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•GODFR.E LOWELl CABOT SCIENCE LIBRARY
ofrht HoroorJ Col/'l' L,bro,],
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A MANUAL
OJ'
YACHT AND BOAT SAILING.
JO' ,,'~I.
FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED.
BY
DIXON J{EMP,
AssOOIATE OF THE lan...
I
LONDON:
PRINTBD BY HORACE COX, 846, STRAND, w.e:
•
PREFACE.
IT is Q.0Jr qea,ply five years since the first edition of II Yacht and Boat
Sailing" was first published, and in ...
iv 'Pre/ace.
have bestowed on their work. This subject was so exhaustively treated at
the outset, that the;r.-e was little...
CONTENTS.
.P~AO.l ....................................................................... .page iii
OKAP'HB I.
• Selecting...
vi Contents.
OllAPTJ:B XII.
The Pollywog.................................................................. pafl8 240
OllAP...
Contents. vii
Olu.:PnB XXvli.
Steam Yachting ........................................................... .page 860
CIlAP'H...
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II.
m.

L o LA s.
AND S~!~ PLAN
17ft. CBNTBR-BOAlID BoAT JOR RoWING AND SAILING.
CBNTBB-BOABD BOATB :roR ROWING AND SAILIN...
x List of Plates.
 XXVI. THE CONSTANCE..................... ............................... .
TO FACB PAGB
 . XXVII. !ToHE...
•
Li8t 0/ Plate8. xi
J TO ~&c. PAG.
LVII. NAUTILUS RACING CANOB .......................................... 401
~ L VllI. N...
-----
ERRATA_
Page 187. In the foot-note ftw .. Yaoht Baoing Al8OOiatiOD Rules, 1882," read "18&4."
.. 864. In the Beoond ...
YACHT AND BOAT SAILING.
CHAPTER I.
SELECTING A YACHT.
Ix selecting a yacht, a man, as in making other purchases, will be g...
2 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
even though they do not win so many prizes. Of C01ll'8e, living in a
5-tonner to the majority of...
Selecting a Yacht. 8
JUldeniab1e, however, that in heavy weather the schooner, appropriately
crmTBoBed, ie a very easy and...
• Yacht and Boat Sailing•
. We have calculated what the cillferenoe in the cubical contents of the
spars of the Kriemhilda...
SeZecting a Yacht.
It will be gathered ·that the advantages of a yawl are mainly dependent
on the generi weight of her spa...
6 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
boWsprit ProportioDatel1 shortened, the beauty of ·the outt. rig would not
be outraged, and the ...
Selecting a Yacht. 7
.v.should be preferred on account of her grand sailing qualities.' The
line is drawn at 80 tou for th...
8 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
size of the yacht, and for cruising the rig should be: cutter up to 80 tons;
yawl from 80 to 150...
Selecting a Yacht. 9
achieved more in the way of prize-winning than any of the sa.m.e rig of 100
tons and upwards j but wi...
10 Yacht tJllti Boot Sailing.
the VeuelII in the larger olaaa: tbmre is no time allOft.D.C8 J the ~
merits of the veaaell,...
EXAMINATION OF THE YACHT.
BAVDlG decided upon the aise of the yacht, the next step will be to find
a anitable one of that ...
12 Yacht and, Boat Sailing.
A man may perhaps desire to act as his own BUrVeyor; if he does, he
will act very unwisely, as...
Examination oJ the Yacht. 18
-------------------------
there will be a space, and hence ff timber and space" means the dis...
14 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
p)-mug above moUld. be of. A:merica.n elm OP oak to within a foot or
10 of the load water.line,...
;
•
..
Examination oJ the Yacht. 16
If it is etattMl that the vellel does no. requite re-coppering nol" needs
~pping, it w...
16 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
straps &C1'OBB the frames, or it may be new beams, partners, and knees
altogether. If the cover...
Examination of the Yacht. 17
iron, very little oakum is driven into the seams, and as the marine -glue
paying or putty sto...
18 . Yacht and Boat Sailing.
foot to head, but occasionaJIy they split right across from leech to luff.
A jib will go all ...
CHAPTER III
BUILDING A YACHT.
Son men seem to have quite a passion for building yachts, whether
for crnising or racing, an...
20 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
And probably the :Ql8Bter does build him a staunch and strong and
goodly vessel. But there need...
Building a Yacht. 21
are through-fastened with metal bolts. Simila.rly two bilge strakes along
the curve of each bilge on ...
22 Yacht ana Boat Sailing.
of driving. On the other hand, if the iron were driven through a
shaky piece of timber, or loos...
Building a Yacht. 28
nor have their fastenings decayed; in fact, so :far there seems every chance
of their out-enduring an...
24 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
is largely used as a sheathing for ships; but it is Scarcely so good as
copper for yachts, as, ...
BuiZding a Yacht. 25
the 1ast ten yean there have been, on the average, fifty vessels of all riga
and sizes built annuaJIy...
CHAPTER IV.
THE EQUIPMENT OF THE YACHT.
To equiP.Ilent of a. ya.cht embra.ces generaJ.ly everything tha.t is used or
requi...
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The Equipment oj the Yacht. 27
8P~ued. •
9. Cap.
10.~
11. Pole of topmut.
IS. Track.
1. • IIaiD riaiDI ahrouda.
S. • m...
· .r
Jr,",_
The Equipment 01 the Yacht. 29
J[uor 4JID BIaGm'G.
10......
11.BoImda.
11. Yoke or lower Gap aDd boWer.
18.~.
U. TopDUIIt....
80
1. KaInmaat.
I. li'0ftIIIMt.
8. JIain topman.
•• li'ore topmut.
Yacht and Boat Sailing.
,
_-nT_
-~"
FIe. 8.
M:~ An BIOO...
The E~uipment of the Yacht. 81
c
A
]I
JIA.aTJnAD F1'rl'1N08.
Pig. A IIhowa a.- of the top IidAI of the
lOb or lower oap.
C...
~
Yacht
given .for
schooners of
Sailing.
following table
~'Ue.i}0'0~{e take the sizee
below; thus, is 100 tons,
for blocks...
The Equipment 0/ the Yacht. 88
TABLE 01' SIZB8 01' CORDAGE roB C1JTTEB AND YAWL YAOBTB 01'
VABIOUS SIZES.-
IToIIL TORL TOR...
34 Yacht and Boat Sailing.
CIBCUJlFEBENCE IN INCHES OF WIRE l!'OB In'ANDING BIGGING.
N.uo.
~I~I~I~;~'~:~I~I~
Cut. 6. , Cut...
B. :a-.
O. 0raIaer.
N.uo o. BLocK.
ThIoathalyards /I
PeakhaJyuds ...
Peak down·haul..
:Main Ueet ......
]fain aheet lead
P...
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)
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Transcript of "A manual of yacht and boat sailing (nx power lite)"

  1. 1. This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world’s books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that’s often difficult to discover. Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book’s long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. We also ask that you: + Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. + Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google’s system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. + Maintain attribution The Google “watermark” you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. + Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can’t offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book’s appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. About Google Book Search Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world’s books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http://books.google.com/
  2. 2. •GODFR.E LOWELl CABOT SCIENCE LIBRARY ofrht HoroorJ Col/'l' L,bro,], This book is FRAGILE and circulates only with permission. Please handle with care and consult a staff member before photocopying. Thanh for your help in preserving Harvard's library collections.
