coastguard Auxiliary (CCGA) is avolunteer organisation supporting the Canadian CoastguardMaritime Search and Rescue. CCGA units are located onthe E and W coasts, Gulf and River St. Lawrence, theGreat Lakes, Lake Winnipeg, Great Slave Lake and on theMackenzie River.1.1081 Ship to air distress signal. A ship to air distress signalhas been designed in conjunction with SAR authorities.2 The signal consists of a cloth, painted or impregnatedwith fluorescent paint, showing a disc and square torepresent the ball and flag of the well known visual distresssignal. Evaluation tests by SAR aircraft indicate that themost suitable colour combination is black symbols on abackground of orange-red fluorescent paint. As the purposeof this signal is to attract the attention of aircraft it shouldbe secured across a hatch or cabin top. In the event offoundering, it should be displayed by survival craft. Seealso Annex IV to Appendix I of this volume.Home Contents Index
  • 28. CHAPTER 115COUNTRIES AND PORTSUNITED STATES OF AMERICAGeneral description1.1091 The United States of America is a federal republicconsisting of 50 states and the Federal District ofColumbia, in which stands the city of Washington, thecapital of the republic. It has a total area, including Alaskaand Hawaii, of 3⋅54 million square miles with an estimatedpopulation of 285⋅9 million (2001).National limits1.1101 The United States of America claim a 12 mile limit forits Territorial Seas and Contiguous Zone and a 200 milelimit for its Exclusive Economic Zone.For further details see Annual Summary of AdmiraltyNotices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.History1.1111 The area now comprising the United States is thought tohave been inhabited originally by nomadic people fromAsia about 32 000 years ago. The first European colony,which was unsuccessful, was established in 1585 by SirWalter Raleigh, the English explorer. Eventually, by 1733,13 British colonies had been established and by this timethe French and Spanish had also founded colonies.Conflicts between these European powers extended to thecolonies with the French frequently attacking Britishsettlements from the late 17th century until 1763 when theTreaty of Paris was signed. Under the terms of the treaty,Britain received Florida and returned Cuba and thePhilippines to Spain; France handed New Orleans, and until1800, Louisiana, to Spain.2 In 1775, the 13 British Colonies revolted (War ofAmerican Independence) mainly because the colonistsobjected to being taxed without representation in the BritishParliament. The Declaration of Independence, whichinaugurated the United States of America, was signed on4th July 1776, and with French, Spanish and Dutchassistance, the colonists prevailed in the conflict whichended in 1783 when Britain recognised Americansovereignty.3 In the period between 1787 and 1790, the 13 originalstates of the Union ratified the constitution which had beendrawn up in 1787; ten Bill of Rights amendments wereadded to the constitution in 1791. Subsequently Vermont,Kentucky and Tennessee joined the Union in the 1790s,with most of the present states joining as the remainder ofwhat is now the United States were settled in the 19thcentury by people of mainly European descent. In thiscentury territories were also sold or ceded to the UnitedStates by European or neighbouring countries.Government1.1121 The government of the United States is entrusted tothree separate authorities, namely, the Executive, theLegislature, and the Judicial. The Executive is vested in thePresident. The Legislative power is vested in the Congress,which consists of the Senate, with two members from eachstate, and a House of Representatives consisting of 435members. The Federal Judiciary consists of three sets ofFederal Courts, namely, the Supreme Court of Washington,DC, the Courts of Appeal, and ninety five District Courts.The President is elected every four years and his tenure islimited to two terms.2 Each state, however, manages its own affairs and has itsown Governor, Senate and House of Representatives, orinstitution of corresponding authority.State of WashingtonGeneral description1.1131 The State of Washington, with an area of 68 192 squaremiles, borders the Pacific Coast of North America for135 miles, from the mouth of the Columbia River in the Sto the entrance of Juan de Fuca Strait in the N. The NWcoast of the state follows the S shore of the Juan de FucaStrait, the shores of Puget Sound, thence N to theinternational boundary at 49° N. The state capital, Olympia,is at the head of Puget Sound.History1.1141 Washington, formerly part of Oregon, was created aterritory in 1853 and was admitted into the Union as the42nd State in 1889; its settlement dates from 1811 and thepopulation stands at approximately 6⋅1 million (2003).Government1.1151 The State Legislature consists of a Senate of 49members, elected for 4 years and a House ofRepresentatives of 98 members, elected for 2 years. TheGovernor and Lieutenant Governor are elected for 4 yearsand Washington is represented in the US Congress by2 Senators and 7 Representatives.Physical features1.1161 The Cascade Range, a high range of mountains runningN to S splits the state into two unequal parts differingwidely in climatic and physical characteristics. Thecoastline covered by this volume lies W of the CascadeRange and is everywhere backed by mountains. PugetSound extends 100 miles S from the E end of the Juan deFuca Strait into the heart of the state and is an importantwaterway leading to several major ports.Products and industries1.1171 The economy of the State of Washington is based onagriculture, forestry, fishing and mining, while industry is amajor factor. The principal crops are wheat and apples. Themanufacture of aircraft, food processing, wood and paperproducts and ship building are among the major industriesof the state. Coal is mined and there is a large variety ofmineral resources of which gold, silver, copper, uraniumand mercury are the most important. Wool is produced on aconsiderable scale and the state is the second largestproducer of wood pulp in the United States.Home Contents Index
  • 29. CHAPTER 1162 There are important water power resources providingsignificant developed and potential hydro-electric power.CANADAGeneral description1.1181 Canada comprises that part of the North Americancontinent between the United States border and the NorthPole, excluding Alaska, which is part of the United States,and Greenland. It has an area of just under 4 million squaremiles and a population of about 31 million (2003).Politically Canada is divided into ten provinces and threeterritories.National limits1.1191 Under the authority of the Oceans Act, Canada claims aterritorial sea limit of 12 miles.Fishing Zone 3 comprises the waters of Queen CharlotteSound, Hecate Strait and Dixon Entrance; these waters areclaimed as internal waters by Canada. The limit of thiszone is shown on Canadian Chart 3002.2 Canada also claims a 24 mile contiguous zone adjacentto its territorial sea limit. Within this zone the Canadianauthorities exercise control to prevent the infringement ofcustoms, immigration, sanitary and fiscal regulations.In addition, Canada claims a 200 mile ExclusiveEconomic Zone, within which she exercises managementcontrol of fisheries; this zone off the W coast is known asFishery Zone 5. The limits of Zone 5 are shown onCanadian Chart 3000. To ensure proper conservation,Canada has organised a programme to manage fish stocksin the 200 mile zone and has set quotas for foreign fleets.3 For further details see Annual Summary of AdmiraltyNotices to Mariners and The Mariner’s Handbook.History1.1201 Norsemen from Greenland discovered and briefly settledin Newfoundland at the beginning of the eleventh century.The land was discovered again by John Cabot, a Venetiannavigator in the service of England, in 1497, althoughfishermen from Portugal, Spain and France are known tohave been fishing in these waters before that date.2 Jacques Cartier entered the Gulf of St Lawrence in 1534and took possession of the country for France. The firstpermanent settlement at Port Royal (now Annapolis), NovaScotia, was founded in 1605 and Quebec was founded in1608; subsequent conflicts with the English resulted in thecapture of Québec by General Wolfe in 1759, and Canadaand all its dependencies became a possession of GreatBritain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1763.1.1211 The present federal state had its foundation in the BritishNorth America Act of 1867. This British Act of Parliamentestablished the Dominion of Canada of the E provinces ofOntario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia andmade provisions for the later inclusion of other provincesand territories.The last province to join was Newfoundland in 1949and in 1999 the territory of Nunavut was created from theNorthwest Territories thus making a federation of tenprovinces and three territories.2 The Constitution Acts of 1867 to 1982 comprise thewritten constitution proclaimed by the Queen in Canada in1982. The British North America Act of 1867, whichremains the country’s basic constitutional document and theamendments passed between 1871 and 1975, have beenrenamed and are now known as the Constitution Acts of1867 to 1975. In 1982 the final act of the BritishParliament in Canada’s constitutional development replacedthe British North America Act with the Canada Act, thusremoving the Canadian Constitution from the BritishParliament.Government1.1221 Canada is a parliamentary democracy with aconstitutional monarchy.At the federal level the Government of Canada isdivided into three branches: the Executive, the Legislatureand the Judiciary.2 The Governor General, appointed by the Monarch,exercises the executive authority of the Monarch. Actingunder the recommendations of his responsible ministers inthe Monarch’s name, he summons, prorogues, and dissolvesParliament, assents to its bills and exercises other executivefunctions.3 The Prime Minister and Cabinet, who formulate andcarry out all executive policy, have seats in Parliament andare responsible to the House of Commons (the electedrepresentatives). The House of Commons along with theSenate, whose members are appointed by the GovernorGeneral on the advice of the Prime Minister and hiscabinet, comprise the Legislature.4 The Judiciary is ensured independence by theconstitutional provision that they shall hold office duringgood behaviour, and therefore are free from any control bythe Executive or Legislature. With one exception, in all theprovinces as well as in the three territories, the legalsystem derives from the common law of England. Theexception is the province of Québec where the system hasbeen influenced by the legal developments of France.5 At provincial level, government is carried out by theprovincial legislatures consisting of a Lieutenant Governor,appointed by the Governor General in Council, and aLegislative Assembly elected by the people. The NorthwestTerritories, and the Yukon Territory, are governed byCommissioners assisted by elected Councils.Population1.1231 In 2003, the total population of Canada was about31 million, with most of them living within 300 km of theborder which is shared with the United States.Language1.1241 English and French are both official languages inCanada with over 6 million of the country’s populationbeing French speaking, most whom live in the Province ofQuébec.British ColumbiaGeneral description and physical features1.1251 British Columbia is the Pacific Coast Province ofCanada, covering an area of 365 950 square miles, and itsseaboard lies between the States of Washington to the Sand Alaska to the N. Its coastline, which is much indentedby numerous long, deep, fjord like inlets and channels, isfringed with hundreds of islands of which Vancouver Islandand Queen Charlotte Islands are the largest. Through theseislands, and between them and the mainland, are manyHome Contents Index
  • 30. CHAPTER 117deep channels which provide sheltered passage formoderate size and smaller vessels along much of thisseaboard. The continental shelf is narrow, the exposed coastgenerally rugged and rocky, and the hinterlandmountainous.History1.1261 Vancouver Island was leased to the Hudson’s BayCompany in 1843, and made a Crown Colony in 1849;British Columbia was made a Crown Colony in 1858 andthe two colonies were united in 1866, subsequently joiningthe Dominion of Canada in 1871.Government1.1271 The capital city Victoria, is the seat of the provincialgovernment which is administered by a LieutenantGovernor, an Executive Council and Legislative Assemblyof 75 members.The province is represented in the Canadian Parliamentby six Senators and thirty two Members of Parliament inthe House of Commons.Population1.1281 The earliest settlers in British Columbia were theIndians, who probably arrived over 10 000 years ago.British, Spanish and Russian explorers of the 18th centurywere the first white men to arrive followed byAnglo-Saxon settlers of the early 19th century.2 Chinese, brought in to help construct the CanadianPacific Railway, settled in the latter part of the 19thcentury and Japanese settlers reached a sizeable number inthe early 20th century.3 The native Indians suffered a deterioration in conditionsand a reduction in their numbers as a result of these wavesof immigration. Subsequently, a series of government healthcare and educational programmes has supported aresurgence in their circumstances and they are now animportant part of the population.The population of the province which was about817 800 in 1941 increased to about 4⋅1 million by 2003.Products and industry1.1291 The economy of British Columbia is based onlumbering, fishing, agriculture and mining.Forest products including lumber, plywood, pulp andpaper are manufactured and exported to all parts of theworld.The chief fishing activity is salmon which is canned andexported in large quantities. Many other varieties of fish,notably halibut, herring and cod, are taken in commercialquantities.2 Agricultural products in great variety are produced bothfor home consumption and export.Mining products are copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, ironore, coal, gypsum, asbestos and limestone.The water power potential is enormous and is a veryimportant factor in industrial development.3 Since 1945 a wide range of local industries has grownup in the province to process its natural resources; theseinclude pulp mills and plywood plants, oil refineries andmill production, and for supplying local resource industries,rope and logging equipment manufacture, steel pipe millsand chemical fertilizer plants.PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS ANDANCHORAGES1.130Place and position RemarksState of WashingtonNeah Bay (2.39)(48°22′N, 124°36′W)Useful refuge for smallvessels. Logging; sportsfishing centre.Freshwater Bay (2.52)(48°09′N, 123°36′W)Emergency explosivesanchorage.Port Angeles (2.88)(48°08′N, 123°25′W)Lumber loading port.Sheltered anchorage forlarge vessels.Anacortes (4.54)(48°31′⋅0N, 122°36′⋅5W)Lumber and fishing centre.March Point (4.60)(48°30′N, 122°34′W)Shipment of petroleumproducts. Facilities forbunkering and disposal ofdirty ballast.Bellingham (4.75)(48°45′N, 122°30′W)Commercial harbour.General and explosivesanchorage in approach withpoor holding ground.Sheltered boat harbour.Ferndale (6.49)(48°49′⋅5N, 122°43′⋅0W)Shipment of petroleumproducts, bunkering and oilywaste disposal; handling ofalumina and aluminium.Cherry Point (6.50)(48°51′⋅7N, 122°45′⋅0W)Shipment of petroleumproducts and bunkering.Port Townsend (3.28)(48°06′N, 122°45′W)Paper products, fuellingbarges and fishing vessels.Extensive small craftberthing.Edwards Point (3.80)(47°48′⋅0N, 122°23′⋅5W)Shipment of petroleumproducts and bunkering.Point Wells (3.81)(47°47′N, 122°24′W)Shipment of petroleumproducts.Everett (3.440)(48°00′N, 122°13′W)Commercial harbour.Extensive small craftberthing.Seattle (3.141)(47°36′N, 122°20′W)Large commercial harbour.Extensive small craftberthing.Bremerton (3.123)(47°33′⋅5N, 122°38′⋅0W)Puget Sound NavalShipyard.Yukon Harbor (3.204)(47°32′N, 122°31′W)Designated generalanchorage area.Tacoma (3.227)(47°15′N, 122°25′W)Large commercial harbour.Designated generalanchorage area in theapproach.Olympia (3.316)(47°03′N, 122°54′W)Lumber loading port. Manysmall craft marinas.Home Contents Index
  • 31. CHAPTER 118British ColumbiaNitinat River (2.29)(48°40′N, 124°51′W)Refuge for fishing vessels andtugs of a moderate draught.Port San Juan (2.53)(48°33′N, 124°28′W)Anchorage, open to SWweather.Sooke Harbour (2.58)(48°22′N, 123°43′W)Used by fishing vessels, tugsand barges.Royal Roads(Esquimalt Approaches)(2.116)(48°24′N, 123°27′W)Six designated anchor berths.Esquimalt (2.124)(48°26′N, 123°27′W)Naval base and commercialship repair.Victoria (2.146)(48°25′N, 123°23′W)Large commercial harbour.Sidney (5.67)(48°39′N, 123°24′W)Small port and ferry terminal.Lyall Harbour (5.161)(48°48′N, 123°12′W)Anchorage and ferry terminal.Bamberton (5.232)(48°35′⋅4N, 123°31′⋅2W)Former cement works withberthing facilities for ships.Cowichan Bay (5.189)(48°45′N, 123°36′W)Forest products loading port.Yachting centre with severalmarinas.Crofton (5.263)(48°52′N, 123°38′W)Forest products loading port.Chemainus (5.281)(48°56′N, 123°43′W)Forest products loading portwith a large mill. Small craftmarina.Houston Passage(5.363)(48°58′N, 123°37′W)Suitable for large vesselsawaiting a berth at Chemainus.Ladysmith Harbour(5.304)(48°59′N, 123°47′W)Log loading port.Boat Harbour(5.348)(49°05′⋅7N, 123°47′⋅9W)Temporary anchorage forvessels awaiting slack water inDodd Narrows.Percy Anchorage(6.279)(49°08′⋅3N, 123°48′⋅0W)Used by vessels awaiting slackwater in Dodd Narrows;exposed to W weather.Harmac(6.276)(49°08′⋅3N, 123°51′⋅3W)Large pulp mill with wharf;other wharfs for forestproducts and containerhandling.Ganges Harbour(5.385)(48°50′N, 123°27′W)Agricultural centre and resort;anchorage and marinafacilities.Nanaimo(6.231)(49°10′N, 123°56′W)Commercial harbour withanchorages in the approach andharbour. Extensive small craftfacilities.Westshore Terminals(including Deltaport)(6.30)(49°01′N, 123°10′W)Coal loading terminal for bulkcarriers with a containerterminal, known as Deltaport,close NE.New Westminster(6.79)(49°12′N, 122°55′W)Large commercial river port.Anchored vessels liable to dragduring the freshet season.Vancouver approaches(6.131)(49°18′N, 123°05′W)Fifteen designated anchorages;permission needed fromHarbour Master, Vancouver.Vancouver Harbour(6.143)(49°18′N, 123°05′W)Large commercial harbourwith seven designatedanchorages; Harbour Master’spermission required for use ofanchorages. Extensive smallcraft facilities.Port Mellon (6.336)(49°31′N, 123°29′W)For loading pulp andnewsprint; large mill.Woodfibre (6.348)(49°40′N, 123°15′W)For loading wood pulp; largemill.Squamish (6.350)(49°41′N, 123°10′W)Imports salt; exports inorganicchemicals, aluminium andforest products.Nanoose Harbour (7.27)(49°15′N, 124°09′W)Naval base; well shelteredanchorage except from S.Beale Cove (7.62)(49°42′N, 124°33′W)Deep sea wharf operated by acement company.Comox Harbour (7.79)(49°40′N, 124°56′W)Agricultural centre and navalbase. Suitable anchorage for allbut the largest vessels.Pender Harbour (7.113)(49°38′N, 124°02′W)Sheltered anchorage for smallvessels; marina facilities.Westview (7.218)(49°50′N, 124°32′W)Used mainly for petroleumproducts; boat and fishingharbour.Powell River (7.218)(49°52′N, 124°33′W)Exports limestone, newsprintand pulp.Blubber Bay (7.232)(49°48′N, 124°37′W)Exports limestone; anchorageexposed NW.Campbell River (8.24)(50°02′N, 125°15′W)Ore loading wharf. Logging,fishing and resort centre;several marinas.Duncan Bay (8.34)(50°04′⋅5N, 125°17′⋅5W)Exports pulp and newsprint;imports fuel oil. Site of largemill. Anchorage sheltered fromall but NW winds.Menzies Bay (8.66)(50°07′⋅5N, 125°22′⋅5W)Used by vessels awaiting slackwater in Seymour Narrows.Plumper Bay (8.68)(50°10′N, 125°20′W)Used by vessels awaiting slackwater in Seymour Narrows.Kelsey Bay (8.107)(50°24′N, 125°58′W)Public wharf upon which aconsiderable sea sets during SEwinds.Beaver Cove (8.220)(50°33′N, 125°51′W)Lumber company wharf, siteof sawmill and loggingsettlement. Extensive boominggrounds; temporary anchorage.Alert Bay (8.224)(50°35′N, 126°56′W)Fishing port and distributioncentre for outlyingcommunities; good anchorage.Marina facilities.Port McNeill (8.233)(50°36′N, 127°06′W)Public wharf and oil wharf;small craft harbour. Anchorageavailable.Port Hardy (9.30)(50°43′N, 127°29′W)Public wharf; commercialfishing centre; boat basin.Anchorage available formoderate size vessels.Home Contents Index
  • 32. CHAPTER 119Bamfield Inlet (10.44)(48°50′N, 125°08′W)Fishing settlement and resort;numerous piers, jetties andpontoons. Anchorage for smallvessels.Uchucklesit Inlet (10.74)(49°00′N, 125°00′W)Anchorage in Green Cove(10.76) and for small craft inSnug Basin (10.77).Alberni Inlet (10.59)(49°00′N, 124°53′W)Anchorages in San Mateo andRitherden Bays (10.88).Port Alberni (10.79)(49°14′N, 124°49′W)Commercial harbour with fourdesignated anchoragesallocated by the HarbourMaster.Ucluelet (10.167)(48°57′N, 125°33′W)Tourism, fishing and the exportof logs. Anchorage available.Gold River (11.44)(49°41′N, 126°07′W)Exports unitised pulp. Thepulp mill was reported to beclosed (February 1999)Tahsis (11.75)(49°55′N, 126°40′W)Exports forest products. Berthreported to be no longer in use(2004).Zeballos (11.125)(49°59′N, 126°51′W)Public wharf; centre of largelogging operations. Marinafacilities available.Port Alice (11.270)(50°23′N, 127°27′W)Large mill, exports pulp.Anchorage available for shipsawaiting a berth.Island Copper Mine(11.283)(50°36′N, 127°30′W)Privately owned wharf forloading bulk copper. The minewas reported to be closed(1996). Anchorage available.PORT SERVICES—SUMMARYDocking facilities1.1311 Major facilities:Esquimalt Graving dock: length357⋅8 m; breadth 41 m;depth over the sill; 12⋅2 m(2.144).Seattle Several floating docks:largest capacity40 000 tonnes (3.166).Puget Sound Naval Shipyard US Navy drydock: length351 m (1152 ft); breadth;50⋅3 m (165 ft). Undercertain conditions may beused by commercial shipswhich are too large forprivately owned docks(3.122).Anacortes Ship lift 5000 tonnescapacity. Floating dock9000 tonnes capacity (4.59).Bellingham Two floating docks; largestcapacity 3200 tonnes (4.98).Vancouver Three floating drydocks:largest capacity36 000 tonnes (6.172).Other facilitiesSalvage services1.1321 Victoria (2.173).Deratting1.1331 Deratting Certificates and Deratting ExemptionCertificates can be obtained at:Seattle.Vancouver.2 By special arrangement, Deratting Certificates andDeratting Exemption Certificates may be secured at certainintervening ports, depending on the availability ofinspection staff and resources.Measured distances1.1341 Dungeness Spit (2.79).Port Angeles (2.100).Parry Bay (2.110).Edmonds (3.90).Lake Washington (3.187).Beals Point (3.196).2 Carr Inlet (3.266).Bellingham (4.90).Sidney Spit (5.62).Ladysmith Harbour (5.316).Vancouver approaches (6.132).Sechelt Inlet (7.178).Home Contents Index
  • 33. CHAPTER 120NATURAL CONDITIONSMARITIME TOPOGRAPHYBathymetry1.1351 In the area covered by this volume, the mountains of thecoast range of British Columbia, with a general trendparallel to the coast, have been formed by faulting anduplift followed by glaciation resulting in a system ofroughly parallel blocks separated by lateral and transversevalleys into which the sea has penetrated. In consequence,a combination of channels, in general steep-sided, deep andsteep-to, affords a convenient inside passage along thecoast.2 The continental shelf narrows along the coast ofVancouver Island, from about 45 miles wide off Juan deFuca Strait, until it is almost eliminated by the protrudingBrooks Peninsula, but widens again to about 70 miles inQueen Charlotte Sound.3 Glaciation has had a dominant effect on the continentalshelf producing deep troughs and shoal outer banks. The Smost of these deep troughs is Juan de Fuca Canyon (2.15),which extends well E into Juan de Fuca Strait. Glaciersadvancing from the fjords along the W coast of VancouverIsland scoured the shelf and deposited two notable shoals,namely, La Pérouse Bank (55 m) (48°35′N, 125°45′W)(10.16) and Swiftsure Bank (34 m) (48°33′N, 125°00′W)(2.16). The influence of glaciation was even greater on thewide shelf along Queen Charlotte Sound.4 Over most of the continental shelf, the slope of the seabed is fairly gentle and appears to be underlaid by softsedimentary rock covered by later glacial deposits; theseinclude boulder clay in which large, isolated boulders mightoccur. Some of these may have escaped detection bysounding and the mariner should allow a generousunder-keel clearance when crossing the banks of the shelfzone.5 The continental slope off British Columbia is relativelynarrow and terminates mostly at depths of 2000 and2500 m. To the W, the abyssal plain lies at a fairly uniformdepth of about 3000 m, and contains deposits formed byturbidity currents. The sea-floor topography of this area is,however, dominated by a series of seamounts of volcanicorigin.6 A seamount chain extends NW and N from the N endof Juan de Fuca Ridge (47°50′N, 129°30′W) in the vicinityof Heck Seamount (1330 m) (48°30′N, 130°10′W) andEickelberg Seamount (790 m) (48°30′N, 133°06′W), at theSE end of Eickelberg Ridge. Between Explorer Seamount(830 m) (49°04′N, 130°59′W), Union Seamount (283 m)(49°34′N, 132°48′W) and the continental slope offVancouver Island, there is a fracture zone which includesthe Dellwood Seamounts (50°40′N, 130°56′W).andDellwood Knolls (50°49′N, 130°20′W).LOCAL MAGNETIC ANOMALIES1.1361 Local magnetic anomalies have been reported in thevicinity of the following places:Henderson Inlet (3.309); Point Hanson (3.383); BurrowsBay, E side (4.10); Guemes Island, SE side (4.45), MarchPoint (4.45); Point Doughty (4.151); East Sound, N part(4.190); Bellevue Point (5.17); Comox Harbour (7.83);Spilsbury Point (7.205); Retreat Passage (9.40) and75 miles SW of Cape Scott (11.12).CURRENTS AND TIDAL STREAMSCurrentsGeneral information1.1371 The warm North Pacific Current, together with thecolder Aleutian Current on its N flank, set E towards thecoast of British Columbia, and on nearing the coast thisbroad flow splits at about the latitude of Vancouver Island.One branch sets NNW as the Alaska Current along thecoast towards the Gulf of Alaska and a second branch setsto the S as the California Current. During the summer, theCalifornia Current sets close inshore but between Octoberand February it moves farther offshore and is replaced bythe NNW setting Davidson Current near the coast.Currents Diagram1.1381 In the currents diagrams (1.138.1 to 1.138.4), arrowsindicating the Predominant Direction, Average rate andConstancy are shown, which are defined as follows:2 Predominant Direction. The mean direction within acontinuous 90° sector containing the highest proportion ofobservations from all sectors.3 Average rate of the highest 50 per cent in thepredominant sectors as indicated by the figures in thediagram. It is emphasised that rates above or below thoseshown may be experienced.4 Constancy, as indicated by the thickness of the arrows,is a measure of its persistence, e.g. Low constancy impliesmarked variability in rate and, particularly, direction.North Pacific Current1.1391 This current generally sets E but, in winter, may beN-going to the N of 45°N. Due to the variable winds in thearea the current may, on occasions, set in other directionsduring the year with an average rate of about ½ kn or less.California Current1.1401 Part of the North Pacific current usually sets S at around45° to 50°N, and to the E of about 132°W, to form theCalifornia Current. The California Current has an averagerate of ½ kn or less but may increase to about 1 kn attimes.Davidson Inshore Current1.1411 This inshore counter-current occurs between October andFebruary and sets N with a rate of between about ¼ and½ kn, but is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds. Afeature of this current is that it is usually no more that 50miles wide.51° to 55°N and E of 135°W1.1421 The predominant oceanic current to the W of QueenCharlotte Islands and SW Alaska is the Alaska Current. Itsets predominately to the NNW at an average rate ofaround ¼ kn in summer and ½ kn in winter but can reach1 to 1½ kn with persistent SE winds. With strong N to NWwinds the current may be temporarily reversed offshorewhilst close inshore the current may become very irregular.Home Contents Index
  • 34. ALASKACURRENTNORTH PACIFIC CURRENTVARIABLEDAVIDSONCURRENTALEUTIAN CURRENTAverage rate in knots is indicated in figures.Arrows indicate the predominant direction.The constancy of a current is indicated by thethickness of the arrow thus:High constancy >75%Moderate constancy 50%-75%Low constancy <50%Probable direction whenobservation count is lowKEY1/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/2122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Predominant surface currents DECEMBER to FEBRUARY (1.138.1)CHAPTER121Home Contents Index
  • 35. ALASKACURRENTCALIFORNIACURERNTVARIABLE1/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/41/4122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Predominant surface currents MARCH to MAY (1.138.2)CHAPTER122Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.Arrows indicate the predominant direction.The constancy of a current is indicated by thethickness of the arrow thus:High constancy >75%Moderate constancy 50%-75%Low constancy <50%Probable direction whenobservation count is lowKEYHome Contents Index
  • 36. ALASKACURRENTVARIABLECALFIORNIACURRENTAverage rate in knots is indicated in figures.Arrows indicate the predominant direction.The constancy of a current is indicated by thethickness of the arrow thus:High constancy >75%Moderate constancy 50%-75%Low constancy <50%Probable direction whenobservation count is lowKEY1/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/41/4Predominant surface currents JUNE to AUGUST (1.138.3)122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°CHAPTER123Home Contents Index
  • 37. ALASKACURRENTVARIABLECALIFORNIACURRENTAverage rate in knots is indicated in figures.Arrows indicate the predominant direction.The constancy of a current is indicated by thethickness of the arrow thus:High constancy >75%Moderate constancy 50%-75%Low constancy <50%Probable direction whenobservation count is lowKEY1/41/41/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/21/4 - 1/2122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Predominant surface currents SEPTEMBER to NOVEMBER (1.138.4)CHAPTER124Home Contents Index
  • 38. CHAPTER 1252 The prevailing SE winds in winter induces a current inboth Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait, and usuallysets N in the Hecate Strait with an average rate of around¼ to ½ kn in the W and ¾ to 1½ kn in the E; and WNWin Dixon Entrance. In summer the currents are frequentlyweak and with offshore sets produced by mainland riveroutflows.48° to 51°N and E of 130°W1.1431 Off the W coast of Vancouver Island, in winter, theprevailing SE winds, together with the flow from theDavidson Current, produce a NW setting current of highconstancy with an average rate of around 1 kn, and whichincreases to about 2½ kn with SE gales. During SE galesthe current at the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait setsstrongly onshore towards Vancouver Island, and marinersare advised to exercise caution in these conditions. Insummer the set of the current off Vancouver Island reversesdirection to the SE and forms the E flank of the CaliforniaCurrent. However, close inshore a NW setting current maypersist with an average rate of around ¼ kn but withoccasional rates of up to 2 kn.2 In the Strait of Georgia there is a small net NW flowinto Queen Charlotte Strait with a weak anti-clockwiseeddy over the S half of the Strait to the S of Fraser River.The current has a low to moderate constancy with anaverage rate of about ¼ kn.3 Near the entrance to Fraser River, the average rate ofthe outflow in winter is around ½ to 1 kn, and betweenMay and July increases to around 2 kn but occasionallymay increase further to around 4 kn at times of maximumoutflow. Much of the outflow, characterised by its milkywhite colour which forms a striking contrast with the deepblue waters of the Strait, flows towards Vancouver Islandbefore forming part of the anti-clockwise eddy in the S ofthe Strait. A branch of this flow sets S through Haro Straitthen NW along the N side of Juan de Fuca Strait, whilst aweaker sub-branch sets E then N through Rosario Strait.Effects of strong winds1.1441 After prolonged periods of strong winds from a constantdirection, a wind-drift current may be generated, the rate ofwhich varies according to the wind speed and direction.These wind-drift currents may reduce or enhance the mainunderlying current. For further information on how currentsare influenced by wind, pressure gradient and topography,see The Mariner’s Handbook.Tidal streamsGeneral information1.1451 Along the coast of North America facing the Pacific, theoceanic tidal undulation is associated with an in-goingstream setting NW and an out-going stream setting roughlySE. As the undulation raises the water level offshore aboveits mean value, water flows into any inlet on the coast inthe form of an in-going stream; as the water level fallsoutside, the water runs out again on the out-going stream.The rates of the tidal streams thus produced depend on theheight of the oceanic wave (i.e. on astronomical conditions)and on the depth, size and shape of the inlet. In an inlet ofgreat depth, of roughly constant or decreasing width andless than say, 50 miles in length, the water level riseseverywhere almost simultaneously with that outside and thestreams within the inlet are negligible except near theentrance; the streams turn roughly at the times of HW andLW by the shore. If, however, a large area of watercommunicates with the ocean by a relatively narrowchannel, then a large difference of level may exist betweenthe levels of the water at its two ends and tidal streams ofconsiderable strength may be set up. The times at whichthese streams turn will be different from the times at whichthe streams turn outside the inlet and different also fromthe times of high and low water by the shore.2 Both types of inlet exist at many places in the areacovered by this volume; an example of the second, on aparticularly large scale, is provided by the large area of theStrait of Georgia which communicates with the PacificOcean by the comparatively narrow channels to the SE ofVancouver Island and the Juan de Fuca Strait, and by theeven narrower channels of Queen Charlotte and JohnstoneStraits and Discovery Passage to the N and NE ofVancouver Island. As the water level rises to the W ofVancouver Island, water flows in through both thesechannels, producing in-going streams setting in E and SEdirections in the channels round the N and NE end ofVancouver Island, and in-going streams setting in E and Ndirections in the Juan de Fuca Strait and in the channelsbetween the islands to the SE of Vancouver Island. Thetwo in-going streams meet in the northern part of the Straitof Georgia S of Cape Mudge. The out-going streams set inopposite directions through the various channels andpassages.3 The general outline above is complicated by thepresence of numerous inlets and transverse channelsrunning off and between the main channels. In the inlets,which are all deep, the streams are only appreciable at theentrances and decrease rapidly towards the heads. In thetransverse channels, the in-going stream sets in frequentlyfrom each end, meeting at some point near the middle; theout-going stream sets out towards both ends from the samepoint. The tidal streams follow the general direction of themain channels, but when passing the entrance to an inlet,or cross channel, allowance should be made for the streamsetting in or out according to the state of the tide. In thewide main channels, the streams have maximum rates of 1to 3 kn, the in-going stream usually being a little greater.In some of the narrower channels, streams with amaximum rate of 6 to 12 kn are common, hence aknowledge of the times of slack water in the passes is ofprime importance when navigating the inner waters ofBritish Columbia.4 Canadian Tide and Current Tables, Volumes 5 and 6,published annually by the Canadian Hydrographic Service,and Tidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast of North Americaand Asia computed annually by the United States NationalOcean Service contain more detailed day to day tidalstream predictions for the more important passages andchannels.SEA LEVEL AND TIDES1.1461 In much of the area covered by this volume there aremarked inequalities, from day to day, in the heights of thetides and the intervals between successive tides.2 The inequalities change with the declination of themoon; they are relatively small when the moon is near theequator but large when the moon is near its greatestdeclination N and S. In some localities they can become sopronounced as to result in virtually diurnal tides, with onlyone appreciable high water and low water during the day.Home Contents Index
  • 39. CHAPTER 1263 This phenomenon is most marked off the SE end ofVancouver Island and in the inner part of the Juan de FucaStrait. In these areas the tides are almost diurnal, with along high water stand of 7 to 10 hours for about 20 days ineach month; only during two short periods in each month,when the moon is near the equator, are there two distinctlyappreciable and roughly equal tides during the day.4 The phenomenon is somewhat less marked in the GulfIslands (5.2), San Juan Islands (4.108) and the S part of theStrait of Georgia, and it decreases progressively farther Nalthough it is still apparent to some degree in QueenCharlotte Sound. The phenomenon does not occur along theW coast of Vancouver Island where the tides areconsistently semi-diurnal.SEA AND SWELLGeneral remarks1.1471 For general information on sea and swell see TheMariner’s Handbook.Sea conditions1.1481 Sea waves are generated locally by the wind and can bevery variable in direction, especially in autumn and winter.Rough seas of 3⋅5 m and above are reported, in January,on about 25 per cent of occasions in the W of the area andaround 16 to 20 per cent in the E but then steadily reducesto less than 5 per cent by July. By September thepercentage of occasions of seas of 3⋅5 m or higher starts toincrease again, and by October is about 20 per cent in theW and 8 to 10 per cent in the E.2 In autumn and winter, the frequency of reportedcombined sea and swell waves of 3⋅5 m and over is around25 to 30 per cent of occasions in the W of area, andsteadily decreases towards the coast of British Columbia. InApril, the figure in the W of the area is around 20 per centand in July less than 8 per cent.Swell conditions1.1491 Diagrams 1.149.1 to 1.149.4 give swell roses forJanuary, April, July and October. The roses show thepercentage of observations recording swell from a numberof directions and for various ranges of wave height.2 In winter, the swell is predominately between WNW andSSE, with around 24 per cent of occasions reporting swellheights greater than 4⋅5 m in the NW, which graduallyreduces to about 14 per cent in the SE. Throughout the restof the year, the swell is predominately W in the W of thearea and between WSW and NW in the E. In spring andautumn, swell heights of 4⋅5 m and over are reported onaround 15 per cent of occasions in the NW and 8 per centin the SE. In July the figures are less than 1 to 2 per centof occasions.Tsunamis1.1501 Destructive waves of exceptional height known astsunamis are usually generated by seismic activity (see TheMariner’s Handbook for further information). They mayaffect the area covered by this volume on relatively rareoccasions and usually arrive with little or no warning. Thelargest tsunami recorded on the W coast of BritishColumbia originated in the Anchorage, Alaska area in1964, and resulted in large waves affecting the N and Wcoasts of Vancouver Island and around Queen CharlotteIslands. At Port Alberni waves may have reached 8 m.2 British Columbia Provincial Emergency ProgramAuthorities. The Honolulu Observatory of the US NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration is theheadquarters of a tsunami warning system and hasreporting stations in most countries around the Pacific.Warnings are issued by the British Columbia Authoritiesthrough the RCMP to ships in harbour, via coastal radiostations and the US Coastguard (see Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 3(2).3 Caution. Mariners are advised to regard anyunexplained withdrawal or advance of the sea, within about1 hour after an earthquake, as an advance warning of theapproach of a tsunami. Ships in the vicinity of land, whena warning is received, are advised to head for the deeperwater of the open sea.SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICSSea surface temperature1.1511 The mean sea surface temperatures for January and Julyare shown in the diagrams 1.151.1 and 1.151.2. Sea surfacetemperatures are generally at their lowest in late Januaryand February and highest in August.2 In February the mean sea surface temperatures are about5° to 6°C in the NW of the area and about 8° to 9°C inthe SE and, in August, increase to about 13° to 14°C in theNW and about 15° to 16°C in the SE. Between June andOctober, the sea surface temperature is often colder alongthe coast than farther offshore due to upwelling of coldwater in association with prolonged periods of NW winds.3 In January, the mean air temperature is similar to themean sea surface temperature except in coastal areas whereit is normally 1° to 2°C lower. In summer, the mean airtemperature over the open sea is about 1° to 2°C lowerthan the mean sea temperature but 1° to 2°C higher incoastal areas.Variability1.1521 In general the mean sea surface temperatures seldomvary by more than 1° or 2°C. In shallow inshore waters thevariation is often slightly greater, with temperatures around2° to 3°C lower in winter and 2° to 3°C warmer insummer.Ice conditions1.1531 Ice was reported at New Westminster during January1950, however loose pieces of ice do come down theFraser River. Elsewhere in the channels and inlets coveredby this volume, ice does not generally form in significantamounts.2 Ice on vessels can occur when air temperatures areminus 2°C or less and at the same time winds are moderateor stronger; the probability of these conditions occurring inBritish Columbian waters is estimated to be less than fivepercent.3 During well established arctic outbreaks, strong outflowwinds blow out of most of the coastal inlets. These strongcold winds are confined to relatively narrow jets as theyleave the inlets and a vessel moving along the coast canexperience heavy ice accumulations on its windward sidewhen crossing these regions of strong winds.Home Contents Index
  • 40. 0 00<100122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Swell distribution JANUARY (1.149.1)0.1-2.22.3-4.24.3-6.26.3-8.28.3+3EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of swell of different heights (inmetres) according to the legend:Swell direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.0% 10 20 30 40 50%CHAPTER127Home Contents Index
  • 41. 0 00<1000.1-2.22.3-4.24.3-6.26.3-8.28.3+3EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of swell of different heights (inmetres) according to the legend:Swell direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.0% 10 20 30 40 50%122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Swell distribution APRIL (1.149.2)CHAPTER128Home Contents Index
  • 42. 0.1-2.22.3-4.24.3-6.26.3-8.28.3+3EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of swell of different heights (inmetres) according to the legend:Swell direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.0% 10 20 30 40 50%0 00700122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Swell distribution JULY (1.149.3)CHAPTER129Home Contents Index
  • 43. 0 00<1000.1-2.22.3-4.24.3-6.26.3-8.28.3+3EXPLANATION.The frequency of swell fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of swell of different heights (inmetres) according to the legend:Swell direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.0% 10 20 30 40 50%122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Swell distribution OCTOBER (1.149.4)CHAPTER130Home Contents Index
  • 44. 6789122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.151.1)CHAPTER131Home Contents Index
  • 45. 1314151617122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.151.2)CHAPTER132Home Contents Index
  • 46. CHAPTER 133CLIMATE AND WEATHERGeneral information1.1541 The following information on climate and weathershould be read in conjunction with the informationcontained in The Mariner’s Handbook which explains inmore detail many aspects of meteorology and climatologyof importance to the mariner.2 Weather reports and forecasts, that cover the area, areregularly broadcast in English; for details see AdmiraltyList of Radio Signals Volume 3(2).General conditions1.1551 The climate is cloudy with abundant rainfall due to thefrequent E-moving depressions, particularly in winter. Evenin summer, when fine spells are more common, extensivelow cloud persists for much of the time over the open sea.Snow is common with NW winds in winter. There aremarked variations in coastal areas due to the proximity ofthe Rocky Mountains. The SE part of Vancouver Islandenjoys brighter conditions in summer with less rainfall thanmore exposed W facing coasts but winter is usually moresevere in coastal inlets. Sea fog occurs most frequently insummer and autumn although radiation fog is most frequentin settled conditions around dawn, in coastal areas, duringlate autumn and winter.PressureAverage distribution1.1561 The average pressure distribution at mean sea level inJanuary and July is shown in the accompanying diagrams1.156.1 and 1.156.2. The dominant features are the NorthPacific anticyclone and Aleutian Low in winter. Thus inwinter, the general pressure over the area gives rise to abroad SSW flow with frequent depressions transiting E orNE across the region. In summer, there is a generalincrease in pressure with a corresponding decrease in thenumber of depressions affecting the area.Variability1.1571 It is stressed that the diagrams depict the averagepressure distribution and that, particularly in winter, theactual pressure pattern can be markedly different from themean for long periods; due to the E-moving mobiledepressions that may result in changes of 50 hPa or moreover a two to three day period.Diurnal variation1.1581 There is a small diurnal variation of about 1 hPa withmaxima at 1000 and 2000 local time and minima at 0400and 1600. The diurnal variation changes slightly with theseasons but is often only apparent in settled conditions insummer.AnticyclonesThe North Pacific anticyclone1.1591 The North Pacific anticyclone is one of the dominatingfeatures of the pressure pattern. The high may consist ofseveral high pressure cells that either form over the NorthPacific or move in from Asia, and become increasinglyfrequent during the spring and summer as they movetowards the Washington and Oregon coasts. The meanposition of these high pressure systems in January is 30°N130°W with an average central pressure of 1021 hPa, and,in July, the mean position is 36°N 152°W with an averagecentral pressure of 1026 hPa.The North American anticyclone1.1601 In winter an anticyclone develops over North America tothe SE of the area covered by this volume.DepressionsFrontal depressions1.1611 Most frontal depressions form well to the W of the areaand frequently move E or NE, and with often three or foursecondary depressions forming to their rear at intervals ofabout one to two days. Some of these depressions mayrecurve to the NW before finally dissipating over the Gulfof Alaska. Of those depressions that approach from theNW, some continue to move SE to cross the coast mainlyto the E of the Queen Charlotte Islands, whilst othersbecome slow moving and fill. Depressions are mostfrequent between late autumn and early spring and can varyconsiderably in both intensity and speed of advance. As themean position of the North Pacific anticyclones moves NWand intensifies in summer, so these E-moving depressionsare forced farther N, and at the same time decrease both infrequency and intensity.North America Low1.1621 In summer, a heat low develops over the SW part ofNorth America and, on occasions, can cause an increase inthe strength of the NW winds as the North Pacificanticyclone intensifies.FrontsWarm and cold fronts1.1631 The warm and cold fronts, that are associated with theE-moving mobile depressions, are most frequent and activein winter, and relatively infrequent with less rain insummer. Trailing cold fronts are, on occasions, the sourceof rapidly intensifying secondary depressions that movequickly E or NE, especially in winter. See The Mariner’sHandbook for a full description of the characteristics ofwarm and cold fronts.WindsAverage distribution1.1641 Wind roses showing the frequency of winds of variousdirections and speeds for January, April, July and Octoberare given in diagrams 1.164.1 to 1.164.4.Open sea1.1651 The winds are predominately from SE to NW and witha relatively low frequency of winds between ESE to N.Rapid changes occur in both winds speed and direction, asmobile E-moving depressions cross the area, and at frontaltroughs. Nearer the outer W coasts of Queen Charlotte andVancouver Islands, winds are normally deflected either SEor NW. During the more settled summer weather the windsoff these coasts tend to veer to the NW and in winter tothe SE.Home Contents Index
  • 47. 10041006100810101012101410161018122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Average barometric pressure (hPa) at mean sea level JANUARY (1.156.1)CHAPTER134Home Contents Index
  • 48. 101810201022122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Average barometric pressure (hPa) at mean sea level JULY (1.156.2)CHAPTER135Home Contents Index
  • 49. <1 <121<1<1122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Wind distribution JANUARY (1.164.1)EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of winds of different Beaufort forceaccording to the legend:Wind direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.40% 10 20 30 40 50%CHAPTER136Home Contents Index
  • 50. 2<1<1 1<1<1122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Wind distribution APRIL (1.164.2)EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of winds of different Beaufort forceaccording to the legend:Wind direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.40% 10 20 30 40 50%CHAPTER137Home Contents Index
  • 51. 2<2 <2 <3<21EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of winds of different Beaufort forceaccording to the legend:Wind direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.40% 10 20 30 40 50%122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Wind distribution JULY (1.164.3)CHAPTER138Home Contents Index
  • 52. <3<1<1 <3<1<1122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.164.4)EXPLANATION.The frequency of wind fromany direction is given according to the scale:This scale is further subdivided to indicate thefrequency of winds of different Beaufort forceaccording to the legend:Wind direction is towards the circle centre.The figure within the circle gives thepercentage of calms.40% 10 20 30 40 50%CHAPTER139Home Contents Index
  • 53. CHAPTER 140Inshore waters1.1661 In general there is a tendency for onshore winds toparallel the coast but may be greatly modified by localtopography and land and sea breezes effects (see TheMariner’s Handbook for a full description). In winter, coldair from the mountainous areas inland, may descendtowards the W through valleys and inlets to the sea, whilstin the summer, warm air may ascend through the valleys inthe opposite direction. The descent of the cold air, inwinter, may be sudden and result in a rapid increase in thestrength of the winds over inshore waters. In Howe Soundthis type of wind is known as a Squamish and is namedafter the settlement at its head. Similar winds occur inJervis, Tobas and Bute Inlets and in other inlets in the Nnear Prince Rupert and around Queen Charlotte Islands.Prolonged periods of strong winds or gales are lesscommon over inshore waters but severe squalls remain ahazard particularly in winter.2 Local winds tend to flow in the direction of the inlet orchannel: in Alberni Inlet there is frequently a dominant Swind during the day in summer. The flow in Juan de FucaStrait is often E in winter and W in summer, in QueenCharlotte Strait it is often SE in winter and NW in summerand in Dixon Entrance between E and SE in winter andbetween W and NW in summer.Land and sea breezes1.1671 Land breezes frequently occur towards dawn in winterbut mainly affect the W coast of the mainland. Sea breezesare common around most coasts in settled weather insummer.Gales1.1681 Winds of force 7 or more are frequent in winter andinfrequent in summer. In January the percentage frequencyof winds of force 7 and over is around 26 per cent in theW of the area and 17 to 20 per cent in the E towardsQueen Charlotte and Vancouver Islands. When very intensedepressions affect the area in winter, winds of 65 kn withgusts of 95 kn are possible. By July the frequency ofoccurrence of gale force winds reduces to less than 3 percent over the whole of the area.CloudOpen sea1.1691 Average cloud cover over the open sea is around 6 to 7oktas throughout the year but with slightly more cloud inthe W of the area in summer than in winter.Inshore waters1.1701 Overcast skies are reported on around 70 per cent ofoccasions in winter and 50 per cent in summer, and wellbroken skies on around 20 per cent of occasions in winterand 30 per cent in summer.2 The average cloud cover is around 6–7 oktas in the N ofthe area throughout the year but decreases to about 4–5oktas in the SE of the area in summer. There areoccasional days with clear skies and these are usually morefrequent in winter than summer with N to NW winds.The average cloud cover for a number of coastal stationsis given in the Climatic Tables (1.182).Precipitation1.1711 The Climatic Tables (1.182) give the average amounts ofprecipitation for each month at a number of coastal stationsand the mean number of days in each month whensignificant precipitation is recorded. In coastal areas,rainfall amounts are generally higher on wind facing coasts,and over high ground, than at sea to windward and in thelee of high ground.Rain1.1721 Over the open sea, in January, rain and snow can beexpected in the W of the area on about 25 per cent ofoccasions and around 30 per cent in the E towards QueenCharlotte and Vancouver Islands. In July the percentagesare around 15 to 20 per cent in the NW of the area andabout 10 per cent in the SE.2 Over inshore waters rainfall is abundant but there arelarge variations, often over relatively short distances, due tothe very irregular topography of the coastline. Amounts arehighest on windward facing coasts of Queen Charlotte andVancouver Islands and increase rapidly inland towards themountainous interior of British Columbia. In the N of thearea, average rainfall varies from 1500 to 3500 mm and inthe extreme SE from around 800 to 1000 mm but 2500 to3500 mm on the W coast of Vancouver Island. Maximumprecipitation occurs in autumn and winter and falls to aminimum during spring and summer.Thunderstorms1.1731 In coastal areas, thunderstorms are relatively infrequentwith an average of about 2 to 6 per year and with aslightly higher frequency of occurrence in summer andautumn.Snow1.1741 In coastal areas, snow mainly occurs between lateOctober and April but with the heaviest snowfalls in themonths of December, January and February. Snow occurson around 3 to 6 days per month in mid-winter but insome years snow falls may be small and infrequentparticularly in the SE of the area.Fog and visibility1.1751 In general visibility over the open sea is good except inprecipitation and fog (see diagrams 1.175.1 and 1.175.2).Sea fog is formed by relatively warm moist air betweenSW and NW being cooled as it passes over a cooler watersurface or the upwelling of cold water near the coast. Fogmay occur in any season but is most frequent in summerand early autumn. Where there is an upwelling of coldwater near the coast, fog may become very persistent andlast for several days but tends to dissipate in the afternoonsin the E parts of Juan de Fuca and Queen Charlotte Straitsand Dixon Entrance.2 Radiation fog, in autumn and winter, frequently affectssheltered inlets and harbours along large stretches of thecoast during the early part of the day. For a full descriptionof these and other types of fog see The Mariner’sHandbook.Home Contents Index
  • 54. 64Percentage frequency of fog JANUARY (1.175.1)122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°CHAPTER141Home Contents Index
  • 55. 1086412122°122°120°120°124°124°126°128°126°128°130°Longitude 132° West from Greenwich132°134°136° 134°136°138°138°140°140°142°142°46°46°48°48°50°50°52°52°54°54°Percentage frequency of fog JULY (1.175.2)CHAPTER142Home Contents Index
  • 56. CHAPTER 143Air temperatureGeneral information1.1761 The coldest months are generally January and Februaryand the warmest July and August. The temperature can bevery variable due to the changes of airstream that areassociated with the passage of warm and cold fronts,particularly in winter.Open Sea1.1771 In the extreme NW of the area covered by this volume,the mean air temperature in January is about 6°C and inAugust around 12°C. In the SE of the area the mean airtemperature is around 15°C in summer and 8 to 9°C inwinter but around 7°C nearer the coast.Inshore waters1.1781 Air temperatures over inshore waters are generally morevariable than over the open sea to the W, and are greatlyaffected by land and sea breezes with distinct diurnal andseasonal temperature variations. Temperatures rise rapidlybetween April and June and fall quickly from September toNovember. The Climatic Tables (1.182) give meantemperatures for a number of coastal stations.2 The average daily range of temperatures in winter isaround 0° to 6°C in the N and 2°to 8°C in the extreme SE.During cold spells temperatures may fall to –5°C, and–16°C on relatively rare occasions at the head of longinlets.3 In summer the average range is about 11° to 16°C in theN and 13° to 25°C in the extreme SE. During hot spellstemperatures of 25°C are not uncommon in the N and32°C in the S.Relative humidityGeneral information1.1791 Humidity is closely related to air temperature andgenerally decreases as the temperature increases. During theearly morning, when the air temperature is normally at itslowest, the humidity is generally at its highest, and falls toa minimum in the afternoon.Open sea1.1801 The mean humidity is about 83 per cent in winter and,in summer, around 86 per cent in the W and 81 per cent inthe SE.Inshore waters1.1811 There are often relatively large changes in humidity overinshore waters depending on the area’s exposure to theprevailing wind, distance from the open sea and land andsea breeze effects. On summer afternoons the humidityinland often falls to around 55 per cent in the SE of thearea.CLIMATIC TABLES1.1821 The climatic tables which follow give data for severalcoastal stations which regularly undertake weatherobservations. Some of these stations have been re-sited andso the position given is the latest available. It isemphasised that these data are average conditions and referto the specific location of the observing station andtherefore may not be representative of the conditions overthe open sea or in the approaches to ports in their vicinity.The following comments briefly list some of the differencesto be expected between conditions over open sea and thoseat the nearest reporting station (see The Mariner’sHandbook for further details).2 Wind speeds tend to be higher at sea with morefrequent gales than on land, although funnelling innarrow inlets can result in an increase in windstrength.Precipitation along mountainous wind facing coastscan be considerably higher than at sea towindward. Similarly, precipitation in the lee ofhigh ground is generally less.Air temperature over the sea is less variable than overthe land.3 Topography has a marked effect on local conditions.Home Contents Index
  • 57. CHAPTER1441.1831.1851.1841.1861.1891.1901.1881.187B r i t i s hC o l u m b i aVa n c o u v e rI s l a n dS t a t eo fW a s h i n g t o nVANCOUVER AIRPORTPORT HARDYESTEVAN POINTCOMOXPORT ALBERNIVICTORIA AIRPORTQUILLAYUTESEATTLE/S. TACOMALIMIT OF BOOK47°48°49°50°51°122°123°124°125°126°127°128°129°47°48°49°50°51°122°123°Longitude 125° West from Greenwich126°127°128°129°Location of climatic stations (1.182)Home Contents Index
  • 58. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000700040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1451.183WMO No 71109 PORT HARDY (50°41′N, 127°22′W) Height above MSL − 17 mClimatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1014 6 2 11 −4 89 83 6 6 245 18 1 | 9 36 16 15 9 2 12 1 2 18 44 7 8 5 5 9 8 8 | 1 |February 1015 7 1 12 −6 89 78 6 6 172 18 1 | 10 36 14 13 10 2 15 6 6 22 36 6 7 3 8 7 7 8 | 1 0March 1014 9 2 14 −3 90 72 5 6 143 19 | 0 7 27 17 16 12 1 19 11 8 19 25 9 7 5 11 6 5 8 0 1 |April 1015 12 4 17 −1 90 71 6 6 120 18 1 | 4 26 14 15 15 3 22 14 9 14 16 10 11 5 19 1 4 9 0 | |May 1016 14 6 21 2 89 69 6 6 75 15 3 5 9 15 8 11 15 10 24 25 6 7 10 8 5 4 32 3 3 9 0 1 |June 1017 16 9 21 5 90 73 6 6 78 14 6 9 10 16 4 9 13 14 21 22 6 9 6 5 7 4 38 2 3 9 0 1 |July 1019 18 11 24 7 91 72 6 5 56 11 5 7 8 10 4 5 14 13 34 31 4 5 4 2 5 1 46 3 2 9 0 1 |August 1018 18 11 23 7 92 74 6 5 63 13 1 5 6 8 8 8 13 7 44 29 11 8 6 3 3 1 36 4 2 8 0 4 |September 1018 16 8 22 4 93 76 5 5 132 15 1 2 6 10 12 15 17 3 35 19 14 14 9 3 2 2 27 9 2 6 0 6 |October 1016 12 6 18 1 92 81 6 6 259 21 1 1 8 24 17 16 13 3 18 7 6 17 29 5 4 5 15 12 5 6 | 3 1November 1013 8 3 13 −2 90 84 6 7 267 22 | | 11 35 15 17 12 2 8 1 2 15 43 6 8 9 5 11 7 8 | 1 |December 1015 6 2 11 −4 90 85 6 7 260 22 1 0 9 37 16 13 13 2 11 1 1 17 42 9 10 8 4 8 7 8 | 1 |Means 1016 12 5 25 −6 90 77 6 6 _ _ 2 2 8 23 12 13 13 5 22 14 6 14 23 6 6 4 21 6 _ _ _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1870 206 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 21 2Extreme values _ _ _ 32 −14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„15 15 15 15 30 15 15 15 15 15 15Home Contents Index
  • 59. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000700040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1461.184WMO No 71893 COMOX (49°43′N, 124°54′W) Height above MSL − 24 mClimatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1017 6 1 12 −5 90 83 6 7 169 23 0 1 1 23 10 7 27 16 14 8 2 5 29 12 4 8 20 13 7 7 1 3 0February 1017 7 1 13 −5 87 76 5 6 123 16 2 | 1 21 8 6 28 18 17 14 7 10 30 11 2 3 14 9 6 7 | 2 |March 1015 10 2 14 −3 87 71 5 6 113 16 1 0 2 19 9 9 22 17 22 15 12 14 35 11 2 1 8 3 6 9 | 1 |April 1016 13 5 18 1 84 65 5 6 59 12 2 0 1 18 11 8 18 29 14 12 9 12 43 13 3 1 7 1 5 9 | | |May 1016 17 8 24 3 82 61 5 5 43 10 11 1 2 12 7 4 9 39 14 17 9 14 38 10 2 2 7 1 5 8 | | 1June 1016 20 11 27 6 81 61 5 5 36 10 14 2 2 13 7 3 8 43 10 15 11 17 35 8 2 1 11 1 5 8 | | 1July 1017 23 13 29 10 80 57 4 4 31 7 23 1 1 9 4 1 5 52 4 23 12 17 28 5 1 2 11 1 5 7 0 0 1August 1016 23 13 29 10 82 57 3 4 36 8 10 | | 6 3 3 14 53 11 23 15 15 26 4 2 1 13 2 4 7 0 | 1September 1017 20 10 25 6 86 61 3 4 49 10 2 | 1 7 3 4 27 36 20 27 16 14 20 5 1 1 15 1 4 6 0 | 1October 1017 13 6 19 1 89 75 5 6 130 15 3 | 1 19 10 6 27 17 18 19 7 8 27 11 3 1 15 10 6 7 | 2 |November 1015 9 3 14 −2 89 81 6 6 198 18 1 | 2 20 11 11 22 19 15 8 3 4 34 10 3 7 18 12 7 8 1 2 |December 1017 6 2 11 −4 89 84 6 7 200 21 | | 1 22 9 10 29 16 12 3 2 2 29 10 6 14 18 17 7 7 1 2 0Means 1016 14 6 31 −7 86 69 5 5 _ _ 6 | 1 16 8 6 19 30 14 15 9 11 31 9 2 4 13 6 6 8 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1187 166 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 12 5Extreme values _ _ _ 34 −21 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„15 15 15 15 30 15 15 15 15 15 15Home Contents Index
  • 60. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000700040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1471.185WMO No 71894 ESTEVAN POINT (49°23′N, 126°33′W) Height above MSL − 7 mClimatic Table compiled from 15 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1998January 1016 8 3 10 −2 95 89 5 6 370 22 6 3 25 27 6 3 6 12 12 5 3 22 36 6 3 6 15 5 10 11 1 17 −February 1016 8 3 11 −2 91 83 5 6 330 20 5 8 26 23 9 3 5 10 12 2 3 17 27 8 6 12 21 4 9 10 1 15 −March 1015 9 4 12 0 93 81 5 6 314 20 9 11 27 18 11 6 3 9 6 1 1 14 35 12 6 10 22 | 8 11 1 19 −April 1016 11 6 15 2 92 79 5 5 217 18 12 6 24 17 5 3 7 14 14 1 0 10 26 13 6 10 34 1 9 12 1 20 −May 1017 14 8 18 3 93 79 5 5 129 13 8 4 18 18 4 3 7 27 13 1 0 4 25 8 6 19 37 1 8 12 1 16 −June 1018 15 10 18 7 94 81 5 5 113 12 4 2 16 17 4 2 5 39 13 | | 4 21 10 7 14 44 1 8 11 | 6 −July 1019 16 12 20 9 95 83 5 4 88 10 5 2 13 15 2 1 5 43 14 1 | 3 16 5 5 14 54 1 8 11 | 1 −August 1018 17 12 20 9 96 84 4 4 104 10 5 4 17 16 4 1 3 30 20 | | 4 22 4 3 10 53 3 7 10 | 1 −September 1017 16 10 20 7 96 82 4 5 183 12 11 8 20 19 2 | 1 20 18 1 | 8 20 3 2 10 53 3 7 10 | 9 −October 1017 13 8 18 3 95 86 5 5 374 19 12 7 26 21 2 1 3 10 18 2 1 11 29 5 5 6 32 9 8 10 | 16 −November 1014 10 5 13 0 93 87 5 6 423 20 9 7 31 15 5 4 3 16 11 5 5 24 26 3 3 8 21 5 10 11 1 20 −December 1014 8 3 12 −1 93 90 6 6 435 24 8 6 34 18 7 3 3 12 10 10 6 29 25 4 3 3 15 5 9 10 1 18 −Means _ _ _ 22 −4 _ _ 5 5 _ _ 8 5 22 18 4 2 4 22 14 2 2 12 25 7 5 10 34 3 8 11 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3080 201 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 159 _Extreme values _ _ _ 29 −14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„15 15 15 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 _Home Contents Index
  • 61. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000400040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1481.186WMO No 71475 PORT ALBERNI (49°15′N, 124°50′W) Height above MSL − 2 mClimatic Table compiled from 7 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1016 5 −1 10 −6 97 93 − − 257 19 5 1 3 1 5 1 6 14 64 4 1 4 3 4 3 9 16 55 1 1 0 7 −February 1017 7 0 12 −6 97 79 − − 253 16 3 2 1 1 3 1 3 16 70 3 7 7 6 12 5 10 7 44 1 2 0 8 −March 1017 11 1 17 −4 98 70 − − 207 17 3 2 4 4 4 2 3 11 66 1 11 16 10 22 5 5 9 21 1 4 0 7 −April 1016 14 2 20 −1 97 68 − − 107 13 2 | 1 5 5 1 4 11 71 4 7 8 10 37 7 11 4 12 1 5 0 3 −May 1017 17 5 27 1 97 58 − − 75 11 3 | 5 3 6 | 3 7 73 3 13 15 10 40 5 5 6 4 1 6 0 3 −June 1017 21 8 29 4 95 60 − − 47 9 1 3 4 8 9 1 | 8 67 1 5 13 13 52 6 2 3 7 1 7 0 3 −July 1018 24 10 33 7 93 53 − − 29 6 0 3 8 8 9 1 | 2 69 1 5 14 15 50 8 3 1 3 1 8 0 3 −August 1017 25 10 32 6 94 54 − − 32 6 | 1 6 6 9 1 1 2 73 | 6 12 17 45 6 2 2 9 1 6 0 4 −September 1017 21 7 27 3 96 58 − − 72 9 0 1 2 2 3 1 | 6 85 | 4 24 9 28 6 3 2 24 1 4 0 7 −October 1017 15 5 21 0 98 74 − − 199 16 3 | 10 3 5 1 2 8 69 2 7 18 9 17 3 7 5 32 1 3 0 8 −November 1017 8 2 13 −3 99 91 − − 308 19 8 3 3 1 3 2 3 8 68 3 4 5 5 8 2 6 7 61 1 2 0 8 −December 1016 5 0 10 −5 97 95 − − 300 20 4 2 3 3 2 1 4 11 70 4 4 3 2 6 4 7 9 59 1 1 0 8 −Means 1017 14 4 34 −8 _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 2 4 4 5 1 2 9 70 2 6 12 9 27 5 6 6 27 1 4 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1886 161 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 69 _Extreme values _ _ _ 41 −22 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„7 30 7 7 − − 30 − 7 7 7 7 7 −Home Contents Index
  • 62. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000700040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1491.187WMO No 71892 VANCOUVER AIRPORT (49°11′N, 123°10′W) Height above MSL − 2 mClimatic Table compiled from 24 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1998January 1018 6 1 12 −6 89 82 6 6 145 19 4 10 47 12 4 2 5 4 12 2 6 32 11 7 5 18 10 9 5 6 0 4 |February 1017 8 1 14 −6 88 76 6 6 130 16 3 12 44 11 4 2 5 4 17 1 5 25 13 8 7 24 13 4 5 7 | 3 |March 1016 10 3 15 −2 85 70 5 6 95 16 4 7 44 12 4 2 7 5 16 | 3 18 14 10 11 32 12 | 6 9 | 2 |April 1017 13 6 20 2 85 66 6 6 60 13 2 7 43 12 5 3 9 6 12 1 4 12 15 13 16 30 10 | 6 8 | 1 1May 1017 17 9 23 5 85 63 6 5 52 10 2 4 48 12 2 4 11 9 9 1 3 7 14 15 21 28 12 1 5 8 0 1 1June 1017 19 12 26 8 86 62 5 5 45 10 1 2 46 19 5 4 10 8 5 1 1 9 15 12 26 27 9 1 5 7 0 1 1July 1017 22 14 28 11 85 61 4 4 32 6 1 3 44 16 3 2 10 13 7 | | 6 18 11 26 31 7 | 5 7 0 1 1August 1016 22 14 28 11 87 63 4 4 41 8 2 2 43 15 2 2 9 11 15 0 2 7 17 10 25 31 10 | 5 7 | 2 1September 1017 20 11 25 7 90 69 4 4 67 9 4 6 43 9 2 1 10 9 17 | 1 9 14 8 13 37 17 1 4 7 | 2 1October 1018 14 7 20 1 90 77 5 5 118 16 3 8 42 10 3 1 8 7 17 | 3 17 10 7 11 33 15 3 5 7 | 3 |November 1016 10 4 14 −4 88 80 6 6 147 18 3 11 49 9 5 2 6 5 11 2 7 30 13 5 6 21 11 7 6 7 0 3 |December 1018 7 1 11 −6 89 83 6 6 165 20 5 10 50 12 3 2 5 3 11 2 6 39 12 6 4 16 11 6 6 6 | 3 |Means 1017 14 7 29 −10 87 71 5 5 _ _ 3 7 45 12 3 2 8 7 13 1 3 17 14 9 15 27 11 3 5 7 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1097 161 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 26 6Extreme values _ _ _ 33 −18 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„24 24 13 24 24 30 24 24 24 24 24 24Home Contents Index
  • 63. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith0.3mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000400040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1501.188WMO No 71799 VICTORIA AIRPORT (48°39′N, 123°26′W) Height above MSL − 19 mClimatic Table compiled from 7 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1017 7 0 13 −5 89 79 6 6 141 19 3 6 6 14 5 12 35 8 10 12 11 5 22 4 8 12 12 12 5 5 0 4 0February 1017 8 1 14 −4 85 69 5 5 99 16 2 8 2 11 4 15 48 2 8 13 13 12 24 3 8 10 8 9 5 5 0 1 0March 1016 10 2 16 −2 84 63 5 6 72 15 1 5 4 9 3 14 45 9 10 13 15 20 26 5 6 9 4 2 5 6 0 1 |April 1017 13 4 19 0 85 63 6 6 42 13 | 2 8 10 4 20 34 6 16 5 8 21 26 5 12 13 5 3 4 6 0 | |May 1017 16 6 25 3 83 57 5 5 33 10 1 4 2 7 3 17 41 7 18 3 12 29 33 1 5 11 4 2 4 6 0 0 |June 1017 19 9 26 5 84 57 5 5 27 9 | | 3 8 5 17 37 5 23 3 10 25 34 2 12 8 4 3 3 6 0 0 |July 1017 22 11 29 8 86 57 4 4 18 5 | 2 3 9 2 9 41 10 24 1 9 39 39 1 2 6 2 1 3 6 0 | 1August 1016 22 11 29 8 87 58 4 4 24 6 | | 5 10 1 18 33 6 27 1 7 35 43 2 3 5 2 1 3 6 0 | 1September 1017 19 8 25 4 89 61 3 4 37 8 | 2 5 10 5 16 39 5 19 3 14 36 37 3 2 4 1 2 3 5 0 | |October 1017 14 5 21 0 88 70 5 5 74 15 3 1 6 12 5 19 37 5 13 9 9 28 28 4 7 6 4 5 4 5 0 2 |November 1016 9 2 15 −3 89 78 6 6 139 18 | 3 1 13 10 14 32 7 19 13 6 9 22 9 10 13 7 13 5 5 0 1 |December 1017 7 1 12 −4 88 81 6 7 152 20 4 7 5 17 10 16 30 4 8 9 4 7 22 8 8 17 8 17 5 5 0 2 |Means 1017 14 5 31 −6 86 66 5 5 _ _ 1 3 4 11 5 16 38 6 16 7 10 23 30 4 7 9 5 5 4 6 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 858 154 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 0 11 2Extreme values _ _ _ 35 −16 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„30 30 7 7 7 30 − 7 7 7 7 7 7Home Contents Index
  • 64. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswith1mmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000400040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1511.189WMO No 72797 QUILLAYUTE (47°57′N, 124°33′W) Height above MSL − 62 mClimatic Table compiled from 13 to 15 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1017 8 2 13 −4 92 84 6 7 389 26 3 22 16 13 16 9 4 1 15 3 18 10 14 22 11 8 5 9 6 6 0 7 |February 1017 10 2 18 −6 92 76 6 6 308 21 4 21 18 15 10 4 2 3 23 3 19 4 13 25 14 12 6 5 5 7 | 5 1March 1015 12 3 18 −2 94 73 6 6 288 22 4 15 28 10 11 5 2 1 23 6 7 4 11 25 18 13 13 2 5 8 | 4 |April 1017 14 4 23 −1 93 67 6 6 194 16 3 17 16 11 9 6 3 5 31 5 4 2 6 18 26 22 17 1 4 8 0 3 |May 1018 16 6 29 1 94 67 6 6 116 14 4 12 18 9 9 5 5 4 35 2 2 | 3 18 22 26 26 | 3 8 0 3 |June 1018 18 9 31 4 94 66 6 5 78 9 7 11 11 9 9 2 4 6 42 4 2 | 2 17 19 27 27 1 2 8 | 3 |July 1019 20 10 20 6 94 65 6 4 60 9 6 9 8 5 8 5 4 10 46 5 1 0 1 14 18 30 31 | 2 8 0 4 |August 1018 21 10 29 7 95 66 6 4 60 8 7 12 10 6 11 2 2 4 46 5 1 0 1 13 27 27 24 1 2 7 | 7 |September 1018 20 9 29 4 94 65 5 5 138 14 7 15 16 7 7 3 2 3 40 5 6 1 3 15 22 24 23 1 3 7 0 5 |October 1018 15 6 25 0 95 75 5 6 275 27 6 17 18 10 12 3 3 2 29 6 7 1 9 24 19 15 14 5 4 6 0 7 |November 1015 11 5 15 −2 94 85 6 6 332 19 3 18 21 16 13 8 3 3 16 3 13 8 17 21 13 9 7 8 5 6 0 5 2December 1018 8 2 13 −4 92 85 6 6 432 22 6 21 18 13 11 5 4 1 21 7 21 7 20 15 8 6 5 12 5 6 0 5 1Means 1017 14 6 32 −6 _ _ 6 6 _ _ 5 16 16 10 11 5 3 4 30 5 8 3 8 19 18 18 17 4 4 7 _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2670 207 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 58 4Extreme values _ _ _ 36 −12 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„15 15 13 15 15 _ 15 15 15 15 15 15Home Contents Index
  • 65. MonthTemperatures AveragehumidityAveragecloudcoverPrecipitation Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from MeanwindspeedhPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm KnotsMeandailymax.Meandailymin.MeanhighestineachmonthMeanlowestineachmonthAveragefallNo.ofdayswithmmormoreNNEESESSWWNWCalmNNEESESSWWNWCalm† Highest recorded temperature‡ Lowest recorded temperature* Mean of highest each year§ Mean of lowest each yearAveragepressureatMSL04000400040016001600160016000400* §† ‡FogThunder|{RareAll observationsNo. of yearsobservationsGaleNumberof dayswithCHAPTER1521.190WMO No 72793 SEATTLE/S. TACOMA (47°27′N, 122°18′W) Height above MSL − 137 mClimatic Table compiled from 24 to 30 years observations, 1960 to 1997January 1018 8 3 13 −4 82 73 6 7 137 − 11 12 12 19 29 8 1 2 7 15 9 8 11 27 18 4 4 3 7 8 0 4 |February 1017 10 3 17 −5 82 68 6 6 101 − 12 12 12 20 29 8 1 1 5 19 4 6 10 23 21 8 8 3 7 8 0 2 |March 1016 12 4 20 0 84 61 6 6 90 − 11 12 6 21 31 9 2 2 6 17 4 2 6 19 29 8 12 1 7 9 0 1 1April 1017 15 6 23 2 85 58 6 6 59 − 8 9 6 19 35 13 3 2 6 14 4 3 3 18 33 11 12 1 6 9 | | 1May 1017 19 9 27 4 84 54 6 6 43 − 10 11 3 14 39 13 3 3 5 15 2 1 3 17 31 17 13 1 6 9 | | 1June 1017 21 11 29 8 82 53 5 5 38 − 13 14 2 10 33 17 3 3 7 18 2 1 2 15 31 16 16 | 6 9 0 | |July 1018 24 13 32 11 81 49 5 4 19 − 17 14 1 9 26 17 4 3 10 19 2 | 1 14 27 19 18 | 5 9 0 | 1August 1017 25 13 32 11 84 49 4 4 29 − 15 12 2 10 33 12 4 3 9 22 1 1 2 13 24 20 16 1 5 8 0 1 |September 1017 22 1 30 8 87 55 4 4 48 − 17 13 4 15 29 7 2 4 10 24 4 2 3 16 19 15 16 1 5 8 0 1 1October 1018 16 8 23 3 88 65 6 5 82 − 16 9 5 26 27 5 2 3 8 19 5 2 5 23 20 11 13 2 6 8 0 4 |November 1017 11 5 16 −2 85 75 6 6 148 − 11 10 9 23 31 8 1 1 6 15 6 6 10 33 16 4 5 5 7 8 0 3 1December 1018 8 2 13 −3 84 77 6 6 150 − 9 12 11 22 28 10 1 1 6 17 9 7 16 27 15 2 3 4 7 8 | 3 |Means 1017 16 7 34 −6 84 61 6 5 _ _ 12 12 6 17 31 11 2 2 7 18 4 3 6 20 24 11 12 2 _ _ _ _ _Totals _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 944 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ | 19 6Extreme values _ _ _ 38 −14 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ƒ††††††††…††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††…†††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††††††††††††††…†††††††††††††††„ ƒ†††…†††„24 24 13 24 24 30 − 24 24 24 24 24 24Home Contents Index
  • 66. 531.191METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALESFahrenheit to Celsius°Fahrenheit0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9°F Degrees Celsius−100−90−80−70−60−50−40−30−20−10−0+0102030405060708090100110120−73⋅3−67⋅8−62⋅2−56⋅7−51⋅1−45⋅6−40⋅0−34⋅4−28⋅9−23⋅3−17⋅8−17⋅8−12⋅2−6⋅7−1⋅1+4⋅410⋅015⋅621⋅126⋅732⋅237⋅843⋅348⋅9−73⋅9−68⋅3−62⋅8−57⋅2−51⋅7−46⋅1−40⋅6−35⋅0−29⋅4−23⋅9−18⋅3−17⋅2−11⋅7−6⋅1−0⋅6+5⋅010⋅616⋅121⋅727⋅232⋅838⋅343⋅949⋅4−74⋅4−68⋅9−63⋅3−57⋅8−52⋅2−46⋅7−41⋅1−35⋅6−30⋅0−24⋅4−18⋅9−16⋅7−11⋅1−5⋅60+5⋅611⋅116⋅722⋅227⋅833⋅338⋅944⋅450⋅0−75⋅0−69⋅4−63⋅9−58⋅3−52⋅8−47⋅2−41⋅7−36⋅1−30⋅6−25⋅0−19⋅4−16⋅1−10⋅6−5⋅0+0⋅66⋅111⋅717⋅222⋅828⋅333⋅939⋅445⋅050⋅6−75⋅6−70⋅0−64⋅4−58⋅9−53⋅3−47⋅8−42⋅2−36⋅7−31⋅1−25⋅6−20⋅0−15⋅6−10⋅0−4⋅4+1⋅16⋅712⋅217⋅823⋅328⋅934⋅440⋅045⋅651⋅1−76⋅1−70⋅6−65⋅0−59⋅4−53⋅9−48⋅3−42⋅8−37⋅2−31⋅7−26⋅1−20⋅6−15⋅0−9⋅4−3⋅9+1⋅77⋅212⋅818⋅323⋅929⋅435⋅040⋅646⋅151⋅7−76⋅7−71⋅1−65⋅6−60⋅0−54⋅4−48⋅9−43⋅3−37⋅8−32⋅2−26⋅7−21⋅1−14⋅4−8⋅9−3⋅3+2⋅27⋅813⋅318⋅924⋅430⋅035⋅641⋅146⋅752⋅2−77⋅2−71⋅7−66⋅1−60⋅6−55⋅0−49⋅4−43⋅9−38⋅3−32⋅8−27⋅2−21⋅7−13⋅9−8⋅3−2⋅8+2⋅88⋅313⋅919⋅425⋅030⋅636⋅141⋅747⋅252⋅8−77⋅8−72⋅2−66⋅7−61⋅1−55⋅6−50⋅0−44⋅4−38⋅9−33⋅3−27⋅8−22⋅2−13⋅3−7⋅8−2⋅2+3⋅38⋅914⋅420⋅025⋅631⋅136⋅742⋅247⋅853⋅3−78⋅3−72⋅8−67⋅2−61⋅7−56⋅1−50⋅6−45⋅0−39⋅4−33⋅9−28⋅3−22⋅8−12⋅8−7⋅2−1⋅7+3⋅99⋅415⋅020⋅626⋅131⋅737⋅242⋅848⋅353⋅9Celsius to Fahrenheit°Celsius0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9°C Degrees Fahrenheit−70−60−50−40−30−20−10−0+01020304050−94⋅0−76⋅0−58⋅0−40⋅0−22⋅0−4⋅0+14⋅032⋅032⋅050⋅068⋅086⋅0104⋅0122⋅0−95⋅8−77⋅8−59⋅8−41⋅8−23⋅8−5⋅8+12⋅230⋅233⋅851⋅869⋅887⋅8105⋅8123⋅8−97⋅6−79⋅6−61⋅6−43⋅6−25⋅6−7⋅6+10⋅428⋅435⋅653⋅671⋅689⋅6107⋅6125⋅6−99⋅4−81⋅4−63⋅4−45⋅4−27⋅4−9⋅4+8⋅626⋅637⋅455⋅473⋅491⋅4109⋅4127⋅4−101⋅2−83⋅2−65⋅2−47⋅2−29⋅2−11⋅2+6⋅824⋅839⋅257⋅275⋅293⋅2111⋅2129⋅2−103⋅0−85⋅0−67⋅0−49⋅0−31⋅0−13⋅0+5⋅023⋅041⋅059⋅077⋅095⋅0113⋅0131⋅0−104⋅8−86⋅8−68⋅8−50⋅8−32⋅8−14⋅8+3⋅221⋅242⋅860⋅878⋅896⋅8114⋅8132⋅8−106⋅6−88⋅6−70⋅6−52⋅6−34⋅6−16⋅6+1⋅419⋅444⋅662⋅680⋅698⋅6116⋅6134⋅6−108⋅4−90⋅4−72⋅4−54⋅4−36⋅418⋅4−0⋅4+17⋅646⋅464⋅482⋅4100⋅4118⋅4136⋅4−110⋅2−92⋅2−74⋅2−56⋅2−38⋅2−20⋅2−2⋅2+15⋅848⋅266⋅284⋅2102⋅2120⋅2138⋅2HECTOPASCALS TO INCHES950 960 970 980 990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 105028 29 30 31INCHESmillimetres500 10 20 30 40 60 70 80 90 100(1) (for small values)00⋅5 1⋅5 3⋅52⋅51 3 4500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000millimetres(2) (for large values)0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120inchesHECTOPASCALSMILLIMETRES TO INCHES20inchesHome Contents Index
  • 67. 542.142.142.302.382.732.732.1922.1922.1922.1922.1112.1112.732.242.212.392.532.882.1462.1242.73TSSJ u a nd eF u c aS t r a i t80464959495349514947495017171717494519471004Cape BealeCape FlatteryNeahBayPillar PointRace RocksDungenessSpitPort AngelesPort San JuanJordan RiverVictoriaPoint WilsonPoint PartridgeChapter 2 - Juan de Fuca Strait including Esquimalt and Victoria HarboursWestPointHaroStraitRosarioStraitAdmiraltyInletState of WashingtonVancouver IslandCarmanahPointBonillaPointDiscovery IslandEsquimalt48°49°123°124°125°48°49°30´ 30´123°Longitude 124° West from Greenwich125° 30´ 30´30´ 30´Home Contents Index
  • 68. 55CHAPTER 2JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT, INCLUDING ESQUIMALT AND VICTORIA HARBOURSGENERAL INFORMATIONCharts 2531, 4945, 4947Scope of the chapter2.11 This chapter describes the Juan de Fuca Strait whichextends 80 miles in an E–W direction between the N coastof the State of Washington, USA, and the SE end ofVancouver Island, British Columbia. The strait is enteredfrom the Pacific between Cape Flattery (48°23′N,124°44′W) and Bonilla Point (48°36′N, 124°43′W) (2.37)12½ miles N. The dangers extending 2 miles NNW fromCape Flattery are described in the Pacific Coasts of CentralAmerica and United States Pilot.The international boundary between Canada and USAruns down the centre of the W part of the strait.2 Several channels branch from the E end of Juan de FucaStrait and lead through groups of islands S into AdmiraltyInlet (3.12) and Puget Sound (3.1), and N into the Strait ofGeorgia (6.2) and the inshore waters of British Columbia.Juan de Fuca Strait was named after ApostolosValerianos, otherwise known as Juan de Fuca, a Greekmariner in the service of Spain, who in 1592 was the firstEuropean to visit the area. In 1787 it was revisited byCharles William Barkley, an Englishman in the employ ofthe Austrian East India Company.Topography2.21 Both sides of the strait are mostly mountainous anddensely wooded, except for large bare patches caused bylogging and forest fires. On the N side the mountains ofVancouver Island reach heights of over 1067 m (3500 ft) afew miles inland. On the S side the Olympic Mountains ofWashington State rise to 2424 m (nearly 8000 ft) between10 and 22 miles inland; these peaks are usually covered insnow.Natural conditions2.31 Weather. The local weather is markedly changeable,particularly off the entrance to Juan de Fuca Strait, and inwinter it can be exceptionally severe. Visibility is oftenpoor, especially off the entrance and along the S shore ofthe W part of the strait. In these areas sea fog can bedense and persistent, notably in summer and early autumn;see also 1.175.2 Tidal streams and currents. Off the entrance to theJuan de Fuca Strait, where they are met by the tidalstreams setting in and out of the strait, the in-going streamsets N and the out-going stream sets S along the Pacificcoast of Washington and Vancouver Island. Althoughusually of no great strength, the flood stream setting Nalong the coast augments the prevailing N-going current(1.143) causing a pronounced set across the entrance to thestrait towards Vancouver Island. The effect of this can bedangerous and must be guarded against, especially duringstrong S winds which are frequent in winter. In summer,when the prevailing current is variable or S-going, and thewinds are frequently from W or NW, the effect is not somarked. Fuller details of the tidal streams are given in theappropriate parts of the chapter to follow.Hazards2.41 Navigation of the Juan de Fuca Strait is simple in clearweather as the landmarks are unmistakeable and the coastis well lit, but when the visibility is poor, great care andvigilance is necessary. In bad weather, when either enteringor leaving the strait, the Vancouver Island shore betweenBonilla Point (2.37) and Port San Juan (2.53) should beavoided.2 Caution. Logging is one of the main economic activitiesof the region and consequently free floating logs andsubmerged deadheads or sinkers are a constant source ofdanger in the Juan de Fuca Strait and Puget Sound. Thedanger is increased during freshets, after storms, andunusually high tides. Deadheads or sinkers are logs which,having become adrift from rafts or booms, have becomewaterlogged and float in a vertical position with one endjust awash; if the water is shallow enough for the bottomend to ground they can cause massive hull damage. Theyare invisible, even in daylight, unless there is a slight swellwhich causes them to break the surface.Exercise areas2.51 Submarines. Canadian and United States submarinesfrequently exercise in the Juan de Fuca Strait and itsapproaches, especially off Esquimalt. Submarines might besurfaced or submerged, operating independently or withsurface ships and/or aircraft. See 1.94, 1.98 and CanadianAnnual Notices to Mariners.Fishing2.61 Fishing vessels. From 15th April to 30th Septembernumerous fishing vessels might be encountered onSwiftsure Bank, 15 miles NW of Cape Flattery (2.16), onLa Pérouse Bank a farther 30 miles WNW (10.16) and inthe approaches to Juan de Fuca Strait. Many fishingvessels, using drift nets or purse seine nets, may beencountered within Juan de Fuca Strait from 1 July to 1November. See 1.15.Electronic fixing aids2.71 Both sides of the strait give a good radar response. Aradio beacon transmits from Tofino (49°03′N, 125°42′W). JLight-buoy at the start of the TSS through the strait isequipped with a racon. Loran C coverage is also availablein the approach, see 1.46.Traffic regulations2.81 Tanker Exclusion Zone. See Traffic separation schemes (TSS’s) are in operationthroughout the Juan de Fuca Strait and are indicated on thecharts. Apart from the scheme off Discovery Island(48°25′N, 123°14′W) (see below) at the entrance to theHaro Strait, the schemes are IMO-adopted and Rule 10 ofthe International Regulations for Preventing Collisions atSea (1972) applies. The inward-bound lane passes throughHome Contents Index