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  4. 4. • .. .'. I i " .. J Digitized by Google
  5. 5. Digitized by Coogle I!. i...,
  6. 6. • I' I Digitized by Coogle
  7. 7. , • • Digitized by Coogle I I I j
  8. 8. A MANUAL OJ' YACHT AND BOAT SAILING. JO' ,,'~I. FOURTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. BY DIXON J{EMP, AssOOIATE OF THE lanrUTE OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS <IEIBER OF THE COUICIU. T.BB LORDS OOJOll88IOlOlBS 01' TUB ADJlIBALTY JLVB DBN PLBASBD TO DIBBOT THAT THIS BOOI[ SHOULD BE IS8lJED TO SHIPS 01' TUB BOYAL NAVY. c~ LoNDON: HORAOE OOX, "THE FIELD" OFFICE, 846, STRAND, W.C. 1884. Digitized by Coogle
  9. 9. I LONDON: PRINTBD BY HORACE COX, 846, STRAND, w.e: •
  10. 10. PREFACE. IT is Q.0Jr qea,ply five years since the first edition of II Yacht and Boat Sailing" was first published, and in that period it has undergone con- siderable change, each mcoeeding edition having been marked by omissions and additions. In the present edition, much matter has been omitted, but its place has been more than filled by new subjects. The chapter on Steam Yachting has been greatly enlarged, and its usefulness thereby increased, and it is hoped that this branch of the subject is now perfect up to the present date, so far as a general guide can be. The chapter on If Itchen Yachts and Boats" has been considerably increased, and 80 has that on fI Three Tonners." The same remark applies to "Lough Eme Yachts," " Kingstown Sailing Boats," 4'lYaohts of the Norfolk Broads/' II Una Boats/'· "Centre-board Boats/' &0. The chapters on the "Equipment of a Yacht," II SeamaDfibip," II General Management of a Yaoht," "Yacht Racing," &c., have been thoroughly revised and corrected up to date, and the Appendix, which forms the most comprehensive Dictionary of matters relating to Yachting in existence, has also had .great Care bestowed upon its revision, where . necessary, and extension. II Canoeing" has been revised by Mr. W. Baden Powell and Mr. E. B. Tredwen, to whom my best thanks are due for the attention they Digitized by Coogle
  11. 11. iv 'Pre/ace. have bestowed on their work. This subject was so exhaustively treated at the outset, that the;r.-e was little room left for extending the information originally given; but a.mple opportunitywas nevertheless found for revision so as to keep pace with the most advanced practice in the art. Many new plates have been supplied for this edition. and some have been omitted. Among the former are the lines of the noted Itchen Yacht Keepsake. the Mascotte. and Snarley Yow, S-tonners. the Una Boat, Mocking Bird, several cabin.pla.ns of Steam Yachts. &c. DIXON KEMP. 846, STB.&ND, LOHDOH, w.o. JrlJrM, 18M. Digitized by Coogle r , ,
  12. 12. CONTENTS. .P~AO.l ....................................................................... .page iii OKAP'HB I. • Selecting a yacht ..............................................:................... 1 OlW"l'llB II. Examination of the Yacht 11 OHAPTU III. Boilding a Yacht .................................................................. 19 OllAP'l'JlB IV. The Equipment of the Yacht ................................................... 26 OHAPTIIB V. SeamAnship 65 OBAPTBB VI. The General Management of a Yacht.......................................... 118 OllAP'l'JlB VII. Yacht :Bacing..... .. ... ... ... ... ......... ... ... ... .... .. ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ...... . 131 OHAPTBB VIII. Oentre-board Boats 178 OlW"l'llB IX. Sails for Oentre-board Boats 198 OHAPTBB X. Brighton Beach Boats ....... "................................................... 229 OIW'TBB XI. Oentre-OOard Sloops-The Alert....... ...................... ......... .......... 235 Digitized by Coogle
  13. 13. vi Contents. OllAPTJ:B XII. The Pollywog.................................................................. pafl8 240 OllAPTlIB XIII. Lough Eme Yachm-The Witch ...................... :...................... 246 OHAPTIIB XIV. Una Boats-The Una, Oowes Una, and Mocking Bird ............... 248 OH.U"HB XV. The American Oentre-board Sloop Parole.................................... 254 OHAPTJ:B XVI. The Sharpie and Sneak Boat ................................................... 256 OHAPTJIIB xvn. Mersey Sailing Boa. ............................................................ 261 OHAPTIIB XVIII. Lake Windermere Yachts ...................................................... 274 OHAPTJIIB XIX. Yaohts of the Norfolk Broads ................................................... 284 O]JAP'l'llB XX. Itchen Boats ........................................................................ 287 CII4PTBB XXI. Clyde Sailing Boats ............................................................... S06 OJt4.PUB XXU. KiJJ.gstown Boats .........................,........................................ SIB CHUTlla XXIII. SJPAll Baaing Yachts ..... ...... ................................................. ~1 CIW'TD XXIV. 'l'Jpes of SaUing V81J~hI ......................................................... 829 01uPrB nvI. Double Boats ........................................................................ S51 Digitized by Coogle
  14. 14. Contents. vii Olu.:PnB XXvli. Steam Yachting ........................................................... .page 860 CIlAP'HB XXvlli. Ice yachting .................................................................:...... 870 CHAPTKB XXIX. Canoeing.. .. ....... ... .. ...... ... ...... ... ...... ... .... .. ...... ... ... ... ... ... ...... .. 880 C1W'TlIB xxx. Amateur Canoe Building ......................................................... 489 .A.rPDDIX. Dictionary of General Information ............................................. 497 Index .............................................................. ................... 621 Digitized by Coogle
  15. 15. • Digitized by Coogle
  16. 16. II. m. L o LA s. AND S~!~ PLAN 17ft. CBNTBR-BOAlID BoAT JOR RoWING AND SAILING. CBNTBB-BOABD BOATB :roR ROWING AND SAILING ... PUN SA!~rr4<'i BOATB lW.lWCB PAilE 27 188 190 195 BAIL PLA~ A 17ft. 205 VI. II LB LIBON," FUNCH CBNTRJ:-BOABD BOAT.............. 207 VII. CBIDBB LUG Surr-MAIN AND MIZBN ........................ 210 VIII. THB 5, ...... _, 216 IIUNTER RIG .. 222 X. BRIGHTON BUCH BoATB ................................... 281 XI. "ALERT:' CENTRB-BOABD YACHT .. Pm: SLOOL POLLYW~~ Tm: WITCH, CBNTRB-BOABD CUTTER ....................... . i3ti 240 247 XIII. XIV. "UNA JJ BoATB-Tm: ORIGINAL UNA AND COWBB UNA... 252 MOODlTtA IInm JJ. . . . • • • 253 P~LOLE" .. XVII. SAIL PLAN OW "PAROLB " ........................... .. XVIII. II EL.A.lNJiI," MERBBY BOAT .................................. . THE JEEEEEESOCK " .. XXI. LAKJI WINDKRlIBRE YACHT XXII. W INDBBlIERB Y ACHTB .. ........... .. XXIII. BAIL PLAN WINDENJ45LNE YACHT XXIV Pm: NONLNE~ ,C ARB05N . XXV. SAIL PLAN OJ THE KORPOLK "ARROW" b 254 255 263 267 269 280 281 282 284 285
  17. 17. x List of Plates. XXVI. THE CONSTANCE..................... ............................... . TO FACB PAGB . XXVII. !ToHEN BOATS. 801T. 4IN. AND 27FT. ....................... . XXVIII. ITCHBN BOAT " WILD ROSE" ................................. . 286 290 292 XXIX. !TCHBN BOAT "CENTIPEDE" .............. :.................... 298 XXX. THB BONINA ......................................................... 294 XXXI. THB tt KUPSAD" .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ... ..... ... .. 295 XXXII. DBSIGN POR ITCHEN BoAT ........ ............... ......... ....... 298 XXXIII. ITCHEN BOAT. SAIL PLAN .. ............ ........ ................. 801 XXXIV. THB !TCHBN PUNT .......... ........ ...... .. ............. 804 XXXV. "THII BuccANBn" ................................................ 805 XXXVI. SAIL PLAN 01' A CLYDE BOAT.................................... 809 xxxvH. CLYDE SAILING BoAT.-GENERAL PLAN ........................ 314 XXXVIII. K,NGSTOWN BOAT. <. THE HEATHBN CHINEE" ............:.. 320 XXXVIIIA. KINGSTOWN YACBT. .. OwAISSA" .............................. 320A . XXXIX. DBSIGN I'OR A YACHT 01' 8 TONS .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .... .. ... .. 824 XL. SAIL PLAN I'OR A YACBT 01' 3 TONS................. ......... 324 XLI. tt SNABLEY Yow." 3 TONS ..................................... .. XLII. .. MASCOTTE." 3 TONS .......................................,.... . XLIII. .. THE by." 3 TONS ................... ,....................,.... . 825 825 328 . XLIV... COLLUN BAWN." PENZANCE LUGGn .. ...................... 332 . XLV. GALWAY HOOKER ................................................... 387 . XLVI. GALWAY POOKB.A.UN .. .............................................. 387 XLVII. ttTHE VIKING"............... ...................................... 843 . XLVIII. .. IsLAND BELLE." BLOCK IsLAND BoAT ....'. " ................. 344 ' XLIX. BOENOS AYRES WHALE BOA·f... BALLENEBA" ............... 849 .. L. THE CATAMARAN .. JOHN GILPIN" .............................. 356 . LI. STEAK YACHTS. "PBIKROSE." tt CELIA." AND 48 TONS... 364 LII. JJ " tr ORIENTAL." tt FAIR GEBALDJNB." AND .. BULLDOG" ........................... 364 LIlI. .. " tt THE JACAKAR" AND .. CAPXBCAILZlX II 8M .. LIV. JJ " .. CB.A.ZALIE " AND tt GITANA" ............ 8M :.. LV. "THE MABCHESA," &C•...................... 8M " JJ LVI. .. NAUTILUS" PADDLEABLE-SAILING CANOB ..................... 388 Digitized by Coogle •