  • 69. CHAPTER 256US waters and the outward-bound through CanadianWaters.2 The TSS is entered from W or SW, and after passingthrough a precautionary area WNW of Cape Flattery (2.21)continues 11 miles E to JA Light-buoy, thence 51 milesESE to VF Light-buoy moored on the W perimeter ofanother precautionary area centred 4½ miles SSE of RaceRocks Light (48°18′N, 123°32′W).3 The TSS (2.74) off Discovery Island is not IMO adoptedand the Canadian authorities advise that the principles forthe use of routeing systems defined in Rule 10 of theInternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea(1972) applies. See Appendix I for modifications to Rule10 in waters under Canadian jurisdiction.4 Seattle Traffic will, upon request, provide information ontraffic conditions, faulty aids to navigations and weather inthe area. For further details on these regulations see theAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5).2.101 Regulated navigation area. A regulated navigation areafor Makah whale hunting has been established off the NWcoast of Washington State. The limit of the area starts onthe coastline 1½ miles ENE of Hand Rock (48°02′N,122°34′W), passes 4 miles N of Cape Flattery, and finishesat an unnamed point (48°22′N, 124°34′W) 1½ miles SE ofWaadah Island, as shown on the charts. Within this areavessels engaged in the whale hunt may not be approachedcloser than 500 yards. When the hunt is in progressbroadcasts are made on VHF Channel 16 with descriptionsof the vessels involved and procedures to be followed.See Appendix VIII, also the Pacific Coasts of CentralAmerica and United States Pilot.2 Area to be Avoided. For details of the Area to beAvoided off the Washington coast affecting the SWapproaches to Juan de Fuca Strait, between Copalis Head(47°09′N, 124°11′W), Cape Flattery (2.21) and KoitlahPoint 3½ miles E, see Cooperative Vessel Traffic Service (CVTS), acompulsory service for all vessels of 300 grt and over, isoperated jointly by the United States and CanadianCoastguard and is in use throughout the strait. ETA at JLight-buoy and other vessel details should be reported tothe CVTS 96 hours and 24 hours before entering theterritorial waters of the West Coast of Canada or the UnitedStates. All vessels of 30 m or more in length are requiredto report to Tofino Traffic on VHF channel 74 when withinCanadian or US territorial waters; this is a mandatoryrequirement and is voluntary up to 60 miles from theVancouver Island coast. See 1.14, Appendix VI andAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5).Pilotage2.121 Pilotage is compulsory in Canadian waters for all vesselsover 350 grt and for recreational craft over 250 grt; pilotageis under the jurisdiction of the Pacific Pilotage Authority.In US waters pilotage is compulsory for all vessels exceptthose under enrolment or engaged exclusively in thecoasting trade of the W coast of the United States(including Alaska) and/or British Columbia. In the USwaters of Juan de Fuca Strait and Puget Sound pilotage isprovided by the Puget Sound Pilots. There are two pilotboarding grounds in the Juan de Fuca Strait. The PacificPilotage Authority boarding ground is positioned offVictoria, 7 cables SSE of VH Light-buoy (48°22′⋅5N,123°23′⋅6W) and the Puget Sound Pilots boarding ground issituated off Port Angeles, about 1½ miles NNE of EdizHook Light (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅1W). Initial ETA at VHLight-buoy should be sent 48 hours in advance, and offEdiz Hook 24 hours in advance. For subsequent ETAupdates and all other details see 1.35 and Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5).Rescue2.131 Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) is maintained at:Victoria (48°26′N, 123°23′W).Canadian Coastguard Stations are located at:Bamfield (48°50′N, 125°08′W.)Tofino (49°09′N, 125°54′W.)2 United States Coastguard stations are located at:Neah Bay (48°22′N, 124°36′W), about 5 cables S ofWaadah Island.Port Angeles Air Station (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅5W), onEdiz Hook about 3 cables W of the E extremity ofthe hook.See 1.100, 1.103, 1.104 and Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 5.JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT, APPROACHESGENERAL INFORMATIONCharts 4945, 4947Routes2.141 From a position about 6½ miles SW of Cape Beale(48°47′N, 125°13′W) (2.24) the approach route from theNW leads SSE for 16 miles entering the TSS 6 miles WSWof J Light-buoy (48°29′⋅6N, 125°00′⋅0W). The buoy ismoored on the E side of the precautionary area and marksthe centre line of the TSS leading E to the entrance of thestrait.2 The approach from SSW enters the TSS 7 miles SSW ofJ Light-buoy.Depths2.151 The 200 m depth contour runs in a general NW—SEdirection across the approach, about 40 miles SW of theentrance to Juan de Fuca Strait. It has been carefullydelineated and is unbroken except in the vicinity of Juan deFuca Canyon, which cuts through it in a NE directiontowards Cape Flattery and then ESE into the strait. Depthsincrease sharply on the seaward side of the 200 m depthcontour; on the landward side, except in the canyon, thedepths decrease gradually and are somewhat irregular.Off-lying banks2.161 Swiftsure Bank (48°33′N, 125°00′W) has depths of lessthan 50 m, with a least charted depth of 34 m lying15 miles NW of Cape Flattery.Fishing2.171 For general information on fishing vessels see 2.6.Sport fishing boats. The area 4 miles SSW of SwiftsureBank (48°33′N, 125°00′W), known locally as the ChickenRanch, is frequented by many small sport fishing boatsHome Contents Index
  • 70. CHAPTER 257from June to September. These boats may not be wellequipped, may have inexperienced crews and may not bemaintaining an adequate lookout or radio watch. Vesselmovements may be unpredictable and extra caution must beexercised in this vicinity to avoid collision and possibleloss of life.Data buoy2.181 ODAS Light-buoy 46036 (Chart 2531) lies 360 miles Wof Cape Flattery.Natural Conditions2.191 Tidal streams. In the approach to Juan de Fuca Strait,the N in-going tidal stream along the Pacific coasts ofWashington State and Vancouver Island (see 2.3) is met offCape Flattery by the W out-going tidal stream flowing outof the strait, which continues to run until 4 hours beforeHW at Tofino. Neither of these tidal streams individuallyhas any great strength, but at certain states they combinewith the current (1.143) and can attain a rate of 2½ kn,when augmented by strong S winds, to form a dangerousset N across the approach as follows:2 In winter, both the NW-going flood stream in the offingand the WNW-going ebb stream out of the strait effectivelystrengthen the predominantly N-going current whichprevails at this season. The combined effect produces apersistent and pronounced dangerous set across theapproach towards the coast of Vancouver Island W ofCarmanah Point (48°37′N, 124°45′W), particularly whenstrong S winds, which are frequent in winter, furtherincrease the strength of the N-going current.3 In summer, when the current in the approach is weakand variable, or predominantly S-going and the prevailingwinds in the area are W or NW, the dangerous setdescribed above is absent, except close to the VancouverIsland shore where the NW-going flood stream in theoffing and the ebb stream out of the strait still combine toform a set towards the shore.4 On Swiftsure Bank, in position 48°32′N, 125°00′W, thetidal streams are rotary, clockwise, and are at maximumstrength, which does not exceed 1 kn, when running indirections 300° (out-going) and 120° (in-going). Twocomplete directional cycles occur each 24 hours with amarked diurnal inequality between them. The followingtable gives the maxima and minima of these cycles,referred to the times of HW and LW at Tofino.Interval from HW/LW at Tofino Direction Rate–0020 Higher HW 030° ¼ kn+0230 Higher HW 120° ½ kn–0300 Lower LW 190° ¼ kn+0120 Lower LW 300° ¾ kn–0200 Lower HW 020° ½ kn+0220 Lower HW 120° 1 kn–0200 Higher LW 225° ½ kn+0230 Higher LW 295° ½ kn5 Off Cape Flattery the flood stream circles the cape, andthe dangers NNW of it, at a rate of 2 to 4 kn and continuesE into Juan de Fuca Strait.2.201 Local weather. See climatic table for Quillayute 1.189.Principal marks2.211 Landmarks:Cape Flattery, (48°23′N, 124°44′W), a bold rockyheadland with cliffs 37 m high, rises to 454 mabout 2 miles inland. From the S it looks like anisland.2 A large radar dome situated on Bahokus Peak(48°22′⋅2N, 124°40′⋅5W), 2 miles inland from CapeFlattery. Reported to be a very good landmark overlow dense fog when approaching from the S.3 Major lights:Carmanah Point Light (white octagonal tower, 9 m inheight) (48°37′N, 124°35′W).Cape Flattery Light (white conical tower on whitesandstone dwelling, 17 m in height) (48°24′N,124°44′W) is exhibited from Tatoosh Islet close Nof Cape Flattery.Other aids to navigation2.221 Racon:J Light-buoy (48°29′⋅6N, 125°00′⋅0W).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Directions2.231 Caution. When approaching the strait at night and inpoor visibility it is essential to check the vessel’s latitude,and distance offshore, by obtaining soundings across the200 m depth contour. When within 30 miles of the coast,the steady NW set across the entrance to Juan de FucaStrait, particularly in winter when S or SE winds prevail,must be carefully guarded against. It is dangerous to enterdepths of less than 100 m unless the vessel’s position isknown with certainty.2.241 Approach from the north-west. From a position about6½ miles SW of Cape Beale (48°47′N, 125°13′W), theroute leads 16 miles SSE to a position at the W end of theTSS (2.37). Cape Beale, a bold rocky promontory onVancouver Island, is wooded and fringed by reefs to adistance of 5 cables. It is reported to give a poor radarresponse under normal conditions. A light (white square onred framework tower, 10 m in height) (48°47′⋅2N,125°12′⋅9W) is exhibited from an islet close off the W sideof the cape. There are several white buildings nearby. Theroute passes (with positions relative to Cape Beale):2 WSW of Seabird Rocks Light (white round tower, redband) (3 miles SE), situated at the entrance toPachena Bay, thence:WSW of Soquel Bank, (5½ miles S), with a leastdepth of 23⋅4 m over it, and:WSW of Pachena Point (6 miles SE), on which standsa light (white round tower, 6 m in height). A rock,with a depth of 19⋅2 m over it, lies 2 miles WSWof Pachena Point, thence:3 To a position at the entrance to the E bound traffic lanein the approaches to the precautionary area WNW of CapeFlattery.Home Contents Index
  • 71. CHAPTER 2582.251 From the south-west, the strait is approached throughthe SW arm of the TSS, entering it at a position 7 milesSSW of J Light-buoy (48°29′⋅6N, 125°00′⋅0W). See PacificCoasts of Central America and United States Pilot fordetailed directions.2.261 Caution. Juan de Fuca Strait is liable to sudden changesof weather and there are few places in the world that callfor greater care and vigilance on the part of the mariner.There is no inducement to hug the coast, upon which along rolling swell sets frequently and where, during the SEgales of winter, a confused sea is raised. When within theentrance to the strait take into account the N trend of theflood tidal stream.2 Provided the vessel’s position is known with certaintyor, in poor visibility, her latitude can be relied upon, it ispreferable to seek shelter within the strait than to remain inthe offing because, unless the weather is very thick, thehigh land or the powerful lights on each side of theentrance will be seen in time to avoid danger. Once withinthe entrance comparatively smooth water will be found.2.271 Useful marks:A conspicuous waterfall, which can be seen at a gooddistance even in hazy weather, is situated at themouth of the Tsusiat River (48°41′⋅5N,124°55′⋅6W), 13 miles ESE of Cape Beale.2 Bonilla Point Light (orange triangle on tripod)(48°36′N, 124°43′W), exhibited on the point from1st June to 12th December. The light marks arestricted fishing area.(Directions for Juan de Fuca Strait continue at 2.37)Small craftAnchorages2.281 Pachena Bay (48°47′N, 125°08′W), entered 3 miles ESEof Cape Beale, is exposed to the heavy swell which isusually present and should not be used as an anchorage. Arock, with a depth of 2⋅6 m over it, lies near the middle ofthe entrance. Shelter for small craft can be found inside thePachena River mouth at the head of the bay; localknowledge is essential.2.291 Nitinat River (48°40′N, 124°51′W), entered 10 milesESE of Pachena Point (2.24), leads into Nitinat Lake,1 mile N, where fishing vessels and tugs of moderatedraught often seek refuge. A bar at the entrance to the riverhas depths of 0⋅9 to 2 m. Entry should not be attemptedwithout local knowledge or during adverse weather whensea conditions on the bar can be heavy and confused.Within the river the channel is rock encumbered and verynarrow in places; the tidal streams attain a rate of 8 kn attimes, with a very short period of slack water between thein-going and out-going streams.JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT, WEST PARTGENERAL INFORMATIONCharts 4947, 4950Description2.301 The W section from the entrance to the strait to RaceRocks (48°18′N, 123°32′W), 50 miles E, is about 12 mileswide. The waters as a rule are deep with few outlyingdangers. Navigation of these waters is relatively simple inclear weather. The aids to navigation are numerous. Inthick weather, because of strong and irregular currents,extreme caution and vigilance must be exercised.Topography2.311 Except in areas where logging operations or fires havedenuded them, the shores on both sides are heavily woodedrising steeply to considerable heights and are mostly boldand rugged. The N shore is steep, rocky and bluff at its Wend; it presents no very conspicuous features and the pointsare not easily identifiable.Pilotage2.321 See 2.12.Tidal streams2.331 In the W part of Juan de Fuca Strait the in-going streamruns for about 6 hours, that is from 4 hours before until2 hours after HW at Tofino; the out-going tidal stream runsfrom about 2 hours after HW to about 4 hours before thefollowing HW, or somewhat longer.2 In the entrance to the strait, and as far as longitude124°W, the in-going stream sets over towards theVancouver Island shore. On the N side of the strait, as farE as Race Rocks, the in-going stream attains a greater rate,and turns 1½ to 2½ hours earlier, than on the S side.Conversely, the out-going stream is stronger on the S sideof the strait, and between Dungeness Spit (48°10′N,123°09′W) and Crescent Bay (48°10′N, 123°43′W) there isa decided SW set towards the shore, especially during largetides.2.341 The streams between longitude 124°W and BeecheyHead (48°19′N, 123°39′W) follow the general direction ofJuan de Fuca Strait, with rates of 2 to 4 kn.From abreast Becher Bay (48°19′N, 123°37′W), thein-going stream sets ENE past Race Rocks (48°18′N,123°32′W), and through Race Passage, towards DiscoveryIsland (48°25′N, 123°14′W), with a rate of 4 to 6 kn; theout-going stream runs at a similar rate in the reversedirection. In the wider part of the strait, E of Race Rocks,the rate is usually less.2 There is no definite relationship between the times ofslack water and the times of HW and LW in the locality, asthe time interval varies considerably. However, arelationship has been established between the tidal streamsin the vicinity of Race Rocks and those at the entrance toJuan de Fuca Strait; for details and predictions see thepublications mentioned below.2.351 In the middle of the strait between Cape Flattery andPort San Juan, 14 miles NE, the in-going stream attains amaximum rate of 1½ kn, and the out-going stream 2½ kn.There is a very marked diurnal inequality, between the twocycles, which occurs every 24 hours. Daily predictions ofthe time of slack water and the times and rates ofmaximum streams are published in Canadian Tide andCurrent Tables, Volumes 5 and 6, and in United StatesHome Contents Index
  • 72. CHAPTER 259Tidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast of North America andAsia.2 The rate of the tidal streams may be varied by the wind,depending on its strength and direction, and when the windand swell oppose the tidal stream, a short choppy sea israised at the W entrance of the strait.3 Tide rips occur off prominent points and in the vicinityof banks; they are especially heavy off Cape Flattery, RaceRocks, New Dungeness, Point Wilson (48°09′N,122°45′W), along the N shore between Beechey Head andEsquimalt, and off Clover Point (48°24′N, 123°21′W) andTrial Islands (48°24′N, 123°18′W). Under certain conditionsthese tide rips can be dangerous to small vessels.Principal marks2.361 Landmarks:Radar dome on Bahokus Peak (48°22′⋅2N,124°40′⋅5W) (2.21).Slip Point (48°16′N, 124°15′W), high and woodedwith a light coloured streak down its face, can beseen from a considerable distance.Pillar Point (2.38), 6¾ miles ESE of Slip Point, is213 m high, bold and wooded.2 Striped Peak (48°10′N, 123°41′W), so called becauseof a prominent landslide down its N face, is 346 mhigh and stands at the W end of a 358 m high treeclad ridge, which from a distance E and Wappears as an island because of the low ground Sof it.3 Race Rocks Light-tower (white round tower, blackbands, 24 m in height) (48°18′N, 123°32′W),standing on Great Race Rock.Major lights:Cape Flattery Light (48°23′⋅5N, 124°44′⋅1W) (2.21).Race Rocks Light, as above.Directions(continued from 2.27)Cape Flattery to Jordan River2.371 From a position about 12½ miles WNW of Cape FlatteryLight (48°24′N, 124°44′W) (2.21), in the precautionary areawhere the approach routes from W and SSW merge, theE-bound traffic lane of the TSS leads generally ESE to theprecautionary area centred 4 miles SSE of Race RocksLight (2.36); VF Light-buoy marks the W side of theprecautionary area. The route passes (with positions relativeto Waadah Island North End Light (48°23′N, 124°36′W)(2.42)):S of Carmanah Point (15 miles NNW). CarmanahPoint and the coast for 1 mile NW, is fringed byrocks to a distance of 4 cables; a light (2.21) isexhibited from the point. Thence:S of Bonilla Point (13½ miles NNW), the N entrancepoint of Juan de Fuca Strait. Bonilla Point slopesgradually to the sea and is fringed by rocks andreefs extending 8 cables offshore in places. Inlandof the point mountains attain heights of over1000 m. A light is occasionally exhibited from thepoint (2.27). And:S of JA Light-buoy (special) (8¼ miles NW), whichmarks the W end of the centreline of the TSS,thence:2 NNE of Koitlah Point (1½ miles W). The coastbetween the point and Cape Flattery, 3½ miles W,is rugged and densely wooded and along it there isusually a heavy swell. Thence:NNE of Waadah Island, which is wooded, and lies inthe E part of the entrance to Neah Bay (2.39).Lights (2.42) are exhibited from the NW and SEend of the island. Thence:3 SSW of Owen Point and San Juan Point (10 milesNNE), 1¾ miles apart and between which lies theentrance to Port San Juan (2.53). A light isexhibited from San Juan Point (2.56). Thence:NNE of Seal Rock (2½ miles SE), which with SailRock close SE, lies 3 cables offshore. Seal Rock islight coloured with a flat top 30 m high, and SailRock is pointed but less high. Both are prominent.A submerged reef extends 1 mile SE of the rocks.Sekiu River which enters the strait 7¼ miles SE ofSail Rock, is crossed by a railway bridge whichshows prominently through the trees. Thence:4 SSW of Sombrio Point (14 miles ENE). Reefs extendup to 4 cables offshore along the coast for 2 milesNW and 5 miles ESE of the point. A bank, uponwhich there are several detached patches withdepths of less than 11 m over them, extends up to1¾ miles offshore in places. Thence:NNE of Slip Point (2.36) (16 miles ESE), the E pointof Clallam Bay (2.47). A reef extends 2 cables Wof the point and is marked by No 1 Light-buoy(port hand). Thence:5 SSW of Jordan River (22 miles E), which with asettlement close E, has a prominent bridge acrossthe river entrance. A sewage outfall extends6 cables SSW from the shore at the settlement.Jordan River to Race Rocks2.381 From a position SSW of Jordan River (48°25′N,124°03′W), the TSS continues ESE then E, passing (withpositions relative to Angeles Point (48°09′N, 123°33′W)):NNE of Pillar Point (22 miles W), with a dark pillarshaped rock more than 30 m high, close off thepoint and prominent from the W, thence:SSW of Sheringham Point (20 miles NW). A light(white 6–sided tower, 19 m in height) is exhibitedfrom the point. Thence:2 N of Low Point (11 miles W). Many boulders, whichuncover, lie W of the point. A salmon pen,2½ miles E of the point, is marked by twolight-buoys. Thence:S of Muir Point (15 miles NW), which is high andcliffy; a boulder spit and numerous above andbelow-water rocks extend from the point. Radiotowers, marked by obstruction lights, stand on thepoint. Thence:3 S of Possession Point (13 miles NNW), withSecretary (Donaldson) Island, 34 m high andwooded, 2½ cables S. The channel between theisland and the point is deep and clear. Thence:S of Beechey Head (10½ miles NNW), a boldwooded bluff. Tide rips, which can be dangerousto small craft, occur off the head. Thence:4 N of Tongue Point (6 miles W), the E entrance pointto Crescent Bay (2.51), which is fringed with reefsand shoal water to a distance of 3 cables, thence:N of Observatory Point (3½ miles W), which has a6 m rock close to and to which it is joined at LW,thence:Home Contents Index
  • 73. CHAPTER 2605 S of Church Point (9½ miles N), backed by ChurchHill, 128 m high, which has steep cliffs on its SEface. Church Island, 11 m high and bare, lies1 cable SW of the point. Swordfish Island, 22 mhigh and bare, lies close off the E side of thepoint. Thence:6 S of Christopher Point, 1 mile E of Church Point,which is low and steep and has the remains of agunnery control station on it, thence:N of Angeles Point, the E entrance point toFreshwater Bay, is low, sandy and covered withalders. A prominent radio tower, standing SE ofthe point, exhibits obstruction lights. And:7 S of Race Rocks (9 miles N), a group of low barerocks. Great Race Rock, 9 m high is the largest ofthe group. Rocks and shoals extend up to 5 cablesin all directions from Great Race Rock, and onthem heavy and dangerous overfalls occur in badweather. Rosedale Rock, with a depth of 1⋅2 mover it, is the S danger and is marked by V15Light-buoy (port hand). The E end of the E-goingpart of the TSS lies between Angeles Point andRace Rocks.(Directions for Port Angeles continue at 2.83and for Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours at 2.85)Neah BayCharts 4947, 1717 plan of Neah BayGeneral information2.391 Description. Neah Bay (48°22′N, 124°37′W) is enteredbetween Koitlah Point (2.37) and Baada Point, a rockygrass covered point 2 miles ESE. The bay is well shelteredfrom all but E winds and its proximity to the entrance toJuan de Fuca Strait, and ease of access at anytime, make ita useful anchorage and refuge for small vessels. The Wside of the bay is cliffy and fringed with rocks and dryingreefs, marked by kelp, which extend 2½ cables offshore inplaces. The shore E of the village of Neah Bay is a lowsand beach to Baada Point. The coast for 1 mile ESE ofBaada Point is fringed by shoals extending up to 3½ cablesoffshore.2 Neah Bay lies within the Makah whaling regulatednavigation area. See 2.10.Waadah Island, 46 m high and wooded, lies in the Epart of the entrance to Neah Bay; except for its SEextremity it is fringed by reefs and foul ground which, onits W side, extends up to 3 cables offshore. A rubblebreakwater extends from the W side of the island to aposition on the shore 7½ cables SSE of Koitlah Point. Awharf, used by the Coastguard, is on the S end of theisland.2.401 Neah Bay village (48°22′N, 124°37′W), on the SWshore of the bay, is a centre for logging operations andsport fishing. It is a port of entry.Tidal levels2.411 Mean spring range about 2⋅4 m; mean neap range about1⋅0 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.Directions2.421 From a position ESE of Waadah Island North End Light(red and white chequered diamond on concrete tower)(48°23′⋅2N, 124°35′⋅9W), the entrance channel, with depthsbetween 4⋅3 and 4⋅9 m leads WSW into the bay, passing(with positions relative to Baada Point, 8 cables SSE of thelight):2 NNW of No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) (2¼ cablesNE), marking the N end of a drying reef, thence:NNW of Baada Point and SSE of Waadah IslandSouth End Light No 2 (red triangle on frameworktower), exhibited from a position close N of the Send of Waadah Island (3 cables N). TheCoastguard Station buildings 4 cables SW of BaadaPoint are prominent. Thence:3 N of the T-head pier (2 cables W). Thence:S of No 4 Light-beacon (red triangle) (4 cablesWNW), marking the shoal water extending SWfrom Waadah Island.Thence as required for an anchorage (2.43) in the bay.Anchorage2.431 Anchorage can be obtained in depths of 7⋅3 to 11⋅0 m,taking care to avoid the unmarked charted wrecks near themiddle and N part of the bay which lie S of the rubblebreakwater.2 Caution. Submarine cables cross the entrance to the baybetween Baada Point and Waadah Island. A submarinecable is laid through the NW part of the bay and lands atthe W end of the rubble breakwater.Berths2.441 The Makah Indian T-head pier, 2 cables W of BaadaPoint, has a face of 91 m at its head. The submergedremains of another pier lie close W.Two piers used by fishing vessels, 1 and 1⋅2 miles WSWof Baada Point, have reported depths alongside of 3⋅7 m attheir heads. A detached breakwater protects a pier,extending NNW from the shore, about 2 cables E of the Efishing pier.2 There are several pontoons, along the sandy S shore ofthe bay, for small craft.Port services2.451 Repairs. None available.Supplies. Limited amounts of fuel, water and provisions.Rescue. A lifeboat is stationed at the Coastguard Station5 cables SW of Baada Point.Marina2.461 A marina has been established on the shore of the straitnear Sail Rock (48°21′⋅6N, 124°32′⋅8W) (2.37), 2 milesESE of Baada Point. Fuel, water and provisions areavailable. Mariners are advised to exercise caution whenapproaching the marina because of numerous rocks andledges. The pontoons take the ground at low water.Anchorages and harbours Neah Bay toAngeles PointChart 4947Clallam Bay2.471 Description. Clallam Bay (48°16′N, 124°16′W) isentered between Sekiu Point and Slip Point, 2 miles fartherE, and affords an anchorage in depths of 11 to 18 m sand,in the middle of the bay. It is often used by vessels inthick weather or during S winds, for which it is reported toprovide better shelter than Neah Bay. No 1 Light-buoy (porthand), marks a reef extending 2 cables W of Slip Point.Home Contents Index
  • 74. CHAPTER 261Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅4 m; mean neaprange about 1⋅1 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.2.481 Sekiu, is a resort and sport fishing town on the W endof Clallam Bay. The town has berths, fuel, water andlimited supplies. A slipway, which can handle craft up to7⋅3 m, is available.Pillar Point2.491 Description. Anchorage, well sheltered from the Wswell, can be obtained in depths of 16⋅5 to 22 m, stickymud, in the small bay at the mouth of the Pysht River,7½ cables SE of Pillar Point (48°13′⋅0N, 124°06′⋅1W)(2.38). There is no protection from the E and NE windswhich prevail in winter and depths shelve rather abruptlytowards the mouth of the river.Twin2.501 Description. Twin (48°10′N, 123°57′W) is a settlementat the head of a small cove, into which flow the West Twinand East Twin Rivers, 7 miles ESE of Pillar Point. Shallow,kelp covered spits extend from each side of the covemaking it a good landing for boats, but offer littleprotection as an anchorage. A pair of leading beacons(square daymarks with red and white stripes), 7 and 9 m inheight, stand on the shore close W of the cove. They markthe approach to an earth filled barge loading facility, ownedby a cement company, which is used for barging clay toSeattle. For a distance of 5 miles each side of Twin, shoalwater and kelp fringe the shore to a distance of 1 mile inplaces.Crescent Bay2.511 Description. Crescent Bay (48°10′N, 123°43′W), 9 milesE of Twin, is shoal in its E part, exposed to N winds andthe anchorage is of limited extent and suitable only forsmall vessels with local knowledge. In its W part there arethe remains of a ruined wharf, near to which is a resortwith facilities for small craft.2 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅9 m; mean neaprange about 0⋅5 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.Agate Bay, which lies close W of Crescent Bay, issmall, deep and clear of dangers; a depth of 18⋅3 m can becarried to within 2 cables of the shore.3 Crescent Rock, with a depth of 0⋅3 m over it, andmarked by No 2 buoy (starboard hand), lies 3 cables N ofthe point separating Crescent Bay from Agate Bay. Thepassage S of the rock is reported to have a depth of18⋅3 m, but it should not be used without local knowledge.Freshwater Bay2.521 Description. Freshwater Bay (48°09′N, 123°36′W) lies3 miles E of Crescent Bay and extends 3 miles E fromObservatory Point (2.38). Although exposed, it is deep andclear and affords a temporary anchorage in depths of 11 to18 m. It is a designated Emergency Explosives Anchorage.Anchorages and harbours Bonilla Point toRace RocksCharts 4947, Canadian 3647 (see 1.20)Port San Juan2.531 Description. Port San Juan (48°33′N, 124°28′W), isentered between Owen Point, 9 miles ESE of Bonilla Point(2.37) and San Juan Point, 1¾ miles farther ESE; it can bereadily distinguished from seaward as a deep gap betweentwo mountain ranges. The inlet extends 3½ miles NE andterminates in a beach of muddy sand at its head. TheGordon River enters at the NW end of the beach, and theSan Juan River, which is spanned by a bridge at its mouth,at the SE end of the beach.2 Cerantes Rocks, one large rock 15 m high together withseveral smaller ones, lie on a reef which extends 1½ cablesfrom the W side of San Juan Point. Hammond Rocks, theN of which is 9 m high, lie 2¼ cables N and a similardistance from the shore. Owen Island, a flat rock, 1 mhigh, lies close off Owen Point, and Kellett Rock, whichdries 0⋅9 m, lies a farther 5 cables NE. Other drying rockslie within 3 cables of the shore NE of Owen Point.YK Light-buoy (safe water) is a fairway buoy moored inthe entrance to Port San Juan, 7 cables SE of Owen Point.3 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅1 m; mean neaprange about 0⋅8 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.Submarine cable. An abandoned power cable lies fromclose S of San Juan Point to close W of Point Renfrew.2.541 Port Renfrew, on the E side of Port San Juan, 2 milesNE of San Juan Point, has a T-headed public pier with aberthing face of 33⋅5 m and a depth alongside of 4⋅5 m.The ruins of a logging wharf lie 3 cables ENE of thepublic wharf. A rock breakwater lies close E of the ruinedwharf. A pontoon is attached to the E side of thebreakwater and a concrete boat launching ramp lies closeE. Mooring buoys lie NE of the breakwater.2.551 Anchorage can be obtained anywhere in Port San Juanin depths of 10 to 16 m, sand. A good berth is 1 mile fromthe beach at the head of the inlet in a depth of 10 m. Smallcraft can enter the mouth of the Gordon River. There isnearly always a heavy swell in the outer part of the inletand during SW gales seas break in the shoaler water7½ cables from the head. It is recommended that Port SanJuan should be quitted on the first indication of theapproach of bad weather from the SW and shelter soughtin Neah Bay.2 Supplies: small quantities of provisions.2.561 Useful mark:San Juan Point Light (white round mast, red band, onwhite square building), exhibited from the pointmentioned above.Sooke Bay2.571 Description. Sooke Bay, on the E side of Otter Point(48°21′N, 123°49′W), has a small lagoon at its head whichis used as a log booming ground. Drying above andbelow-water rocks extend from the N shore. A conspicuousbuilding is on the W side of the lagoon. The bay is shoalin its E part, but it affords an anchorage during fineweather, in a depth of 14⋅6 m, 5 cables offshore.Home Contents Index
  • 75. CHAPTER 2622 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neaprange about 0⋅2 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.Charts 4947, 4950Sooke Harbour2.581 Description. Sooke Harbour (48°22′N, 123°43′W), usedextensively by commercial and sports fishing vessels, isentered through Sooke Inlet which lies between ParsonsPoint, 3½ miles E of Otter Point, and Company Point,7½ cables farther SE. Foul ground extends 1 cable SW ofCompany Point and fringes the W side of the inlet,extending to 2 cables offshore, 2½ cables E of ParsonsPoint. A bar across the inlet, 4 cables N of Company Point,has a limiting depth of 4⋅3 m.2 Harrison Point is situated on the W side of the inlet,5 cables NE of Parsons Point, and from a position midwaybetween them, Whiffin Spit, a narrow and irregular tongueof land with small trees and bushes on it, extends acrossthe inlet to within 1¼ cables of the E shore; a light isexhibited from the spit (2.60). Grant Rocks, consisting ofthree heads, one of which dries 1⋅4 m, lie off the E shoreabreast the extremity of Whiffin Spit; the channel betweenthe rocks and the spit is only about 60 m wide with adepth of 9⋅1 m. Around Whiffin Spit, the inlet turns W topass between it and Woodward Point, 1½ cables N, andenters Sooke Harbour. A rocky shoal, with a depth of4⋅2 m over it lies in the fairway, 1½ cables WSW ofWoodward Point. The tortuous channel continues throughthe E side of Sooke Harbour for another 2 miles beforeentering Sooke Basin, a large sheet of water with depths of15 to 37 m. Sooke River enters the N end of SookeHarbour through an extensive mud flat.2.591 Tidal streams. Around the extremity of Whiffin Spit,tidal streams run with considerable strength, attaining ratesof 4 kn during large tides. Slack water, which is about20 minutes in duration, occurs at or near HW at Sooke. SeeCanadian Tide Tables Volumes 5 and 6.2.601 Landmarks:Radio tower with obstruction lights on Muir Point(48°21′⋅6N, 123°44′⋅8W) (2.38).Whiffin Spit Light (white round tower, green band)(48°21′⋅5N, 123°42′⋅6W), exhibited from theextremity of the spit.2.611 Directions. Entry into Sooke Harbour should not beattempted without local knowledge. Large scale Canadiancharts of the harbour are available, see 1.20. Attention mustbe paid to the depths over the bar and the state of the tidalstreams in the entrance narrows. Particular care must betaken in the approach where both the in-going stream andthe out-going stream set towards the E shore.2 Caution. A depth of 3⋅3 m is charted on the W side ofthe entrance, 1 mile SW of Whiffin Spit Light (2.60), about3 cables offshore.2.621 Sooke Harbour Outer Leading Lights:Front light (white daymark, red stripe, on a 5−piledolphin) (48°21′⋅6N, 123°42′⋅3W).Rear light (similar structure) (¾ cable NE of the frontlight).The alignment (049½°) of these lights leads W of GrantRocks.2 Sooke Harbour Inner Leading Lights:Front light (white daymark, red stripe, on 5−piledolphin) (48°21′⋅8N, 123°42′⋅5W).Rear light (similar structure) (¼ cable N of the frontlight).3 The alignment (007½°) these lights leads clear of thereef off Whiffin Spit.Sooke Harbour Leading Lights:Front light (white daymark, red stripe on a 7−piledolphin) (48°21′⋅9N, 123°43′⋅7W).Rear light (similar structure) (¼ cable WNW of thefront light).4 The alignment (300°) these lights indicates the buoyedchannel leading to the public wharf. VA Buoy (S cardinal)and VB Buoy (E cardinal), mark the SE corner of a dryingarea in the centre of the harbour.2.631 Anchorage. An open anchorage can be found outsidethe bar in a depth of 18 m about 5 cables offshore, orwithin the narrows, 1½ cables N of the extremity ofWhiffin Spit in depths of 11 to 18 m, taking care not toanchor in the fairway.2.641 Submarine cables cross the channel N of Grant Rocksand 5 cables N of Woodward Point; submarine pipelinescross near to and close within the entrance to Sooke Basin.2.651 Marine farms are established WNW of Harrison Pointand W of the mouth to Sooke River.2.661 Sooke community lies on the W side of the harbour. Ithas a public wharf with pontoons attached with a depthalongside of 3 m; there is a marina S of the wharf. Thereare several mooring buoys in the harbour. Fuel, water andmost provisions are obtainable and hull and engine repairsare available in Sooke Basin.Becher Bay2.671 Description. Becher Bay (48°19′N, 123°37′W), which isentered E of Beechey Head (2.38), 3½ miles E of theentrance to Sooke Harbour, has numerous dangers within1 cable of the shore and around the several islets in its Npart and off its E entrance point. Extensive boominggrounds exist in the NE corner of the bay and a carefulwatch should be kept for the numerous deadheads whichare a source of danger. There is a marina in CampbellCove, on the W side of the bay, and another in the NE partof the bay.2.681 Anchorages. An anchorage with good shelter, in a depthof 27 m and avoiding the mooring buoys in the area whichare used for securing log booms, may be obtained2½ cables NE of Frazer Island, which lies in the NE partof the bay. Another sheltered anchorage can be found inMurder Bay on the N side of Campbell Cove.2.691 Tidal streams in Becher Bay are strong and irregular,attaining rates of 3 to 7 kn.Whirl Bay2.701 Whirl Bay (48°18′⋅5N, 123°34′⋅5W) lies between ChurchPoint (2.38) and Christopher Point (2.38) and affords aHome Contents Index
  • 76. CHAPTER 263temporary anchorage to small craft during favourableconditions.Race Passage2.711 Description. Race Passage (48°18′⋅3N, 123°32′⋅5W) liesbetween the dangers surrounding Race Rocks (2.38) andthose fringing Bentinck Island, 7½ cables NW. Vessels ofdeep draught should not use the passage without localknowledge, or in poor visibility, or at night. Small vesselsmust have sufficient power to combat the strong tidalstreams, and small craft should not attempt it in badweather because of the overfalls.2 The outermost danger on the S side of Race Passage iscovered at high water and the strongest eddies are foundnear it. The Bentinck Island side should therefore befavoured by keeping just outside the line of kelp at adistance of 1 mile.Bentinck Island, is 46 m high, wooded, much indentedand fringed with shoals and rocks. A wreck, marked by amooring buoy, lies on the E side of Bentinck Island. Theisland is a demolition range for the Canadian ArmedForces; landing is not permitted.3 A surface firing area has been established which centreson the island. See 2.78.Eemdyk Passage, between Bentinck Island and the coastis encumbered with rocks and shoals. Overhead cables witha vertical clearance of 9⋅8 m cross the passage 2 cables Nof the S end of the island.2.721 Tidal streams in Race Passage attain 7 kn on thein-going and 7½ kn on the out-going stream; dangeroustide rips are formed.Tidal streams in Eemdyk Passage (2.71) attain a rate ofup to 6 kn and severe tide rips are encountered offChristopher Point and in the vicinity of the islands offChurch Point; small craft should treat the area with caution.See Canadian Tide and Current Tables Volumes 5 and 6.JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT, CENTRAL PARTGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 4950Description2.731 The area covered in this section, which extends from aline joining Race Rocks (48°18′N, 123°32′W) to AngelesPoint (48°09′N, 123°33′W), to a line joining Cadboro Point(48°27′N, 123°16′W) to the E end of Discovery Island(48°25′N, 123°14′W), thence to the E end of DungenessSpit (48°10′N, 123°09′W), varies in width from 9 to 18miles. The waters are deep and, except for Constance Bank(48°21′N, 123°22′W) (2.85), there are few offlying dangers.2 Included in this section are the Canadian ports ofEsquimalt and Victoria, and the US port of Port Angeles.Routes2.741 Three TSS’s lead from the precautionary area SE ofRace Rocks.VG Light-buoy (special), moored 3 miles SE of RaceRocks, marks the centre line of the TSS leading 7 milesNNE to the pilot station (2.12) 7 cables SSE of VHLight-buoy (special), moored 2½ miles S of the entrance toVictoria Harbour. The TSS continues 10 miles E and NEtowards the entrance to Haro Strait (5.9) off DiscoveryIsland, see 2.9.2 PA Light-buoy (special), moored 5½ miles SSE of RaceRocks, marks the centre line of the TSS leading 3 miles SEto a precautionary area lying N of the entrance to PortAngeles and the pilot station (2.12) NNE of Ediz HookLight (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅1W). The TSS from the W partof the strait (2.38) continues E for 5½ miles from theprecautionary area SE of Race Rocks to a precautionaryarea centred 3 miles NW of Dungeness Spit.3 R Light-buoy (special), moored 5½ miles N of NewDungeness Light (48°10′⋅9N, 123°06′⋅6W) marks the centreline of a TSS leading 5¼ miles NE to a precautionary area(2.193) lying in the centre of the E part of Juan de FucaStrait; thence the TSS leads to Rosario Strait.‘S’ Light-buoy (special) moored 1½ miles N of NewDungeness Light marks the centre line of a TSS leading9¼ miles E to a precautionary area (2.193) situated at theentrance to Admiralty Inlet.Topography2.751 From Port Angeles the coast trends E for 13 miles to theend of Dungeness Spit; in places between, the 20 m depthcontour extends up to 1½ miles offshore.Pilotage2.761 See 2.12.Escort requirements for certain tankers2.771 See 1.65.Exercise areas2.781 The Canadian Armed Forces have established a surfacefiring area centred on Bentinck Island (48°18′⋅7N,123°32′⋅6W) with a 1 mile radius around that position.Periodic tests of small explosives might result in flyingobjects falling into the surrounding area. When red flagsare flown on the island keep at least 1 mile clear of theabove position.2 An exercise area exists in the approaches to Esquimaltand Victoria Harbours. See 2.5.Calibration area. A calibration area of 1 mile radiuscentred on 48°15′⋅6N, 123° 15′⋅8W, about 9 miles NNE ofEdiz Hook, is used by naval vessels to make equipmentcalibration tests. Surface vessels or submerged submarinesmay be manoeuvring in circles in the vicinity for severalhours or days at a time.Measured distance2.791 There is a measured distance 1½ to 2½ miles WSW ofNew Dungeness Light (48°10′⋅9N, 123°06′⋅7W).West Limit marks: beacons in line bearing 165°standing on Dungeness Spit and in the lagoon.East Limit marks: beacons in line bearing 165°standing on Dungeness Spit and in the lagoon.Distance: 1 mile (1853⋅2 m (6080 ft)).Running track: 075°−255°.Home Contents Index