  18. 18. • Li8t 0/ Plate8. xi J TO ~&c. PAG. LVII. NAUTILUS RACING CANOB .......................................... 401 ~ L VllI. NAUTILUS CRUISING CANOBB....................................... 405 LIX. SAIL PLAN, tC NAUTILUS" PADDLlIlABLB-BAILING CANOl .... .. LX. SAIL PLAN, ttNAUTILUS" CRUISING CANOIS ........ : ........ . LXI. NAUTILUS RIGGING PLAN ........................................ .. LXII. CRUISING CABO. ON THE MODBL 01' ft PBABL," No.8 ..... . LXIII. PEARL CANOE I'OR 1880 ......................................... . . LXIV. PBRL CANOE, 1882 .. ............................................ . 417 428 425 480 481 488 LXV. SKIBB PLAN OF f( PEARL," 1880 .. ...... ...... ................ 441 LXVI. HUJlBBB CANOB tc CASSY " ...................................... . LXVII. CLYDE CANOE It WBD" ........................................ .. LXVIIA.. SAIL PLAN 01' CLYDE CANOB U WBD" ...................... .. LXvm. MBBs1iIY SAILING CANOB ........................................ .. LXIX. It VITAL SPARK," MBBSBY CANOB ............... : ............ . 462 464 466 475 477 LXX. .AJnRICAN CANOE U JJ:&SEY BLUB" .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ... .. .. . 484 LXXI. AoBICAB RIVIB CANOE .. ...... .................. ................ 485 LXXII. .AJnBICAN CANOl: SAILS . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 485 LXXIII. A.JlATBUR CABo. BUILDnrn ....................................... 489 LXXIV. COBACLB LII'E BoAT................................................ 580 LXXV. ICE BoAT 01' Tn Su 01' Azov ............. , ............ ....... 558 Digitized by Coogle
  19. 19. ----- ERRATA_ Page 187. In the foot-note ftw .. Yaoht Baoing Al8OOiatiOD Rules, 1882," read "18&4." .. 864. In the Beoond line 110m the top Jor .. Plate L." t'fIId It Plate LI.'- .. "17. In the foDrteenth line for II Plate LX." N/ld It Plate L1X." , Digitized by Coogle
  20. 20. YACHT AND BOAT SAILING. CHAPTER I. SELECTING A YACHT. Ix selecting a yacht, a man, as in making other purchases, will be guided by his tastes and his means. If he is really fond of the art of fore and aft sailing, and looks f01'W8oJ'd to a life on the sea with the professional keenness of a middy or apprentice, his desire will be to obtain a yacht which he can manage himself. If, on the other hand, the dawning yachtsman has boundless wealth, is a little of a sybarite, and determines to spend two or three months afloat because it is the fashion, he, too, will get a yacht to his taste; but she will probably be a large steamer, unless he has determined on racing, when a large schooner, yawl, or cutter would be chosen. The man who desires to eventually become a thorough yacht sailor should begin his apprenticeship on board a cutter, which should not be larger than 5, 10, 15, or 20 tons. If she is as big 88 10 tons, he should make all the p88Sages in her when shifting ports, and not bid farewell. to her at one pier head, and welcome her arrival from another pier head at the next watering plaoe on the coast. If a man goes about attended by the nncomf9rta.ble feeling that he shirks all the real daring and adventure of yacht cruising he is not likely to make a perfect yacht 88rilor; 8rS sailing in ten or twenty matches during a summer, and sleeping in a snug berth in smooth water for a couple of months or 80, are of little value compared with the nnder-way drill insepa.ra.ble from making passages, it being understood, of course, that the owner does his "trick at the wheel." But it is not only the ten-ton ship that is big enough to convey the manly form of the youthful yachtsman from port to port; many owners of 5-tonners as bold as Will Watch, tt take the helm and to sea boldly steer" i and these are the ones we always find to be the best BlPlor-men, , Digitized by Coogle
  21. 21. 2 Yacht and Boat Sailing. even though they do not win so many prizes. Of C01ll'8e, living in a 5-tonner to the majority of yachtsmen would be utter misery, and perhaps death. The budding yachtsman has been in the habit, perhaps, of spending a couple of hours every morning over his toilet, surrounded by all the lux~ of the upholsterer's art-velvet-pile carpet, satin damask, ~eval glasses, watercolonr drawings, Dresden china-and perhaps a valet-de- chambre. The man that has been used to this sort of thing must have the big schooner or yawl, for he will find no room for them inside a 5-tonner. The five-tons man must carry his clothes in a bag, or cram them into a locker 2ft. py 6in.; go on his marrowbones to shave; into the sea for his bath-it is only one step and overboard ;-and if he is addicted to cosmtitique, he will probably find a pieoe of lr common yellow II a good substitute. The cuisine, of course, would not be such as would raise water bubbles in the mouth of a valetudinarian; the carnivorous propensity will· mostly be gratified by steak which, when cut, will resemble the Mudhook Yacht Club burgee of f'OUge et MiT; and savoury soups and luscious salmon will be luxuries only obtainable in Ie canister II form. With all this, the five-tons man will very rapidly become a sailor, and the little ship below will be as neat and cosy as a woman's boudoir; he will have a place for everything, down to a housewife; and at the end of one summer there will not be a part of the ship, from the breast-nook forward to the t1'8oD8Om- frame aft, that he will not know the use of. Of C01ll'8e, for real comfort at sea, the bigger the yacht a man can aifQrd to have the better; but it will seldom be advisable to go beyond 800 tons, as very large sailing vessels are more or lees, according to siJle, unhandy in narrow channels and crowded roadsteads. A yacht of 150 tons and upwards should be schooner-rigged; and we are inclined to think, if her siJle reaches 800 tons, or say 120ft. in length on the load water-line, that she should have three masts, with all fore-and--.ft canwa. II Square rig forward II is generally recommended for a tbree-masted vessel, as square topsails may be of occaaional use in backing and box-~uling, or in scudding in a heavy sea, when smaJ.l trysaila set o~ the lower masts might get becalmed whilst the vessel dropped between the crests of two seas i but the extra weight aloft, and the extra gear, are to some extent a set-off against these advantages. A yacht from 150 to 80 tons downwards can also be schooDer-rigged, but many yachtsmen prefer the yawl rig for these and intermediate t.onnages. The yawl will be the more weatherly craft, will reach as fast, and be faster down the wind. The actual weight of spars will be less for the sail area; there will be less gear; and there will be no mainmast obtruding in the main cabin, or in one of the berths abaft it. It is Digitized by Coogle