  • 77. CHAPTER 264Tidal streams2.801 For information on tidal streams see 2.33.Off Dungeness Spit, the in-going stream sets ENE andthe out-going stream WNW at average rates of ½ and1¼ kn, respectively. For greater detail see United StatesTidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast of North America andAsia.2 Caution. Tidal streams attain rates of 3 to 6 kn in thevicinity of the Trial Islands (48°24′N, 123°18′W) andheavy tide rips occur off Staines Point, particularly on thein-going stream. When the tidal stream is opposed bystrong winds a heavy, steep sea is raised which isdangerous to small vessels; the point should therefore begiven a wide berth.Tidal streams in the vicinity of Discovery Island arestrong and much affected by the diurnal component of thetide. The in-going stream is usually weaker and of shorterduration than the out-going.3 In a position 3 miles SSE of Discovery Island, thein-going stream sets NNE and the out-going WSW, withaverage rates, respectively, of 1 and 2¼ kn.In a position 3¼ miles NE of the island, the in-goingstream sets NNW and the out-going S, with average rates,respectively, of 1¼ and 1½ kn; for greater detail seeCanadian Tide and Current Tables Volume 5 and 6.Heavy tide rips, often dangerous to small craft, form inthe vicinity of Seabird Point, the SE extremity of theisland, and in the vicinity of Commodore Point.Principal marks2.811 Landmarks:Radio tower (48°08′⋅6N, 123°32′⋅4W), 146 m inheight, and marked by obstruction lights, close Eof Angeles Point.US Coastguard radar tower (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅7W),52 m in height, standing 4 cables W of the Eextremity of Ediz Hook.2 New Dungeness Light-tower (white conical tower ona dwelling, 19 m in height) (48°10′⋅9N,123°06′⋅7W), standing 5 cables W of the extremityof Dungeness Spit.Race Rocks Light-tower (48°18′N, 123°32′W) (2.36).3 Radio tower (obstruction lights) (48°25′N, 123°31′W),standing on Triangular Hill 2¼ miles NW ofAlbert Head.Dome of Dominion Astrophysical Observatory onObservatory Hill (48°31′N, 123°25′W), isconspicuous from the approach to Victoria andEsquimalt Harbours.4 Four radio towers (48°24′N, 123°18′W) (obstructionlights), each 56 m in height, standing on the centreof the largest of Trial Islands.Major lights:Race Rocks Light (2.36).Discovery Island Light (round tower) (48°25′⋅5N,123°13′⋅6W).5 Ediz Hook Light (framework tower) (48°08′⋅4N,123°24′⋅1W).New Dungeness Light, as above.Other aids to navigation2.821 Racon:VH Light-buoy (48°22′⋅5N, 123°23′⋅6W).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Directions(continued from 2.38)Angeles Point to Port Angeles approaches2.831 From a position NNE of Angeles Point (48°09′N,123°33′W) (2.38), at the W edge of the precautionary area,the track leads 7 miles through the SE traffic lane of theTSS to the pilot boarding ground off Ediz Hook (2.90),passing (with positions relative to Ediz Hook Light(48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅1W)):SW of PA Light-buoy (special) (5½ miles NW),thence:2 NE of an area of shoal water extending ENE ofAngeles Point (6 miles W) (2.38), which is markedat its E extremity by No 4 Light-buoy (starboardhand), thence:NNE of Ediz Hook (1¼ miles W), thence:Through the S part of the precautionary area(1½ miles N) to the pilot boarding ground.Port Angeles approaches to Dungeness Spit2.841 From the pilot boarding ground NNE of Ediz HookLight, the route leads 11½ miles ENE to a position N ofNew Dungeness Light (48°10′⋅9N, 123°06′⋅7W), passing(with positions relative to New Dungeness Light):NNW of two dangerous wrecks (4 miles WSW),thence:2 To a position N of New Dungeness Light, within theprecautionary area which gives access to the TSSleading to Rosario Strait (2.204) and the TSSleading to Admiralty Inlet (2.201). Dungeness Spitis a narrow sand spit which extends 4 miles NEfrom the coast; a light is exhibited from the spit(2.81). A shoal, marked by No 2 Light-buoy(starboard hand) which might be submerged duringstrong tidal streams, extends a further 5 cablesNNE from the extremity of the spit. It is reportedthat the shoal is extending further N and shouldtherefore be given a wide berth. Passage inshore ofNo 2 Light-buoy should not be attempted.3 Caution. In the area between Port Angeles andDungeness Spit, vessels manoeuvre to embark anddisembark pilots and to enter and leave the TSS.(Directions for Admiralty Inlet continue at 2.201,and for Rosario Strait at 2.202)Charts 4950, 4953Angeles Point to Victoria and Esquimalt Harbourapproaches (Pacific Pilotage Authority boardingground)(continued from 2.38)2.851 From a position, within the precautionary area, SE ofRace Rocks (48°18′N, 123°32′W) (2.38), the N-boundtraffic lane of the TSS leads 7 miles NNE to the pilotboarding ground S of Victoria Harbour (2.12), passing(with positions relative to Race Rocks Light (48°17′⋅9N,123°31′⋅9W)):2 ESE of VG Light-buoy (3¼ miles SE) (2.74), thence:ESE of Race Rocks Light (2.36), thence:ESE of William Head (2¾ miles N), the extremity ofa low promontory, thence:3 WNW of Constance Bank (7½ miles ENE) which,with depths of less than 20 m over it, is about2 miles long and 1 mile wide and lies with its NEextremity about 5½ miles ESE of Albert HeadHome Contents Index
  • 78. CHAPTER 265(48°23′⋅2N, 123°28′⋅6W) (2.110). A least depth of15⋅5 m is near its N side. Vessels should notanchor on it as the bottom is rocky. Heavy tiderips sometimes occur on the bank. Thence:4 As required to the Pacific Pilotage Authority boardingground SSE of VH Light-buoy (7¼ miles NE)(2.74).(Directions for Esquimalt continue at 2.121 and forVictoria at 2.123)Pacific Pilotage Authority boarding ground toDiscovery Island (Seabird Point)2.861 From a position SSE of VH Light-buoy, the passageleads E and NE for 10 miles to the entrance to Haro Strait,passing (with positions relative to Trial Island Light(48°23′⋅7N, 123°18′⋅3W)):N of Constance Bank (4 miles SSW), and:S of Clover Point (1¾ miles WNW), which is bare oftrees and can be identified by a car park on it. Asewage outfall extends 3 cables S from the E sideof the point. Thence:2 S of Trial Island Light (white round tower, 10 m inheight). Trial Islands, two in number, both rockyand bare, lie with their S extremity, Staines Point,1¾ miles ESE of Clover Point; from mostdirections they appear as a single island. The Sand larger island has four radio towers (2.81) nearits centre. Thence:3 SSE of Gonzales Point (1 mile NNE), the SEextremity of Vancouver Island; it is low, rocky,bare of trees and fairly steep to on its E side.Brodie Rock, with a depth of 5⋅5 m over it, lies6 cables SE of Gonzales Point. Thence:4 S and E of Discovery Island Light (3½ miles ENE)(2.81), exhibited from close N of Sea Bird Point,the SE extremity of Discovery Island. DiscoveryIsland, which is wooded, rises to 38 m at its Eend. Commodore Point, the S extremity of theisland, must be given a wide berth on account ofthe foul ground extending 3 cables SSW and SEfrom it. Rudlin Bay, E of Commodore Point, isalso foul.5 Cautions. Heavy tide rips occur off Clover Point andthey can be dangerous to small craft.Staines Point should be given a wide berth, see tidalstream information in this area 2.34, 2.35 and 2.80.Tidal streams in the vicinity of Discovery Island arestrong; see 2.34, 2.35 and Useful marks:The red brick buildings of a penitentiary situated onWilliam Head (48°20′⋅6N, 123°31′⋅6W) areprominent.2 A flagstaff (48°24′⋅6N, 123°21′⋅9W), standing onBeacon Hill is prominent.A grey cylindrical water-tower (48°25′⋅4N,123°20′⋅2W), 1¼ miles NNE of Clover Point(2.86) can be identified by a conspicuousapartment building close N.3 A white dome and historic monument on GonzalesHill (48°24′⋅8N, 123°19′⋅5W), N of Harling Point(48°24′⋅3N, 123°19′⋅3W).Three radio towers (48°26′N, 123°15′W) (obstructionlights, 62 m high), standing on the largest of theChatham Islands, 1 mile NW of Discovery IslandLight.A radio tower (47 m high), standing on VantreightIsland (48°26′⋅3N, 123°15′⋅3W).Two radio towers (48°26′⋅5N, 123°15′⋅3W)(obstruction lights, 91 m high), standing onStrongtide Islet.(Directions through Haro Strait continue at 5.26)PORT ANGELESGeneral informationChart 1717Position2.881 The entrance to Port Angeles (48°08′N, 123°25′W) issituated about 57 miles E of the entrance to Juan de FucaStrait and about 24 miles W of the entrance to AdmiraltyInlet.Function2.891 Port Angeles is of easy access, can accommodate thelargest vessels, and provides good shelter from all but Ewinds, which are relatively infrequent. The SE gales ofwinter have little effect within the harbour except to raise aslight swell. The port handles mainly lumber, wood andpetroleum products. It is also used as a harbour of refugeand by vessels bunkering, under repair and awaiting orders.Topography2.901 The hinterland of Port Angeles rises steeply to thesummit of Mount Angeles (1975 m) 8 miles inland.Ediz Hook, is a low, narrow, bare tongue of sand,extending 2½ miles E from a point on the coast 3½ milesESE of Angeles Point (2.38); it forms a natural breakwaterfor Port Angeles.Approach and entry2.911 The port is approached from the E end of the trafficlanes through Juan de Fuca Strait. PA Light-buoy (2.74),moored on the SE perimeter of the precautionary areamarks the entrance to the short TSS leading SE to theentrance to the port. See 2.74. The harbour is entered E ofEdiz Hook and No 2 Light-buoy (starboard hand), which ismoored 1 cable E of the E extremity of Ediz Hook.Traffic2.921 In 2003 the port was used by 98 vessels with a totaldeadweight 29 621 184 tonnes.Port Authority2.931 The Port of Port Angeles Authority, 338 W First Street,Port Angeles, WA 98362.Limiting conditionsDeepest and longest berth2.941 Port Terminal No 1 (2.105).Tidal levels2.951 Mean spring range about 2⋅0 m; mean neap range about0⋅3 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.Local weather2.961 The SE gales of winter have little effect within theharbour except to raise a slight swell.Home Contents Index
  • 79. CHAPTER 266Arrival informationNotice of ETA2.971 Notice of ETA at the pilot boarding ground should begiven 24 hours in advance and confirmed when passingCape Flattery and again 1 hour prior to arrival. SeeAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5).Pilots and tugs2.981 Pilotage is compulsory and is provided by the PugetSound Pilots. There are two pilot boats each 22 m in lengthwith white hulls and orange superstructures. See also 2.12.Tugs up to 1200 hp are stationed at the port and othersup to 5000 hp are available from Seattle with advancenotice.Regulations2.991 Port Angeles is a port of entry and quarantine station.Harbour regulations can be obtained from The Port of PortAngeles Manager’s Office at West First Street and ValleyStreet.HarbourDescription2.1001 The harbour is about 2½ miles long and is enteredbetween Ediz Hook and the shore to the S. Depths aregreatest on the N shore and decrease from 59 to 25 m inthe middle of the harbour; from the middle the depthsdecrease regularly to the S shore where the 10 m depthcontour in some places extends to almost 5 cables from theshore. Extensive booming grounds extend along the N andW shores of the harbour and the major berths lie along theS and SW shores.2 The town of Port Angeles lies along the S and W sidesof the harbour.Measured distance. A measured distance of 1 cable, ona line 121¼°–301¼°, each end of which is marked by apair of beacons is in the SW part of the harbour.3 Marine farms, extending up to 1½ cables offshore, lie 6to 8 cables W of Ediz Hook Light. A and B Lights markthe S limit of these farms.Caution. Care is necessary, particularly at night, whenunderway within the harbour on account of the numerousdeadheads.Tidal streams2.1011 Off Ediz Hook, the in-going stream sets in an ENEdirection and the out-going stream in a WNW direction,with average rates, respectively, of ¾ and 1 kn. For greaterdetail see United States Tidal Current Tables, Pacific Coastof North America and Asia.Principal marks2.1021 Landmarks:US Coastguard radar tower (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅7W)(2.81).Ediz Hook Light-tower (48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅1W)(2.81).2 Two chimneys, 1½ miles S of Ediz Hook Light-tower,with a tank 51 m in height a farther 1¼ cables S.A tank (the largest of five) 2½ miles W of Ediz HookLight-tower, with a taller chimney a farther1½ cables SW.3 Major light:Ediz Hook Light (2.81). An aero light, exhibited atthe airport 2½ miles W of town, has characteristicssimilar to Ediz Hook Light and must not beconfused with the latter.Directions2.1031 See 2.83 and 2.91 for directions.BerthsAnchorage2.1041 The best anchorage is in depths of 13 to 22 m, mud, offthe wharfs along the S side of the harbour.Anchoring is prohibited within an area 1½ cables wide,extending 6½ cables NNE from a position close E of(Photograph − Angeles from ESE (2.100)(Original dated 2004)Home Contents Index
  • 80. CHAPTER 267Rayonier Pier, which is situated on the S shore 1¼ miles Sof the E extremity of Ediz Hook.Principal berths2.1051 Note. Alongside depths for the berths described arereported depths and confirmation should be obtained fromthe port authorities.2 Rayonier Pier (1¼ miles S of Ediz Hook): berthingspace 670 m; depths from 1⋅5 to 8⋅5 m; petroleumproducts, chemicals and barge traffic. No 1 buoy(port hand), 1 cable NNW of the pier, marks theNE limits of depths of less than 7⋅3 m whichextend W and NW from the pier.Black Ball Ferry Dock (9 cables W of Rayonier Pier),consists of two ferry terminals used for vehicularand passenger services to and from Victoria,British Columbia.3 Port Terminal No 1 (4 cables WNW of Black BallFerry Dock): 721 m of berthing space; depthsreported (1991) to be from 10⋅7 to 13⋅7 m; generalcargo and forest products; operated by the PortAuthority. A light is exhibited from a dolphin½ cable ENE of the head of the terminal.Port Terminal No 3 (on the W side of the root ofTerminal No 1): 146 m of berthing space; reporteddepths of 12⋅8 m; general cargo and forestproducts; operated by the Port Authority.4 Merrill and Ring Timber Wharf (4½ cables NW ofthe Boat Haven entrance): berthing space 171 m;depths 9⋅1 to 10⋅1 m; lumber.Crown Zellerbach Wharf (at the root of Ediz Hook):berthing space 174 m; depths 11 to 12⋅2 m; fuel,pulp and woodchips for paper mill. An obstruction,with a depth of 2⋅7 m over it, lies ½ cable E of thewharf and a patch with a depth of 7⋅8 m over itlies close E of the wharf.Port services2.1061 Repairs. Several companies and facilities perform majorabove-water repairs to large ocean-going vessels; thenearest dry docking facilities are in Seattle and Tacoma.Other facilities: hospital; oily waste disposal.Supplies: fuel by barge; water, provisions; stores.2 Communications. There are daily passenger andvehicular ferry services to Victoria, BC. The airport is 4 kmW of the town.3 Rescue. Coastguard Air Station is on Ediz Hook about3 cables W of its E extremity. See Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 5.Small craft2.1071 Port Angeles Boat Haven (3 cables W of Terminal 3) islarge and well equipped and can accommodate over 520pleasure craft and fishing vessels.BAYS AND ANCHORAGES RACE ROCKSTO ALBERT HEADCharts 4953, Canadian 3410 (see 1.20)Description2.1081 Pedder Bay and Parry Bay, which are separated byWilliam Head, form the coast between Edye Point(48°19′⋅2N, 123°32′⋅4W) and Albert Head. The shores aregenerally high and wooded, and in Parry Bay, backed bysteep cliffs in places.2 Caution. Numerous marinas and concentrations of smallcraft might be encountered in the vicinity of Pedder Bay.Such craft might be engaged in sailing races, salmonfishing or on passage from point to point.Pedder Bay2.1091 Description. Pedder Bay (48°20′N, 123°32′W) is enteredbetween Cape Calver, 1½ miles NNW of Race Rocks, andNed Point, 7½ cables N. Mary Hill, 117 m high, withgrassy slopes, stands 7½ cables NW of Ned Point.2 A Defence Department jetty with a depth alongside of7⋅6 m, the head of which is marked by lights, lies in thecove on the W side of Manor Point, 5 cables NW of CapeCalver. A beacon (orange) stands on the W entrance pointto the cove. The area surrounding the jetty is designated aControlled Access Zone: for further details see CanadianAnnual Notices to Mariners No 43. A mooring buoymarked NAVY is moored 3 cables ENE of Fossil Point andtwo buoys (special), also marked NAVY, are moored closeoff the N shore of the bay 2 cables and 3½ cables W ofNed Point.3 Pedder Inlet, is a narrow portion of Pedder Bay whichcontinues 1 mile NW above Helgesen Point, 1 mile NW ofCape Calver, and terminates in mud flats on each side of amarina. Foul ground extends 1 cable from the SW side ofthe inlet, 3 cables NW of Helgesen Point.4 Tidal streams in Pedder Bay are very irregular andmuch influenced by the weather.Submarine cable and pipeline cross Pedder Inlet2¼ cables within the entrance and two sewer outfalls arelaid from the vicinity of Helgesen Point along the centre ofthe inlet to its head; a third outfall extends 2 cables ESEfrom the point.5 Anchorages. An anchorage can be found in the outerpart of Pedder Bay, in depths of 10 to 12 m, 3 cables ENEof Manor Point (48°19′⋅9N, 123°32′⋅9W); this anchorage isnot safe in strong SE winds. Small craft can find a goodsheltered anchorage at the head of the bay clear of thesubmarine cable, pipeline and sewer outfalls.Parry Bay2.1101 Description. Parry Bay is a wide indentation enteredbetween William Head (48°20′⋅6N, 123°31′⋅6W) (2.85) andAlbert Head, 3¼ miles NE. Albert Head is a moderatelyhigh sloping point, fringed with rocks, which projectsabruptly from the coast; its extremity is bare but theremainder is wooded.An area of foul ground, 1 mile in diameter, is centred2 miles NE of William Head.2 Anchorage can be found in a depth of 12 m, mud,5 cables N of William Head; this anchorage should only beused in fine weather or when sheltering from strong Wwinds. Anchoring is prohibited in the N part of the bay.Quarantine Cove, lies at the S end of the bay on the Wside of William Head.Haystock Islets, bare, rocky and 5 m high, lie closeoffshore at the NE end of Parry Bay; foul ground extends1½ cables SSE of the islets and inshore of them is a dryingmud flat.3 Measured distance. A measured distance of 1849maligned 027½°—207½°, exists in the NE part of the bay;each end is marked by a pair of beacons (orangefluorescent diamond daymarks).Home Contents Index
  • 81. CHAPTER 268Submarine cable is laid through the length of ParryBay, passing outside Haystock Islets.APPROACHES TO ESQUIMALT ANDVICTORIA HARBOURSGeneral informationCharts 4953, Canadian 3419 (see 1.20)Position2.1111 Esquimalt (48°26′N, 123°26′W) and Victoria Harbours(48°25′N, 123°23′W), lie close together at the head of awide indentation at the SE end of Vancouver Island and areapproached between Albert Head (48°23′⋅2N, 123°28′⋅7W)and Clover Point (2.86), 5¼ miles ENE.Hazards2.1121 Submarines exercise frequently in the approaches,see 2.5.Pilotage2.1131 The boarding ground for the Pacific Pilotage Authoritylies 7 cables SSE of VH Light-buoy (special) (48°22′⋅5N,123°23′⋅6W). See Admiralty List of Radio SignalsVolume 6(5) for details.Traffic regulations2.1141 TSS see 2.74.All inward and outward bound vessels are requested bythe Harbour Master, Victoria/Esquimalt Harbours, to advisethe Queen’s Harbour Master Operations on VHFChannel 10 of their position before transiting the areabetween Fisgard Island (2.139) and Duntze Head (2.139) atthe entrance to Esquimalt Harbour.2.1151 Fishing is prohibited in the vicinity of a buoy (special),with two buoys (special) close WNW, moored 7½ cablesoffshore, 2 miles NNE of Albert Head. All the buoys aremarked NAVY.Three mooring buoys, marked NAVY, are mooredbetween 4 and 5 cables SSW of Rodd Point.2.1161 Anchoring in the approach, N of a line drawn 4 miles Efrom Albert Head, is prohibited except in the anchor berthslettered A to F on the chart.Submarine cables are laid in Royal Roads inshore ofthe anchor berths; between Fleming Bay (48°25′⋅2N,123°24′⋅7W) and Fisgard Island (48°25′⋅8N, 123°26′⋅8W)and between Brotchie Ledge (48°24′⋅4N, 123°23′⋅2W) andOgden Point (48°23′⋅0N, 123°24′⋅9W).Rescue2.1171 RCC (Rescue Co-ordination Centre) is maintained at theCanadian Coastguard Station in Victoria. See 1.100 andAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.Natural conditions2.1181 Tidal streams, at the entrance to Esquimalt Harbourbetween Scroggs Rocks (2.121) and Macaulay Point(2.121), run parallel to the shore at ½ to 2 kn. See 2.34and 2.35 for more information.At the entrance to Victoria Harbour, between MacaulayPoint and Brotchie Ledge (2.123), rates of 2 kn can beencountered; the in-going stream sets SE and the out-goingNW.2 Climate. See climatic table for Victoria Airport 1.188.Principal marks2.1191 Landmarks:Radio Tower (48°25′N, 123°31′W) (2.81).Two conspicuous tower cranes, 69 m in height andmarked by obstruction lights, at the NavalDockyard (48°26′N, 123°26′W) in EsquimaltHarbour.Conspicuous tower crane (48°26′⋅2N, 123°25′⋅6W),marked by obstruction lights, on the N side ofConstance Cove at the Esquimalt Graving Dock.Radar tower (48°25′⋅7N, 123°26′⋅1W) (34 m), onBlack Rock close E of the entrance to EsquimaltHarbour.2 The dome of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory(48°31′⋅2N, 123°25′⋅1W) (2.81).The dome of the Provincial Parliament Building(48°25′⋅2N, 123°22′⋅2W).The flagstaff on Beacon Hill (48°24′⋅6N,123°21′⋅9W).Other aid to navigation2.1201 Racon:VH Light-buoy (48°22′⋅5N, 123°23′⋅6W) (2.74).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.DirectionsApproaches to Esquimalt(continued from 2.85)2.1211 From a position S of VH Light-buoy (special)(48°22′⋅5N, 123°23′⋅6W) at the end of the NNE boundTSS, the route leads 5 miles NNW to a position SSW ofthe entrance to Esquimalt Harbour, passing (with positionsrelative to Macaulay Point (48°25′⋅0N, 123°24′⋅6W)):2 ENE of Albert Head (3¼ miles SW) (2.110) at the Send of Royal Roads, which extend 3 miles NNE toRodd Point. The coast is formed in the S part ofthe roads by sand cliffs and in the N part byCoburg Peninsula, a narrow tongue of sandfronting a salt lagoon. Coghlan Rock, close N ofAlbert Head, is the shallowest of a group of rocksat the S end of Royal Roads and a rock, with adepth of 14⋅6 m over it, lies 7 cables E of AlbertHead. A jetty used by barges and a conspicuousgravel pit are situated 1¼ miles N of Albert Head.Thence:3 WSW of Macaulay Point, the W entrance point ofVictoria Harbour (2.146). The point is 9 m high,flat, grassy and fringed with rocks and kelp. AHome Contents Index
  • 82. CHAPTER 269(Photograph − Waite Airphotos Inc)Metchosin − Producers Pit from N (2.121)(Original dated 2002)Albert Headdetached rock lies 1 cable WSW of the point and asewer outfall extends 1 mile S from a positionclose E of the point. Thence:4 WSW of Gillingham Islands (3 cables NW), 2 m highand bare, lying 2 cables SE of Saxe Point, whichis low and rocky. A beacon on the SE drying reefhas two port hand daymarks. A buoy (special),marked NAVY, is moored close SW of the islands.Fleming Bay, entered E of the islands, is protectedby a breakwater, and is shallow and only suitablefor small craft. Thence:5 WSW of Brothers Islands (1 mile WNW); these aretwo groups of islands and islets lying within2½ cables offshore. The W and largest island is12 m high with some bushes near its N end; theremainder are bare. The islands are fringed withreefs and the passage between them and the shoreis foul. Midway between Brothers Islands and SaxePoint, 4 cables ESE, there is a rocky patch, with adepth of 3 m over it, which is usually marked bykelp. All the dangers on the E side of theapproach to Esquimalt Harbour are covered by thered sector of Fisgard Light (2.139). Thence:6 WSW of Scroggs Rocks Light (white round tower,red band at top) (1⋅3 miles WNW), exhibited fromthe W side of the rocks which dry 2⋅4 m, and lieon a kelp covered shoal on the E side of theentrance to Esquimalt Harbour. A reef extends½ cable SW of the rocks.2.1221 Useful marks:Fisgard Island Light (48°25′⋅8N, 123°26′⋅8W) (2.139).Ogden Point Breakwater Light (48°24′⋅8N,123°23′⋅5W) (2.167).(Directions for entering Esquimalt Harbourcontinue at 2.139)Approaches to Victoria(continued from 2.85)2.1231 From a position S of VH Light-buoy (special)(48°22′⋅5N, 123°23′⋅6W) at the end of the NNE boundTSS, the route leads 4 miles N to a position SSW of theentrance to Victoria Harbour, passing (with positionsrelative to Brotchie Ledge (48°24′⋅4N, 123°23′⋅3W)):2 W of Clover Point (2.86) (1½ miles E), thence:W of Finlayson Point (9 cables E). The coast betweenthe point and Ogden Point (1 mile WNW) consistsof steep earth cliffs, rising to 20 m, and is fringedwith rocky ledges and kelp to a distance of1½ cables offshore in places. A dangerousbelow-water rock lies 2½ cables SE of FinlaysonPoint; foul ground lies between the rock and theshore N. Thence:3 W of Brotchie Ledge, a shoal area with a least depthof 1⋅5 m over it; a light (white round tower, greenband at top, 5 m in height) is exhibited from theledge. Thence:Home Contents Index
  • 83. CHAPTER 270W of Ogden Point (5 cables NNE), which has abreakwater extending 3½ cables WSW to form theE entrance point to Victoria Harbour. A light(2.167) is exhibited from the breakwater head.(Directions for Victoria Harbour continue at 2.167)ESQUIMALT HARBOURGeneral informationChart Canadian 3419 (see 1.20)Position2.1241 Esquimalt Harbour (48°26′N, 123°26′W) lies within aninlet which lies 2 miles W of Victoria Harbour, close to theSE extremity of Vancouver Island.Function2.1251 The harbour is a naval base of the Canadian ArmedForces and a port for repairing large commercial vessels.Controlled Access Zones are situated within the harbour,for further details see Canadian Annual Notices toMariners No 43.Esquimalt is a suburb of Victoria with a population(2001) of 16 127.Topography2.1261 Esquimalt Harbour in general consists of two large bays.Constance Cove extends E and terminates at its head inLang Cove (48°26′⋅0N, 123°25′⋅2W), which is shallow anddries at its head. Between Lang Cove and Pilgrim Coveclose N, are the buildings of the Naval Base. Much of asmall bay, between Munroe Head (48°26′⋅3N, 123°25′⋅9W)and Ashe Head 2 cables NW, is foul. Inskip Islands lieclose NW of Ashe Head; leading lights which are exhibitedfrom these islands are described below. Plumper Bay,which extends N of Inskip Islands, dries 7½ cables NW.Harbour limits2.1271 The harbour limits, shown on the chart, are defined asall the tidal waters northward from a line running E–Wthrough the S tip of the S of the Brothers Islands (2.121).Approach and entry2.1281 The harbour is approached through Royal Roads andentered between Fisgard Island (2.139) and Duntze Head(48°26′N, 123°26′W), 3 cables E.Port Authority2.1291 The Harbour Master, 12 Erie Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V4X5.Limiting conditions2.1301 Controlling depths. Charted depths in the approaches tothe main berths are in excess of 11 m.Longest berths: Esquimalt Graving Dock LandingWharf and Jetty E, 290 m each (2.143).Deepest berth: Jetty E, W side, 9⋅4 to 12⋅5 m.Largest vessel to enter the harbour: Queen Elizabeth II;length 314 m, beam 36 m.2.1311 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neaprange about 0⋅4 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.Arrival information2.1321 Port radio. The Harbour Master’s office and harbourpatrol craft are equipped with VHF radios and monitorchannel 73. All vessels inward and outward bound arerequested by the Harbour Master, Victoria/EsquimaltHarbours, to advise the Queen’s Harbour Master Operationson VHF channel 10 of their position before crossing thearea between Fisgard Island (48°25′⋅8N, 123°26′⋅8W) andDuntze Head, 3 cables E.2.1331 ETA notice at the Pilot Boarding Ground (2.113) shouldbe given 48 hours in advance. For more information seeAdmiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5).2.1341 Regulations. Esquimalt is a quarantine sub-station, see1.80; customs clearance can be effected.Fishing is prohibited in the entrance to the harbour.Harbour2.1351 General layout. Within the entrance, the harbour opensout on its E side to Constance Cove, which contains themajor port installations. The Naval Base and Dockyardoccupy the outer part of the S shore of the cove; to the Eare disused ship repair facilities. Esquimalt Graving Dockand landing wharf is sited close N of Pilgrim Cove. The Npart of the harbour opens into Plumper Bay which iscompletely given over to logbooming facilities, inconsequence of which the former Plywood Wharf is nolonger available to shipping.2 Yew Point is situated on the W side of the harbour4 cables N of Fisgard Island. All berthing facilities (JettiesD, F and G) N of this point form part of the Naval Base.2.1361 WM Military Exercise Area extends across the harbourfrom Jetty F (48°26′⋅5N, 123°26′⋅8W) to Munroe Head,6½ cables ESE; it is used for surface firing.2.1371 Submarine cables lie across the harbour WNW fromthe vicinity of Grant Knoll; another submarine cable liesbetween Fisgard Island and a position close S of DuntzeHead.2.1381 Tidal streams in the harbour, and for some distanceoutside are weak. They set fairly through the entrance, butclose outside, off Brothers Islands, both tidal streams set E.See 2.118.Directions(continued from 2.122)2.1391 Inskip Island Leading Lights:Front light (white daymark, red stripe, on mast)(48°26′⋅5N, 123°26′⋅3W), standing on a reefextending S from the SW extremity of InskipIsland.Rear light (white daymark, red stripe, on frameworktower) (½ cable NNE of the front light).From a position SW of Scroggs Rocks Light (2.121), thealignment (015°) of these lights leads NNE through theHome Contents Index
  • 84. CHAPTER 271(Photograph − Waite Airphotos Inc Inc)Esquimalt from SW (2.143)(Original dated 2004)entrance into the harbour, passing (with positions relative toFisgard Light (48°25′⋅8N, 123°26′⋅9W)):WNW of Scroggs Rocks (4 cables SE), from which alight is exhibited, noting the rock, with a depth of9⋅8 m over it, 1½ cables WNW, thence:ESE of Fisgard Island, 7 m high and bare, which isthe W entrance point to Esquimalt Harbour.Fisgard Island Light (white round tower, 15 m inheight) is exhibited from the island. Shoal waterextends 1 cable E from the island and is markedby V17 Light-buoy (port hand). Thence:WNW of Duntze Head (3 cables E), the E entrancepoint to Esquimalt Harbour, thence:WNW of Grant Knoll (4 cables ENE), thence asrequired for a harbour berth.2.1401 Shoal patches. Village Rocks, which dry, lie 4½ cablesE of Grant Knoll and are marked by V20 Light-buoy(starboard hand); it should be noted that shoal waterextends a short distance N of the buoy. Malacca Patch,with a least depth of 2⋅6 m, extends ½ cable W from thepoint separating Lang Cove from Pilgrim Cove. WhaleRock, with a depth of 1⋅7 m over it, lies 2 cables W ofInskip Islands and is marked by VC Light-buoy (preferredchannel to port).2.1411 Useful mark:Radar Tower (2.119) on Black Rock, close E of theentrance to the harbour.Basins and berthsAnchorages2.1421 A secure anchorage is available inside the harbour indepths of about 11 m N of a line joining Yew Point(48°26′⋅2N, 123°26′⋅7W) to Grant Knoll.Caution. Log debris and deadheads lie on the bottom inthe area N of a line joining Ashe Head, Whale Rock(48°26′⋅6N, 123°26′⋅8′W) and McCarthy Island, 2½ cablesNNW of Whale Rock.2 Anchoring is prohibited S of a line joining Yew Pointto Grant Knoll, E of a line joining Grant Knoll to AsheHead and in an area, shown on the chart, extending1½ cables ESE from McCarthy Island.Berths2.1431 Jetty A, close E of Grant Knoll in Constance Cove isthe largest in the complex of three Naval jettieslettered A, B and C: length 230 m; depth 8⋅3 m atthe W end and 8⋅9 m at the E end.Jetty E (HMCS Naden) in the NE part of ConstanceCove: length 290 m; least depth 6⋅6 m.2 Esquimalt Graving Dock Landing Wharf, close N ofJetty E extends W from the entrance to thegraving dock: length 290 m; least depth 8⋅5 m.Jetties D, F and G (also known as Colwood Jetty) arenaval jetties on the W side of the harbour N ofHome Contents Index
  • 85. CHAPTER 272Yew Point. Jetty F is the largest of the three:length 250 m; depths 5⋅6 to 10 m.3 Yarrows Limited Shipyards occupies the E part ofConstance Cove.Port Services2.1441 Repairs. Esquimalt Graving Dock: length 357⋅8 m;breadth 41 m; depth over the sill 12⋅2 m. There is also anaval drydock and patent slip.Other facilities. Full medical and hospital facilities areavailable. Oily waste reception facilities.2 Supplies. Fuel only available for naval vessels, fuel formerchant vessels by barge or road tanker from Victoria;fresh water; provisions.Communications. See 2.173.Small craft2.1451 The Canadian Armed Forces Sailing Associationfacilities lie in the SE corner of the small bay betweenMunroe Head (48°26′⋅3N, 123°25′⋅8N) and Ashe Head,2 cables NW.VICTORIA HARBOURGeneral informationChart 4959Position2.1461 Victoria (48°25′N, 123°23′W), which with Esquimalt, issituated on a peninsula forming the SE extremity ofVancouver Island. The harbour lies at the mouth of an inletwhich extends generally NE and NW for about 4 milesinland from the N shore of Royal Roads between Victoriaand Esquimalt.Function and history2.1471 Victoria, the seat of the Provincial Government ofBritish Columbia, with the Capital Regional District, has apopulation of about 304 000. The fort and the foundationof the city were established in 1843 and given the nameFort Albert, which shortly afterwards was changed to FortVictoria. The name Victoria was adopted in 1852 when thetownsite was laid out; it was incorporated as a city in 1862and the old fort was demolished in 1864.2 Principal exports are timber and wood products, wheat,cement and fish products.The port is used mainly by ocean-going vessels, coastaltankers, tugs, barges, fishing vessels and ferries; during thesummer months it is visited by cruise liners, numerousyachts and small pleasure craft.Harbour limits2.1481 The limits are defined as all the waters of Juan de FucaStrait N of a line drawn from Staines Point (2.81)(48°23′⋅7N, 123°18′⋅3W) the S extremity of Trial Island tothe S extremity of Albert Head and including Selkirk Water(2.170) and the navigable streams flowing into VictoriaHarbour. Excluded from this area is Esquimalt Harbour.Approach and entry2.1491 The harbour is approached from Royal Roads andentered between Macaulay Point (2.121) and Ogden PointBreakwater (2.167).Traffic2.1501 In 2003 the port was used by 57 vessels with a totaldeadweight 2 858 823 tonnes.Port Authority2.1511 The Harbour Master, 12 Erie Street, Victoria, B.C. V8V4X5.Limiting conditionsControlling depths2.1521 In the Outer Harbour, general depths range from 9⋅1 to22 m, shoaling to 5⋅5 m in its N part; a least depth of5⋅2 m can be carried through the fairway of the MiddleHarbour, Inner Harbour and Upper Harbour; above theUpper Harbour the depths are less than 5⋅2 m.Bridge clearances2.1531 Johnson Street Bridge (bascule): vertical clearance whenclosed 5⋅5 m; width 37 m.Point Ellice Bridge (fixed): vertical clearance 8⋅9 m;navigable width 25 m.The Selkirk Trestle Bridge: vertical clearance whenclosed 1⋅8 m; width 4⋅9 m.Deepest and longest berths2.1541 Longest berth: Pier A, S side, Ogden Point: 305 m.Deepest berth: Pier B, N side, Ogden Point: 10⋅7 to12⋅5 m.Largest vessel handled: New Phase; length 291⋅6 m;beam 45⋅2 m; 155 450 dwt at Ogden Point.Tidal levels2.1551 Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about0⋅3 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.Local weather2.1561 During strong S winds, great care is necessary whenberthing at Piers A and B at Ogden Point and an anchorshould be kept ready for immediate use. On occasionsduring SW gales these piers are quite unapproachable andin such cases ships should proceed to an anchorage toawait an improvement in conditions.Arrival informationNotice of ETA2.1571 Notice of ETA at the Pilot Boarding Ground (2.113)should be given 48 hours in advance. See Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5) for details.Port radio2.1581 The Harbour Master’s office and harbour patrol craft areequipped with VHF radio.Home Contents Index
  • 86. CHAPTER 273Regulations2.1591 Navigation under sail is prohibited in all waters ofVictoria Harbour N of a line drawn between Shoal PointLight (2.167) and Berens Island Light (48°25′⋅4N,123°23′⋅5W) (2.167), to the Selkirk Trestle Bridge (2.170).2 A compulsory two-way traffic scheme for power drivenvessels of less than 20 m in length, and sailing craft underpower, has been established close to the S shore betweenWork Island (2.169) and Laurel Point (2.169). The centreline of the scheme is marked by light-buoys (special).3 Vessels 20 m or more in length must use the seaplaneoperating area (2.164).A speed limit of 5 kn applies N of a line drawn betweenShoal Point Light and Berens Island Light.2.1601 Quarantine. See 1.80.HarbourGeneral layout2.1611 Victoria Harbour is well protected and landlocked. Itconsists of the Outer Harbour, Middle Harbour whichextends from Shoal Point to Laurel Point, and InnerHarbour which are separated from the Upper Harbour byJohnson Street Bridge, and Selkirk Water which lies N ofthe Upper Harbour and is separated from it by Point ElliceBridge. Ocean-going vessels berth in the Outer Harbour,Middle Harbour and Inner Harbour; Upper Harbour andSelkirk Water are used mainly by tugs, barges and othershallow draught vessels.Seaplane Operating Area2.1621 Victoria Harbour is a seaplane harbour. The operatingarea is from McLoughlin Point (2.169) to Colville Island5¼ cables NE, and between Berens Island (2.169) andLaurel Point 6 cables E. Aeronautical strobe lights,activated by the Flight Service Station to alert mariners ofaircraft landing or taking off, are exhibited from BerensIsland Light (2.167), Shoal Point Light (2.169), Pelly IslandLight (2.169), and Laurel Point Light (2.167).Submarine cables2.1631 Several submarine cables, some with power in them, areshown on the chart.Natural conditions2.1641 Streams off the entrance set generally SE on thein-going and NW on the out-going with rates of ½ kn to2 kn. Within the harbour the streams are of littleconsequence, except in the reaches above Selkirk Water.See also information on the chart.2.1651 See climatic table for Victoria 1.188.Landmarks2.1661 Brotchie Ledge Light (2.123).Ogden Point Breakwater Light (2.167).(Photograph − Waite Airphotos Inc)Victoria from WNW (2.161)(Original dated 2003)Home Contents Index
  • 87. CHAPTER 274Directions(continued from 2.123)Harbour entrance to Inner Harbour2.1671 The harbour entrance is easily recognized by thebreakwater and a long low grey building close N on the Eside of the entrance.From a position W of Ogden Point (48°24′⋅9N,123°23′⋅0W), the route into Victoria Outer Harbour leadsNNE, passing (with positions relative to Berens IslandLight (48°25′⋅4N, 123°23′⋅5W)):2 ESE of V21 Light-buoy (port hand) (7 cables SW),marking a rock with a depth of 8⋅5 m over it,thence:WNW of Ogden Point Breakwater (6 cables S) fromthe head of which a light (white square tower, redband at bottom, 7 m in height) is exhibited, thence:SSW of Harrison Island (5 cables SW), 3 m high andbare. From this position there is a direct approachto the piers N of Ogden Point. Thence:3 ESE of McLoughlin Point (3½ cables SSW) andthrough the seaplane operating area. A group of oiltanks stand on the E side of the point, thence:ESE of Work Point (1 cable WSW). Rose Bay, whichis entered between McLoughlin Point and WorkPoint, is shallow and used as a booming ground.Work Island is a bare islet close S of Work Point,thence:4 ESE of Berens Island, which is a bare islet. A light(white round tower, green band) is exhibited fromthe SE side of the islet. See 2.162 for details ofthe aero light. A drying reef extends from the Nside of the island and its extremity is marked byV23 Buoy (port hand). Thence:WNW of Shoal Point Light (white round tower, redband at top, on 19−pile dolphin) (2 cables E),standing on a drying rock and marking the shoalwater extending W from Shoal Point. See 2.162for details of the aero light. Thence:5 The route continues E into the Middle Harbour andthrough the seaplane operating area (2.162) to InnerHarbour, passing:S of Coffin Island Point (2½ cables NNE) andColville Island, close SE; both are small and bare.West Bay, entered between Berens Island andColville Island, is very shallow. Thence:6 S of Pelly Island Light (white round tower, greenband) (3½ cables ENE), exhibited from an islet1 m high on the N side of the fairway. See 2.162for details of the aero light. A beacon (port hand)marks Sleeper Rock, which dries 1⋅5 m, closeWNW of Pelly Island. Thence:7 Into the Inner Harbour through the narrows betweenLaurel Point Light (white round tower, red band)(6 cables E), exhibited from a drying rock close Nof the point, and Songhees Point, situated on the Nshore of the narrows 1 cable NE of Laurel Point,passing NW of James Bay (8 cables E). See 2.162for details of the aero light. The fairway betweenSonghees Point and Laurel Point is reduced to½ cable by shoals extending from both shores.Numerous jetties and pontoons line the S shorebetween Laurel Point and Shoal Point 5 cables W.Tuzo Rock Light (white round tower, green band)is exhibited from a rock close E of SongheesPoint. A beacon (white round tower, green band)marks Discovery Rock, which dries 0⋅9 m and liesat the edge of a drying bank which extends¼ cable offshore 1½ cables NE of Songhees Point.Thence:8 As required for the designated berth.Caution. A buoy (orange and white) moored 1¼ cablesW of Songhees Point marks the E limit of the seaplaneoperating area. Non-power driven vessels must keep N ofthis buoy when transiting from the Inner to MiddleHarbours.Johnson Street Bridge2.1681 Johnson Street Bridge (2.153) is a bascule bridge whichcarries the road and railway across the narrows betweenInner Harbour and Upper Harbour close N of DiscoveryRock. Lights are exhibited from the bridge and there aresome dolphins on each side of the approach.2 The bridge is manned from 0800 to 1600 hours daily; itwill not be opened, except in an emergency, from 0700 to0900 and from 1600 to 1800 on weekdays. Openingoutside these times requires prior arrangement.Upper Harbour2.1691 Description. Upper Harbour extends from JohnsonStreet Bridge to Point Ellice Bridge (2.153), a fixed bridge4 cables NNW. There are booming grounds off the W shoreclose N of Hope Point, which is situated 1½ cables N ofJohnson Street Bridge, and off the E shore at the entranceto Rock Bay, 2 cables farther N.Selkirk Water2.1701 Description. Selkirk Water, throughout which the depthsare less than 5⋅2 m, extends 5 cables NW from Point ElliceBridge to Chapman Point; farther NW it enters the narrowsof Gorge Water where depths are less than 3 m. There areextensive booming grounds on both sides of the harbour.An overhead cable, with a vertical clearance of 26⋅8 m,spans Selkirk Water, 1½ cables above Point Ellice Bridge.2 Sister Rocks, which dry 2⋅7 m, lie on the W side of thefairway, 2 cables above Point Ellice Bridge; they aremarked by a beacon (port hand).Halkett Island, 4⋅6 m high and bare, lies ¾ cable N ofSister Rocks. A group of drying rocks, ¼ cable SW of theisland, is marked by V24 buoy (starboard hand).3 The Selkirk Trestle Bridge spans Selkirk Water; it isusually closed but will be opened upon request bycontacting the Johnson Street Bridge operator.Several pipelines and a submarine cable cross SelkirkWater 1 cable SE of Chapman Point.Basins and berthsAnchorages2.1711 Anchorage can be obtained in that part of Outer Harbourwhich lies within 2½ cables N of the harbour entrance.This is a safe anchorage in good weather with offshorewinds, but is not recommended in winter when the onset ofbad weather can be very sudden. Permission to anchorinside Ogden Breakwater must be obtained from theHarbour Master.2 Prohibited anchorages. Anchoring is prohibited S of aline joining Macaulay Point (2.121) and the head of OgdenPoint Breakwater (2.123). Vessels wishing to anchor in theapproaches must obtain permission from the HarbourHome Contents Index
  • 88. CHAPTER 275Master and then use one of the six designated anchorages,lettered A to F on the chart, in Royal Roads.3 Anchoring is prohibited throughout the Inner Harbour,bounded on the W by a line between Shoal Point Light(2.169) and Berens Island Light (48°25′⋅4N, 123°23′⋅5W)(2.169) and on the N by Johnson Street Bridge (2.168).Berths2.1721 Numerous piers, wharfs and jetties line the E side of theOuter Harbour, and both sides for most of the remainder ofthe harbour.The principal berths are:Outer Harbour. A pair of large piers lie close withinOgden Point Breakwater:Pier A: largest berth N side, length 305 m, least depth10⋅7 m.2 Pier B: both sides, length 244 m, depths 10⋅7 to12⋅5 m N side, 9⋅4 to 11⋅3 m S side.Canadian Coastguard Wharf close S of Shoal Point:length 220 m, depths 3⋅1 to 9 m.Imperial Oil Jetty on E side of McLoughlin Point onthe W side of the entrance: length 50 m with threemooring dolphins, depth 6⋅2 m. A charted depth of2⋅7 m lies close N of the N dolphin.3 Middle harbour:Island Research and Development Wharf, 1¼ cables Eof Shoal Point Light: depth 4⋅6 m.Tanker berth close E of Island Research andDevelopment Wharf: length 30 m, depth 5⋅8 m.Inner Harbour. James Bay:4 A wharf on the W side of the bay used by ferries:length 148 m. The extension SE to this wharf is162 m long and is used by the Black Ball Ferry.Ship Point Wharf on the NE side of the bay: S sidelength 155 m, depth 6 m.N of Ship Point Wharf is a catamaran ferry terminal, aseaplane terminal, Fisheries Protection Wharf and theCustoms Wharf.Upper Harbour is surrounded by an industrial complex.Port services2.1731 Repairs. Hull and machinery repairs can be undertaken;large vessels have to go to Esquimalt for underwaterrepairs.Other facilities: hospitals; oily waste disposal; salvageservices.2 Supplies: fuel alongside or by barge; fresh water atmost berths; provisions.Communications. Regular ferry services throughout theyear to Vancouver, Port Angeles and Seattle. VictoriaInternational Airport 22 km N.Small craft2.1741 West Bay Marina lies on the SW side of West Bay(2.167). A channel, dredged to 1⋅5 m, leads NW throughWest Bay to the marina. V23 Buoy (port hand) serves as amarker for the outer end of this channel, the N side ofwhich is marked by dolphins. A floating breakwaterextends N from the N side of the channel.2 Ten public pontoons lie together on the S side of MiddleHarbour between Shoal Point (48°25′⋅4N, 123°23′⋅2W) andRaymur Point 3 cables E. They are used by pleasure craftduring the fishing season between 30th May and 31stAugust; outside these dates the fishing fleet generally usesthese pontoons.3 Other public pontoons lie on the E side of James Bay(48°25′⋅3N, 123°22′⋅1W), close N of the Customs Wharf(48°22′⋅5N, 123°22′⋅2W) and on the E side of the channelclose S of Johnson Street Bridge.MINOR CHANNELS SOUTH EAST OFVANCOUVER ISLANDGeneral informationCharts 4953, Canadian 3424 (see 1.20)Routes2.1751 Between Victoria and Cadboro Point (48°27′N,123°16′W), the coast is fronted by numerous off-lyingislands and rocks. Ocean-going vessels bound forVancouver or New Westminster proceed outside thesedangers, following the TSS (2.74), and pass E of DiscoveryIsland (2.86). Coastal vessels and others with moderatedraught sometimes pass through them via Mayor Channel(2.178), Baynes Channel (2.184) or Plumper Passage(2.181).Side channelsEnterprise Channel2.1761 General decription. The channel, known locally as TrialIsland Pass, is entered S of McNeil Bay (48°24′⋅7N,123°18′⋅7W), which is shallow and foul on its E side. Itpasses between the N point of Trial Islands (2.86) andMcMicking Point (48°24′⋅6N, 123°18′⋅2W), with AndersonHill, 48 m high and bare, standing close N. Foul ground,extending 2 cables NNW of Trial Islands, reduces the widthof the fairway to less than 1 cable. Mouat Reef, whichdries 0⋅9 m, lies on the N side of the E entrance to thechannel, 2 cables ESE of McMicking Point; there is a rock,with a depth of 1⋅5 m over it, ¾ cable SW of the reef; foulground extends from the reef to the shore N. The reef ismarked by VE Buoy (S cardinal) and by kelp in thesummer and autumn.2 Local knowledge is required.Tidal streams in the channel attain rates of 3 kn.Submarine cables are laid across the W approaches tothe channel from the Trial Islands to Ross Bay (48°24′⋅3N,123°20′⋅5W) and Harling Point, 7 cables E. Anothersubmarine cable is laid across the channel and a seweroutfall, 1 cable W of Mickling Point, extends 1 cable S intothe channel.2.1771 Clearing marks:Harling Point seen between the two Trial Islands,bearing 284°, leads 2 cables S of Brodie Rock.The N extremity of the smaller Trial Island in linewith Harling Point, bearing 269°, leads 1½ cablesN of the rock.See 2.180 for clearing marks leading E of the rock.Mayor Channel2.1781 Description. Mayor Channel, with Thames Shoal (2.180)and Harris Island (2.180) on the W and Great Chain Island(2.180) on the E, is much used by vessels of a moderatedraught; it is about 3 cables wide at its narrowest width.2 Depths. A rock, with a depth of 7 m over it, lies inmid-channel between Thames Shoal (48°25′N, 123°17′W)and Great Chain Island, 4 cables ENE.Home Contents Index
  • 89. CHAPTER 276Tidal streams follow the general direction of MayorChannel attaining rates of 2 to 3 kn.2.1791 Landmarks:A radio tower (47 m high), stands on VantreightIsland (48°26′⋅3N, 123°15′⋅3W).Two radio towers (48°26′⋅5N, 123°15′⋅3W) (2.87),standing on the S part of Strongtide Islet.Three radio towers (48°26′N, 123°15′W) (2.87),standing on the E Chatham Island.2.1801 Directions. From a position E of Brodie Rock (2.86),the channel leading NNW, is approached and entered fromS, passing (with positions relative to Fiddle Reef Light(48°25′⋅8N, 123°17′⋅0W)):ENE of Thames Shoal (7 cables S), with a least depthof 4⋅0 m over it, and a rock, with a depth of 6⋅1 mover it, close S, thence:2 Either side of a patch of shoal water (6 cables SSE),with a depth of 7⋅0 m over it, thence:ENE of Lee Rock (6½ cables SSW), which dries,with V25 Buoy (port hand) moored close S; MouatChannel, between Thames Shoal and Lee Rock, isseldom used. And:3 WSW of the W extremity of Great Chain Island(5½ cables SSE), which is the largest of the ChainIslets, a group of bare islets, reefs and rocks on anextensive shoal area which extends 4 cables NEand 6 cables ESE of Great Chain Island. Thence:4 ENE of Harris Island (4 cables SSW), which is 2⋅7 mhigh and lies 2¼ cables N of Lee Rock. A reef,which dries in parts, extends 1 cable N and1½ cables S from the island; a beacon (port hand)stands at the N end of the reef. Thence:The route continues NE within the white sector(013⋅3°–216°) of Fiddle Reef Light, passing:5 SE of Fiddle Reef Light (white round tower),exhibited from the reef which dries and lies on theNW side of the channel. A beacon (starboardhand) stands on Tod Rock, which dries 1⋅8 m andlies 2 cables NW of Fiddle Reef; there are shoalsbetween it and Fiddle Reef. And:6 NW of Lewis Reef Light (white round tower, redband) (3 cables SE), which is exhibited from LewisReef on the E side of the channel 2¾ cables NNWof Great Chain Island (48°25′⋅2N, 123°16′⋅5W).Thence:7 SE of foul ground, with a least depth of 4⋅9 m overit, extending 2 cables SE of Jemmy Jones Island(1 mile NNE), which is bare and lies 4 cables SEof the entrance to Cadboro Bay (2.191). Thepassage N of the island is foul and shoal waterextends 2 cables E of the island. And:To a position W of Channel Point (1 mile ENE)(2.182) on the S side of the entrance to BaynesChannel.8 Clearing marks: Cadboro Point (2.188) in line with theE extremity of Great Chain Island, leads 2 cables E ofBrodie Rock.The alignment (034°) of Channel Point (2.182) with theNW extremity of Great Chain Island (above), leads1½ cables SE of Thames Shoal.(Directions for Baynes Channel continue at 2.188)Plumper Passage2.1811 Description. Plumper Passage leads NW with VirtueRock and Chain Islets on the W, and Discovery Island andChatham Islands on the E.2 Depths in the passage range from 12⋅2 to 48 m. Foulground fringes the E side of the passage to a distance of1¼ cables.3 Tidal streams in Hecate Passage and Plumper Passageattain rates of 3 to 5 kn which vary with the width of thechannel. The in-going tidal stream begins almostimmediately after LW by the shore and sets for about3¾ hours, after which there is a period of slack water. Theout-going tidal stream then sets until LW by the shore, orfor about 7 hours. See Canadian Tide Tables Volumes 5and 6.4 Landmarks see Directions. From a position SW of Commodore Point,the route leads NW for 2 miles, to where it meets BaynesChannel, passing (with positions relative to CommodorePoint (48°25′⋅2N, 123°14′⋅3W)):2 Between Virtue Rock (6½ cables W), which has adepth of 0⋅6 m over it, and the foul groundextending W from Discovery Island, thence:NE of Carolina Reef (1¼ miles WNW), which dries1⋅2 m and is the N danger of the Chain Isletsgroup, thence:3 W of Heritage Point (1 mile NW), the SW extremityof the W island of the Chatham Islands, a groupof islands which are low and wooded and lie NWof Discovery Island, from which they are separatedby a narrow boat passage; they are fringed byreefs and shoal water, thence:4 W of Channel Point (1½ miles NW), a bare islet 3 mhigh at the NW extremity of the Chatham Islandsat the entrance to Baynes Channel.Clearing bearing. The line of bearing 330° of JemmyJones Island (2.180) passes between Virtue Rock and thefoul ground extending W of Discovery Island; itscontinuation passes W of Heritage Point.(Directions for Baynes Channel continue at 2.188)Hecate Passage2.1831 Description. Hecate Passage leads NNW between VirtueRock (2.182) (48°25′⋅1N, 123°15′⋅2W), which lies6½ cables W of Commodore Point (2.86), and SpencerLedge, which extends from the SE side of Chain Islets andhas a depth of 4⋅3 m over it, with a least depth of 2⋅4 m,½ cable NNW. The passage has depths of 7⋅9 to 24 m inthe fairway.2 Tidal streams see 2.181.Landmarks see 2.179.Directions – clearing bearings. The line of bearing351° of Cadboro Point (2.188), open W of Channel Point(48°26′⋅3N, 123°15′⋅6W), passes between Virtue Rock andSpencer Ledge. Thence the line of bearing 335° of JemmyJones Island (2.180) passes W of Channel Point (2.182) atthe entrance to Baynes Channel.(Directions for Baynes Channel continue at 2.188)Home Contents Index
  • 90. CHAPTER 277Baynes Channel2.1841 Description. Baynes Channel leads NE between JemmyJones Island and Cadboro Point on the NW, and ChannelPoint and Strongtide Islet (48°26′⋅5N, 123°15′⋅3W) on theSE.2 Depths. A rock, with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it, liesmidway between Jemmy Jones Island and Strongtide Islet.Foul ground extends up to 2 cables E and SE of JemmyJones Island. Between the 4⋅6 m rock and the ChathamIslands SE, the channel has depths of 7⋅9 to 48 m.2.1851 Tidal streams follow the general direction of BaynesChannel, attaining rates of 2 to 3 kn at its S entrance and 4to 6 kn at its N entrance. The in-going stream sets NE andthe out-going sets SW.The winds can be very changeable in the channel; strongwinds opposing the tidal streams cause heavy tide rips withshort steep seas. Due care should be taken in this area. SeeCanadian Tide Tables Volumes 5 and 6.2.1861 Submarine cables cross the channel from N of CadboroPoint to close N of Strongtide Islet.2.1871 Landmarks see Directions (continued from 2.180, 2.182 and 2.183).From a position W of Channel Point (48°26′⋅3N,123°15′⋅6W), the route leads 7½ cables NE into the HaroStrait, passing (with positions relative to Baynes ChannelNorth Light (48°27′⋅0N, 123°15′⋅7W)):NW of Channel Point (7½ cables SSE), thence:Between the 4⋅6 m rock (3½ cables S) (2.184) andStrongtide Islet, 15 m high and wooded, lying2 cables NE of Channel Point, thence:2 SE of Baynes Channel North Light (white circulartower, green band at top), standing on an isletwhich lies on the extremity of foul groundextending 1 cable ESE of Cadboro Point; the pointis rocky and 15 m high, thence:3 NW of Fulford Reef (1 mile ESE), which is markedon its N extremity by VK Light-buoy (N cardinal).Caution. Fulford Reef consists of submerged and dryingrocks and should be given a wide berth as the tidal streamsin its vicinity are irregular.(Directions for Haro Strait continue at 5.26and for Cordova Channel at 5.54)Anchorages Southeast of Vancouver IslandOak Bay2.1891 Description. Oak Bay, the S part of which has asheltered basin with a large marina and facilities for smallcraft, is entered between breakwaters extending S fromMary Tod Islet and N from Turkey Head (48°25′⋅5N,123°18′⋅0W), the S entrance point of the bay.2 Mary Tod Island, 8 m high, grassy, treeless and fringedwith reefs, lies in the S part of Oak Bay, 1 cable NE ofTurkey Head. A shoal connects the N end of Mary TodIsland with the Vancouver Island shore NW and is markedby stakes. V26 Buoy (starboard hand) marks the extremityof a reef extending W from the island. Mary Tod IslandLight (mast) is exhibited from the head of a breakwaterextending S from the island.3 Robson Reef, parts of which dry, lies 2 cables SE ofMary Tod Island Light; it is marked by a beacon (preferredchannel to starboard). A rock, with a depth of 2⋅1 m overit, lies 1 cable SW of the reef.Emily Islet, 2 cables ENE of Mary Tod Island Light, is2 m high and has foul ground extending ¾ cable N and Wof it.4 Cattle Point, the N entrance point to Oak Bay, issituated 6½ cables NNE of Mary Tod Island. A beacon(junction daymark, preferred channel to port), stands on adrying rock close inshore, 1 cable N of Cattle Point.2.1901 Anchorage can be obtained midway between Mary TodIslet and Cattle Point, in depths of 7 to 8 m; it is notsuitable in SE winds.Cadboro Bay2.1911 Description. Cadboro Bay is entered 5 cables NNE ofCattle Point and, although open SE, is not subject to heavyseas. Tugs and rafts frequently shelter here. Rocks andshoals extend up to 1½ cables from the W side of the bayclose within the entrance. In the NW part of the bay abreakwater protects the moorings of the Royal VictoriaYacht Club. Cadboro Bay and its approach is often usedfor yacht races; various buoys and markers for these racesare likely to be encountered. Several mooring buoys are inthe bay.2 Anchorage can be obtained in the entrance, in depths of7 to 9 m, mud.JUAN DE FUCA STRAIT, EAST PARTGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 4950Description2.1921 The area covered in this section, which extends E froma line joining the E end of Discovery Island (48°25′N,123°14′W) to New Dungeness Light (48°11′N, 123°07′W),to a line joining Point Wilson (48°09′N, 122°45′W) toPoint Partridge (48°13′N, 122°46′W), and S from a linejoining West Point (48°24′N, 122°40′W) to a position5 miles W (48°24′N, 122°47′W), thence to Cadboro Point(48°27′N, 123°16′W), is generally 20 miles wide. There aresome offlying dangers which are described below. The areagives access, on its N side to the various channels leadingthrough the San Juan Islands to the Strait of Georgia andwhich, together with their approaches, are described inChapters 4 and 5. A pattern of TSS’s leads from thechannels on the N side, between several off-lying banks, tothe entrance to Puget Sound at the SE end of Juan de FucaStrait, and to Port Angeles.Routes2.1931 A route (2.201) leads 11 miles E from a position N ofNew Dungeness Light (48°11′N, 123°07′W) to the entranceto Admiralty Inlet. A second route (2.202) leads 15 milesNE to Rosario Strait. Routes also run from Admiralty Inlet20 miles NW to Haro Strait (5.9) and 15 miles N toRosario Strait (4.4). TSSs (2.9) and associatedprecautionary areas have been established for all theseroutes.Home Contents Index
  • 91. CHAPTER 278Topography2.1941 The area is bounded to the S by the US mainland coastwhich is heavily indented by bays and to the E byWhidbey Island (2.204). Admiralty Inlet (3.12) lies betweenthe mainland coast and the SW coast of the island. LopezIsland (4.115) and San Juan Island (4.115) lie to the N ofthe area, with Rosario Strait to the E of Lopez Island andHaro Strait to the W of San Juan Island. There are severalshallow off-lying banks, which lie clear of the TSSs.Traffic regulations2.1951 Restricted areas. A charted area of an air to surfaceweapon range lies W of Smith Island (48°19′N, 122°51′W).Two charted naval restricted areas lie adjacent to the N part(48°22′N, 122°40′W) of the W shore of Whidbey Island. Acharted restricted area, in which anchoring, trawling anddumping is prohibited exists in the NW approach toAdmiralty Inlet N of Point Wilson (48°09′N, 122°45′W).See Appendix X to this volume.Submarine cables2.1961 A submarine cable area, shown on the chart, extends NEand E from Smith Island.Rescue2.1971 Coastguard Air Station is at Port Angeles. See 2.106.Natural conditions2.1981 Tidal streams, 2 miles N of Hein Bank (48°21′N,123°03′W). The in-going stream sets NE and the out-goingSSW with average rates of 1 kn.Close N of Dallas Bank (48°10′N, 122°56′W), thein-going stream sets ESE and the out-going sets W, withaverage rates of ½ and 1¼ kn, respectively.Tidal streams run strongly around Point Wilson(48°09′N, 122°45′W), creating heavy tide rips N of theshoals off the point, especially when a W wind opposes thetidal stream.2 3¾ miles W of Point Partridge, the in-going stream setsSE and the out-going sets WSW, with average rates,respectively, of ½ and 2 kn. Along the coast N of PointPartridge, the out-going sets SSW with an average rate of½ to 1 kn.Tidal streams set strongly in and around Smith Island(48°19′N, 122°51′W) and the shoal area extending W fromit, especially on the in-going stream; a deep draught vesselshould give the area a wide berth, keeping outside the 20 mdepth contour.3 Tide rips, heavy in bad weather and dangerous to smallcraft, occur on and in the vicinity of Middle Bank(48°24′N, 123°06′W).See tidal information on the chart.4 Climate. See climatic tables for Victoria (1.188) andSeattle (1.190).Principal marks2.1991 Landmark:Aero light at Ault Field (48°21′N, 122°40′W) isconspicuous.Major lights:New Dungeness Light (48°10′⋅9N, 123°06′⋅7W)(2.81).Point Wilson Light (48°09′N, 122°45′W) (whiteoctagonal tower on white building, 14 m inheight).2 Point Partridge Light (48°13′N, 122°46′W) (black andwhite chequered diamond on a house).Smith Island Light (48°19′N, 122°51′W) (redtriangular daymark on framework tower, 14 m inheight), exhibited from the W side of the island.Other aids to navigation2.2001 Racons:S Light-buoy (48°12′⋅4N, 123°06′⋅6W).SA Light-buoy (48°11′⋅5N, 122°49′⋅8W).R Light-buoy (48°16′⋅4N, 123°06′⋅6W).RA Light-buoy (48°19′⋅8N, 122°58′⋅7W).Hein Bank No 1 Light-buoy (48°21′⋅8N, 123°02′⋅7W).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Directions to Admiralty Inlet(continued from 2.84)2.2011 From a position N of New Dungeness Light (48°11′N,123°07′W) and No 2 Light-buoy (2.84), the E-bound trafficlane of the TSS leads 11 miles E into the precautionaryarea at the entrance to Admiralty Inlet, passing (withpositions relative to New Dungeness Light):2 S of S Light-buoy (special) (1½ miles N), moored atthe W end of the separation zone, thence:N of Dallas Bank (7 miles E), which extends2¾ miles N of Protection Island (2.207), thence:3 N of McCurdy Point (11¼ miles ESE), which liesalmost midway between Cape George (2.208) andPoint Wilson Light (2.199), 5½ miles ENE. Thecoast between Cape George and Point Wilsonconsists of a line of bare cliffs which are sparselywooded on top and rise to 122 m near McCurdyPoint. No 4 Buoy (starboard hand) marks theextremity of foul ground which extends 5 cables Nof McCurdy Point. Thence:4 S of SA Light-buoy (special) (11¼ miles E), which ismoored in the centre of the precautionary area,thence:SW of a dangerous wreck, the position of which isapproximate, 3½ miles NNW of Point Wilson(48°09′N, 122°45′W).Two miles NW of Point Wilson the route turns SEentering the SE-bound traffic lane of the TSS which leadsinto Admiralty Inlet.5 Caution is necessary, and continuous soundingrecommended, when approaching Point Wilson in poorvisibility. The emission of persistent sulphurous smokefrom the pulp mill at Port Townsend (48°07′N, 122°45′W)(3.28) at times reduces the visibility in the vicinity of PointWilson to 5 cables; the visibility is particularly affectedwhen natural fog occurs at the same time.Home Contents Index
  • 92. CHAPTER 2796 Tidal streams see 2.198.Restricted area see 2.195.(Directions for Admiralty Inlet continue at 3.23)Directions NE from R Light-buoy to theSan Juan Channel and Rosario Strait(continued from 2.84)2.2021 From a position 5 miles N of New Dungeness Light(48°11′N, 123°07′W), the NE-bound traffic lane of the TSSleads 15 miles NE, passing (with positions relative to SmithIsland Light (48°19′⋅1N, 122°50′⋅6W)):SE of R Light-buoy (special) (11 miles WSW), whichmarks the SW end of the separation zone, thence:2 SE of Hein Bank (8¼ miles WNW), which has aleast depth of 4⋅1 m. The shallower parts of thebank are covered with kelp in summer. DHLight-buoy (isolated danger) is moored close N ofthe shallowest part. Hein Bank No 1 Light-buoy(port hand) marks the N edge of the bank, thence:3 SE of RA Light-buoy (special) (5½ miles W), mooredat the centre of the precautionary area in themiddle of the E part of Juan de Fuca Strait,thence:(Directions for San Juan Channel continue at 4.119)4 NW of Smith Island, which lies 6¼ miles NNW ofPartridge Point; its W end rises abruptly to a whitecliff 17 m high. A light (2.199) is exhibited fromthe SW end of the island. From the low E end ofthe island a drying spit of sand, gravel andboulders extends 1 mile ENE to Minor Island, alow rocky islet. A light (2.204) is exhibited fromMinor Island. A bank, on which there is a leastdepth of 7⋅3 m, is covered by kelp and extends1¾ miles W from Smith Island; it has a rock, witha depth of 6⋅7 m over it, at its extremity. Thence:5 SE of McArthur Bank (4½ miles NW), which is smallin extent with a least charted depth of 26 m overit, thence:The route continues for a farther 4½ miles NE to theprecautionary area SE of Lopez Island at the entrance toRosario Strait. The chart is a sufficient guide.(Directions for Rosario Strait continue at 4.19)Directions to Haro Strait from Admiralty Inlet2.2031 From a position NW of SA Light-buoy (special)(48°11′⋅5N, 122°49′⋅8W), the NW-bound traffic lane of theTSS leads 18 miles NW to the entrance to Haro Strait,passing (with positions relative to Smith Island Light(48°19′⋅1N, 122°50′⋅6W)):2 SW of Partridge Bank (3½ miles S) (2.204), thence:SW of Smith Island (2.202), thence:Across the NE edge of Eastern Bank (5½ WSW),which has a least depth of 16⋅5 m over it and isabout 2½ miles in extent, thence:3 NE of RA Light-buoy (special) (5½ miles W) (2.202),NE of Hein Bank (8¼ miles WNW) (2.202), thence:NE of Middle Bank (12 miles WNW), which withdepths of 19⋅8 to 46 m over it, lies in the Sapproach to Haro Strait, with its centre 4 milesNW of Hein Bank. And:NE of Discovery Island (16½ miles WNW) (2.86).(Directions for Haro Strait continue at 5.26)Directions to Rosario Strait fromAdmiralty Inlet2.2041 The NW coast of Whidbey Island from Point Partridge(below) extends NNE for 11½ miles to West Point (below),its NW extremity.Between the coast and the N-bound traffic lane of theTSS to Rosario Strait there are no off-lying dangers, but itshould not be approached closer than 1 mile.From a position NNE of SA Light-buoy (special), theN-bound traffic lane of the TSS leads 11 miles NNE to theprecautionary area at the entrance to Rosario Strait, passing(with positions relative to Smith Island Light (48°19′⋅1N,122°50′⋅6W)):2 WNW of Point Partridge (6½ miles SE), the Wextremity of Whidbey Island. The point has ayellow face and is prominent from N and S, butbecause of its rounded shape is not easilyidentified from W. The coast in the vicinityconsists of a succession of bare light colouredbluffs, rising to 88 m. A light (2.199) is exhibitedfrom the point. No 5 Light-buoy (port hand) ismoored 6 cables WSW of the point and marks theextremity of a rocky ledge extending from thepoint; there is usually kelp on the ledge duringsummer. Thence:3 ESE of Partridge Bank (3½ miles S), which extends 2to 5 miles NW of Point Partridge (48°13′N,122°46′W) and has a least depth of 4⋅3 m near itscentre which is marked by No 1 Buoy (port hand).No 3 Light-buoy (port hand) is moored on the Sedge of the bank, 3 miles WNW of PointPartridge. Kelp grows extensively on the bank indepths of less than 12⋅8 m; it is usually drawnunder by the tidal stream. Thence:4 ESE of Smith Island (2.202), which lies 6¼ milesNNW of Partridge Point, thence:ESE of Minor Island (1 mile ENE), which is smalllow and rocky, and at lowest tide is connected toSmith Island by a gravel and boulder spit. MinorIsland Light (round tower) is exhibited from theisland. Thence:5 To a position WSW of West Point (8¾ miles NE), theNW extremity of Whidbey Island which has auniform sandy shore backed by a low and rollingupland of farm and wooded areas. A shoal, withdepths of less than 7 m over it, extends 5 cables Wof West Point. An aero light (2.199) is exhibited3½ miles S of West Point.6 Tidal streams see 2.198.Restricted area see 2.195.(Directions continue at 4.20)Bays and anchorages Dungeness Spit to PointWilson and Point Partridge to West PointChart 49502.2051 Dungeness Bay (48°10′N, 123°07′W) on the S side ofJuan de Fuca Strait is entered between Dungeness Spit andthe coast 2 miles S. The S side and head of the bay isshallow for a distance of 7½ cables offshore. At the headof the bay there is a shallow lagoon accessible only bysmall craft with local knowledge.Submarine cables. A submarine cable area, shown onthe chart, extends across the head of the bay.Home Contents Index
  • 93. CHAPTER 2802 Anchorage. The best anchorage can be found about1 mile SE of New Dungeness Light in depths of 9 to16⋅5 m, mud, clear of the submarine cable area. There isgood shelter from W winds, but the protection from Nwinds is only fair and the bay is exposed to the E. The bayis a dangerous place during winter gales, especially fromSE.3 Dungeness is a small town on the S side of the bay. Theruins of a former wharf extend about 5 cables out from theshore fronting the town.2.2061 Sequim Bay (48°04′N, 123°01′W) is entered 6 milesSSE of Dungeness Bay; the coast between is low, swampyand wooded, and fringed by a shallow bank extending1 mile offshore in places. Sequim Bay, deep and landlockedis 3⋅8 miles long; it is separated from Juan de Fuca Straitby Travis Spit, a sandspit which extends W almost to theW shore from Kiapot Point at the NE corner of the bay. Along narrow channel marked by light-buoys and buoysleads around Travis Spit and W of Middle Ground, adrying shoal area close S of Travis Spit. There is a leastdepth of 2⋅7 m in the entrance. No 2 Light-buoy (starboardhand) is moored at the entrance to the channel. The areabetween No 2 Light-buoy and Gibson Spit, on the W shore5 cables W, is reported to dry and several groundings havebeen known to occur. Strong currents follow the channel.2 Local knowledge is required.Submarine cable crosses the entrance channel.Anchorages can be found anywhere within the bay indepths of 11 to 37 m, mud.Small craft. A marina with full facilities, includingrepairs, lies in a cove just N of Pitship Point, on the Wshore about 1 mile S of the entrance.2.2071 Protection Island, 67 m high and sparsely wooded, lieswith Kanem Point (48°07′N, 122°57′W), its SW extremity,2 miles NW of Diamond Point (2.208). Violet Point, the Eextremity, is situated 1½ miles ENE of Kanem Point. TheN coast consists of bare, light-coloured bluffs; a water tankstands near the centre of the S coast. No 1 buoy (porthand) is moored 1 mile WSW of Kanem Point and marksthe extremity of a shoal extending from the island. Ashallow bank fringes the N side of the island to a distanceof 7½ cables and Dallas Bank (2.201) extends 2 milesfarther N. The channel S of Protection Island is deep andfree of dangers.2 Tidal streams see 2.198 (Dallas Bank).2.2081 Discovery Bay is entered between Diamond Point(48°05′⋅7N, 122°54′⋅9W) and Cape George, 1¼ miles ENEand extends 7 miles S. The entrance is not easily identifiedfrom seaward since it is masked by Protection Island whichprotects it from NW winds. An aero light is exhibited6 cables W of the point. The bay dries 7 cables from itshead, where there are a number of piles and dolphins.In 1792, Vancouver refitted his ships here beforeexploring these regions.2 Anchorage. A good anchorage can be obtained1¼ miles from its head, in a depth of 15 to 18 m, mud.Submarine cables cross the bay at Cape George and3 miles within the entrance.Small craft. A marina is located at Cape George.2.2091 Useful mark:Aero light (48°06′N, 122°56′W), 6 cables W ofDiamond Point.Home Contents Index
  • 94. NOTES81Home Contents Index
  • 95. Juan de FucaStraitHaro StraitStraitRosarioPoint PartridgeDeceptionPassPort TownsendDouble BluffScratchetHeadState ofWashingtonState ofWashingtonWHIDBEYISLANDEverettSeattleTacomaEdwards PointWest PointAlki PointLakeWashingtonThree Tree PointOlympiaPuget SoundNaval ShipyardHoodCanalPUG ETSOUNDAdmiralty Head823.4773.4403.4293.143.3793.1473.1063.1933.2243.1933.2533.2803.3003.3163.2633.4103.4103.2783.4813.4403.143.283.1223.3163.2273.2273.1413.643.46480495146464747485151485019471004495047°48°122°Longitude 123° West from Greenwich47°48°122°123°30´30´30´30´30´30´Chapter 3 - Puget Sound including Hood Canal,Lake Washington and waters east of Whidbey IslandHome Contents Index
  • 96. 83CHAPTER 3PUGET SOUND INCLUDING HOOD CANAL, LAKE WASHINGTON ANDWATERS EAST OF WHIDBEY ISLANDGENERAL INFORMATIONCharts 46, 1947 (see 1.20)Scope of the chapter3.11 Puget Sound is the comprehensive name for the greatarm of the sea which, with many branches andramifications, extends some 90 miles S from the SE end ofJuan de Fuca Strait (48°11′N, 122°50′W). The name wasbestowed by Captain Vancouver RN to commemorate theexploration of these waters by Lieutenant Puget RN in1792.2 The chapter covers Puget Sound between its N entrypoints, Point Wilson (48°09′N, 122°45′W) on QuimperPeninsula and Point Partridge (48°14′N, 122°46′W) onWhidbey Island. It includes the waters lying E of WhidbeyIsland, which are Skagit Bay (48°17′N, 122°30′W),Saratoga Passage (48°05′N, 122°26′W) and PossessionSound (48°56′N, 122°20′W).3 Included in this chapter are the ports of Seattle(47°36′N, 122°20′W) (3.141), Tacoma (47°15′N, 122°25′W)(3.227), Everett (48°00′N, 122°13′W) (3.440) and Olympia(47°03′N, 122°54′W) (3.316), the capital of the State ofWashington, situated at the head of the sound 40 miles SWof Seattle. There is a major US Naval Base and Dockyard(47°33′N, 122°38′W) (3.122) in Sinclair Inlet which openson the W side of Puget Sound opposite Seattle.Hazards3.21 Navigation of the area is comparatively easy in clearweather as outlying dangers are few and marked by aids.However, deep draught traffic is considerable in the largerpassages and smaller vessels operate throughout the area.Floating logs and deadheads might be encounteredanywhere in Puget Sound.2 The sides of the various inlets and channels comprisingPuget Sound consist mainly of timber topped bluffs, 15 to150 m high, which are generally so similar in appearanceas to make it difficult to identify individual points.Although the ramifications of the sound contain severalhundred miles of sheltered waters, it should be noted thatthe depths are nearly everywhere so great that anchoragesare difficult to find.3.31 Visibility. Fog in the area of the sound causes visibilityproblems on about 25 to 40 days each year. It is mostlikely to hinder navigation in the autumn and again duringJanuary and February; it is least likely to occur duringApril and May. The fog is mainly of the radiation typewhich forms on cool clear calm nights and dissipatesduring the day. It is more frequent in the N and S parts ofthe area than in the main part of the sound.2 In the entrance and approach to Puget Sound, and inAdmiralty Inlet, visibility is at times seriously reduced bypersistent sulphurous smoke emitted by a large papermill atPort Townsend (48°06′N, 122°45′W).Pilotage3.41 Pilotage is compulsory, see 1.35.Vessel Traffic Service3.51 Vessel Traffic Service Scheme with full radarsurveillance is maintained for the control of shipping, fordetails, and list of reporting points, see Admiralty List ofRadio Signals Volume 6(5). Positions of reporting points areshown on the chart.Traffic regulations3.61 Traffic separation scheme. A TSS is in operation in themain channel of Puget Sound between its entrance and theapproach to Tacoma. This TSS is IMO-adopted and Rule10 of the International Regulations for PreventingCollisions at Sea (1972) apply.3.71 Escort requirement for certain tankers. See 1.65 andAppendix IX for details.3.81 Restricted areas. Floating security barriers have beeninstalled at various US Naval installations throughout PugetSound. The barriers are marked by numerous quick flashingyellow lights and approximately mark the restricted areasurrounding the installation.Rescue3.91 A US Coastguard Station is located at Seattle on the Sside of the Lake Washington Ship Canal (47°39′⋅8N,122°23′⋅5W), 8 cables E of the W entrance.A Coastguard vessel is stationed at Everett (48°00′N,122°12′W).A US Coastguard Air Station is located at Port Angeles(48°08′⋅4N, 123°24′⋅5W).See 1.100 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.Natural conditions3.101 Tidal streams in Puget Sound generally run in thedirection of the channels. In Admiralty Inlet the streams arestrong with rates of up to 7 kn; in the more open waters tothe S, the streams are generally much weaker, but in someof the narrower passages rates of 6 kn are at times attained.Throughout Puget Sound the tidal streams are subject tomarked daily inequalities. For greater detail see US TidalCurrent Tables, Pacific Coast of North America and Asia.2 During strong S and SE winds, which are most prevalentin winter, there is usually a N-going surface drift whicheffectively increases or decreases the strength of the tidalstream, according to the direction in which the latter isrunning, by about ½ knot.Further details are given in the appropriate part of thetext.Home Contents Index
  • 97. CHAPTER 3843.111 Winds are mainly SE to SW from autumn to spring, andNW to N in late spring and summer. The strongest windsare usually from a S direction and therefore more frequentin winter. However, winter directions are still common insummer, as are summer directions in winter. From autumnthrough to spring, depressions moving through or nearPuget Sound are responsible for the mainly S flow. Intensestorms can generate sustained winds of 40 to 50 kn overthe area. These strong winds are almost always from a Sdirection.2 In the Seattle area, sustained winds of 56 kn and gustsof 60 kn have been recorded. On the average, winds arestrongest in winter and early spring. Calm conditions arefrequent in autumn and winter, reflecting the lull betweendepressions. In late spring and summer, winds flow intoPuget Sound from the Pacific High. Often winds are lightand variable at night and then pick up to 8 to 15 kn duringthe afternoon, thus reflecting the sea breeze effect over thesound. Occasionally, a low or front will bring a return to aS flow during the summer, and on the average these windsremain the strongest.ADMIRALTY INLETGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 46Area covered3.121 Admiralty Inlet is the name given to the outer part ofPuget Sound. It is entered between Point Wilson (48°09′N,122°45′W) (2.201) and Point Partridge (48°13′N,122°46′W) (2.204), 5 miles N, and extends 15 miles SSE tobecome Puget Sound proper. Included in this section areAdmiralty Bay and Mutiny Bay on the E side of the inletand Port Townsend, Kilisut Harbour, Port Townsend Canal,Oak Bay and Port Ludlow on the W side of the inlet.Topography3.131 Admiralty Inlet is bounded on the E by Whidbey Island,which is indented by Admiralty Bay and Mutiny Bay, andto the W by the Quimper Peninsula. Marrowstone Islandeffectively divides the inlet into E and W parts with PortTownsend lying between the N part of the island and theQuimper Peninsula, and Oak Bay between the S part of theisland and the peninsula.ROUTE THROUGH ADMIRALTY INLETGeneral informationChart 46Route3.141 From a position NW of Point Wilson (48°09′N,122°45′W), the route leads 16 miles in a generally SSEdirection in the S bound traffic lane of the TSS to aposition between Foulweather Bluff (47°56′⋅4N,122°36′⋅7W) and Double Bluff, 3 miles NE.Pilotage3.151 Pilotage is compulsory, see 1.35.Traffic Regulations3.161 Traffic separation scheme. The TSS extends 16 milesSSE, to the entrance to Puget Sound proper, through the Eside of the inlet from the precautionary area NW of PointWilson. SC Light-buoy (special) (48°02′N, 122°38′W) andSD Light-buoy (special) (47°58′N, 122°35′W) are mooredin the centreline of the separation zone and mark alterationsin the route of the TSS between Admiralty Bay (48°09′N,122°39′W) and Double Bluff, 11 miles SSE.Restricted area3.171 An area, which includes the precautionary area, in whichanchoring, trawling and dumping is prohibited, lies in theentrance and approach to Admiralty Inlet and is indicatedon the chart. See Appendix X to this volume.Submarine cables3.181 Submarine power cables cross Admiralty Inlet betweenPoint Wilson and Admiralty Head (48°09′N, 122°41′W). Asubmarine cable area lies within the NW-bound traffic lane.Spoil ground3.191 A spoil ground (48°08′⋅0N, 122°42′⋅4W), 3 cables indiameter, lies in the SE bound traffic lane 2 miles ESE ofPoint Wilson.Tidal streams3.201 In a position 1½ miles NE of Point Wilson, tidal streamsset 110° on the in-going stream and 295° on the out-goingstream, with a rate of 3½ kn. Tidal streams run stronglyaround the point, creating heavy tide rips N of the shoalsoff the point, especially when a W wind opposes the tidalstream.2 In a position 1 mile NE of Marrowstone Point (48°06′N,122°41′W), tidal streams set 150° on the in-going streamand 345° on the out-going, with rates, respectively, of 2¼and 2½ kn.In a position 1 mile W of Bush Point (48°02′N,122°36′W), tidal streams set 180° on the in-going streamand 005° on the out-going, with rates of 1½ and 2½ kn,respectively. The in-going stream is reported to set stronglyon to Bush Point.3 Tide-rips at times form around Foulweather Bluff(47°56′N, 122°37′W) and are sufficiently heavy to endangersmall craft and to break up log rafts. These are mostdangerous when the out-going stream from the main part ofPuget Sound and that setting out of Hood Canal meet offthe bluff, and particularly so if the out-going stream isopposed by a N wind.4 In a position 1 mile ENE of Foulweather Bluff, thein-going stream sets 115° and the out-going stream 335°,with rates of 1½ and 1¾ kn respectively.Strong tide-rips, which are at times dangerous to smallcraft, occur off Double Bluff (47°58′N, 122°33′W),particularly when the out-going stream is opposed by astrong NW wind. There is frequently an eddy in MutinyBay, which lies N of Double Bluff.Home Contents Index