  22. 22. Selecting a Yacht. 8 JUldeniab1e, however, that in heavy weather the schooner, appropriately crmTBoBed, ie a very easy andbandy vessel. In a Clfresh gale" (~ "Winds" in the .A.ppen(li~) be under reefed fore and foorth jib tiStfcwed); a yawl have main ma.intiSc~i]£ ((cnld be quite as would lie-to quietly. As no difference ~,"'4iliber of men --~,,"~,,,* to work either rig, aise for size, we are on the whole inclined to think that the yawl rig is to be preferred for yachts under 130 tons. . But the yawl for comfort must be the real thing, and not merely a big cutter with a long counter, and a mizen mast stepped over the a.rchboard for the sa.ke a.llowance for latter class has reaJly a of spars in area. than a The main b001*'1 say of 100 the main boom equal tonnatfl1 sprit is nearly t'cpma.st is 808 is generally proportion to length of boom; and the weight of the mizen-m808t, bumpkin, yard, boom, and rigging is genera.lly about ten times the weight of the extra length and extra. size of the cutter's boom. These are not the yawls that have an advantage over even large cutters for comfort; and the mizen mast is often ste~~ed in such an insecure manner that it is not safe to put any sa.il o~ blow, when ii ((ccccding to the uu,,,u,,£, of the sa.iling the crew somc get under way mizen and instead of Now, the mcmg yawl advantage in o~or a cutter of .sisa, that our advice always would be, for racing-to enjoy the sport with ~ equal amount of comfort-have a cutter up to 120 tons, and above that .tonnage a schooner-say one of 140 tons. But the cruising yawl proper is a very snug vessel indeed, and has D.efH"ly an the good qua.1ities of a cutter, and is really a more comfortable craft, and can 11'#ith fewer handsj oost. Her mize~ be stepped instead of at tY4C c,nd of the counicc and lighter of a simila.rly (see pa.ge 4) mast will be lighter than a cutter's; and so will her boom, gaff. and top- mast be lighter. Her mizen mast will be so stepped that it will be safe in the most violent wind storm to put sa.il upon it; a.nd this may be often of real advantage in clearing out from an anchorage in a hurry. The advantage of the yawl mainly depends upon the reduction of weight .of spars apart from ililvantage of "",,"" ihe sa.ils more than they are in lJ 2
  23. 23. • Yacht and Boat Sailing• . We have calculated what the cillferenoe in the cubical contents of the spars of the Kriemhilda (106 tons) would be if she were changed from cutter to yawl, her length of mainmNlt remaining the same. Difference in mast, 20 cubic feet,; difterence in bowsprit (3ft. shorter), 12 cubic feet,; difference in main boom (12ft. shorter), 25 cubic feet,; difterence in main gaff, 4 cubic feet-making a total difterence of 61 cubic feet, or one ton weight. The topmast would remain about the same. The bulk and weight of mizen spars would be NI nearly as possible NI follows: mast, 16 cubic feet,; boom, 4 cubic feet; yard, 8 cubio feet; boomkin, 2 cubic. feet,; or a total 0:& 25 oubio feet, making a net reduction of about 12cwt. . The difterence in the weight of rigging and blocks would be from 4owt. to 5cwt., making a total reduction in the weight of spars and rigging of about 17cwt. The removal of this weight would bring about nearly 2in. difterence in the vertical position of the centre of gravity of the yacht, and would be equal, so far NI influencing her stiffness went, to the taking of 2 tons of lead from the top tier of ba.llast inside and putting it under the keel outside. The eifeot of the reduced spars on .he momentum acquired during pitching will be mainly govemed by the J.'eCiuction made in the bowsprit; that is, by the influence that reduction bas on the longitudinal radius of gyration. To reduce the momentum to its utmost limit, the bowsprit should be reefed close in, and mizen mast PllBtepped and stowed amidships. To what extent the bowsprit of a yawl is reduced in comparison to " cutter's may be gathered from the following facts. The yawl Florinda, 188 ·tons, hNI a 86ft. bowsprit outboard,; the yawl Corisa.nde, 158 tons, has 86ft. bowsprit outboard; the cutter Oima.ra., 162 tons, bas a 47ft. bowsprit outboard; the cutter Kriemhilda, 106 tons, 86ft.; the cutter Sammna, 90 tons, 84ft.,; the cutter Formosa, 102 tons, 84ft. It is ~us apparent that a yawl hNI nearly 20 per cent. less bowsprit than a cutter. With regard to the length of main boom, we caD. state that Florinda would have 15ft. more boom NI a cutter, mid, although with that extension her caJculated centre of effort would (minus the mizen) be shifted 1·6ft. farther forward, yet would she require a bigger jib when ft8iling by the wind. To tum Sammna, Kriemhilda, or Formosa into yawls under the existing Y.R.A. rule, from 11ft. to 14ft. of the main boom of each would have to be cut off, and then, in spite of the presence of a mizen, 3ft. or 4ft. of the bowsprit would have to follow. As a proof of this it can be mentioned that eight or nine years ago, the Hirondelle WNI converted to a yawl, but her bowsprit was not reduced, and it WNI found JSSC8Bsary to sail her with it reefed in to the first or second ld, and even Jben she WNI by no means troubled•with weather helm. Digitized by Coogle
  24. 24. SeZecting a Yacht. It will be gathered ·that the advantages of a yawl are mainly dependent on the generi weight of her spat'B and rigging being less than are the weight of the spars and rigging of a similarly med cutter. Taking a cutter and merely reducing her boom in length, whilst all her other span and her rigging and blooks remain nnaltered, and encumbering her with a millen, would be no advantage at all, either for racing or cruising; in fact, the mizen would far exceed in weight the trifling reduction that had been made in the main boom J hence many ff converted cutters" are failures as yawls. Neither has a racing yawl, as frequently sparred up to the present Y.R•.A. main·boom regnJation, any advantage in poin" of weight of Spa.t'B and rigging over the weight of span and rigging of a similarly sized·cutter- there are exceptions of co1U'Be-8lld it could not be expected that such a yawl would obtain any advantage, even with rig allowance, in competitive aa.iling, so far as sailing by the wind goes. Down the wind and along the wind the inferiority is less patent, and occasionally a heavily sparred yawl, with her rig allowance, will beat the cutter. Allowing-ea there is not the least doubt about the mattel"-that a judiciously sparred racing or crnisin.g yawl has less Weight of span than a cutter of similar tonnage, we come to the consideration of the usefulness of the millen sail. .About this matter opinions widely differ. For sailing to windward, most sailors will agree that the mizen sail is not worth its attendant weight of span and rigging; but as to the extent it affects the handiness of the craft there will be no snch agreement. In 1875 the Oimara was converted to a yawl for her winter cruise to the Mediterranean; but, before she was clear of the Clyde, the mizen went by the board. She proceeded without a millen, and with her yawl boom sailed all over the Mediterranean, and for two seasons, in a similar guise, cruised in British waters. Her sailing master informed us that he never felt the want of the mizen in any weather that he encountered; and this is conceivable when we consider that ge~y, in heavy weather, the first sail to stow on board a yawl is the millen. This brings us to consider whether, after all, the adva.n.t&ges of the yawl are not entirell dependent upon her resemblance to a very reduced cutter, with short boom and bowsprit; and whether the advantages would not be increased by the absence of the mizen altogetherr The fact that the misen can be stowed in bad weather, to avoid reefing the mainsail, is hardly an argument in favour of having one; and, as what may be termed its active advantages in affecting the handiness of a vessel are not of much importance, we think that the ff reduced cutter," as before hinted, has all the advantages of a yawl without the incumbrance of a mizen. Of course, a Ctltter with her main boom inside her taffrail is not a iery sightly craft; but with the boom.end plumb With the taffrail, and Digitized by Coogle
  25. 25. 6 Yacht and Boat Sailing. boWsprit ProportioDatel1 shortened, the beauty of ·the outt. rig would not be outraged, and the general weight of spars, rigging, and bra oould be wry muoh less than the weight of lpan of a yawl 'With aimi1at sail ... HoW-ever, in a :faehionable outter, where the toDD&g8 approaches 100 tou, the main boom beoomea a very awkward stiok to handle, and for 0l'1liaiDg tl1ere is not the I1D8llest doubt that a yawl of 80 or 100 tons with a main boom plmnb with the rudder head is .. mudh more oomfortable craft to work than a outter of similar tonnage. We have evidence of the objection· taken to long booms in the case of the large piloS ve&aels 8Jld fishing "9'9Blels, 88 1Vhilst they Id invariably outter-rigged up to abou. 80 toll8. we find that the schooner rig is preferred above that tou.nage. A. modification of the ketch rig is much in ute by ooa&ten, and W6 have often heard. it recommended as luperior to the 110-.1 rig; but: with this we do not agree, 88, owing to the nArroWness of the mainaail,· there is no rig whioh, area for a.rea, yields snoh a heeling moment 88 doel. the ketoh rig. The final conolusion which we arrive at is that, for the yawl to POSBeB8 any advimtages over a snug cutter, she mot be very judiciously sparred, and it should be always recollected. that the mere fact of ~. a mil59n does not make a comfortable lea boat. The