  • 98. CHAPTER 385See also the tidal information on the chart and UnitedStates Tidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast of North Americaand Asia.Principal marks3.211 Landmarks:A disused lighthouse (12 m in elevation), stands onthe coast 5 cables NNW of Admiralty Head(48°09′N, 122°41′W).A tall prominent grey-green tank (48°05′N,122°36′W), stands close N of Lagoon Point,5½ miles SSE of Admiralty Head.2 Foulweather Bluff (47°56′⋅4N, 122°36′⋅7W), on the Wside at the S end of Admiralty Inlet. The N face ofthe bluff consists of a bare, greyish cliff 57 mhigh, which is wooded on top and is one of themost prominent headlands in the whole of PugetSound. The W face is also high and steep but theE side is lower and sloping.3 Major lights:Point Wilson Light (48°08′⋅7N, 122°45′⋅3W) (2.199).Point Partridge Light (48°13′⋅5N, 122°46′⋅2W)(2.204).Other aid to navigation3.221 Racon:SA Light-buoy (48°11′⋅5N, 122°49′⋅8W) (2.201).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Directions(continued from 2.201)Point Wilson to Nodule Point3.231 From a position SE of SA Light-buoy (48°11′⋅5N,122°50′⋅0W) (2.201), the SE-bound traffic lane of the TSSleads 15 miles SE and SSE to the entrance to Puget Sound,passing (with positions relative to Admiralty Head(48°09′N, 122°41′W)):SW of a dangerous wreck, the position of which isapproximate, (5 miles NW), thence:2 NE of Point Wilson Light (2.199) (3 miles W). No 6Light-buoy (starboard hand) marks the limit of foulground which extends 5 cables offshore within7 cables W of Point Wilson; kelp is usually presentand tide rips affect this area. Thence:(Directions for Port Townsend continue at 3.43)SW of Admiralty Head, a steep rocky promontory,24 m high, situated 5½ miles SE of Point Partridge(2.204); the coast between consists of barelight-coloured bluffs. Thence:3 NE and E of Marrowstone Point Light (white squarestructure, 6 m in height) (3¼ miles S), exhibitedfrom the NE extremity of Marrowstone Island. Theextremity is low, but close W rises to a bluff about37 m high. A pier 6 cables S of the point is inruins. A fish haven lies close E of the pier. Pilingextends up to 2½ cables offshore between ½ and1¾ miles W of Marrowstone Point. Forinformation on tidal streams see 3.20. Thence:4 W of Lagoon Point (5½ miles SSE), close N ofwhich stands a prominent tank (3.21). AdmiraltyBay lies between the point and Admiralty Head.The bay has a rocky bottom, is subject to strongtidal streams and is exposed SW. Thence:E of Nodule Point (7½ miles SSE), a roundedtree-clad bluff on the SE side of MarrowstoneIsland. The coast from Nodule Point to 1½ milesN should be given a berth of 5 cables, and:5 W of Bush Point Light (white pyramidal building,6 m in height) (8 miles SSE), exhibited from thepoint at the end of a low wooded sandspit. SCLight-buoy (special) is moored midway betweenthe two points where the TSS alters to the SE.(Directions for Hood Canal continue at 3.386)Nodule Point to Foulweather Bluff3.241 From a position E of Nodule Point (48°02′N, 122°40′W)the route continues SE, passing (with positions relative toNodule Point):NE of Foulweather Bluff (6 miles SSE) (3.21). Arocky spit extends 6 cables N and NE fromFoulweather Bluff. No 2 Light-buoy (starboardhand) is moored on the spit 4 cables N of thebluff. and:2 WSW of Double Bluff Light (green and whitediamond on framework tower) (6¼ miles SE),standing on the S extremity of the bluff. DoubleBluff consists of bare white cliffs, 91 to 122 mhigh on its SE face, but much lower on its SWside. No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) marks the edgeof shoal water extending 3 cables SW of the bluff.SD Light-buoy (special), is moored midwaybetween the two bluffs where the TSS alters to theSE.(Directions continue at 3.72)Harbour and Anchorages East Side ofAdmiralty InletKeystone Harbor3.251 Description. Keystone Harbor (48°09′N, 122°40′W),which is a small natural basin close E of Admiralty Head,has a short breakwater projecting from the E side of itsentrance with a light (red triangle on platform) at its head.Another light stands on piles on the W side of theentrance. A vehicular ferry operates between the terminal atthe head of Keystone Harbor and Port Townsend (3.28)from mid-April to mid-October.2 Controlling depths. In 2001 the controlling depths inthe entrance channel and basin were 5⋅8 m and 5⋅2 to 6⋅7 mrespectively, with much lesser depths alongside. The chartand the Port Authority should be consulted for the latestcontrolling depth.Anchorages3.261 In the event of being overtaken by fog, a temporaryanchorage can be found 5 cables N of Foulweather Bluff indepths of not less than 18⋅3 m. Similarly, another temporaryanchorage can be had in the middle of Mutiny Bay(47°59′N, 122°34′W), in depths of 19 to 37 m. The bay liesbetween Bush Point and Double Bluff; there are clay bluffsat both ends but the head of the bay is low and flat.Home Contents Index
  • 99. CHAPTER 386(Photograph − Townsend from SE (3.28)(Original dated 2003)ADMIRALTY INLET, WEST SIDEGeneral informationChart 46Description3.271 The W side of Admiralty Inlet comprises all the watersW of a line joining Point Wilson and Marrowstone Point,and W of a line joining Liplip Point (48°01′N, 122°40′W)at the SE extremity of Marrowstone Island, andFoulweather Bluff.Port TownsendChart 46 with plan of Port TownsendGeneral information3.281 Position. The entrance to Port Townsend (48°06′N,122°45′W), lies about 5 miles S of the entrance toAdmiralty Inlet and some 80 miles E of the entrance toJuan de Fuca Strait.3.291 Function. Paper products are exported and fishingvessels, small craft and fuelling barges use the port. Apassenger and vehicular ferry operates between PortTownsend and Keystone Harbor (3.25). Another ferryoperates between Port Townsend, Victoria BC, FridayHarbour (48°32′⋅2N, 123°00′⋅9W) on San Juan Island, andSeattle from late April through mid-October. Port Townsendis a port of entry.3.301 Topography. Port Townsend, entered between PointHudson (48°07′N, 122°45′W) and Marrowstone Point, is aninlet extending 5½ miles SSW. It is an excellent harbourwith good anchorages throughout and is easily entered.The town of Port Townsend stands on the NW side ofthe inlet, immediately W of Point Hudson.3.311 Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by 3 vessels with atotal deadweight 67 397 tonnes.3.321 Port Authority. Port Authority of Port Townsend, 333Benedict Street, PO Box 1180, Port Townsend, WA 98368.Limiting conditions3.331 Deepest and longest berth: Papermill Pier at Glen Cove(3.46).3.341 Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅3 m; mean neaprange about 0⋅6 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.3.351 Largest vessel handled: length 226⋅9 m, 66 044 dwt.Arrival information3.361 ETA. See Pilotage is compulsory, see Quarantine is enforced in accordance with theregulations of the US Public Health Service (1.69).Harbour3.391 The main berths front the town with the largest facilityin Glen Cove, 1¼ miles SW.Home Contents Index
  • 100. CHAPTER 3873.401 Submarine cables cross the entrance to Port Townsendfrom Point Hudson to the shore 6 cables W ofMarrowstone Point. Other submarine cables cross the headof the inlet between Irondale (48°03′N, 122°46′W) andCrane Point (48°03′N, 122°45′W).3.411 Restricted area. A naval restricted area lies in the Epart of the inlet off Walan Point (48°04′⋅3N, 122°44′⋅8W)(3.54). It is compulsory for vessels berthing to take a pilotwho boards N of Point Wilson. Tugs are available to assist.See Appendix X.3.421 Major light:Point Wilson Light (2.199).Directions(continued from 3.23)3.432 From a position NE of Point Wilson (48°09′N,122°45′W) in the SE bound traffic lane of the TSS leadingthrough Admiralty Inlet, the route leads 2 miles S to aposition E of Point Hudson (48°07′N, 122°45′W), passing(with positions relative to Point Hudson):E of No 2 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (4½ cablesNNE), marking the edge of a shallow coastal bank,and:3 W of Midchannel Bank (1½ miles E), which extends2¼ miles NW from Marrowstone Point (48°06′⋅1N,122°41′⋅2W) across the entrance to Port Townsend.Obstructions lie on the N part of the bank. And:E of Point Hudson No 4 Light (red triangle onframework tower), exhibited from the point whichis low, sandy and backed by rising built-overground 1¾ miles S of Point Wilson, thence:4 As required for the appropriate berth, passing clear ofthe dangerous wreck, the position of which isapproximate, lying 1½ miles SSW of PointHudson.3.441 Useful marks:Post Office Building (48°06′⋅8N, 122°45′⋅7W), on thebluff overlooking the waterfront.The white building and chimneys of the paper mill atGlen Cove (48°05′⋅6N, 122°47′⋅7W).Anchorages3.451 Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 15 to 18 mmud, between 5 and 7 cables S of the ferry terminal(48°06′⋅7N, 122°45′⋅6W) at Point Townsend, noting the12⋅8 m obstruction 6¼ cables S of the terminal. During Sgales, better protection can be obtained by anchoring closerinshore off the N end of Marrowstone Island, or near thehead of the inlet. There is a designated fair weatherexplosives anchorage 1 mile SE of Point Hudson and a foulweather explosives anchorage close S of Walan Point(48°04′⋅3N, 122°44′⋅8W) (3.54).Berths3.461 Positions relative to Point Hudson:Union Wharf, (3 cables WSW); length 134 m (440 ft);depths alongside reported to be 2⋅7 to 6⋅7 m.Ferry Terminal (5 cables WSW).2 Papermill pier at Glen Cove, 2¼ miles SW of PointHudson; length 146 m; reported depth alongside9⋅1 m. A light is located at the end of the pier.(Photograph − Townsend Paper Mill from SE (3.46)(Original dated 2003)The NE side of the pier is used by oil tankers andthe SW side for the export of paper products. Theuse of an anchor is recommended when berthingbecause a slight set might be encountered. Twoother lights are exhibited S of the pier. Alight-buoy (special), marks the end of a sewageoutfall 2¾ cables S of the pier. A trot of mooringbuoys lies close offshore 1 mile SSE of the pier.Port services3.471 Repairs. Only minor above the waterline repairs can bemade to large ships. Electronic repairs can be made.Other facilities. Tugs not available but may be obtainedwith advance notice from Port Angeles or Seattle; fullmedical facilities available.Supplies available in the town.Communications. In addition to the ferry servicesmentioned above (3.29) there is an airport 8 km SW of thetown.Small craft3.481 Point Hudson Harbor, situated immediately W of PointHudson has 45 berths and can accommodate craft up to12⋅2 m in length.2 Port Townsend Boat Haven, situated 1 mile SW ofPoint Hudson has 400 berths and can accommodate craftup to 30⋅5 m in length.Port Townsend south of Glen CoveChart 46Irondale3.491 Irondale (48°03′N, 122°46′W), about 1¼ miles from thehead of the inlet, is the site of a former iron foundry. Shoalwater extends up to 3 cables offshore and log boomsextend 8 cables offshore between Irondale and Kala Point(48°03′⋅5N, 122°46′⋅0W), 8 cables N, a low projection onthe W side of the inlet.Kala Point No 2 Light (red triangle on frameworktower), is exhibited from the point.Home Contents Index
  • 101. CHAPTER 388A trot of five mooring buoys lie close offshore 3 cablesWNW of Kala Point.Port Hadlock3.501 General information. Port Hadlock (48°02′⋅3N,122°45′⋅6W), a village at the head of Port Townsend inlet,has berthing for small craft with alongside depths of 3 to3⋅7 m. A mooring pontoon is maintained here during thesummer. There are submerged piles in the vicinity and localknowledge is required to avoid them.2 Repairs. A patent slip can take craft up to 20 tonneswith a length of 12⋅8 m and a beam of 3⋅66 m. Small craftrepairs can be effected.Supplies. Fuel is available in the village.Kilisut Harbor3.511 General information. Kilisut Harbor (48°03′N,122°42′W) is the name given to the narrow inlet extendingabout 4 miles SSE between Marrowstone Island and IndianIsland. It is entered through a narrow, tortuous channelbetween sandspits, extending from the N ends of bothislands 2 miles WSW of Marrowstone Point. The S end ofthe harbour is closed by an earth filled causeway andnarrow strip of beach.2 Entrance channel. The approach to the entrance channelis marked by No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) (48°05′N,122°45′W) and the entrance channel itself is marked bybuoys and beacons.Anchorage. The harbour provides a good anchorage forsmall vessels in depths of 7 to 9 m.Local knowledge is required for Kilisut Harbor.3.521 Fort Flagler State Park is situated on the NE side ofthe entrance channel. There are two slips and a small craftmooring pontoon at the park; water is available.3.531 Mystery Bay, with the village of Nordland on its Eside, is a small shallow cove midway on the E side ofKilisut Harbor. There is a pier and pontoon for small craftin the bay; water is available. The head of the bay is usedas a log dump.Walan Point3.541 Walan Point (48°04′⋅3N, 122°44′⋅8W), is the NWextremity of Indian Island which forms the E side of PortTownsend inlet. A wharf, connected to the shore by twopiers, is situated close N of Walan Point. It has a charteddepth of about 11 m alongside. See 3.41. A group ofseveral mooring buoys lie about 4 cables S of Walan Point.Port Townsend Canal3.551 General information. Port Townsend Canal, which liesat the head of Port Townsend Inlet, 1 mile S of CranePoint, is a dredged channel giving access to Oak Bay(3.56).Project depth (1995), was 4⋅5 m but it is subject toshoaling. For the latest controlling depths the chart andPort Authorities should be consulted.2 Limiting conditions. The canal is 22⋅8 m wide. Near itsN end the canal is spanned by a fixed road bridge with avertical clearance of 17⋅7 m and overhead power cableswith a vertical clearance of 27⋅4 m; submarine cables arelaid across it.Tidal streams through the canal are strong at times, butpresent little difficulty as the canal is wide and straight.However, during the N out-going stream there are strongeddies at the Oak Bay entrance to the canal.Light. Port Townsend Canal No 4 Light (red triangle ondolphin), is exhibited on the W side at the N entrance tothe canal.Harbours and bays, west side ofAdmiralty InletOak Bay3.561 General information. Oak Bay is entered betweenKinney Point (48°01′N, 122°41′W), the S extremity ofMarrowstone Island, and Olele Point (47°58′N, 122°41′W),2¼ miles S. No 2 buoy (starboard hand) marks theextremity of a shallow spit which extends 3 cables SSW ofthe S extremity of Marrowstone Island.2 Light. Port Townsend Canal No 6 Light (red triangle onmetal tower), is exhibited from the head of a jetty on theW side of the entrance to the canal at the head of OakBay. No 7 Beacon stands close E of the canal entrance.Mats Mats Bay3.571 General information. Mats Mats Bay (47°57′N,122°41′W), a small landlocked lagoon with excellentshelter for small craft, is entered between Olele Point andBasalt Point 8 cables SSE.Controlling depth. The dredged entrance channel in1977 had a controlling depth of 1⋅5 m.2 Entrance channel. The entrance channel is marked bylights, a buoy and leading lights, the alignment (261¼°) ofwhich leads through the entrance.Klas Rock, awash, lies close off the entrance 2½ cablesNE of Basalt Point and is marked by DK Light-buoy(isolated danger).Port Ludlow3.581 General information. The town of Port Ludlow(47°55′N, 122°41′W), on the N shore of the inner portionof the bay, was formerly a major lumber port but, althoughthe head of the bay is still used as a booming ground, nocommercial or shipping facilities remain. The townsite isnow occupied by a housing development and resort of thesame name.(Photograph − Ludlow from NE (3.58)(Original dated 2004)Home Contents Index
  • 102. CHAPTER 3893.591 Tidal levels: Mean spring range about 2⋅9 m; mean neaprange about 1⋅0 m. See information in Admiralty TideTables.3.601 Directions. Port Ludlow is entered from Admiralty Inlet,passing SW of Klas Rocks (3.57) and then between ColvosRocks Light (white diamond with orange border onframework tower marked DANGER ROCK) (47°57′⋅1N,122°40′⋅3W) and Snake Rock, 3½ cables SW. Once clear ofthe narrow entrance, the route lies in the centre of thechannel to the town of Port Ludlow, passing W of TalaPoint Light (3.386).An alternative approach channel, 3 cables wide withgeneral depths of 6⋅1 to 8⋅2 m, leads between No 2 Buoy(3.57), moored SE of Colvos Rocks, and the spit extendingN from Tala Point.2 Caution is necessary in using this channel as the buoymight be dragged off station by passing log-tows.3.611 Anchorage may be obtained with good holding ground,in depths of 12⋅8 to 14⋅6 m, mud, in the basin W of PortLudlow No 4 Light (red triangle on dolphin) (47°55′⋅3N,122°40′⋅9W).A cove at the SW end of the basin, entered between twoislets known as The Twins, is sometimes used as a refugeduring bad weather.3.621 Berths. Port Ludlow Marina has 300 berths and canaccommodate craft up to 62 m in length.PUGET SOUNDGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 47Scope of the section3.631 Puget Sound proper can be considered to commence Sof a line joining Double Bluff (47°58′N, 122°33′W) (3.24)to Foulweather Bluff, 3 miles SW (3.21). This part of thechapter covers the waters of the sound 24 miles S fromthis line to Alki Point (47°34′⋅6N, 122°25′⋅3W) (3.76). Thewaters W of Bainbridge Island (47°39′N, 122°32′W) aredescribed commencing at 3.91 and Seattle and the watersof Elliott Bay (47°37′N, 122°23′W) are describedcommencing at 3.141.PUGET SOUND, NORTH PARTGeneral informationChart 47Route3.641 From the line joining Foulweather Bluff to Double Bluff,the route continues in the S bound traffic lane of the TSSto a position W of Alki Point.Topography3.651 The north part of Puget Sound is bounded on the E bythe S end of Whidbey Island and the mainland ofWashington State, with the S entrance to Possession Soundand the waters E of Whidbey Island lying between the two.Elliott Bay, with Seattle at its head, indents the E shore atthe S end of this part of Puget Sound. On the W side, thesound is heavily indented with the bays and inlets of theGreat Peninsula which extends some 32 miles NNE fromthe mainland 20 miles SW of Seattle.Hazards3.661 Ferry services cross the sound between Edwards Point(47°48′N, 122°24′W) and Kingston (47°48′N, 122°30′W).Numerous ferry services cross the sound from Seattle toplaces on the E coast of Bainbridge Island (3.91) andthrough Rich Passage to Bremerton (47°34′N, 122°37′W)(3.123).Traffic regulations3.671 Traffic Separation Scheme. The TSS continues Sthrough this part of the sound with SE Light-buoy (special)(47°55′⋅4N, 122°29′⋅6W), SF Light-buoy (special)(47°45′⋅9′N, 122°26⋅3′W), SG Light-buoy (special)(47°39′⋅7N, 122°27′⋅9W) and T Light-buoy (47°34′⋅6N,122°27′⋅1W) (special), moored on the centreline of theseparation zone marking precautionary areas and alterationsin the route of the TSS between Foulweather Bluff andAlki Point.Submarine cables3.681 Submarine cable areas, shown on the chart, cross theTSS in several areas on this part of the route. Submarinecables also run the length of the sound both close to andwithin the N-bound traffic lane between the entrance toElliot Bay and the N end of Puget Sound.Tidal streams3.691 Tidal streams in the N part of Puget Sound are, exceptin Agate Passage (47°43′N, 122°34′W), generally muchweaker than those in Admiralty Inlet. In Useless Bay(47°57′N, 122°29′W) and off the entrances to PossessionSound and Port Madison (47°44′N, 122°30′W), the streamsare too weak and variable for accurate prediction.2 Tidal streams in a position 1½ miles SE of Apple CovePoint (47°49′N, 122°29′W) set 170° on the in-going streamand 000° on the out-going, with rates of ¼ and ½ kn,respectively.Heavy tide rips occur off Apple Cove Point when thein-going stream is opposed by strong N winds.Tidal streams in a position 6 cables E of RestorationPoint set in a 135° direction on the in-going stream and035° on the out-going, with rates of ½ and ¾ kn,respectively.Home Contents Index
  • 103. CHAPTER 390Principal marks3.701 Landmarks:Skunk Bay Lighthouse (47°55′⋅2N, 122°34′⋅2W)(3.72)Scatchet Head (47°55′N, 122°26′W) and PossessionPoint, the S extremity of Whidbey Island 2 milesfarther ESE, are both prominent especially from S;the white bluffs are visible for a considerabledistance.2 A radio tower (47°48′⋅4N, 122°29′⋅7W), on highground 6½ cables SW of Apple Cove Point.Oil storage tanks on and below Edwards Point(47°48′N, 122°24′W).Oil storage tanks on Point Wells (47°46′⋅7N,122°23′⋅6W).A large white radar dome (47°39′⋅5N, 122°24′⋅8W)8 cables E of West Point.Two radio towers (47°39′⋅3N, 122°31′⋅2W).A flagpole and a number of large buildings on highground, about 30 m high, 1½ cables W ofRestoration Point (47°35′N, 122°29′W).3 Major lights:Point No Point Light (white octagonal tower onbuilding, 6 m in height) (47°54′⋅7N, 122°31′⋅6W)(3.72).West Point Light (white octagonal tower on building,7 m in height) (47°39′⋅7N, 122°26′⋅2W) (3.75).Duwamish Head Light (black and white chequereddiamond on pile structure) (47°35′⋅9N,122°23′⋅3W) (3.161).Alki Point Light (white octagonal tower and dwelling,11 m in height) (47°34′⋅6N, 122°25′⋅2W) (3.76).Other aids to navigation3.711 Racons:SE Light-buoy (47°55′⋅4N, 122°29′⋅6W).SF Light-buoy (48°45′⋅9N, 122°26′⋅3W).SG Light-buoy (47°39′⋅7N, 122°27′⋅8W).For details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.Directions(continued from 3.24)Double Bluff to Scatchet Head3.721 From a position WSW of Double Bluff (47°58′N,122°33′W) (3.24), the SE bound traffic lane of the TSSleads 24 miles in a generally S direction to the entrance toEast Passage, passing (with positions relative to Point NoPoint Light (47°54′⋅7N, 122°31′⋅6W)):2 NE of Norwegian Point (1 mile WNW), which is lowand rounded. Skunk Bay lies between the pointand Fairweather Bluff, 3 miles WNW. Skunk BayLight (white octagonal tower), is 8 cables W ofNorwegian Point. Hansville, a resort village with apier and two small slips, stands on rising groundclose ESE of the point. During the fishing seasonmany purse seiners operate close offshore in thevicinity. Thence:3 NE of Point No Point Light (3.70), exhibited fromthe end of the point, a low sandy projection. SELight-buoy (special) is moored 1½ miles ENE ofthe point where the TSS alters SSE, thence:WSW of Indian Point, (3½ miles ENE). Useless Bay,which lies between Indian Point and Double Bluff4¾ miles WNW, is exposed SW. The shore of thebay, which is bluff and brush covered in placesand low in others, is fringed by a shallow flat upto 5 cables wide. The N and SE sides of the bayare dotted with buildings and a shallow lagoonopens at its head. Thence:4 WSW of Scatchet Head (4 miles E) (3.70). A bankextends S from the coast between the head andPossession Point (3.70), 2 miles ESE. Light-buoys(port hand) mark the E and W limits of the bank.A fish haven is situated close W of the E buoy.Possession Sound (3.429) is entered E ofPossession Point.(Directions for Possession Sound continue at 3.433)Scatchet Head to Point Jefferson3.731 From a position WSW of Scatchet Head (47°55′N,122°26′W) (3.70), the TSS continues SSE, passing (withpositions relative to Apple Cove Point Light (47°48′⋅9N,122°28′⋅9W)):ENE of Apple Cove Point Light (black and whitechequered diamond on pile structure), exhibitedfrom the point which is a low sandspit with highwooded land behind it. The point is steep to but acoastal bank extends 5 cables SE from it. Thence:2 WSW of Edwards Point (3½ miles E), which is highand wooded, thence:WSW of Point Wells (4 miles ESE) (3.70), a lowsandy projection backed by higher land. Shoalwater extends up to 3 cables offshore between thepoint and Edwards Point and for a distance of5 cables S of Point Wells. A fish haven lies2 miles S of Point Wells. Richmond Beach is abuilt up area close S of Point Wells. There are twowharfs (3.81) located on Point Wells. Thence:3 ENE of President Point (3 miles S), which has shoalwater extending 4 cables SE of it. SF Light-buoy(special) is moored 1½ miles E of the point wherethe TSS alters SSW. Thence:ESE of Point Jefferson (4 miles S), with anobstruction, 4 cables NE. Shoal water extends1 mile SSW of the point.(Directions for Port Madison continue at 3.95)Point Jefferson to Meadow Point3.741 From a position ESE of Point Jefferson (47°44′⋅8N,122°28′⋅5W) (3.73), the TSS continues SSW, passing (withpositions relative to Point Jefferson):ESE of Point Monroe Light (green and whitechequered diamond on framework tower)(2¾ miles SSW), exhibited from the N side ofPoint Munroe, a low narrow sandspit at the NEend of Bainbridge Island (3.91) enclosing a smallshallow lagoon, the drying entrance of which is onthe W side of the sandspit. Thence:2 WNW of Meadow Point (4¼ miles SE), a low grassypoint with a high tree and brush covered bluffbehind it. No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) is moored2½ cables NW of the point on the edge of ashallow coastal bank.(Directions for Shilshole Bay andLake Washington Ship Canal continue at 3.175)Meadow Point to Wing Point3.751 From a position WNW of Meadow Point (47°41′⋅6N,122°24′⋅4W) (3.74), the route continues SSW, passing (withHome Contents Index
  • 104. CHAPTER 391positions relative to West Point Light (47°39′⋅7N,122°26′⋅2W)):2 WNW of West Point Light (3.70), exhibited from theextremity of West Point. It is a low sandy pointwhich rises abruptly to an elevation of more than90 m, 5 cables inland. Shoal water fringes theshore to a distance of 5 cables within 1½ miles SEof the point. No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) marksthe edge of this shoal water 2½ cables WSW ofthe point. A sewer outfall extends 5 cables W ofWest Point. Shilshoe Bay, between Meadow Pointand West Point, forms part of the Port of Seattle(3.171). And:3 ENE of Skiff Point (2½ miles W), which has lowyellow bluffs on its S side. A shoal projecting1½ cables SE of Skiff Point is reported to beextending outwards and should be given a wideberth. SG Light-buoy (special) is moored at thecentre of a precautionary area midway between theSkiff Point and West Point. Thence:The track alters S, passing:4 E of Yeomalt Point (2¾ miles SW), a low grassysandspit rising inland gradually. Murden Cove, anopen bight between Skiff Point and Yeomalt Point,has an extensive, steep to drying flat whichextends 5 cables from the head of the cove. Depthsincrease rapidly outside the flat. Thence:5 E of Wing Point (3½ miles SW), a narrow steep sidedtongue of land, 9 m high and covered with trees toits edge, which projects SE from the coast. No 2Buoy (starboard hand) marks the extremity of areef which extends 6 cables SSE from Wing Point.(Directions for Elliott Bay andthe Port of Seattle continue at 3.161)Wing Point to Alki Point3.761 From a position E of Wing Point (47°37′⋅3N,122°29′⋅5W) (3.75), the route continues S, passing (withpositions relative to Wing Point):E of Tyee Shoal Light (red triangle, green band, ondolphin) (7 cables SSE), standing on Tyee Shoal, adetached patch, with a depth of 4⋅6 m over it.Thence:2 E of Blakely Rock Light (black and white chequereddiamond on framework tower) (1¾ miles SSE),exhibited from the S side of Blakely Rock. Therock is about 5 m high and prominent, and is thelargest of a group of four above-water rocks lyingin the approach to Blakely Harbor, 1½ miles SSEof Wing Point. It is steep-to on its S side, butshoal water marked by kelp, extends 1½ cables Nof the rock. Thence:3 Into the precautionary area centred on T Light-buoy(47°34′⋅6N, 122°27′⋅1W) (3.67), which lies inmid-channel between Restoration Point and AlkiPoint. No 2 Light-buoy (starboard hand), is mooredclose off the extremity of Decatur Reef, whichpartly dries and extends 1½ cables E ofRestoration Point. The point is flat intially butrises abruptly to a wooded knoll 30 m high. AlkiPoint, which is low has a small prominent woodedknoll, about 24 m in height, close E of it; inlandfrom the knoll low ground extends 5 cables fartherE. A light (3.70) is exhibited from Alki Point.3.771 Useful mark:Paine Field aero light, the position of which isapproximate (47°54′N, 122°16′W).(Directions continue at 3.200; directions forRich Passage continue at 3.112 and forYukon Harbor at 3.205)Minor ports and anchoragesAppletree Cove3.781 General information. Appletree Cove (47°47′N,122°30′W) indents the W shore of Puget Sound betweenApple Cove Point (3.73) and President Point (3.73),3 miles S.Anchorage may be obtained in depths of 9⋅1 to 18⋅3 m,5 cables from the head of the cove but it affords no shelterin winds from N, through E, to SE.3.791 Kingston, a town on the N side of Appletree Cove, hasa large basin and a pier E of it with a ferry slip at its head.The ferry operates between Kingston and Edmonds on theE shore of Puget Sound.2 Small craft. The basin is protected by a breakwater andhas berths for 275 craft.Edwards Point3.801 General information. Edwards Point (47°48′⋅0N,122°23′⋅5W) (3.73), on the E side of Puget Sound, has anoil installation with a pier 84 m long which has reportedalongside depths of 9⋅1 to 12⋅2 m. The current isunpredictable here and with the prevalence of S winds theassistance of a tug is recommended for berthing. There areberthing lights on the pier. Fuel barges are loaded here.2 Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by one vessel with atotal deadweight 24 241 tonnes.Supplies: fuel only.Point Wells3.811 General information. Point Wells (47°47′N, 122°24′W)(3.73), 1¼ miles S of Edwards Point, has two wharfssituated on the point.Traffic. In 2003 the port was used by three vessels witha total deadweight 223 711 tonnes.2 Directions. For the N approach, the alignment (149°) ofPoint Wells Leading Lights leads to the wharf.Front light (red rectangle, black stripe, on frameworktower) (47°47′⋅0N, 122°23′⋅6W), exhibited fromnear the root of the N wharf.Rear light (similar structure), (2¼ cables SE of thefront light).A dangerous wreck, 3 cables offshore, lies 5 cablesSSW of the rear light.3 Berth. Only the S wharf is still in use and it has alength of 321 m and reported depths (1983) of 12⋅2 to21⋅3 m alongside. The unpredictability of the tidal streams,and the presence of the shallow coastal bank S of thewharf (3.73), make it advisable to use an anchor and tohave tug assistance when berthing, especially in strongwinds.Eagle Harbor3.821 General information. Eagle Harbor (47°37′N,122°30′W), entered between Wing Point (3.75) and a pointon the coast 3½ cables SW, indents the E side ofHome Contents Index
  • 105. CHAPTER 392Bainbridge Island (3.91) for 1¾ miles W. Shoal waterfringes the SW entrance point and the coast S of it, to adistance of 1½ cables.3.831 Directions. From a position SSW of Tyee Shoal Light(47°36′⋅6N, 122°29′⋅3W) (3.76), the route leads N then Wfollowing a deep channel, about 1 cable wide, marked bylighted dolphins and a buoy to the anchorage.Note. The channel, though deep, is narrow and cautionis necessary.3.841 Anchorage. The harbour affords an excellent anchoragefor small vessels in depths of 9 to 12 m.3.851 Winslow, on the N side, is the largest town onBainbridge Island (3.91) and a major ferry port on theroutes serving Seattle. There are two piers W of the ferryslip used for ferry mooring and maintenance.3.861 Creosote, a residential area, lies on the S side of theentrance to Eagle Harbor. Ships formerly loaded creosotedtimber alongside the wharf here but the lumber is nowbarged to Seattle for reshipment.3.871 Submarine cables laid through the entrance land on theN shore of Eagle Harbor, 7 cables WNW of Wing Point.3.881 Small craft. A small marina and workshop are situatedjust W of the W pier in Winslow, and another small marinalies 5 cables W of Creosote. Several other piers and slipsare situated in Eagle Harbor.Blakely Harbor3.891 General information. Blakely Harbor (47°35′⋅5N,122°30′⋅0W) is a narrow inlet 1 mile long which is entered1½ miles S of Wing Point. A large sawmill once operatedat Port Blakely, a small town on the N side of the inlet,but no facilities remain now. Both shores of the inlet aremuch encumbered by old piles and dolphins.2 Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained in depthsof 16 to 29 m, mud, close within the entrance, slightlyfavouring the S shore.Submarine cables are laid from Alki Point to BlakelyHarbor and Restoration Point.Small craft harboursEdmonds3.901 General information. Edmonds (47°49′N, 122°22′W), isclose NE of Edwards Point (3.80) with a small craft basinand marina for about 800 craft, enclosed by breakwaters.Lights are exhibited on the breakwaters at the SW and NEextremities of the harbour and on either side of the harbourentrance.Close N of the small craft basin there is a fish havenand the ferry landing for the ferry service to Kingston onthe opposite side of Puget Sound. A scuba diving area liesN of the landing. Buoys mark the fish haven and divingarea. A light-buoy is moored on the N side of the landing.2 Measured distance of 1 mile on a line of 037°–217°,each end of which is marked by a pair of beacons, issituated 1 mile NE of Edmonds.PORTS AND INLETS WEST OF PUGET SOUNDGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 47Area covered3.911 Bainbridge Island (47°39′N, 122°32′W), which is 9 mileslong and heavily wooded, forms part of the W shore ofPuget Sound. There are several towns on the island. Thewaters N, S and W of this island comprise the area coveredby this section. Port Madison (47°44′N, 122°31′W) (3.93)and Rich Passage (47°35′N, 122°32′W) (3.106) separate theN and S ends of the island, respectively, from the mainlandof the Great Peninsula, which lies between Puget Soundand Hood Canal (3.367). Agate Passage (47°43′N,122°34′W) (3.99) and Port Orchard (47°38′N, 122°35′W)(3.129) form the waterways W between Bainbridge Islandand the peninsula, with Liberty Bay (47°43′N, 122°38′W)(3.136) extending NW and Sinclair Inlet (47°33′N,122°38′W) (3.114) extending SW from Port Orchard. Fromthe N side of Sinclair Inlet, Port Washington Narrows(47°35′N, 122°39′W) (3.125) lead NNW into Dyes Inlet.Restricted areas3.921 Anchoring and trawling is prohibited in the US Navytorpedo range which extends from Keyport (47°42′N,122°37′W) (3.135), at the entrance to Liberty Inlet, toabreast Burke Bay (47°39′N, 122°37′W) (3.139).Sinclair Inlet, SW of the entrance to Port WashingtonNarrows, is a naval restricted area. See Appendix X to thisvolume.PORT MADISON AND AGATE PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 47Description3.931 Port Madison indents the W shore of Bainbridge Island(3.91) and is entered between Point Jefferson (47°44′⋅8N,122°28′⋅5W) (3.73) and Point Monroe (47°42′⋅5N,122°30′⋅7W) (3.74). The N entrance to Agate Passage lieson the SW shore of Port Madison.Topography3.941 The N side of Port Madison consists of broken whitebluffs separated by low beaches and is fringed by a sandand shingle bank which dries up to 2 cables offshore inplaces.The S side of Port Madison consists of a succession ofbluffs broken 7½ cables W of Point Monroe, by a narrowinlet extending 1¼ miles SW.The shore at the head of Port Madison consists ofrelatively low bluffs.Directions(continued from 3.73)3.951 From a position SE of Point Jefferson (47°44′⋅8N,122°28′⋅5W) (3.73), the route leads W for 3½ milesthrough Port Madison to the entrance to Agate Passage,passing (with positions relative to Point Monroe Light(47°42′⋅5N, 122°30′⋅7W) (3.74)):Home Contents Index
  • 106. CHAPTER 3932 S of Indianola Pier (2¼ miles NNW), which extendsover 1 cable S from the village of Indianola on theN shore of Port Madison. The E approach to thepier is shallow. Thence:3 To a position NE of Agate Point (1¾ miles WNW),the N extremity of Bainbridge Island and the Eentrance point to Agate Passage. And:E of Suquamish (2 miles NW), a small town andIndian Reservation at the head of Port Madison.There is a pier at Suquamish. A sewage outfallextends 3 cables NE from a position on the shore2 cables SSW of Suquamish.3.961 Useful marks:Point Monroe Light (3.74).Agate Passage No 2 Light (3.105).The buildings at Suquamish are prominent.(Directions for Agate Passage continue at 3.105)Anchorages3.971 Anchorage may be obtained in Port Madison closeinshore in depths of 27 to 29 m, mud.Local knowledge is required.Small craft3.981 Port Madison (47°42′⋅2N, 122°31′⋅6W), a resort townon the E side of the inlet which indents the S shore, hasnumerous piers and moorings and the narrow entrancechannel has a least depth of 4⋅3 m.Local knowledge is required.Agate PassageUS Chart 18446 (see 1.20)General information3.991 Agate Passage, entered W of Agate Point, extends 1 mileSW connecting Port Madison with the NE end of PortOrchard (3.129). The passage is straight with a rocky, kelpfringed shoreline.3.1001 Least charted depths in mid-channel are 6⋅4 m (21 ft).There are other depths of 4⋅9 to 5⋅5 m (16 to 18 ft) almostin mid-channel with a shoal (3.105) also extending almostinto mid-channel.3.1011 Bridge clearance. A fixed road bridge, with a verticalclearance of 22⋅9 m (75 ft), spans the passage 7½ cablesSW of Agate Point.Overhead cables, with a vertical clearance of 29⋅2 m(96 ft) span the passage on each side of the bridge.3.1021 Local knowledge is required.Tidal streams3.1031 Tidal streams in Agate Passage set SW on the in-goingstream and NE on the out-going with rates up to 6 kn.Submarine cables3.1041 Submarine cables are laid across the passage at AgatePoint and from a position 4 cables SW.Directions(continued from 3.96)3.1051 From a position N of Agate Point (47°43′⋅2N,122°33′⋅2W), the route leads 1½ miles SE through AgatePassage, passing (with positions relative to Agate Point):NW of Agate Point, thence:2 SE of No 2 Light (red triangle on dolphin) (¾ cableWNW), standing on the NE extremity of a shoal.The shoal extends from a point near mid-channel,at the NE end of the passage, in a SW direction tothe W shore. Thence:SE of No 4 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (1 mile SW),moored on the edge of a bank extending from theW shore at the S end of the passage.(Directions for the main route intoPort Orchard are given at 3.112)RICH PASSAGE, SINCLAIR INLET ANDPORT ORCHARDGeneral informationChart 47 (see 1.20)Rich Passage3.1061 Description. Rich Passage (47°35′N, 122°32′W), is themain approach channel to Sinclair Inlet (3.114) and PortOrchard (3.129) from Puget Sound. It is entered betweenBeans Point (47°34′⋅5N, 122°31′⋅4W), at the S end ofBainbridge Island and Orchard Point 7 cables SW. Thepassage is about 3 miles long with a sharp bend at its Wend where it narrows to 2 cables.Hazards3.1071 Rich Passage has a considerable volume of traffic whichincludes naval vessels of all sizes, numerous ferries andtugs with tows. Deep draught outward-bound ships makingthe sharp bend at the W end of the passage mightunavoidably be set well over towards the E shore,necessitating a starboard to starboard meeting. These factorsrequire extreme caution in navigating the passage whichshould not be attempted in thick weather without intimatelocal knowledge.Traffic regulation3.1081 All vessels approaching Point Glover (47°35′⋅4N,122°33′⋅0W), from either direction, should sound one longblast, when within 5 cables of the point, as a warning toopposing traffic.Tidal streams3.1091 Tidal stream rates in Rich Passage increase progressivelyfrom E to W. The direction and maximum rates of the tidalstream in the fairway are as follows:Direction In-goingrateDirection Out-goingrateOff OrchardPoint320° ¾ kn 145° 1 kn1 mile N ofOrchardPoint330° 1¼ kn 130° 2¾ knOff PointWhite240° 2½ kn 055° 3 knHome Contents Index
  • 107. CHAPTER 3942 However, rates of 4 kn on the in-going stream, and morethan 5 kn on the out-going, have been observed in thenarrows. The average period for near slack conditions,when the tidal rate is less than ¼ knot, is about 20 minutes.The in-going stream runs fairly through the passageexcept on either side where eddies are formed. Theout-going stream gives rise to extensive eddies and countercurrents which, in places, extend almost into mid-channel.For greater detail see United States Tidal Current Tables,Pacific Coast of North America and Asia.Submarine cables3.1101 Submarine cables are laid through the N part of RichPassage to the W shore of Port Orchard.Landmarks3.1111 A tower, 5 cables ENE of Fort Ward (47°34′⋅7N,122°31′⋅4W) (3.112).A large white house on Beans Point (3.112), close S ofFort Ward.Directions(continued from 3.76)3.1121 From a position SSE of Decatur Reef (47°35′⋅0N,122°28′⋅6W) (3.76), the route leads WSW for 2½ miles,passing (with positions relative to Decatur Reef):SSE of Restoration Point (1½ cables W) (3.76),thence:SSE of No 4 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (2 milesWSW), moored on the SW edge of BainbridgeReef, a rocky patch 2 cables in extent.Caution. A rocky shoal extends over 1 cable from theshore of Bainbridge Island close E of South Beach, 1 mileWSW of Decatur Reef.3.1131 From a position SSE of No 4 Light-buoy (3.112), theroute leads generally WNW, NNW, W and SW for about3½ miles through Rich Passage, passing (with positionsrelative to Point Glover No 9 Light (47°35′⋅4N,122°33′⋅0W)):2 WSW of No 4 Light-buoy (1¾ miles SE), thence:NNE of Orchard Point Light (white pyramidalconcrete tower) (1¾ miles SSE), exhibited from theextremity of the point, thence:SSW of Beans Point (1½ miles SE), the S extremityof Bainbridge Island. A wharf is located at FortWard, close N of Beans Point; a fish haven off theend of the wharf with a second about 1½ cablesSW, are marked by lights. Thence:3 SSW of No 6 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (1¼ milesSE), marking a rocky shoal 2 cables SSW ofOrchard Rocks, a detached drying shoal. A beacon(pile, triangle, red and green bands, red reflectiveborder) stands on the middle of the reef. Thence:The route turns and leads NNW for 1¼ miles, passing:4 ENE of Middle Point (8 cables SSE). Clam Bay,between Middle Point and Orchard Point, isshallow at its head, with a pier on its N side. Twolights, 4 and 6 cables, respectively, NW of OrchardPoint, mark a fish haven situated on the S side ofthe bay. The buildings and installations of a USNavy Supply Depot occupy the shore betweenOrchard Point and Middle Point. A submarineoutfall projects about 2 cables ENE from the Sside of Middle Point. Thence:5 ENE of Point Glover (1 cable SSE). No 9 Light(green square on platform) stands on a reef 1 cableNNW of Point Glover, and:WSW of No 8 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (4 cablesENE), marking the edge of a shallow bankfringing the E shore of the passage, thence:The route leads W for 4 cables, passing:N of Point Glover Light, thence:When NW of Point Glover No 9 Light, the route turnsand leads SW for 9 cables into Port Orchard, passing:6 SE of Point White Light No 10 (red triangle ondolphin) (7 cables W), standing on the edge ofshoal water extending S of the point, thence:NW of Waterman Point Light No 11 (green square onframework tower) (9 cables WSW), exhibited fromthe point which is the W end of Rich Passage.(Directions to Sinclair Inlet andWashington Narrows continue at 3.120,and through Port Orchard at 3.133)Sinclair InletGeneral information3.1141 Description. Sinclair Inlet, the SW arm of Port Orchard(3.129), is entered S of Point Herron (47°34′⋅0N,122°36′⋅8W) and extends 3½ miles SW. The inlet is deepand about 7½ cables wide until 1¼ miles from its head,where it narrows and depths decrease, finally drying7½ cables farther SW.3.1151 Restricted area see Tidal streams in the inlet are weak and variable.Tidal levels (Bremerton). Mean spring range about3⋅3 m; mean neap range about 1⋅4 m. See information inAdmiralty Tide Tables.3.1171 Caution is necessary when underway at night in theinlet owing to the existence of unlit mooring buoys whichare used at times by unlit craft.3.1181 Submarine cables, indicated on the chart, lie in SinclairInlet and Port Washington Narrows.3.1191 Radar calibration targets (dolphins) stand along the Sshore of Sinclair Inlet between a position 6 cables SW ofWaterman Point and a position 1¾ miles from the head ofthe inlet. All are within 2 cables or less of the shore.Directions(continued from 3.113)3.1201 From a position NW of Waterman Point Light (3.113),the route continues to lead SW for 2 miles, passing:SE of Point Herron Light No 12 (red triangle on pilestructure) (47°33′⋅9N, 122°36′⋅9W), standing on theedge of a bank extending from the point, thence:As required for the chosen berth in Sinclair Inlet.3.1211 Useful mark:The buildings of a veterans’ home (47°32′⋅8N,122°37′⋅0W) on the bluff above Annapolis areprominent.Home Contents Index
  • 108. CHAPTER 395Puget Sound Naval Shipyard3.1221 Berths. Puget Sound Naval Shipyard occupies most ofthe N shore of Sinclair Inlet. There are numerous largewharfs, piers and jetties with berthing lengths up to 427 mand alongside depths up to 12⋅8 m. There are also sixdrydocks of which the largest is 351 m long and 50 mwide; these may, under certain conditions and when notrequired for naval use, be made available to merchantships.Bremerton3.1231 Description. Bremerton, the city on the W side of PortWashington Narrows, adjoins the Puget Sound NavalShipyard and most of the city’s business and affairs arekeyed to the needs of the Navy establishment. The citylimits include East Bremerton on the E shore of thenarrows and Point Herron.Population about 41 000.Communications. Frequent ferry services connect withSeattle and other places in Puget Sound and Port Orchard.Small craft3.1241 Port Orchard, a town on the S shore of the inlet,1¾ miles SW of Point Herron (3.120), has a ferry pier,pontoon landing and marina with about 600 berths; theentrance to the latter is marked by lights. A passenger ferryservice connects with Bremerton (3.123). There is anothermarina at the W end of town. A shallow bank extends2¼ cables from the shore E of Port Orchard.Port Washington NarrowsGeneral information3.1251 Description. Port Washington Narrows, entered betweenPoint Herron and Point Turner (47°33′⋅7N, 122°37′⋅5W)5½ cables SW, is a narrow tortuous channel leading 3 milesNW to Dyes Inlet. The fairway in the narrows has a leastdepth of about 6 m, but there are several banks with depthsof 3⋅7 m or less. A number of oil wharfs and tank farms liealong the W side of the narrows.Local knowledge is required.(Photograph − from S (3.123)(Original dated 2003)Home Contents Index
  • 109. CHAPTER 3963.1261 Tidal streams in Port Washington Narrows obtain ratesin excess of 4 kn at times. Tide-rips form off the NWentrance point to the narrows. For greater detail see USTidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast of North America andAsia.3.1271 Bridges and overhead cables. The least verticalclearance of the two bridges and two power cables whichcross the narrows is 24⋅4 m.Small craft3.1281 Phinney Bay, is 8 cables long, and indents the W shorenear the N entrance of the narrows. Bremerton Yacht Clubhas its moorings on the W side of the bay.Dyes Inlet, which is deep, extends about 3 miles NNWfrom Port Washington Narrows and is used by fishingvessels and pleasure craft.Ostrich Bay in the SW part of Dyes Inlet is shallow atits head. The W side of the bay is an annex of PugetSound Naval Shipyard, however its wharfs are in ruins.Oyster Bay is an extension of Ostrich Bay; its entranceis shoal.Port OrchardGeneral information3.1291 Description. Port Orchard (47°38′N, 122°35′W) is apassage extending 9 miles along the W side of BainbridgeIsland between Agate Passage (3.99) in the N and SinclairInlet in the S, and can be entered from Puget Sound eitherthrough Agate Passage or Rich Passage (3.106), the latterbeing the main approach. General depths range from 11 to46 m with few offshore dangers. The shores of PortOrchard are moderately low and wooded; villages andnumerous cottages line the shores.3.1301 Restricted area see Tidal streams in Port Orchard are weak and variable.3.1321 Submarine cables cross Port Orchard in a WSWdirection from Point White (3.113) and also from a position3 cables NW of the point.Directions(continued from 3.113)3.1331 From a position NW of Waterman Point (47°35′⋅1N,122°34′⋅2W) (3.113), the route leads 5 miles N to aposition where it divides to continue NNE to AgatePassage and NNW into Liberty Bay, passing (with positionsrelative to Ilahee Wharf (47°36′⋅8N, 122°35′⋅7W)):E and ENE of University Point (1½ miles N), thence:2 WSW of Battle Point Light (black and whitechequered diamond on pile structure) (3 miles N),exhibited from the extremity of the point, which isa sandy spit, thence:The route divides with that to Agate Passage leading2 miles NE, passing:3 ESE of Point Bolin Light No 6 (red triangle ondolphin) (47°41′⋅8N, 122°34′⋅6W), which marksthe edge of a shallow bank extending from the Wshore, 6 cables NE of the point, thence:To the S entrance of Agate Passage.(Directions S through Agate Passageare given at 3.105)3.1341 For Keyport and Liberty Bay, the route leads a further2 miles NNW from a position WSW of Battle Point Light(47°39′⋅8N, 122°35′⋅6W) (3.133), passing:WSW of Point Bolin, 1½ miles N of Battle Point. Ashallow bank fringes Point Bolin and the shore Wof the point to a distance of 2 cables. Thence:As required for a berth in Keyport.Small craft3.1351 Keyport, a town 1½ miles NW of Point Bolin, standson the W side of the entrance to Liberty Bay. There is aUS Naval establishment here with several prominentbuildings and two wharfs with depths alongside of 5⋅8 to7⋅9 m.2 Berths for about 42 small craft at two piers.3.1361 Liberty Bay, entered between Keyport and Point Bolin,is a shallow arm of Port Orchard extending 4 miles NW toa mud flat at its head. The shores are low and wooded andthe entrance is narrow and tortuous.Local knowledge is required.2 Overhead cable, with a vertical clearance of 27⋅4 m,spans the entrance channel.Tidal streams in the entrance exceed 1 knot at times.3.1371 Poulsbo is a fishing and resort town, on the E side atthe head of Liberty Bay, with a small craft harbourprotected by breakwaters and marked by lights.2 Useful mark:A tall church steeple on the hill NE of the harbour isprominent.Berths for about 400 fishing boats and pleasure craft;depths alongside are 2⋅4 to 3⋅7 m.3.1381 Illahee (47°36′⋅8N, 122°35′⋅7W), a small settlement onthe W shore of Port Orchard, has a wharf and stores. Afish haven, marked by buoys, lies close off the head of thewharf. There is also a public pier 1 mile S of the settlementat Illahee State Park. A drying rock has been reported tolie about 45 m SE of the pier.3.1391 Burke Bay (47°39′N, 122°37′W) indents the W shore ofPort Orchard. Burke Bay dries and is spanned at its mouthby a fixed bridge with a vertical clearance of 3⋅1 m.Brownsville is a village on the N shore, at the entrance toBurke Bay. There is a marina at the N entrance point witha pier protecting it from the N and E. There are berths forabout 250 craft.3.1401 Manzanita Bay (47°40′N, 122°34′W) is an inlet1½ miles NE of Battle Point (3.133). It has several smallpiers and affords an excellent anchorage for small craft in adepth of 8⋅2 m, mud. Care must be taken to avoid rows ofsubmerged piles, close offshore, on each side of the baymidway in from the entrance. The village of Manzanitastands on the N shore.Home Contents Index
  • 110. CHAPTER 397PORT OF SEATTLEGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 50 (see 1.20)Position3.1411 Port of Seattle (47°36′N, 122°20′W), has an OuterHarbour (saltwater) and an Inner Harbour (freshwater). TheOuter Harbour consists of Shilshole Bay and Elliott Bay,the latter including East, West and Duwamish Waterways.The Inner Harbour embraces Lake Union and LakeWashington, and Lake Washington Ship Canal whichconnects the two lakes with Puget Sound.2 The greater metropolitan area of Seattle extends some43 miles in a N—S direction, embracing Everett (3.440) tothe N and reaching almost to Tacoma in the S (3.227).Information common to both the Inner and OuterHarbours is given in the following section. The OuterHarbour, except for Shilshole Bay, is described from 3.147onwards, and Shilshole Bay, Washington Ship Canal, LakeUnion and Lake Washington are described from 3.171.Function3.1421 Seattle is one of the principal ports on the Pacific coastof North America. Much of Seattle’s shipping is in theoriental trade, and the city itself has grown into a majorindustrial centre. Seattle handles most of the waterbornetrade to Alaska from the contiguous United States. Almost22 per cent of Seattle’s commerce is in foreign trade, withBritish Columbia, Japan, Asia and Europe forming the basisof overseas commerce.2 Seattle has many modern fully equipped ocean terminals,several large shipyards and excellent transportationfacilities.Population about 570 000.Topography3.1431 Seattle lies on a hilly stretch of land overlooking PugetSound to the W, and to the E, the 18 mile long freshwaters of Lake Washington. The Lake Washington shorelineroughly parallels that of Puget Sound at distances varyingfrom 2½ to 6 miles. Hills rise rather abruptly from bothshorelines and reach heights of more than 152 m. TheCascade Mountains lie to the E of the city and at asomewhat greater distance to the W and NW the OlympicMountains rise abruptly.Traffic3.1441 In 2003 the port was used by 294 vessels with a totaldeadweight 53 268 194 tonnes.Port Authority3.1451 Port of Seattle Commission, PO Box 1209, Seattle,Washington 98111. The office of the Coastguard Captain ofthe Port is at Pier 36.Climate and local weather3.1461 The climate is mild and moderately moist, due to theprevailing W air currents which advance inland from thePacific Ocean, and to the shielding effects of the CascadeMountains, which serve to exclude and deflect the coldcontinental air towards the E. Although the city is 90 milesfrom the ocean the marine air penetrates readily inland, aneffect that is aided by the extensive water surface of PugetSound. The prevailing W air currents cross the oceanacquiring much water vapour and a temperature near thatof the sea. As a result of the rather steady influx of marineair, winters are comparatively warm and summers cool.Extremes of heat or cold are moderate and usually of shortduration, and the daily range in temperature is small. Seeclimatic table for Seattle/Tacoma 1.190.SEATTLE, OUTER HARBOURGeneral informationCharts 47, 50Entry3.1471 Elliott Bay, in which all the facilities for handlingocean-going shipping in the Port of Seattle are located, isentered between West Point (3.75) and Alki Point (3.76),5 miles S.Limiting conditionsControlling depths3.1481 Depths of 10⋅4 m or more are available at the waterfrontin Elliot Bay. A Federal project provides for a depth of10⋅4 m in East and West Waterways (3.158). The projectfor Duwamish Waterway (3.158) provides for a 9⋅1 m depthfrom the S end of West Waterway to the 1st Avenue SouthBridge 2¼ miles S, thence 6⋅1 m for a farther 6½ cablesand 4⋅6 m to the end of the project 1¼ miles S of the 14thAvenue South Bridge. See latest editions of charts andconsult the Port Authority for controlling depths.Deepest and longest berths3.1491 Elliott Bay:Terminals 46 and 37 (3.162).East Waterway:Terminal 18/20 (3.163).West Waterway:Berths 3 to 6 (3.164).Duwamish Waterway:Terminal 115 North (3.165).Tidal levels3.1501 Mean spring range about 3⋅3 m; mean neap range about1⋅2 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.Tidal streams in Elliot Bay are usually weak but on afalling tide there can be an appreciable NW set along theSeattle waterfront.Maximum size3.1511 Largest ship handled: Brooks Range; LOA 276 m;draught 17⋅4 m; 173 380 dwt.Vertical clearances3.1521 Bridges.Harbor Island Reach (3.158). Swing bridge clearance13⋅4 m when closed. Fixed bridge verticalclearance 42 m. Bascule Railway bridge verticalclearance 2⋅1 m when closed.2 Duwamish Waterway (3.158). First Avenue BasculeBridges vertical clearance 11⋅9 m. FourteenthAvenue Bridge vertical clearance 10⋅4 m.Home Contents Index
  • 111. CHAPTER 3983 Overhead power cables.Harbor Island Reach is spanned by one set of powercables, safe vertical clearance 53 m.Duwamish Waterway is spanned by three sets ofpower cables, lowest safe vertical clearance 27 m.Arrival informationPort radio3.1531 See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6(5) fordetails.Notice of ETA3.1541 See 1.35.Anchorages3.1551 There are four charted general anchorage areas in ElliottBay, but the water is deep and the swinging room limited;vessels usually proceed direct to their berths alongside andseldom anchor. The anchorage N of Harbor Island(47°35′N, 122°21′W) is used as the quarantine anchorage.Pilotage3.1561 Pilotage is compulsory, see 1.35.Tugs up to 5000 hp are available.Regulations3.1571 Seattle is a port of entry. Foreign Trade Zone No 5, theUS equivalent of an international free trade zone, is inSeattle.Quarantine is enforced in accordance with the USPublic Health Service regulations (1.69).Harbour regulations are enforced by the Harbor PatrolUnit of the Seattle Police Department.2 Safety Zones have been established in Elliott Bay andLake Union.Entry into the safety zones is prohibited unlessauthorised by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound, Seattle.See Appendix VIII to this volume.HarbourGeneral layout3.1581 West and East Waterways enter the S part of ElliottBay 1¼ miles and 1¾ miles, respectively, ESE ofDuwamish Head (47°35′⋅7N, 122°23′⋅2W). Harbor Island,reclaimed from mudflats and now a highly industrialisedarea, separates these two waterways. Both waterwaysextend about 1 mile to converge S of Harbor Island andbecome Duwamish Waterway.2 West Waterway has a large ocean terminal on its W sidewith the remainder of its waterfront being mainly occupiedby the facilities of two large shipyards.East Waterway has several important terminals; its S endis joined to Duwamish Waterway by a shallow obstructedpassage spanned by fixed bridges.Harbor Island Reach joins the S end of WestWaterway to Duwamish Waterway.3 Duwamish Waterway extends S from Harbor IslandReach for about 4 miles to merge with the DuwamishRiver; the waterway dries about 3 miles S from HarborIsland Reach. The river is navigable only by small craft.the waterway is fronted on both sides by factories andindustrial plants and is spanned by several bascule bridges.Submarine cables and pipelines3.1591 A number of submarine cables are laid through thecentral and W part of Elliott Bay.Submarine cables and pipelines exist in both EastWaterway and Harbor Island Reach.Principal marks3.1601 Landmarks:Seattle Space Needle (47°37′⋅2N, 122°21′⋅0W).Positions of other features below are given relative tothe Space Needle.A conspicuous grain elevator (9½ cables WNW),standing close to the shore.Three radio towers (7½ cables NNW), marked by redlights.Seattle Tower (1 mile SE).2 First National Bank (1⋅2 miles SE), the tallestbuilding on the skyline which can be identified byits dark colour. This building and the Space Needleare the most prominent when several miles off theharbour.The tower of the Smith Building (1⋅3 miles SE).3 Major lights:West Point Light (47°40′N, 122°26′W) (3.70).Alki Point Light (47°34′⋅6N, 122°25′⋅2W) (3.70).Duwamish Head Light (47°35′⋅9N, 122°23′⋅3W)(3.161).Directions(continued from 3.75)3.1611 Elliott Bay, is approached direct from the TSS betweenWest Point (3.75) and Alki Point (3.76), passing:S of Magnolia Bluff (47°38′N, 122°25′W), mostlybare, light coloured and rising in places to a heightof nearly 91 m, which forms the N side of theouter part of Elliott Bay, between West Point andSmith Cove, 2¾ miles SE. Thence:2 S of Fourmile Rock No 1 Light (green square onframework tower) (47°38′⋅3N, 122°24′⋅8W),exhibited from Fourmile Rock which lies closeoffshore 1¾ miles SE of West Point. A shallowbank extends up to 5 cables offshore between WestPoint and Fourmile Rock. There are four lights,charted between 1 and 1¼ miles SE of FourmileRock, marking a detached breakwater protecting amarina in Smith Cove (3.190), where there areother lights. Thence:3 N of Duwamish Head Light (47°35′⋅9N, 122°23′⋅3W)(3.70), exhibited from the extremity of a shoal spitwhich extends 2 cables N of Duwamish Head onthe S shore of Elliott Bay 1¾ miles NE of AlkiPoint. Duwamish Head has a steep and bluff Nface which rises to a height of over 79 m, is treeHome Contents Index
  • 112. CHAPTER 399(Photograph − − Harbor Island from S (3.158)(Original dated 2004)covered and interspersed with houses. Two outfallpipes extend 1½ miles WNW from the head.Thence:As required for the allocated berth.Berths3.1621 The bulk of marine commerce is handled by the largemarine terminals on East and West Waterways, and theterminals along both sides of the Duwamish Waterway.Only the largest berths are identified.2 Smith Cove (47°37′⋅7N, 122°22′⋅9W).Terminal 91. Four berths. Largest berth (No 91 W) is640 m in length, depth alongside 11 m.Elliott Bay Waterfront.Pier 86, 5 cables ESE of Pier 90. One berth 130 m inlength, depth alongside 15⋅2 m. Grain terminal.Pier 66, 1½ miles SE of Pier 90. Total length 488 m,depths alongside 10⋅7 to 19⋅2 m. Cruise Terminal.Terminal 46, 1 mile SSE of Pier 66. Two berths; totallength 830 m, depth alongside 15⋅2 m. Containerterminal.3.1631 East Waterway.Terminal 18, W side of East Waterway. Five berths;total length 1889 m; depths alongside 12⋅2 to15⋅2 m. Container terminal.Matson Terminal 25N, at the SE end of thewaterway: length 482 m; depth alongside 15⋅2 m.Container terminal.2 Terminal 30, E side of West Waterway. Two berths;total length 610 m; depths alongside 10⋅7 to12⋅5 m. Cruise Terminal.3.1641 West Waterway.Terminal 5, occupying most of the W side of thewaterway. Three berths; total length 884 m; depthsalongside 13⋅7 to 15⋅2 m. Container terminal.ARCO Petroleum Products Company, Pier 11 on theE side of the waterway 3 cables S of the entrance;length 140 m; depth alongside 9⋅75 m. Petroleumproducts and bunkering.2 Fisher Mills Wharf, Pier 8 at the SE end of thewaterway. W side 213 m in length, S side (onHarbor Island Reach) 193⋅5 m in length; depthalongside 9⋅7 m. Bagged flour and grain.Home Contents Index
  • 113. CHAPTER 3100Note. Strong currents exist on the ebb tide and duringfreshets at this wharf; an eddy exists at the N end of the Wberth. The section of Harbour Island Reach between theWest Waterway and the bascule bridge is designated as acable and pipeline area.3.1651 Duwamish Waterway.Terminal 115 North, 1⋅8 miles SSE of Pier 8: length366 m; depth alongside 12⋅2 m. Containers,conventional cargo and heavy lifts.Port servicesRepairs3.1661 Repairs of all kinds can be undertaken. Two largeshipyards and several smaller ones. There are ten floatingdocks of which the largest is located at the shipyard closeE of the entrance to West Waterway. Its dimensions are:Length 266 m; breadth 41⋅75 m; lifting capacity of40 000 tonnes.Larger drydocks are at the US Navy’s Puget SoundShipyard (3.122) at Bremerton and these may, onoccasions, be made available to merchant shipping.Other facilities3.1671 Deratting; hospitals; oily waste disposal.Supplies3.1681 Large ships can be bunkered at Piers 91, 15 and 11, andat other berths by barge; fresh water; provisions; stores.Communications3.1691 There are passenger, vehicle and freight ferry serviceswith many ports in Puget Sound and Victoria, BC.Seattle-Tacoma Airport is situated 24 km S.Rescue3.1701 There is a US Coastguard Station located in Seattle,see 3.9.SEATTLE, INNER HARBOUR INCLUDINGSHILSHOLE BAYGeneral informationCharts 47, US 18447 (see 1.20)Description3.1711 Shilshoe Bay is entered between Meadow Point(47°41′⋅6N, 122°24′⋅4W) (3.74) and West Point (3.75).It is an open bight from which the Lake WashingtonShip Canal is entered, and is the site of the largest andmost important single marina in the Seattle area, for detailssee 3.190.2 The coast in the S part of Shilshoe Bay, between theapproach to Lake Washington Ship Canal and West Point,is fringed by a shallow bank which extends 4 cablesoffshore close SW of the approach channel and narrowsfarther SW; the outer edge of this bank is steep to.Controlling depths3.1721 The Federal project depth through the canal and itsentrance channel is 9⋅1 m (30 ft), and is generallymaintained. The latest charts and the Port Authoritiesshould be consulted for the latest depth.Signals3.1731 Traffic signals and lock signals are displayed from theHiram M Chittenden Locks (3.181) in position 47°40′N,122°24′W.Principal marks3.1741 Landmarks:VTS antenna tower (47°39′⋅7N, 122°26′⋅1W), 1 cableE of West Point Light.A large white radar dome (47°39′⋅5N, 122°24′⋅8W).2 Major light:West Point Light (3.70).Directions(continued from 3.74)3.1751 From a position W of Meadow Point, the route leads1½ miles E into Shilshole Bay to the dredged entrancechannel to the Lake Washington Ship Canal, crossing theN-bound lane of the TSS, passing:2 N of West Point Light (3.70), thence:To a position close off Shilshole Bay ApproachLight-buoy (safe water) (47°40′⋅9N, 122°25′⋅1W),which is moored 7½ cables NW of Shilshole BayInner Light (3.176). Three wrecks, with a leastdepth of 8⋅2 m over them, lie 6 cables S of thebuoy; there is a lighted mooring buoy close S ofthe wrecks.3.1761 Entrance channel. The alignment (146°) of the leadinglights situated on the S shore of the Ship Canal leadsthrough the dredged channel, which is also marked bylights, buoys and a light-buoy.Front light (red rectangle, white stripe, on dolphin)(47°40′⋅0N, 122°24′⋅2W).Rear light (red rectangle, white stripe, on frameworktower) (1¼ cables SE of the front light).2 This alignment leads to the S entrance of the marina andon to the Lake Washington Ship Canal, passing:SW of Shilshole Breakwater No 3 Light (green squareon white hut) (47°40′⋅6N, 122°24′⋅7W), exhibitedfrom the S end of the marina breakwater, thence:NE of Shilshole Bay Inner Light No 8 (red triangleon dolphin) (47°40′⋅3N, 122°24′⋅5W), thence:3 SW of Lower Guide Wall Light (pile structure)(47°40′⋅1N, 122°24′⋅3W) (1¼ cables NNW of thefront leading light). It marks the seaward end of aguide wall which extends along the N side of theShip Canal as far as the entrance to the locks. See3.181.3.1771 Useful mark:Shilshole Boat Basin Light No 2 (red triangle)(47°41′⋅3N, 122°24′⋅3W), exhibited from the N endof the marina breakwater.Inner Harbour, Lake Washington Ship CanalGeneral information3.1781 Description. Lake Washington Ship Canal is about6½ miles in length and leads from Shilshole Bay throughSalmon Bay, Lake Union, Portage Bay and Union Bay tothe deep waters of Lake Washington. The canal is dredgedHome Contents Index
  • 114. CHAPTER 3101throughout its length to a designed depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft),however the latest controlling depths should be ascertainedlocally. In the wider parts of the canal, the dredged channelis marked by buoys.3.1791 Bridges. The two fixed bridges spanning LakeWashington Ship Canal have a vertical clearance of at least38⋅7 m (127 ft), and the drawspans of the five basculebridges have clearances varying from 4⋅3 to 13⋅1 m (14 to43 ft).Overhead cables crossing the canal have a least verticalclearance of 47 m (155 ft).3.1801 Special regulations concerning speed, navigation,mooring, towing, locking, and traffic control signals, are inforce for the Ship Canal. A speed limit of 4 kn is enforcedwithin the guide walls of the Hiram M Chittenden Locks(3.181) and a limit of 7 kn is enforced elsewhere in theLake Washington Ship Canal, except in an area marked byfour buoys in the N part of Lake Union (3.183).Hiram M Chittenden Locks3.1811 These are two locks alongside each other situated7½ cables within the W entrance to the Lake WashingtonShip Canal. The N and larger lock is a two chamberstructure with an overall length of 232 m (760 ft), a widthof 24⋅4 m (80 ft) and an over-sill depth of 8⋅8 m (29 ft).The smaller lock has a clear length of 37⋅5 m (123 ft), awidth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft) and an over-sill depth of 4⋅9 m(16 ft). Both locks have a lift of 7⋅9 m (26 ft). Transit timefor large vessels is less than 30 minutes, and 5 to 10minutes for small vessels.2 A salt water barrier, which can be raised and lowered,extends across the E end of the large lock to reduce theintrusion of salt water into Lake Washington. When raisedthe least depth available is indicated on signs, from whichlights are exhibited, at the entrance to the lock; depths arerelated to low lake elevation (6⋅1 m (20 ft) above MLLW).It should be borne in mind, when considering the depthsavailable in the context of the vessel’s draught, that E ofthe barrier the water is fresh.Salmon Bay3.1821 Salmon Bay extends 7½ cables ESE of Hiram MChittenden Locks to Ballard Bridge, a bascule bridgespanning the canal. A guide wall extends along the N sideof the dredged channel for a distance of 1½ cables ESEfrom the large lock. A light is exhibited from the E end ofthe guide wall. There are numerous jetties and piers onboth sides of the bay with extensive small craft facilities.2 Fisherman’s Terminal, at the SE end of Salmon Bayclose W of the S end of Ballard Bridge, is the base for alarge commercial fishing fleet. It can berth and serviceabout 700 craft up to 56½ m (176 ft) in length, and canslip vessels up to 300 tonnes. There are depths of 4⋅3 to8⋅5 m (14 to 28 ft) alongside the piers.Fremont (George Washington Memorial) Bridge is afixed bridge which spans the canal 1½ miles SE of BallardBridge.Lake Union3.1831 Lake Union, entered E of Fremont Bridge, extends about1 mile in a N—S direction and is about 5 cables wide.General depths in the lake are from 9⋅8 to 14⋅9 m (32 to49 ft), but caution is required when navigating the S part ofthe lake as the shoal water is subject to sudden changes. Ashoal, with a depth of 3 m (10 ft) over it, lies 1 cable fromthe SW shore of the lake and is marked by No 2 buoy(starboard hand). A wreck with a depth of 8⋅5 m (28 ft)over it lies 1 cable NE of the shoal. The two piers of thePacific Marine Center, the base of the National OceanService, are situated on the E side of the lake adjacent to ashipyard with several floating docks the largest of whichhas a lifting capacity of 3600 tonnes.2 Lake Washington Ship Canal continues E from the headof the NE arm of Lake Union, where it is spanned by afixed road bridge and 1 cable farther E by, UniversityBridge, a bascule railway bridge.Portage Bay3.1841 Portage Bay is entered close SE of University Bridgeand has general depths of less than 5⋅5 m (18 ft). Thedredged channel passes along the NE side of Portage Bayand through a land cut, 5 cables E, to enter Union Bay.Mortlake Bridge, a bascule railway bridge spans the canalmidway along the land cut.2 Union Bay is very shallow. The dredged channelextends 1 mile E through the S part of Union Bay to enterthe deep water of Lake Washington close S of WebsterPoint (47°38′⋅9N, 122°16′⋅5W). A light is exhibited ½ cableSE of the point.Inner Harbour, Lake WashingtonGeneral information3.1851 Description. Lake Washington is a freshwater lakeextending 16 miles in a N—S direction, with general depthsof 18⋅3 to 62⋅2 m (10 to 34 fm).2 In addition to the city of Seattle which stands on theSW side of the lake, there are several towns and resortsalong its shores. There are few commercial installationsand, except for the timber industry, there is littlewater-borne commercial traffic. The shores are studded withpiers and landings and there are many marinas and repairfacilities for small craft. At the N end and in the SE partof the lake there are extensive booming grounds.Mercer Island, 4½ miles long, lies centrally in the Spart of the lake.Bridges3.1861 A pontoon bridge extends from the S side of theentrance to Union Bay, 1½ miles ESE to a position 4 cablesS of Evergreen Point on the E side of Lake Washington. Afloating drawspan, near its centre, provides an opening30⋅5 m (100 ft) wide. The fixed spans of the bridge closeinshore at its W and E ends have vertical clearances of13⋅4 to 17⋅4 m (44 to 57 ft), respectively.2 Another pontoon bridge extends 1¼ miles W from the Nend of Mercer Island to the mainland. The fixed spans ofthe bridge inshore at each end have a vertical clearance of8⋅8 m (29 ft).A fixed bridge extends E from Barnabie Point, on the Eside of Mercer Island, to the mainland and has a verticalclearance of 21⋅6 m (71 ft).Measured distances3.1871 A measured distance of 1853⋅2 m (6080 ft), on a courseof 102½°–282½°, along the N side of the bridge betweenthe entrance to Union Bay and Evergreen Point, is markedby round daymarks with red and white quadrants indicatingHome Contents Index
  • 115. CHAPTER 3102the mile, and round daymarks with green and whitedaymarks indicating the half-mile.2 A measured distance of 2000 m is indicated by greenrectangular daymarks, with a vertical white stripe, on bothsides of the bridge.A measured distance of 1853⋅2 m (6080 ft), on a courseof 092°–272°, is indicated by daymarks on both sides ofthe pontoon bridge connecting the N end of Mercer Islandto the mainland W.Submarine cables3.1881 Charted submarine cables exist in Lake Washington.May Creek3.1891 May Creek (Port Quendall) on the E side of LakeWashington, opposite the S end of Mercer Island, has acreosoting plant and lumber mill with a wharf 139 m(456 ft) long.Small craft3.1901 Shilshole Bay Marina (47°41′N, 122°24′W), is situatedjust N of the entrance to the Lake Washington Ship Canalbetween 4 cables and 1 mile S of Meadow Point (3.74). Ithas 1500 berths, including 100 for visitors, and canaccommodate craft up to 40 m in length.A long breakwater, marked by a light at each end (3.176and 3.177), protects the basin on its W side. There is aspoil ground along the W side of the breakwater.A lighted mooring buoy 3 cables WSW of the N end ofthe breakwater is used for log rafts.2 Elliott Bay Marina (47°38′N, 122°24′W) situated just Wof Smith Cove (in which Terminal 91 is located) belowMagnolia Bluff (3.161) has 1200 berths and canaccommodate craft up to 37 m in length.Bell Harbor Marina, situated close SE of Pier 66 has 70berths, and can accommodate craft up to 37 m in length.There are numerous small craft facilities throughoutLake Washington Ship Canal, Lake Union and LakeWashington.PUGET SOUND, CENTRAL PARTGENERAL INFORMATIONChart 48Route3.1911 The central part of Puget Sound, which leads to Tacoma,is divided into two passages by Vashon Island and MauryIsland; that to the E being East Passage, the main channelthrough which the TSS is continued.Topography3.1921 This part of Puget Sound is bounded on the E by themainland of Washington State. Poverty Bay (47°21′N,122°20′W) and Commencement Bay (47°17′N, 122°27′W),with Tacoma at its head, indent the E shore at the S end ofthis part of the sound. On the W, the sound is bounded bythe shore of the Great Peninsula with Yukon Harborindenting the W shore at the N end of this part of thesound. Colvos Passage lies between the Great Peninsulaand Vashon Island, which is 11 miles long, and is joined onits SE side by a narrow isthmus to Maury Island, which is5 miles long. Both islands have rolling hills of moderateheight and are heavily wooded, except for numerousorchards and farms and the many settlements along theirshores.EAST PASSAGE AND DALCO PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 48Description3.1931 East Passage, separating Vashon and Maury Islands fromthe mainland to the E, is the main shipping channel andextends from Alki Point (3.76) SSE for 12½ miles toRobinson Point (47°23′N, 122°22′W) (3.201), and thenceSW for 6 miles to Browns Point (47°18′⋅4N, 122°26′⋅7W)(3.202). The waters throughout are deep and there are nocharted dangers more than 5 cables from the shore.2 Dalco Passage between the Point Defiance promontory(47°19′N, 122°33′W) and the S end of Vashon Island,1½ miles NE, connects the S end of East Passage with theS end of Colvos Passage (3.219) and the N end of TheNarrows (3.253). Dalco Passage is deep and clear.Hazards3.1941 Ferry services cross the passage from Fauntleroy Cove(47°31′⋅4N, 122°23′⋅8W) to Vashon Heights Landing(47°30′⋅7N, 122°27′⋅8W) and to Point Southworth(47°30′⋅8N, 122°29′⋅8W), which lies on the W side of theentrance to Colvos Passage. Another ferry service operatesbetween Tahlequah (47°20′⋅0N, 122°30′⋅5W) and Ruston(47°18′⋅4N, 122°30′⋅9W).Traffic regulations3.1951 Traffic Separation Scheme. The TSS continues S withTA Light-buoy (special) (47°26′⋅9N, 122°24′⋅3W) and TBLight-buoy (special) (47°23′⋅1N, 122°21′⋅2W) moored onthe centreline of the separation zone and markingalterations in the route of the TSS between Alki Point andRobinson Point. TC Light-buoy (special) (47°19′⋅5N,122°27′⋅4W) marks the centre of a precautionary area at theS end of the TSS through Puget Sound.Measured distance3.1961 There is a measured distance each side of Point Beals(47°28′N, 122°26′W).North Limit marks: steel towers, round orangedaymarks) in line bearing 250°.South Limit marks: steel towers, round orangedaymarks) in line bearing 250°.Distance: 1 mile.Running track: 160°−340°.Submarine cables and pipeline3.1971 Submarine cables and a pipeline, shown on the chart,cross the passage in a number of places.Home Contents Index
  • 116. CHAPTER 3103Tidal streams3.1981 Tidal streams in East Passage are weak and variable.Tidal streams in Dalco Passage set WNW almostcontinuously, with a maximum rate of 1½ kn. See tidalinformation on the chart.Principal marks3.1991 Landmarks:A group of three radio towers (47°27′⋅8N,122°26′⋅5W) close SW of Point Beals.A radio tower (red lights) (47°25′⋅3N, 122°25′⋅8W)on Point Heyer (3.201).Two radio towers (red lights, elevation 160 m)(47°23′⋅9N, 122°26′⋅0W) with a group of three5 cables SE.A TV tower (elevation 290 m) (47°16′⋅7N,122°30′⋅8W), is the highest landmark in the areaSW of Robinson Point.Directions(continued from 3.77)Alki Point to Three Tree Point3.2001 From a position W of T Light-buoy (47°34′⋅6N,122°27′⋅1W) (3.76), the S bound traffic lane of the TSSleads 12 miles SSE to a position W of TB Light-buoy(3.195), where it turns and leads a farther 5½ miles SW tothe precautionary area, marked at its centre by TCLight-buoy (47°19′⋅5N, 122°27′⋅4W) (3.195), which lies atthe S end of the TSS, passing (with positions relative toBrace Point (47°31′⋅0N, 122°24′⋅0W)):2 ENE of Blake Island East Light (black and whitechequered diamond on framework tower)(3½ miles WNW), exhibited from the NE point ofBlake Island (3.205), thence:(Directions for Colvos Passage continue at 3.224)WSW of Point Williams (8 cables N), thence:3 ENE of Point Vashon Light (black and whitechequered diamond on pile structure) (3 miles W),exhibited from the bank which extends 4 cables Nof Point Vashon, a steep wooded bluff, which isthe NW extremity of Vashon Island. Allen Bankextends 9 cables farther N of the light. Thence:ENE of Dolphin Point (2¼ miles WSW), thence:ENE of Point Beals (3¼ miles SSW); the town ofVashon stands on high ground 1½ miles SW of thepoint. Thence:4 To a position WSW of Three Tree Point Light (whiteframework tower, 6 m in height) (4 miles S),exhibited from the extremity of the point. ThreeTree Point is a low narrow spit projecting from thefoot of a steep hillock which reaches a height of131 m, 1 mile inland. The point derives its namefrom a grassy knoll, with a few trees upon it, onthe low part of the spit. TA Light-buoy (special) ismoored 9 cables W of the point where the TSSalters SE.Three Tree Point to Robinson Point3.2011 From a position WSW of Three Tree Point (47°27′⋅0N,122°22′⋅8W) (3.200), the TSS leads SSE, passing (withpositions relative to Robinson Point Light (47°23′⋅3N,122°22′⋅5W)):NE of Point Heyer (3 miles NW), a sandy spit withthe ground rising steeply behind it. A radio tower(3.199) stands on the point. A shoal extends2 cables SE of the point and a fish haven liesclose off the point. Thence:2 NE of Robinson Point Light (white octagonal tower,12 m in height), exhibited from the point.Robinson Point, the E extremity of Maury Island,is a low spit projecting from wooded high land.Gravel pits 1 mile SW of the point are prominentfrom the SW; they are fronted by two bargeloading wharfs. TB Light-buoy (special) is moored9 cables E of Robinson Point where the TSS altersSW.Robinson Point to Browns Point3.2021 From a position E of Robinson Point Light (47°23′⋅3N,122°22′⋅5W) (3.201), the TSS leads SW, passing (withpositions relative to Robinson Point Light):SE of Piner Point (4¼ miles SW), the S extremity ofMaury Island, and:NW of Dash Point (4½ miles SSW), upon whichstands the village of Dash Point. A pier, with adepth of 6⋅1 m at its head, projects from the Nside of the point. Thence:2 NW of TC Light-buoy (special) (5 miles SW),moored in the centre of the precautionary area atthe S end of the TSS, thence:NW of Browns Point Light (white tower, 9 m inheight) (5¾ miles SSW), exhibited from theextremity of the point. Browns Point is the Eentrance point of Commencement Bay (3.229) atthe head of which lies the Port of Tacoma (3.227).(Directions for Commencement Bay andthe Port of Tacoma continue at 3.247)Dalco Passage3.2031 From a position NW of Browns Point (47°18′⋅4N,122°26′⋅7W) (3.202), the route leads 3 miles W throughDalco Passage to the S end of Colvos Passage, passing(with positions relative to Browns Point):S of Neill Point (2½ miles NW), which is the Sextremity of Vashon Island, thence:S of Point Dalco (3½ miles WNW), thence:2 N of Point Defiance Light (green and whitechequered diamond on pile structure) (4¼ milesW), exhibited from Point Defiance, a prominentbare bluff, 49 m high, at the end of a narrowwooded promontory which is the W entrance pointof Commencement Bay (3.229). A light (dolphin)is exhibited from a ferry terminal 1½ miles ESE ofthe point.(Directions through The Narrows continue at 3.260)Anchorages and harboursYukon Harbor3.2041 General information. Yukon Harbor lies at the head ofan open bay formed by the coast between Point Southworth(47°30′⋅6N, 122°29′⋅7W), a high wooded point, andOrchard Point (3.113), 3¾ miles NNW. There is a US Navyoil storage depot and a pier on the S side of Orchard Point.Home Contents Index
  • 117. CHAPTER 31043.2051 Directions (continued from 3.76). From a position in theTSS SE of Restoration Point (47°35′N, 122°29′W) (3.76),the route leads SW for 3 miles into the bay, passing:2 NW of Blake Island East Light (3.200). Blake Island,1 mile in extent, 76 m high, lies 1¼ miles N ofPoint Southworth. The N shore of the island isfringed with a bank to a distance of 5 cables.Three lighted mooring buoys lie close W of the Wextremity of the island. Blake Island No 1 Light(green square on pile), is exhibited at the entranceto a small craft basin at a State Marine Park,2 cables NW of the NE point of the island. And:3 SE of No 4 Light-buoy (starboard hand) (47°34′⋅1N,122°31′⋅1W) moored on the SW edge ofBainbridge Reef (3.112), thence:As required for an anchorage berth in the designatedanchorage area in the bay at the head of whichlies Yukon Harbor.3.2061 Anchorages. The charted area enclosed by lines joiningOrchard Point, Blake Island and Harper (3.207) is adesignated general anchorage.The harbour affords an anchorage in depths of 9⋅1 to18⋅3 m with protection from S winds. Shoal water, much ofwhich dries at LW, extends 3 cables offshore along the Sside of the harbour.3.2071 Harper is a village with a ruined pier 1 mile E ofYukon Harbor.Submarine cables are laid between Blake Island and aposition 6 cables E of Harper.Fauntleroy Cove3.2081 Fauntleroy Cove (47°31′⋅4N, 122°23′⋅8W), on the E sideof East Passage, lies between Point Williams (3.200) andBrace Point, 7½ cables S. It has a slip from which a ferryservice (3.194) operates to Vashon Heights Landing (3.209)and Point Southworth.Vashon Heights Landing3.2091 Vashon Heights Landing (47°30′⋅6N, 122°27′⋅8W), acombined ferry slip and pier 5 cables E of Point Vashon,has an alongside depth of 4⋅3 m.Tramp Harbor3.2101 Tramp Harbor (47°25′N, 122°25′W) is the bay formedby the coast of Vashon Island S of Point Heyer (3.201) andthe N shore of Maury Island. The entire shoreline of thebay is fringed by a shallow bank 2 cables wide.3.2111 Portage, a village at the head of Tramp Harbor, extendsacross the isthmus joining Vashon Island and Maury Island;a tank farm with an oil wharf stands close N of the village.A fish haven lies on the SW side of the harbour.Redondo3.2121 Redondo (47°20′⋅5N, 122°20′⋅0W), is a suburban villageon the S side of Poverty Bay, 3½ miles S of Des Moines.A buoyed fish haven lies close offshore midway betweenDes Moines and Redondo.3.2131 Dumas Bay, 2 miles WSW of Redondo, has a smallwharf which dries at LW.Quartermaster Harbor3.2141 General information. Quartermaster Harbor, enteredbetween Piner Point (47°20′⋅6N, 122°27′⋅4W) (3.202) andNeill Point (3.203), 1½ miles WSW, extends 5 miles Nbetween Vashon Island and Maury Island to the isthmusjoining these two islands. Its shores are low and woodedwith numerous villages and several piers and landings.2 Local knowledge is advisable.Directions. From a position NW of TC Light-buoy(47°19′⋅5N, 122°27′⋅4W), the route leads 3½ miles NW andN into the harbour, passing:Between Piner Point and Neill Point. The W side ofthe harbour is fringed by a shallow bank 2 cableswide for 2 miles N from Neill Point. Thence:3 SW of No 2 buoy (starboard hand), which marks theedge of a shoal extending 1½ miles from the Eshore of the harbour, 1 mile WNW of Piner Point.Depths of 7⋅9 m lie 3 cables NNW and 1¼ miles Nof the buoy. Thence:The route turns and continues N for a suitable berthwithin the harbour.Anchorage. An excellent anchorage can be found2 miles within the entrance in depths of 9⋅1 to 18⋅3 m,mud.3.2151 Burton, is a small town with a marina, standing onBurton Peninsula, which projects from the W shore 3 mileswithin the entrance to Quartermaster Harbor.Depths in the harbour N of the peninsula are less than5 m.An oil receiving wharf and storage tanks are on the Wside of the harbour about 7 cables N of Burton at themouth of Judd Creek. The storage tanks are on the hill Nof the harbour.3.2161 Dockton (47°22′⋅2N, 122°27′⋅3W), is a village in a bighton the E shore about 2½ miles within the entrance. Thereare several piers in the bight.Small craftDes Moines3.2171 General information. Des Moines (47°24′N, 122°20′W),a town on the E side of East Passage. The town has amarina, with over 700 berths, protected by a breakwater670 m long; lights and daymarks are exhibited from bothends of the breakwater.Tahlequah3.2181 Tahlequah (47°20′⋅0N, 122°30′⋅5W) is a small residentialcommunity between Neill Point and Point Dalco on the Sshore of Vashon Island. There is a marina and a ferry slipfrom which a ferry service operates to Ruston (3.194).COLVOS PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 483.2191 Colvos Passage, on the W side of Vashon Island, isentered between Point Southworth (47°30′⋅6N, 122°29′⋅7W)and Point Vashon (47°30′⋅6N, 122°28′⋅6W) and extends11 miles S to merge with Dalco Passage (3.193) and TheNarrows (3.253). The passage has an average width of1 mile and is deep and clear; it is used mainly by tugstowing logs.Home Contents Index