yawl's tna8t oan be ... trifle leas in diameter than a outter's (we are 8oSs11lDiug that the sail area is to be nearly equal), the bowsprit can be veri much leas, the boom can be very much less, and so can the gaff; the sta.nding and rtuming rigging can be lighter, and so can be the blocks; but great care should be taken that the spars and rigging of the mizen do not exceed the total reduction tbat has been made in the weight of the main lpats and rigging. The weight of miBenmast and rigging on the counter will not, it is true, punish a. vessel like .. hea-ry bowsprit outside the stem.; but it must be remembered.thaW almost ihe sole advantage of a yawl, 80 far· 88 behaviour in .. sea goes, depends upon her total weight of spars being less than would be the total weight of spars of a outter with a similar sail area. The supposed require- ments of a. racing yawl 8l'& incompatible with the advantage& genera.Uy olaimed for the rig; it is, ho.ever BODle·l!8tisfaotion to know that the yawls. which have hitherto been most IUooessfnl 81'8 those which have been sparred. and rigged with an intelligent appreciation of the conditions upon which those advantages depend. Apart from behaviour in a sea, the principal advantage of the yawl. rig is that, even if her spars as a whole be equal in weight to those of a cutter of similar siBe, she can be handled with .. •maller crew; but this advantage will not be very apparent until 70 or 80 ions are reached. A snug cutter of 80 tons can be as easily handled and .. cheaply worked (six A.B.'s would be required for either) as a yawl of 80 tons, &ad. Digitized by Coogle
  26. 26. Selecting a Yacht. 7 .v.should be preferred on account of her grand sailing qualities.' The line is drawn at 80 tou for this reason: a gig's crew must be had out of either yawl or cutter, andif four bands be taken awayin the gig, two will be Jeff; on board.to work the yacht with captain and mate j and evena 60-tonner caDJlot very well do with less than six A.B.'s for the reason just given. But, whereas six men may work an 80-tonner, whether cutter or yawl, six would be hardly enough for .. too-tons cutter, although they might be quite equal to a yawl of that tonnage j and moreover, if there was anything like a breese, and foar men had to leave the cutter in the gig, it would be hardly prudent to 1ea.va the sailing master and mate with two men only on board. Of all the riga which the ingenuity of man has devised, not one is equal to the cutter, whether for clawing to windward, reaching along the wind, or ramrlng down wind. A cutter with a true wind will beat as far to windward in a day as a yawl will in a day and a quarter j will waJk: oft with a light air when the medley-rigged craft is as good as brought up j and in a. breeze under topsail is even more comfortable and easy than the yawl But the cutter must be snug; there must be no aping the racing cutter, and all the spars must be pretty nearly reduced to the dimensions of the yawl: that is, the boom end must about plumb the taffra.il; the bowsprit-say for a tOO-tonner-must only be about eighteen inches longer than the yawl'.; the mast must only be a little heavier j the topmast must be no longer; and the gaff must be in due proportion to the boom. A oommon argmpent in favour of yawls as against cutters is this: a racing cutter of 80 tons is said to be an expensive vessel to work, is an awkward vessel to tackle in a sea, and is wet and uncomfortable, therefore do not. have a cutter. But, on the other hand, if you wish to do a little racing without sacrificing comfort or incurring expense you are disinclined to,. have a yawl of 80 tons i the allowance for rig will put the vessel on an eqaaJity with the cutter, and she will win plenty of prizes j this means, that, in the yawl rig a really comfortable crnizer can be had combined with qualities good enough for racing succeasfnlly. There is possibly a very great delusion about this. A yawl to be a succeasfnl racer must be ballasted and canvased pretty much as a cutter of equal size, and the expense of racing such a yawl will differ very little from ihat of racing a cutter; probably, tonnage for tonnage, the expense would be the same. There is as much difference between a cruising yawl and .. ra.cing yawl as there is between a cruising cutter and. a racing cutter, _ it is .. great·mistake to suppose that a racing yawl includes the comforts of .. good crniaing cutter of equal size. The ultimate conclUlion is, that the particular rig will depend upon the Digitized by Coogle
  27. 27. 8 Yacht and Boat Sailing. size of the yacht, and for cruising the rig should be: cutter up to 80 tons; yawl from 80 to 150 tons.; schooner above that tonnage. In deciding on a yacht for racing, the first thing to exercise the mind is, of course, which is the best size to have? A builder will not unnaturally recommend something very large-something that one can live in with comfort and with all the 11lX1l1'ies of shore life, and. at the same time strike an imposing figure in the yachting world. But, as a rule, very large craft are disappointing. If a schooner is decided upon, it will be best not to go much beyond 200 tons; and a yawl should not exceed 150 tons, nor a cutter 120 tons. It can be argued that years ago, in the latter half of J.a.8t . century and at the commencement of this, very large cutters, sometimes ex~ding 200 tons, were afloat, and were so much superior in every good quality which a sailing vessel should have, that they were always referred to with pride as the" national rig." This is very true; but the 200-tons cutter of :fifty years ago was a very different kind of craft from what a 200-tonner of the present day would be. These old cutters were only about 80ft. long on the load line, with an extreme beam of 25ft.; they had taunt masts, and what appeared to be long main booms, as so much projected over the ta.ffra.i1. aft; but in fact their main booms were compa.ra.tively short-a.bout 65ft., or 5ft. shorter than Samoona's, which we reckon as of only 90 tons. A 200-tons cutter, built a.coording to existing ideas as to proportion of beam to length, would be a very different kind of ship indeed; she would be about 110ft. long, and. have no more than 20ft. beam; but, instea.d of being weighted with stone for ballast, she would carry probably 100 tons of lead, and her main boom would be at least 80ft. long. Having had some experience in handling a cutters main boom which was a little over 70ft. in length, we are quite of opinion that a 200-tons cutter, or even one of 150 tons of the modern school, is not a desirable kind of racing craft; and 120 ions-which means about 90ft. length of load line, or more than the length of the old Alarm when she was a 198-tons cutter-is quite a prudent limit to strike. But a man may be uninfluenced by considerations of size, comfort, prudence, or cost; he may simply want to shine 808 the owner of a successful racing craft, and pile up a huge, if almost meaningless, heap of prizes in one year. If such is the desire, search must be made amongst the records of matches sailed during the last decade, and little difficulty will be found in coming up with the magic size for prize-winning. So far 808 the record of the last decade goes-or, indeed, the record of the last thirty years might be taken-we think there is not much doubt that the most ueful me, so :far as cutters are concerned, for successful racing, has been 60 tons 01" near that tonnage. Mosquito, Volante, Fiona, Vanguard, Iona, Neva, have '-"'; Digitized by Coogle