  • 118. CHAPTER 3105Hazard3.2201 A ferry route crosses the passage between PointSouthworth and Vashon Heights Landing (3.209).Submarine cables and pipeline3.2211 Submarine cables and a pipeline, shown on the chart,cross the passage.Tidal streams3.2221 Tidal streams in Colvos Passage are almost continuouslyN-going with rates of ½ to 1½ kn.Principal mark3.2231 Landmark:TV tower (elevation 305 m) (47°28′⋅7N, 122°32′⋅6W).Directions(continued from 3.200)3.2241 From a position ENE of Blake Island East Light(47°32′⋅5N, 122°28′⋅9W) (3.200), the route leads 14 milesSSW to where it merges with the route from Dalco Passageto continue through The Narrows (3.253), passing (withpositions relative to No 4 Light (47°25′⋅8N, 122°31′⋅9W)):WNW of Point Vashon Light (5½ miles NNE) (3.200)and clear of Allen Bank if required by draught,thence:ESE of Point Southworth (5 miles NNE), which ishigh and wooded. A slip lies 2 cables NW of thepoint (3.208). Thence:2 WNW of No 3 Light (green square on pile) (2 milesNNE), exhibited close off a point on the E shoreopposite Fragaria, a village on the W side of thepassage. Cove is a resort close S of the light.Thence:E of No 4 Light (red triangle on pile), exhibited froma point on the W shore 2 miles S of Fragaria,thence:3 WNW of No 5 Light (green square on pile) (2 milesS), exhibited from Point Sandford. Lisabuela is aresort close N of Point Sandford. Thence:E of No 6 Light (red triangle on pile structure)(3 miles S), exhibited close off Point Richmond,thence:To the junction with Dalco Pass and The Narrows Eof Gig Harbor Light (hexagonal concrete building)(3½ miles SSW) (visible 273°–162°), exhibitedfrom the extremity of a sandspit at the entrance toGig Harbor (3.226).Small craftOlalla3.2251 Olalla (47°25′⋅3N, 122°32′⋅5W) is a village at the mouthof a small cove where small craft can berth and obtainsupplies. There is a drying rock 2 cables N of the formerwharf at Olalla.Gig Harbor3.2261 General information. Gig Harbor (47°20′N, 122°35′W)is a narrow inlet on the W side at the S end of ColvosPassage, abreast Point Defiance. The inlet extends 1 mileNW with gently sloping shores partially cleared of treesand thickly settled. The town of Gig Harbor stands on theW shore at the head of the inlet and is much used byfishing vessels and pleasure craft.Local knowledge is required.2 Tidal streams set through the entrance channel withconsiderable velocity.Directions. The entrance channel, with a depth of 3⋅0 m,leads to general depths of 7⋅3 to 11⋅0 m within the harbour.A sandspit extending 1 cable from the E entrance pointconstricts the entrance to less than ½ cable in width. GigHarbor Light (3.224) is exhibited from the end of thissandspit.3 Facilities and supplies. Repairs; fuel; water; stores.PORT OF TACOMAGeneral informationChart 48Position3.2271 Tacoma (47°15′N, 122°25′W) lies at the head ofCommencement Bay.Function3.2281 Tacoma is the second city in size and importance onPuget Sound and its port, which is rapidly expanding, issecond only to Seattle. Tacoma has extensive foreign anddomestic trade.Population about 197 000.Topography3.2291 The city occupies the S and SW shores ofCommencement Bay, and the outskirts extend N as far asthe suburbs of Seattle and S to Steilacoom (47°10′⋅3N,122°35′⋅8W) (3.262). The bay extends about 2½ miles SEand is of easy access and clear of offshore dangers. Exceptfor extensive log storage and booming grounds along theNE side, and the wooded promontory of Point Defiance onthe SW side, the whole shoreline is occupied by the wharfsand industrial plants of Tacoma.Approach and entry3.2301 The port is approached from Puget Sound and enteredthrough Commencement Bay between Browns Point(47°18′⋅4N, 122°26′⋅7W) (3.202) and Point Defiance(47°19′⋅0N, 122°32′⋅9W) (3.203).Traffic3.2311 In 2003 the port was used by 349 vessels with a totaldeadweight 51 247 800 tonnes.Port Authority3.2321 Port of Tacoma, PO Box 1837, Tacoma, WA 98401.Limiting conditionsControlling depths3.2331 Thea Foss Waterway (formerly City Waterway) (3.242)has project depths, maintained by dredging, of 8⋅8 m to theSouth Eleventh Street Bridge, thence a depth of 6⋅7 m for2 cables, thence a depth of 5⋅8 m to its head.Home Contents Index
  • 119. CHAPTER 3106Middle Waterway (3.242) and Saint Paul Waterway(3.242) are not Federal projects. The outer 2 cables of bothwaterways have depths of 7⋅6 to 10⋅3 m. The inner sectionsof both waterways have shoaled and are not navigable.2 Puyallup Waterway (3.242) is the undredged mouth ofthe Puyallup River which is shoal and unnavigable.Sitcum Waterway (3.242) has depths of 11⋅3 to 13⋅1 m;it is not a Federal project.Blair Waterway (3.242) has a project depth of 15⋅5 m,least width 97 m.3 Hylebos Waterway (3.242) has a project depth of 9⋅1 m,least width 61 m.For the latest controlling project depths in the abovewaterways, up to date charts and the Port Authority shouldbe consulted.3.2341 Bridge clearances.Thea Foss Waterway. Vertical lift bridge 42⋅4 m whenraised; 19⋅5 m when lowered. Fixed highwaybridge; vertical clearance 11 m in the centre.Hylebos Waterway. Bascule bridge 6⋅4 m whenclosed.2 Overhead cables.Blair Waterway. An overhead cable spans thewaterway; vertical clearance 52⋅7 m.Hylebos Waterway. An overhead cable spans thewaterway close SE of the bridge; vertical clearance52⋅7 m.Deepest and longest berths3.2351 Commencement Bay:Continental Grain Wharf (3.248).Sitcum Waterway:Terminal 7 (3.248).Blair Waterway:2 Washington United Terminals (3.248).Hylebos Waterway:Longest: General Metals Wharf (3.248). Deepest:Tacoma Export Yard Dock (3.248).Tidal levels3.2361 Mean spring range about 3⋅5 m; mean neap range about1⋅3 m. See information in Admiralty Tide Tables.Tidal streams in Commencement Bay are negligible.However in 1994 tidal currents of up to 2 kn were reportedin Hylebos Waterway.Arrival informationPort radio3.2371 Hylebos Bridge (see 3.318) maintains VHFcommunication with vessels. See Admiralty List of RadioSignals Volume 6(5) for details.Notice of ETA3.2381 See 1.35.Anchorage3.2391 A designated general anchorage lies off the NE shore ofCommencement Bay.Anchoring is permitted in any part of the bay to seawardof the outer harbour line, provided that no interference iscaused to vessels approaching or departing any berth in theport. However, depths in the bay outside the generalanchorage area are too deep for convenience.Pilotage3.2401 Pilotage is compulsory, see 1.35.Tugs up to 3000 hp are available; larger tugs can beobtained from Seattle.Regulations3.2411 Tacoma is a port of entry.Quarantine is enforced in accordance with the USPublic Health Service regulations (1.69).Speeds in excess of 5 kn on any of the waterways andwithin 1 cable of any shore or pier are prohibited.2 Safety Zone. A Safety Zone has been established on theW side of Commencement Bay.Entry into this safety zone is prohibited unlessauthorised by the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound, Seattle.See Appendix VIII to this volume.HarbourGeneral layout3.2421 Most of the principal port installations are situated onand around eight waterways which open into the head ofCommencement Bay. The port waterfront also extendsalong the SW shore of the bay to within 1½ miles of PointDefiance.2 Thea Foss Waterway, the waterway adjacent to the SWshore of Commencement Bay, extends 1¼ miles S.Eleventh Street Bridge, spans the waterway 5 cables withinthe entrance (3.234). A fixed highway bridge spans thewaterway near its head.3 Middle Waterway and St Paul Waterway, 2 cables and3 cables, respectively, NE of Thea Foss Waterway, are notdredged and the inner parts of both waterways haveshoaled and are not navigable. St Paul Waterway is usedfor log storage by a large papermill which occupies theland on the NE side.4 Puyallup Waterway, next to and NE of St PaulWaterway, is the mouth of the Puyallup River and shoal tothe extent that it cannot be used commercially. EleventhStreet Bridge, spanning the waterway 6 cables within itsentrance, has its lift span permanently in the loweredposition. It is reported that an E set across the entrance toPuyallup Waterway can be expected on the ebb tide duringfreshets in the river.Milwaukee Waterway, close NE of Puyallup Waterwayis largely reclaimed. Shoal water extends 1¾ cables NWfrom the E and W sides of the entrance.5 Sitcum Waterway, close NE of Milwaukee Waterway, is5 cables long.Blair Waterway, 4 cables NE of Sitcum Waterway,extends 2¼ miles SE; there is a turning basin at its head.Foul ground extends from the E entrance point of thewaterway to the head of a pier 2 cables N.Hylebos Waterway, NE of Blair Waterway, and adjacentto the NE shore of Commencement Bay, extends 2½ milesSE and has two turning basins at its inner end. EleventhStreet Bridge spans the waterway 7 cables within theentrance (3.234).Home Contents Index
  • 120. CHAPTER 3107(Photograph − from NW (3.242)(Original dated 2004)Mt RainierSubmarine cables3.2431 Submarine cables exist in the central part of Thea FossWaterway and also in the vicinity of Eleventh Street Bridgein Blair Waterway. There are others in Hylebos Waterwayin the vicinity of Eleventh Street Bridge and 5 cables SE.Spoil ground3.2441 A spoil ground, centred upon (47°16′⋅5N, 122°26′⋅1W),lies close off the entrance to Puyallup Waterway.Natural conditions3.2451 See the climatic table for Seattle/Tacoma 1.190.Principal marks3.2461 Landmarks:A TV tower (3.199) 2¾ miles SE of Point Defiance.Dash Point (3.202).Browns Point (3.202).Point Defiance (3.203).Directions(continued from 3.202)3.2471 From a position NW of Browns Point Light (47°18′⋅4N,122°26′⋅7W) (3.202), the route leads S for 1 mile to aposition W of Browns Point Light, thence as appropriatefor the allocated berth, the chart is a sufficient guide.For Blair Waterway, the white sector of CommencementBay Directional Light (below) leads to the waterwayentrance.2 Useful marks:Thea Foss Waterway Light (pile) (47°15′⋅7N,122°26′⋅2W), exhibited from the E side of theentrance.Three chimneys (47°16′⋅0N, 122°25′⋅7W), stand onthe W side of Puyallup Waterway 2 cables withinthe entrance.Sitcum Waterway Light (pile structure) (47°16′⋅3N,122°25′⋅2W), exhibited from the NE end of SitcumWaterway.3 Commencement Bay Directional Light (pile)(47°16′⋅8N, 122°24′⋅9W), exhibited from the NEentrance point to Blair Waterway.Home Contents Index
  • 121. CHAPTER 3108Lights exhibited (47°17′⋅1N, 122°24′⋅8W) from theheads of two piers projecting NW from the Wentrance point to Hylebos Waterway.Berths3.2481 Only the largest are mentioned:Commencement Bay:Continental Grain Wharf lies 3 cables N of theentrance to Thea Foss Waterway. Length 277 m;reported depth alongside 19⋅8 m.Sitcum Waterway:Terminal 7 on the NE side. Total length 823 m,depths alongside 11⋅9 to 15⋅2 m.2 Maersk Sealand Terminal on the SW side. Totallength 670 m, depth alongside 14⋅6 m.Blair Waterway:Terminal 4 on the W side close N of the basculebridge. Length 579 m, depth alongside 13⋅7 m.Totem Ocean Trailer Express (TOTE) Terminal, aRo-Ro facility on the E side close N of thebascule bridge. Length 305 m, depth alongside15⋅2 m.3 Washington United Terminals on the W side 1½ milesabove the entrance. Length 610 m, depth alongside15⋅2 m.Blair Terminal on the W side 1¾ miles above theentrance. Length 366 m, depth alongside 15⋅2 m.Pierce County Terminal on the S side of the turningbasin at the E end Length 427 m, depth alongside15⋅2 m. Most of the port’s Ro-Ro cargo is handledat this terminal.4 Hylebos Waterway:Occidental Chemical Corporation Docks 1 and 2 onthe W side 3 cables N of the bascule bridge.Length 286⋅5 m, depth alongside 9⋅75 m.General Metals Wharf on the S side close S of LowerTurning Basin. Length 352 m; depths alongside 4⋅6to 9⋅1 m.Tacoma Export Yard Dock on the SW side of theUpper Turning Basin. Length 335 m, depthalongside 11⋅9 m.Port Services3.2491 Repairs. The nearest facilities for major repairs toocean-going vessels are in Seattle.Floating dock, at a boat yard on the SW side of theentrance to Hylebos Waterway: lifting capacity 8000 tonnes;vessels up to 157 m in length.Largest patent slip on the NE side of Upper TurningBasin in Hylebos Waterway; capacity 1000 tonnes.2 Other facilities: hospitals; oily waste disposal.Supplies: fuel; water; provisions; stores. Large shipsbunkered by barge.3 Communications. Seattle/Tacoma International Airport isabout 25 km N.Small craft3.2501 There is a public pier owned by the city of Tacoma, onthe SW side of Commencement Bay; small craft moor heretemporarily. There are numerous other small craft facilitiesin Hylebos, Blair and Thea Foss Waterways, and on the NEand SW shores of Commencement Bay.PUGET SOUND, SOUTH PARTGENERAL INFORMATIONCharts 51, 1947Description3.2511 The channels S of Point Defiance (47°19′⋅0N,122°32′⋅9W) (3.203) are generally deep with few dangers.Apart from deep-draught ships using Olympia (3.316), thetraffic on these waters consists mainly of log tows andpleasure craft. At many of the villages the piers have falleninto disrepair due to the development of an extensive roadcommunication system.Topography3.2521 Puget Sound S of Point Defiance consists of numerousinlets, passages and islands. The shores are wooded withbeaches of sand and gravel, often backed by steep baresand and gravel bluffs.THE NARROWS TO BALCH PASSAGEGeneral informationCharts 51, 1947Route3.2531 The Narrows are entered between Point Defiance andGig Harbor (3.226), 1¾ miles NW, from where the routeextends 5 miles SSE and SSW to a position WNW of DaysIsland (47°14′⋅5N, 122°33′⋅8W), from where it extends Sand SW for a farther 6 miles to the entrance to BalchPassage (47°11′N, 122°40′W).Topography3.2541 The Narrows is a deep, steep sided passage 7½ cableswide and 5 miles long and is the only approach to the Spart of Puget Sound. The E shore consists of high boldbluffs and a railway emerges from a tunnel, 1¾ miles SSEof Point Defiance, and follows the shore SW for 13 milesto the mouth of the Nisqually River (47°06′N, 122°41′W).Tidal streams3.2551 Tidal streams in The Narrows are strong and exceed5 kn at times. At the N end of The Narrows, the tidalstream sets N most of the time on the E side of thepassage, and S most of the time on the W side. OffSteilacoom (47°10′⋅3N, 122°35′⋅8W), the tidal streams arestrong and tide rips form, which with opposing winds, canbe dangerous to small boats. See tidal information on thechart. For greater detail see US Tidal Current Tables,Pacific Coast of North America and Asia.Overhead cables3.2561 Overhead cables, with a safe vertical clearance of 61 m,cross The Narrows 2½ miles S of Point Defiance.Home Contents Index
  • 122. CHAPTER 3109Tacoma Narrows Bridge3.2571 The bridge is a road suspension bridge and spans TheNarrows 3¼ miles S of Point Defiance. It has a verticalclearance of 55 m at the centre and 48 m at the piers, and ahorizontal clearance of 782 m. Fog signals are soundedfrom each pier.2 In 2003 a fixed bridge, with a design vertical clearanceof 55 m at its centre, was under construction just S of theexisting bridge.Submarine cables3.2581 Submarine cables, shown on the chart, cross the channelin a few places S of The Narrows.Principal marks3.2591 Landmarks:A TV tower (3.199), 2 miles SE of Point Defiance.Aero light, exhibited from Tacoma Industrial Airport,3¼ miles SSW of Point Defiance.Two large sand and gravel pits (47°12′⋅5N,122°34′⋅6W), each with a loading pier, 2¼ milesSSW of Days Island.The buildings of the State Penitentiary 5 cables SSWof Hyde Point (3.260).Directions(continued from 3.203)3.2601 From a position WNW of Point Defiance (47°19′⋅0N,122°32′⋅9W) (3.203), the route leads 2½ miles SSE and8 miles SW and W to a position off the E entrance toBalch Passage, passing (with positions relative to GibsonPoint No 6 Light (47°13′⋅1N, 122°36′⋅2W)):2 ENE and ESE of Point Evans No 4 Light (redtriangle on pile) (4½ miles NNE), exhibited fromthe point 1¾ miles S of Point Defiance, thence:ESE of Point Fosdick (2¼ miles NNE), SW of PointEvans on the W side of The Narrows at its S end.Thence:3 WNW of Days Island (2 miles NE) (3.261), whichlies close off and is connected by a bridge to theE side of The Narrows at the S end, thence:ESE of Fox Point (1 mile NNE), the E extremity ofFox Island. Fox Point lies 1 mile S of PointFosdick and between them Hale Passage (3.277) isentered. Thence:ESE of Gibson Point No 6 Light (red triangle ondolphin), exhibited from the point which is the Sextremity of Fox Island, thence:4 ESE and SSE of Toliva Shoal (1 mile S), whichconsists of two rocks, with a depth of 3⋅2 m overthem, lying in mid-channel. DTS Light-buoy(isolated danger) is moored close S of Toliva Shoaland an unmarked fish haven lies 4 cables N of thebuoy. The shoal, which can be passed on eitherside, should be given a berth of at least 2½ cables,thence:5 SSE of Hyde Point (2 miles SW), the E extremity ofMcNeil Island. The principal entrance to Carr Inlet(3.263) lies between Hyde Point and Gibson Point.McNeil Island is prison property and vessel trafficis restricted within ½ cable of its shore.(Directions for Balch Passage continue at 3.284and for Nisqually Reach at 3.289)Small craft3.2611 Days Island (47°14′⋅5N, 122°33′⋅6W), has a ferry slipand wharf which are both in ruins. There is a shoal, with adepth of 5 m over it, 1 cable W of the ruined ferry slip.There are three marinas here, one on the E side of theisland and two in the cove ¾ cable E of the N end of theisland on the mainland shore, with about 200 berths.Steilacoom3.2621 Steilacoom (47°10′⋅3N, 122°35′⋅8W) is on the mainland9 miles SSW of Point Defiance. The town is of littlecommercial importance and has no waterfront facilitiesexcept for a ferry terminal which maintains a service toAnderson Island (47°10′N, 122°42′W) (3.280) and KetronIsland (47°09′N, 122°38′W) (3.289).Berths. Limited number for small craft.CARR INLET AND HALE PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 51 (see 1.20)Description3.2631 Carr Inlet extends 6 miles NW and then 8 miles NNEfrom its main entrance between Gibson Point (47°13′⋅1N,122°36′⋅0W) (3.260) and Hyde Point (47°12′⋅0N,122°38′⋅6W) (3.260).Hale Passage (3.277), 4 miles long and to the N of CarrInlet, lies between the NE side of Fox Island and themainland, and provides access between the S end of TheNarrows and the E side of Carr Inlet.Carr InletGeneral information3.2641 The inlet is of easy access and is deep with fewdangers.3.2651 Restricted area. A naval acoustic range, in whichnavigation is subject to special regulations, is in operationin the outer part of Carr Inlet; its limits are indicated onthe chart. See Appendix X to this volume.3.266Measured distance1 There is a measured distance on the NE shore ofMcNeill Island, 1 mile NW of Hyde Point (3.260).North Limit marks: beacons, red and white diamonddaymarks line bearing 208½°.South Limit marks: beacons, red and white diamonddaymarks line bearing 208½°.Distance: 1 mile.Running track: 118½°−298½°.3.2671 Tidal streams in the inlet are weak and variable.3.2681 Submarine cables are laid in an E direction across CarrInlet from Delano Beach (47°15′N, 122°44′W) (3.269) toFox Island.Directions3.2691 From a position between Gibson Point and Hyde Point,the route leads in mid-channel NW into the inlet for5 miles, then N and NNE for a further 6 miles to its head,Home Contents Index
  • 123. CHAPTER 3110passing (with positions relative to South Head (47°15′⋅0N,122°43′⋅2W)):2 NE of Gertrude Island (3 miles SE), which lies in theentrance to a bay on the NE coast of McNeilIsland. Still Harbor, in which there are depths of12⋅2 to 18⋅3 m, sand and mud, extends fromGertrude Island to the W side of the bay. Thevillage of Gertrude, which has a landing place witha depth alongside of 3⋅1 m, stands near the head ofStill Harbor. Thence:3 NE of South Head, which lies on the W shore ofCarr Inlet. Between South Head and the NWextremity of McNeil Island, 1¼ miles SSE, lies theN entrance to Pitt Passage (3.294). Delano Beach,a summer resort, stands at the head of the shallowbay W of South Head. Thence:4 SW of Green Point (2 miles NNE), which lies on theE shore of the inlet. Between Green Point andNearns Point, the NW end of Fox Island 1 mileESE, lies the W entrance to Hale Passage (3.277).Thence:NE of Penrose Point (1 mile NW). Shoal waterextends 5 cables N from the point. Thence:The route turns N and NE, keeping in mid-channel, tothe head of the inlet.Anchorages3.2701 A good anchorage may be obtained, in depths of 11 to27⋅4 m, mud, near the head of the inlet, and for smallvessels with local knowledge in several coves along itsshores.Small craft3.2711 Mayo Cove (47°16′⋅0N, 122°44′⋅7W), on the W side ofPenrose Point, has a narrow intricate channel, with a depthof 2⋅1 m, leading to a small marina, with about 35 berths,at Lakebay, a village at its head.Local knowledge is required.3.2721 Von Geldern Cove, which is shallow, indents the Wshore close NW of Mayo Cove; a shoal extends from its Nentrance point. The village of Home stands on its NWshore.Von Geldern Cove Light (pile) (47°16′⋅3N, 122°45′⋅5W)is exhibited from the S side of the cove.3.2731 Glen Cove (47°20′⋅5N, 122°43′⋅9W) is a narrow creekon the W side of Carr Inlet, 4½ miles N of Penrose Point.Overhead cables, with a vertical clearance of 20⋅7 m, crossthe creek. The village of Glen Cove on its W side has asmall marina.3.2741 Burley Lagoon, which dries, lies at the head of CarrInlet 5 miles NE of Glen Cove. Its narrow entrance, at theE end of a spit, is spanned by a road bridge with a verticalclearance of 3⋅7 m. Wauna is a village close W of BurleyLagoon.3.2751 Horsehead Bay (47°18′N, 122°41′W), a narrow inlet1 mile long, is situated on the E side of Carr Inlet and isentered 1 mile N of Green Point; it is a residential areawith several piers.Cutts Island, a small boulder strewn islet, lies near theedge of a shoal which extends 6 cables offshore, 1 mile Nof Horsehead Bay.3.2761 Raft Island, 5 cables in extent and 55 m high, lies closeoffshore 7½ cables NE of Cutts Island, to which it is joinedby foul ground. The S side of Raft Island is connected tothe mainland by a road bridge with a vertical clearance of5⋅2 m. An overhead cable, with a vertical clearance of14⋅6 m, lies close E of the bridge. There is a patch, with adepth of 11 m over it, 5 cables NNW of the W extremity ofRaft Island. The residential community of Rosedale lies atthe head of a cove E of Raft Island.Hale PassageGeneral information3.2771 The passage is of easy access but the NW part(47°17′N, 122°40′W) is constricted by shoals.Local knowledge is required.Tidal streams in Hale Passage attain rates in excess of3 kn at times. The out-going SE stream is usually strongerthan the in-going NW stream.Submarine cables, shown on the chart, cross HalePassage.Bridge. A fixed road bridge, with a vertical clearance of9⋅4 m over a navigable width of 31 m, spans Hale Passage2¾ miles WNW of Point Fosdick (47°15′⋅3N, 122°15′⋅1W).Directions3.2781 Hale Passage is entered from The Narrows betweenPoint Fosdick (47°15′⋅3N, 122°35′⋅1W) (3.260) and FoxPoint (3.260), 1 mile S. The route leads NW inmid-channel, passing (with positions relative to KetnersPoint (47°16′⋅1N, 122°37′⋅8W)):NE of Ketners Point, thence:2 The channel narrows and leads more W in direction,passing:N of Tanglewood Island (5 cables W), which lies inthe centre of a cove on the NE side of Fox Island.There is a structure resembling a lighthouse on itsN end. Thence:3 Close N of No 1 Buoy (port hand), (7½ cables NW),marking the edge of a drying shoal. The bridge(3.277) crosses the channel 2 cables W of thebuoy. Thence:N and WNW of Nearns Point (1½ miles WNW), theNW extremity of Fox Island and the S entrancepoint at the W end of Hale Passage. A shoalextends 1½ cables NNE from Nearns Point.Thence:4 ESE of Green Point (2¾ miles WNW) (3.269), whichis the N entrance point at the W end of HalePassage, 1¾ miles W of the bridge. Thence:To a position SW of Green Point to merge with CarrInlet.Anchorages3.2791 Wollochet Bay, a narrow inlet which opens on the Nside of Hale Passage, 1 mile NW of Point Fosdick, affordsan anchorage in a depth of 20 m, mud, in mid-channel7½ cables within its entrance. There are many piers andmooring buoys in the bay.Home Contents Index
  • 124. CHAPTER 3111Good small craft anchorages can be found on either sideof Tanglewood Island (3.278).BALCH PASSAGE, DRAYTON PASSAGE,NISQUALLY REACH AND PITT PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 51 (see 1.20)Description3.2801 There are navigable channels both N and S of AndersonIsland (47°10′N, 122°42′W), that to the N consisting ofBalch Passage and Drayton Passage, and that to the Sbeing Nisqually Reach. The N channel, although muchnarrower, is nevertheless more frequently used as it is theshorter route.Balch Passage and Drayton PassageGeneral information3.2811 Description. Balch Passage (47°11′N, 122°41′W) is thatpart of the channel passing between Anderson Island andMcNeil Island and is approached from the E between HydePoint (3.260) and Yoman Point (47°10′⋅4N, 122°40′⋅5W)(3.284). At its narrowest, abreast Eagle Island (47°11′⋅2N,122°41′⋅8W) (3.284), the fairway is only 1½ cables widebetween the 10 m depth contours.2 Drayton Passage is that part of the channel passing W ofAnderson Island, linking the W part of Nisqually Reach(3.286) with Balch Passage and Pitt Passage (47°13′N,122°43′W) (3.294).3.2821 Tidal streams in Balch Passage set W on the in-goingstream and E on the out-going, with rates of 1 and 2¼ kn,respectively.Tidal streams at the SW end of Drayton Passage attain arate of 1 to 2 kn.3.2831 Submarine cables cross Drayton Passage 1 mile withinthe SW entrance.Directions(continued from 3.260)3.2841 From a position S of Hyde Point (47°12′⋅0N,122°38′⋅6W) (3.260), the route leads WNW for 3 milesthrough Balch Passage, and 3 miles SW through DraytonPassage to enter the NW end of Nisqually Reach, passing(with positions relative to No 1 Light-beacon (47°11′⋅3N,122°41′⋅8W)):2 NNE of Yoman Point (1¼ miles SE), the NEextremity of Anderson Island, thence:SSW of Bee (6 cables ENE), on the McNeil Islandshore. There is a landing here from which a ferryoperates to Anderson Island, Ketron Island (3.289)and Steilacoom (3.262). Thence:3 Keeping strictly between the 10 m depth contours,passing:NNE of No 1 Light-beacon (green square onframework tower), exhibited from the N end ofEagle Island. The island is small, low and woodedand lies just S of mid-channel, 1¼ miles NW ofYoman Point. Thence:4 NNE of No 3 Light-buoy (port hand) (2 cablesWNW), marking the NW edge of a partly dryingreef which extends 1½ cables W of Eagle Island,thence:NNE of Otso Point (5 cables W).3.2851 From a position NNE of Otso Point, the route leads Wand SW into Drayton Passage, rounding Otso Point at asafe distance, to lead SW for 3 miles to where it mergeswith Nisqually Reach, passing: (with positions relative toDrayton Passage Light (47°10′⋅7N, 122°44′⋅6W)):2 SE of Drayton Passage No 2 Light (red triangle ondolphin), which marks the extremity of a spitextending from the W shore of the passage,reducing the navigable width to 6 cables, thence:NW of Treble Point (1½ miles S), the SE entrancepoint of the passage. Amsterdam Bay, a cove7½ cables NE of Treble Point, is narrow andshallow, and:3 SE of Devils Head No 4 Light (red triangle ondolphin) (1 mile SW), exhibited from close off thehead. Devils Head is 85 m high and denselywooded. Thence:To merge with the route at the NW end of NisquallyReach.(Directions continue at 3.290)Nisqually ReachGeneral information3.2861 Description. Nisqually Reach, entered between ColePoint (47°08′⋅6N, 122°40′⋅6W) which is the SE extremityof Anderson Island, and Tatsolo Point, 1¼ miles SE, passesSE and SW of Anderson Island.3.2871 Tidal streams in the fairway, between Nisqually Flats(3.289) and Lyle Point (3.289), set W on the in-goingstream and NE on the out-going, with rates up to 1 knot.3.2881 Submarine cables cross Nisqually Reach from NisquallyHead (47°06′⋅0N, 122°43′⋅6W) to Anderson Island, close Wof Lyle Point (47°07′⋅5N, 122°42′⋅0W).Directions(continued from 3.260)3.2891 From a position ESE of Hyde Point (47°12′⋅0N,122°38′⋅6W) (3.260), the route leads 5 miles SSW intoNisqually Reach, then 2 miles W, before leading 5 milesNW to the NW entrance of the reach, passing (withpositions relative to Lyle Point Light (47°07′⋅4N,122°42′⋅0W)):2 WNW of the N point of Ketron Island (4 miles NE),which is small and narrow. It is heavily woodedwith bluff shores, and:ESE of Yoman Point (3 miles NNE) (3.284), thence:ESE of Cole Point (1½ miles NE), the SE extremityof Anderson Island, thence:3 ESE and S of Lyle Point No 2 Light (red triangle ondolphin), exhibited from close S of the point whichis the S extremity of the island. There is anobstruction about 1 cable S of the light. Depths ofless than 20 m extend 3 cables offshore close W ofLyle Point. And:4 N of No 1 Light-buoy (port hand) (7 cables S)(47°06′⋅8N, 122°41′⋅9W) and NE of No 3Light-buoy (port hand) (2 miles W). These buoysmark the steep-to N edge of Nisqually Flats, whichare extensive and dry in places, and extend up toHome Contents Index
  • 125. CHAPTER 31127½ cables offshore in the vicinity of the deltaformed by the Nisqually River, on the S side ofNisqually Reach. Thence:SW of Treble Point (2½ miles NW) (3.285).3.290(continued from 3.290)1 From a position SW of Treble Point (47°09′⋅1N,122°44′⋅5W), the route leads NW, passing (with positionsrelative to Treble Point):SW of Devils Head Light (1¼ miles NW) (3.285),where it merges with the route from Balch Passageand Drayton Passage (3.285). Thence:2 NE of Johnson Point No 5 Light (green square onpile) (3½ miles NW), exhibited from a sand spit atthe extremity of the point. Johnson Point is 27 mhigh and is situated on the W side, at the NW endof Nisqually Reach.(Directions for Case Inlet continue at 3.302for Dana Passage and Olympia at 3.314)Minor passage and harbourCormorant Passage3.2911 Cormorant Passage, separating Ketron Island (47°09′N,122°38′W) (3.289) from the mainland to the E, is deep andclear but little used.Submarine cables, shown on the chart, cross the N partof Cormorant Passage.Sequalitchew Creek3.2921 Sequalitchew Creek, which enters the SE side ofNisqually Reach, 1¼ miles SE of Lyle Point, has a 104 mlong chemicals and explosives wharf at its mouth, with areported depth alongside of 8⋅2 m.Small craft (Drayton Passage and Pitt Passage)Filucy Bay3.2931 General information. Filucy Bay on the W shore ofDrayton Passage is entered between Mahnckes Point(47°12′⋅4N, 122°44′⋅7W), the SW entrance point to PittPassage (3.294), and another point 5 cables S. The bayextends 1½ miles N and its shores are dotted withnumerous dwellings.Local knowledge is required.2 Anchorage. A good anchorage may be found, in depthsof 13 to 15 m, mud, 2¼ cables within the entrance toFilucy Bay.Longbranch is a village at the head of a cove on the Wside of Filucy Bay where small craft can berth and obtainlimited supplies.Pitt Passage3.2941 General information. Pitt Passage, connects the N endof Drayton Passage with Carr Inlet (3.263) and is enteredfrom the S between Mahnckes Point (47°12′⋅4N,122°44′⋅7W) (3.293) and the W extremity of McNeil Island(3.260), 5 cables E.Local knowledge is required.2 Tidal streams. In Pitt Passage the N out-going stream isstronger than the in-going and attains a rate of 2½ kn onoccasions.Submarine cables cross Pitt Passage close S of PittIsland (3.295).3.2951 Pitt Island (47°13′⋅4N, 122°42′⋅9W), together with itssurrounding rocks and shoals, lies in the middle of PittPassage, 1½ miles NE of Mahnckes Point. It so obstructsthe passage that the remaining narrow fairway E of theisland is suitable only for small craft with local knowledge.No 2 Beacon (white square on a pile), stands in shoal water2 cables SSW of Pitt Island. No 6 Buoy (starboard hand) ismoored close S of the beacon and No 4 beacon (starboardhand) stands close NE of the island.3.2961 Wyckoff Shoal (47°14′⋅3N, 122°42′⋅6W), which partlydries, extends 7½ cables NW from the NW extremity ofMcNeil Island. Buoys on the W side of the shoal mark theE side of the fairway. Pitt Passage enters Carr Inletbetween Wyckoff Shoal and South Head (3.269), 5 cablesNNW.Small craft (Nisqually Reach)3.2971 Oro Bay on the SE side of Anderson Island, is enteredbetween Cole Point (47°08′⋅5N, 122°40′⋅6W) (3.289) andLyle Point (3.289). Most of the bay is shallow and, as it isaffected by the tidal streams, affords only an indifferentanchorage in a depth of 18 m in its outer part.Vega, a small village in a shallow cove on the W sideof Oro Bay, has a pier with a depth alongside of 2⋅1 m atits head.3.2981 Thompson Cove (47°07′⋅6N, 122°42′⋅4W), on the Wside of Lyle Point, is a cable area and should not be usedas an anchorage.3.2991 There are two marinas on the W shore of NisquallyReach, one 8 cables and the other 2 miles, SSE of JohnsonPoint (47°10′⋅7N, 122°48′⋅9W) (3.290).CASE INLET, HENDERSON INLET ANDDANA PASSAGEGeneral informationChart 51 with plan of Budd InletDescription3.3001 Puget Sound divides off Johnson Point, with part of thechannel continuing N into Case Inlet and part leading Wthrough Dana Passage to the numerous inlets and passagesat the head of the sound.Case InletGeneral information3.3011 Description. Case Inlet, a popular sports fishing andresort area, extends 14 miles N with general depths of 18to 55 m and no off-lying dangers; for the most part it is atleast 1 mile wide. Its head, which dries, is within 2 miles ofthe head of Hood Canal (3.367).Submarine cable crosses Case Inlet W from the Nentrance point to Rocky Bay.Tidal streams in Case Inlet are weak and variable.Directions(continued from 3.290)3.3021 From a position NE of Johnson Point Light (47°10′⋅7N,122°48′⋅9W) (3.290), off the entrance to Dana Passage(3.313), the route leads 12 miles NW and NNE to the headHome Contents Index
  • 126. CHAPTER 3113of the inlet, passing (with positions relative to Fudge Point(47°14′⋅1N, 122°51′⋅4W)):NE of Wilson Point (1¾ miles SSE), the E extremityof Hartstene Island which forms the W side of theS part of the inlet, thence:NE of the NE end of McMicken Island (8 cablesNNW), where the route turns N. The island lies ona drying spit which extends 5 cables from the Wside of Case Inlet. Thence:2 W and WNW of the NW extremity of Herron Island(2 miles NNE). The island which is steep and bluffon its W side, lies 3 cables off the E shore of theinlet, 1 mile NE of McMicken Island. A bar acrossthe N end of the passage between Herron Islandand the mainland to the E, has a least depth ofabout 4 m, but a depth of 6⋅4 m can be carriedthrough with local knowledge. A submarine cablecrosses the passage between the N end of theisland and the mainland E. Thence:3 ESE of Dougall Point (4 miles N), on the W side ofthe inlet 2 miles NNW of Herron Island. The pointis the N extremity of Hartstene Island; PickeringPassage (3.349) enters the inlet N of the point.Thence:As required to the head of the inlet.Anchorage3.3031 A good anchorage may be obtained in Case Inletanywhere above Dougall Point, in depths of 11 to 27 m,mud.Small craft3.3041 Whiteman Cove. There is a small craft facility inWhiteman Cove (47°13′⋅3N, 122°48′⋅5W) on the E shore ofCase Inlet; berthing and water are available.3.3051 Reach Island (47°20′N, 122°50′W), known locally asTreasure Island, lies close N of Stretch Island and, like it,is connected to the mainland by a fixed road bridge with avertical clearance of 4⋅9 m. The narrow and shallowchannel between Reach Island and the mainland is knownlocally as Fair Harbor and is suitable only for very shallowcraft with local knowledge.2 There is a marina with about 70 berths on the mainlandabreast the S end of Reach Island, 3 cables S of the bridge.3.3061 Rocky Bay (47°21′N, 122°48′W), is a shallow inletclose N of Vaughn Bay. At its S entrance point there is apontoon landing with a depth alongside of 3 m. AboveRocky Bay, Case Inlet becomes narrow and shallow.3.3071 Allyn, a village on the W shore of the inlet 2 miles NWof Rocky Bay, has a pier with a depth of 2⋅1 m (7 ft) at itshead. Above Allyn the inlet dries.Henderson InletGeneral information3.3081 Description. Henderson Inlet (47°08′N, 122°50′W),known locally as South Bay, is entered immediately W ofJohnson Point Light (3.290) and extends 4½ miles S. Its Spart is shallow and the head dries. A shallow spit extends2 cables N of the W entrance point of the inlet (3.310).2 There is a log dump and booming ground on the W sideof Henderson Inlet with numerous piles, some of which aresubmerged. Oyster beds abound in the S half of the bay.3.3091 Local magnetic anomaly. Differences of up to 3° fromthe normal magnetic variation have been observed in theinlet.Directions3.3101 From a position in Dana Passage (3.313) W of JohnsonPoint Light (3.290) (47°10′⋅7N, 122°48′⋅9W), the routeleads S into Henderson Inlet, passing:E of Itsami Ledge Light (3.314), and the fish havenclose N of it, thence:As required for an anchor berth (3.312) in the inlet.3.3111 Local knowledge is required to pass Itsami Ledge on itsW side. In this case the route leads SSE from a position Wof Itsami Ledge Light, passing:2 Between Itsami Ledge Light and the unnamed Wentrance point (47°09′⋅9N, 122°50′⋅5W) to theinlet, 5 cables S. A shallow spit extends 2 cables Nof the point, giving a navigable width of less than3 cables. Thence:As required for an anchor berth in the inlet.3.3121 Anchorage. A good anchorage can be found closewithin the entrance to Henderson Inlet, in depths of 9 to11 m, mud.Dana PassageGeneral information3.3131 Description. Dana Passage (47°10′N, 122°52′W) leadsSW from Johnson Point and lies between the S shore ofHarstene Island and the mainland. It is the main route toBudd Inlet (3.316) and Olympia (3.316) and also joinsthree other bodies of water, namely Eld Inlet (3.343),Squaxin Passage (3.345) and Peale Passage (3.344). Apartfrom Itsami Ledge (3.314) it is free of dangers; the channelnarrows to a width of 5 cables in its central part.2 Tidal streams in the middle of Dana Passage set 250°on the in-going stream and 075° on the out-going, withrates frequently attaining 3 kn or more. For greater detailsee United States Tidal Current Tables, Pacific Coast ofNorth America and Asia.Directions(continued from 3.290)3.3141 From a position NNE of Johnson Point Light(47°10′⋅7N, 122°48′⋅9W) (3.290), the route leads 4½ milesSW to the entrance to Budd Inlet (3.316), passing (withpositions relative to Briscoe Point No 8 Light (47°09′⋅7N,122°52′⋅8W)):2 NW of Johnson Point Light (2¾ miles ENE). A spit,with a least depth of 8⋅5 m over it, extends2 cables N of the light. A patch, with a depth of14⋅6 m over it, lies 8 cables W of the light.Thence:NW of Itsami Ledge No 7 Light (green square onpile structure) (2 miles ENE), exhibited from the Nside of the ledge which is surrounded by kelp, Afish haven marked by a buoy lies close N of thelight. Thence:NW of Dickenson Point (1¼ miles E), thence:Home Contents Index
  • 127. CHAPTER 31143 SE of Briscoe Point No 8 Light (red triangle on whitehut), exhibited from the end of the point which isthe S extremity of Hartstene Island. The light isvisible between 238½° and 170° (291½°). Thence:(Directions for Squaxin Passage continue at 3.346)NW of Dover Point (1 mile SSW), thence:NW of Dofflemyer Point Light (white pyramidaltower) (1¾ miles SW), exhibited from the point.(Directions for entering Olympia Harbourcontinue at 3.334)Small craft3.3151 Boston Harbor, a village at the cove close E ofDofflemyer Point, has a marina and berths for about 100craftOLYMPIAGeneral informationChart 51 with plans of Budd Inlet and OlympiaPosition3.3161 Olympia (47°03′N, 122°54′W) lies at the head of BuddInlet.Function3.3171 Olympia is the capital of the State of Washington and isa port of entry. It is a lumber port and more than 90 percent of its waterborne commerce consists of lumber andlogs. Olympia also serves as a loading and dischargi