  28. 28. Selecting a Yacht. 9 achieved more in the way of prize-winning than any of the sa.m.e rig of 100 tons and upwards j but within the last four years the 60-tons racers have given way to the 4O-tons class, but the latter are now in reality, in length, weight, and area of canvas, equal to the 60-tonner& of 1878; Btill the larger craft have constantly saved their time when in competition with the modern 4O-tonners. In 1878 the Kriemhilda, of 106 tons, in the face of almost unexampled competition, won more than any cutter had. previously done, and the brilliancy of the achievement was enhanced by the circum- Btance that, excepting on two oooasions, she won a first prize every time she Btarted, and came in first every time but once, and aJl the matches were sailed in good breemes. In 1880 two veBBels (Vandua.ra. and Sammna) a little longer than Kriemhilda on the load line, a little narrower and of considerably heavier displacement, but measuring only 90 tons, were built and had two seasons of unexampled success. Since then the 4O-tonner .Anna.sona has had two brilliant seasons a.ga.inst the 90-tonners, but in spite of)his there are still many reasons why a good cutter of 80 or 90 tons should be chosen for gene1'8ol competition; and if as good and well handled as she ought to be, a valuable amount of plate will be collected.. Great k14t natnraJ.ly attends the suooessee of ... big craft: she is genera.1ly ahead of the fleet-&nd the sympathies of the crowd inva.ria.bly go with the leading craft j and if she wins (say from a 6O-tonner), she is almost certain to be three or four miles ahead at the finish. This feature in itself is, no doubt, a most impressive one, both on the owner and on the spectator; and there can be no question about the eclat of winning with a 100-tonner even eclipsing the splendour of winning with a 9O-tonner. This certainly is the vanity of the thing; but there are vanities in sport as there are in other occupations, and if it is a man's vanity not only to win prizes, but to revel in the glory of If com.ing in first" in the cutter cl80B8, then he must have a veBBel of 100 tons or 120 tons. H, on the other hand, his vanity, if more peculiar, is less ambitious -is to win, one way or another, the greatest number and the greatest value of prizes-then he may have his wish gratified by owning a yacht not larger than 90 tons nor smaller than 60 tons. Within the last ten years classes have sprung up, and no c18o88 has earned more laurels than the 4O-tonners. Three builders-Hatcher, Fife, and Ra.tsey-made this class, and until 1881, when the May appeared, built from a design by Watson, no other builder had. been able to compete with the productions of these famous constructors; but it should be said that no sooner had. May made her name than Fife prodnced the .Anna.sona., which in turn eclipsed aJl previous performances. For real Bport, there is not much doubt that the 4O-tonners are to be preferred to . Digitized by Coogle
  29. 29. 10 Yacht tJllti Boot Sailing. the VeuelII in the larger olaaa: tbmre is no time allOft.D.C8 J the ~ merits of the veaaell, and merits of their handling, are eaeily read; aDd, as a mIe, the winning vesael can only arrive first at the goal bycontesting everr inch of water Bailed through. .An attempt was made five or six years ago to establish a 60-tons c1asa, but it was unsuccessful, mainly beoaose sailing oommitteea did not promptly stop the introduction of vessels which were a few tons over the claaa. How8'V81', we do not think a 60-tons clasa was much to be admired, aDd probably a class of 80-tonners would have been more auccessful. With regard. to the 4O-tonners, a mIlD fond of the sport need have no hesitation about building for their olasa: if he suooeeds in heading the class, he will have performed a v8l"f imposing feat; and, under aDy ci.rcumatauoea, if a T888e1 is," built up to the class," he is certain to have most lively sport, from beginning to end, aDd will become acquainted with the art of yacht sailing in the very best school. Some gentlemen keep 'O-tonners for the love of the sport of racing them, aDd live in large comfortable yachts during their season ailoat; however, if a mIlD bas not toomuch mODeY, he will find a 4O-tonner comfortable enough, aDd his sailing master will seldom report the weather too bad to show out of port in. The 20-toDS c1asa was a ve1'f numerous one, and in no clasa has cOmpetition been more keen than in this, but during the lut three Be808OD8 the eM has been on the decline. It is not likely that anyone 1f'Ould "yacht" in a 20-tonner for the sa.ke of the mere repute of oWDing a yacht i .. man, to OWIl, rs.oe, and live in one of these craft, must love the art of sailing, be enthusiastio in competition, and think of gaining the honours of the match by sheer hard sailing, and not of gettiDg the, prise bylluking 01' wrangling. This also must be said of the IO-tons olasa ' ad the 5-tons olasa; and so long as these small classes exist, so long will there be evidence that love of the art of yacht sailing is one of the most striking characteristics of the British gentleman. Some men, of course, revel in the passive pleasure of sailing about in a yacht, without knowing anything or caring anything about the mariner's art, just as some men will derive pleasure from riding on the back seat of a drag, and knowing and caring nothing about the tooling of the cattle in front of him. These are the gentlemen whose yachts we meet and hear of in all sorts of out-of- the-way ports; and as they make fflife on the ocean wave II as pleasant as it is poesible to make it, be assured that they are agreeable men to oroiae with. Digitized by Coogle
  30. 30. EXAMINATION OF THE YACHT. BAVDlG decided upon the aise of the yacht, the next step will be to find a anitable one of that aise. If the intending parohaser advertiaee his waDts, he is oartain to have a great many veaaela o:f!ered him, and aJl will, be highl1 recommended by the agents of the T8lldorl; each vessel will be the beat sea. boat of her toDJl8S8I the strongest built, the beat found, and the haudsomeat; and, moreover, the present owner is almost certain to have MCeIltly spent several hundred or th01lll8oD.d pounds upon her reconatroctiOD. or redecoration. The intending purchaser will be delighted; and, after ha~ got through pa.rticulan of the yachts whioh have been ~ered for aale, 80IDething like bewildarment win natnrall1 follow, and the task of making. fiDal selection will be • little diffi.cult. The beat plan will be to begin with treMiDg aJ.l the aDIW8rII 88 mere iDformation of vessels for 1I8le.' Find OlD when they were built, and by whom, from Lloyd's Register,* and if those that seem unobjectionable,., far aa age is conoemecl, IR'e suitable alIO in price, go to see them. Then, if one appea.ra to be in every way a c1eaira.ble araft, bid :for her, II subject to a 1IUl'V&y and inspection of inventol'1, 1Iho-mg her hull and equipment to be in • seaworthy and thoroughly sa.ti8- faokJry oondition." It will always be D.eCellsary to have a vessel lur,eyed. 'befme completing. purchase, tmleaa it is found by Lloyd'. Register that the yacht is quite new, or has recently beeJl 11U'ft)'ed. If a survey be required it will be pedormed upon applicatiOll by OIle of Lloyd's SDJT8101'll, or b1 a Jlda.t builder; but if a builder be employed, it will be well not to have the one that built the veasel, 88 he may not 11JlDatnrally inoline towards making • more favourable report on her condition than the circ1DD8taD.cea may WM'I'IollL The fee for 81Jl'Veying will probabl, be five gameu, with travelling apemea. • Llo7d', BooietJ for the Blwl*atiOJl of Ship, (White Licm-clO1llt, Comhfll) line .. apeaIal IIookfor JMhta. ~ .......... wheD _ how bait, wIleD .... "'-1I(IIIIna. wIae ),lid nn.,.a. ..aD iIIf_tka ... it ......"'7 to ~. Digitized by Coogle
  31. 31. 12 Yacht and, Boat Sailing. A man may perhaps desire to act as his own BUrVeyor; if he does, he will act very unwisely, as" it is only by long experience, and a perfect knowledge of the construction of veBBels and of the stra.inB they at'8 subject to, that a man can become competent for such surveys. NevertheleBB, as the yachtsman who takes to the sport enthusiastically, and with a resolve to be tf thorough," will neoeBB8ol'ily want to know in a general kind of way the "marks" to distinguish a good VeBBel from a bad one, some instruction must be given him. In the first place as to age. Speaking generally, a yacht should not be more than twenty years old; we do not mean that aU yachts upwards of that age should be broken up or sold into the coasting, or fishing, or piloting trade; but that yachts so old as twenty years should be put through a very searching survey• Yachts seldom at'8 broken up, and their fate is to lie year after year in mud docks for sale, and till theyat'8 far on the shady Bide of thirty. Do not be tempted by cheap- neBB into buying one of these; it would certainly end in mortification and disappointment. If the vessel were merely patched up with oakum and paint, she would be a perpetual trouble and expense; and if repaired or renewed as she ought to be, a new vessel bad much better be built, as it would be cheaper in the end. Therefore do not buy a thirty-year old veBBeI, and one so old as twenty years should only be selected with very great caution; the condition of such an old craft will depend upon the way she has been used and "kept up," and upon the amount of repairs and tt renewing" she has undergone. For instance, some vessels at the end of fifteen years at'8 stripped, newly planked, and decked, and all doubtful timbers and beams replaced by new; auch-a craft would be good for another ten years without further outlay, and she might be bought with as much confidence as a perfectly new vessel. Or if the yacht was originally well built in the beat manner by one of the best builders she may at the end of fifteen years require neither new plank nor new frames, but if she has seen much service she is almost certain to require new decks. The condition of a yacht at the end of fifteen years will ve~ greatly depend upon the quality of the materials used in her construction, upon the siBes of the timbers and their disposition, and upon the thickness of the planking, and upon the strength of the fastenings. Some idea of what these should be can be gleaned from the tables in Lloyd's "Yacht Register," compiled from the practice of the best builders of yachts. The timbers (called also frames, or floors, first, second, and third futtocksJ where the lengths of the frames are in ~o.. three, or more pieces) will be If double," that is.. two timbers will be placed close together, or nea.rly close together, and act as one frame. Then Digitized by Coogle
  32. 32. Examination oJ the Yacht. 18 ------------------------- there will be a space, and hence ff timber and space" means the distance from the centre of one double frame to the centre of another. The spacing should not be greater than the limits allowed by Lloyd's rules, as if the frames are too wide apart the vessel will work and the oanlking become loose, with the final result of troublesome leaks. Some builders do not place the timbers of a double frame quite close together, &8 some ventilation is OOIlSidered a good thing; but greater strength is obtained if the timbers of each double frame are close together, and the general practice is to so place them close together. Occasionally (though very rarely now) a single-framed v.essel is to be met with-that is, instead of two timbers being worked close together to form one almost solid frame, one single timber forms each frame, placed at regular intervals. These vessels, mUess the timbers are of superior size and placed very close together, should be regarded with great 8U8picioa; the space from centre to centre of the timbers should be at least 85 per cent. le88 than in a double-framed v888el, and the sizes should be 15 per cent. greater; and if the timbers are too long to be all in one piece, the ff shifts II or lengthening pieces of the timbers should be so arranged that two shifts never come on the same hONontal line in adjoining timbers, and the heads and heels should be dowelled, and a thick strake worked over them inside-through fastened. In almost all v888els the frames of the bow forward of the mBBt are single, and in some very old vessels these bow frames might be found to be of fir j these frames will require a great deal of inspection and pricking. Some 20-tonners which we have met with have had single frames 12in. from centre to centre in the middle of the vessel, these frames extending over a distance equal to half the length of the vessel; similar frames were used in the bow and stern, but the spacing was incre&Bed to 16in. There does not appear to be any objection to this plan, and it hBB a slight advantage in weight of timber. A.. favourite plan for small vessels, and one that answers very well, ~ to increaae the spacing between the frames, and work a steamed timber of American elm between. The Harvey Ship and Yacht Building Company used alternate sawn and steamed frames, with a double skin. This plan hBB now had a. fair trial, and, so far as the experience of eight years goes, it appears likely to be very durable, and hBB an advantage in lightne88. With regard to materials, all the frames shoul~ be of oak and so should be the stem piece, s~ post, npper portion of dead woods, bight heads, apron, beams, shelf clamp, bilge strakes, and keelson; the keel will generally be found to be either English or .American elm. The garboa.nl strakes are generally of American elm, and it is best that the Digitized by Coogle
  33. 33. 14 Yacht and Boat Sailing. p)-mug above moUld. be of. A:merica.n elm OP oak to within a foot or 10 of the load water.line, and teak above to the covering board or deck $dge. Very :frequently, however, only the prboaro atra.ke is of .American elm, and the remainder red pine or pitch pine, with a top atra.ke of oak or teak. Again, IOmetimes the first. four atrakea above the garboard are of American elm, and the first four .tr&kes below the deck of oak or teak, and the remainder piu.e; but pine between wind and water is liable to rapid decay•. OooaaionaJ.ly oak plank is used at the bilge, with a wale or CI bend" of oak above the water-line; &D.d, again, sometimes the plan i. all oak from keel to plank sheer, and nothing in the way of wood material aa.n exceed the strength or durability of a vessallO planked.. The iloo1'8 and keel faatenings of yachts are now varionsly COIdrived. Twenty years ago .. builder never thought of CODStrncting a vessel without grown ilOO1'8 and a kee1eon i but, owing to the increasing sharpneaa in the bottollUl of vesaels, or increasing II dead. rise," is became very difficult to find suitably grown iloors. The result was that iron ilOOM were eaat, and these, whilat having an advantage in strength and durability, have the additional recommenclation of forming excellent ballast. In some cases (almost always in vessels of 40 tons and under) grown iloore, or ilo01'8 of any kind, are dispensed with entirely; the heels of the first £attacks are brought down to the keel and connected by iron Vknees, which are securely bolted in the throat through the keel or through a hogging piece and keel, and through the timber and plank. H a yacht is met with that baa these iron Jmee.ftoors, it should be ucertained if she baa been ballasted with lead; if it turns out.that her ballaat baa been lead, it will be necessa.ry to have the iron knees very carefully examined, as lead very quickly destroys iron. It should also be aaoertained whether or not the floor bolts and other fa.stenings are of iron; if they are, it.is just possible that the lead ballast, or copper Jlheatbing, may have eaten off their heads; and if the yacht baa a le.ad keel bolted with iron, it is very likely that the bolts may have deoayed between the wood keel and lead. H the yacht be twelve or thirteen years old, it will be :incam.bent to .en.mine her very thoroughly inside and out, unless it is satisfaotorily shown that she baa recently been 80 eJ[8.mjned., and all necessary repairs made. To effectively tl'XAmjne a yacht the copper should be stripped off, and the planking ~ped clean; if, however, the copper be good it will ,be a pretty fair. evidence that the plank: underneath is sound, as the copper in such a case is not likely to have been on more than three years; and, of COur8e, the plank and caulking would have been thorougb11 examined and made good when the vessel was re-coppered. Digitized by Coogle I • I I
  34. 34. ; • .. Examination oJ the Yacht. 16 If it is etattMl that the vellel does no. requite re-coppering nol" needs ~pping, it will be well to be present when she is hauled up high and dry, or as the water is pumped out of the dry dook into which she has been placed, as the oase lQay be; as, if there are wrinkles or folds in the copper, giving evidence of strains, it is quite possible, where the oppor- tunity exists, that these II wrinkles" would be II dressed" out. The wrinkles will geneJany appear in a longitudinal direotion, under the ohannela and 1llldar the bilge over the ft.oor or futtock-heads. But if .the ~l has been IIllbject to very severe racking or twisting strains, or has bumped on a rook or on very hard. ground, the wrinkles may run diagonally or in half airoles across the copper. Very long and deep yachts, which have ~ot been properly strengthened longitudinally by internal bilge strakes and continuous diagoual braces across the frames, may be subject to great racking or twisting strains; if there be evidence of such strains, the yacht need not be condemned, but she will require strengthening, and should be put into the hands of a competent builder. In a case where the copper shows uluQistakable signs that the vessel works or strains, she should be thoroughly examjned in the vicinity of the supposed strains, and be atrength~ed and fastened in the manner whioh a builder from his experience may consider neoessa.ry. If iron fastenings have been used in the vessel, it is vsrylikely, unless the heads have been counter-sunk and well cemented, that iron rust stains will show on the copper; if such stains are met with, it will be best to have 88 muoh of the copper stripped oJf as the case requires, so that the fastenings may be driven out and new ones put in. The keel should be examined for strains and splits; and if the bel or false keel be worn away from the through bolt fasteningsl the bolts should be out off and re-clinohed, and if necessary a Dew false keel should be fitted. The stern-post, rudder-post, rudder braces, or gudgeons and pintles must be examjned, and if the rudder-post is twisted, or braces or pintles much worn, there will be work for the shipwright. . The chain plates and chain-plate bolts and the 81lJTOunding pJAnking and its caulking should be closely examined for fiaws and strains, and 80 also should the stem piece and bobstay shackle plates• Signs of straining on deck will mostly be apparent in the seam of the ~vering board abreaat of the runners, the mast, at the stem, knightheads.l bowsprit bitts, and near the mast partners. If the seams are 1lllusually wide here, as they frequently may be in a yacht that has been much presaed with C&nVU, It sailed hard." in heavy seas, or that' has been weakly built, some strengthening will be required by more hanging knees under the beams" lodging bees, additional knees at the· mast partners, diagonal Digitized by Coogle
  35. 35. 16 Yacht and Boat Sailing. straps &C1'OBB the frames, or it may be new beams, partners, and knees altogether. If the covering board shows signs of having opened badly in the seam, or lifted from the top strake, the beam ends a.nd shelf or clamp will require veFY C8.l'eful examination-the shelf a.nd cla.rtlp especially at the sca.rphs a.nd butts. To examine the frames of the veBBel, the baJla.st should be reDloved, and some of the ceiling and some of the outside plank should be stripped off. Lloyd's surveyors, in exa,mining an old ship, usnaJly cut out listings from the pla.nk: the whole length of the ship; and they also simi1.a.rly cut listings from the ceiling inside, under the deck, and over the floor heads; planks are taken off, too, at different pa.rts of the ship, eqnaJ in the whole to her length; and the beam. ends IIol'e examined either by taking out the top strake under the covering board, or" by boring under the covering boards. Fastenings, snch 80S trena.ils and bolts, are driven out, to further test the condition of the frames and fastenings; and the condition of the oa.knm and caulking is ascertained by exa.mination in several places. If the ship or yacht be completely celled up inside, it is obvious that the whole of the framing cannot be examined by such means; but generally a yacht is not so closely ceiled, and an application of a knife to the frames will soon determine whether they IIol'e rotten or not. There is sca.rcely any limit to the number of years frames of autumn- cut oak will la.st; but occa.sionaJIy a sa.ppy piece will find its way among the frames, and it may not la.st a year, or the frames may decay in conse- quence of leakage and defective ventilation; but from whatever ca.nse rot may arise, any frame so affected should be removed. Heels and heads of floors and frames are the most likely places to find rot j but of course it may occur in any part of a frame, and, if possible, every timber in a veBBel should be thoroughly examined from heel to head. Old decks are a great trouble to keep tight; and if there is any sign of II weeping" either under the deck at the seams, round the skylights, shelf, or mast, there will be sn.fti.cient evidence that caulking is necessa.ry. New decks, however, frequently give trouble in this way if they have been ca.relessly caulked, or if the yacht has been wealdy constructed, or"if the caulking was done during wet weather and not under a shed. As the plank dries, it shrinks away from the caulking and paying, and leakage is the inevitable result; this condition can be somewhat ameliorated by wetting the deck two or three times a day, but wet decks are a.1most as bad 80S leaky ones, and re-caulking and stopping will be the best remedy. It is the fashion now to lay the deck "planks very close together, in order that narrow seams may be obtained; narrow seams of course look very nice, but, 80S the seams are sca.rcely wide enough to receive the caulking Digitized by Coogle
  36. 36. Examination of the Yacht. 17 iron, very little oakum is driven into the seams, and as the marine -glue paying or putty stopping dries, leaks are the result. The spars will require carefnl inspection, and i£ either has cracks ranning transversely or diagonally, it will be pretty sure evidence that it is sprong. The longitudinal cracks or fissures are not of much consequence unless they gape very much, run deep and from one into another right round the spar j sometimes, however, if the cracks have not been stopped with putty or marine glue, the wet might ha.ve got in and caused decay. The insertion of a. knife into various parts of the crack will soon settle this matter. The mast should be carefnlly examined for rot under the yoke a.n.d a.t the partners. The masthead will require very carefnl exa.mina.tion under the eyes of the rigging and behind the bolsters for rot, and right a.way to the cap for wrings, which generally show themselves by a. lot of little cracks. The ma.inboom should be e:mmined for II springs" "near the outer end chiefly; the bowsprit a.t the gammon iron, or stem head, and a.t the outer end above and about the sheave hole. The rigging, blocks, and sails will of course require an overhauling. The standing rigging is now genera.lly made of galvanised iron or steel wire; i£ it has ~n much service, rust from the inner strs.nds will show itself, and the llla.y" of the strs.nds will have been stretched nearly stra.ight. Hemp and manilla. rope, i£ much worn, with a. washed-out a.ppea.rance, should be in certa.in p1a.ces unlaid, or untwisted, and i£ strs.nded with a. dried up dull appea.ra.nce of the ya.rns, the rope should be condemned. The shells of the block will require tlxa.mina.tion for splits, and the hook, eye, sheave, and pin for fla.ws of whatever description. The sails should be la.id out and exa.mined; i£ the stitching in the seams or roping be worn and ragged, i£ the canvas be bla.ck looking, very soft and thin, admitting a. great dea.l of daylight through the woof, then the sails will be only fit for a. fisherman or coaster. As a. rule, a suit of sails will last through four or five summer cruises; but three months' knocking a.bout, winter cruising in the Mediterranean or elsewhere, will do as. much harm as two summer cruises, a.nd it will never be prudent to sta.rt on a. long winter cruise with sails that have seen more than three seasons' wear. Of course sails may have been exceptionally well cared fo1'- never rolled up wet or unfairly stretched-a.n.d the vessel may have been in the happy condition of never having been under way in much of a. breel/le. Then i£ they are six or seven years old, and an expert pronounces them fit for a. winter's cruise, they can be depended upon; . but to be caught in a. breel/le is "bad enough, and it is a. great deal worse i£ when so oa.ught some of the Sp&l'S, rigging, blocks, or sails give out. A mainsail is most likely to go a.t the clew or to split from c Digitized by Coogle
  37. 37. 18 . Yacht and Boat Sailing. foot to head, but occasionaJIy they split right across from leech to luff. A jib will go all ways j its head will come off, tack or clew will come off, ana sometimes they will split or burst out of the stay rope. For racing, a ma.jnsa.jl is of little use after the secona year, ana even with the greatest possible care they will ha.rdly ao the third, 80S they get thin ana soft ana fly right away from the spars into bags with the . least weight in the wina. The owners of some small yachts have a new ma.jnsa.il every season, ana this is quite necessary if the yacht is sa.iled in 80S many as thirty or forty matches, ana if the sa.il has been frequently reefed. Lastly, the grouna tackle or holding gear must be examined. The anchors ana chains shoula be ga.1vanisea, ana be of the weight a.ua size set forth in Lloyd's tables. Digitized by Coogle
  38. 38. CHAPTER III BUILDING A YACHT. Son men seem to have quite a passion for building yachts, whether for crnising or racing, and do not believe in the paraphrased adage that It fools build yachts for wise men to buy." So far as a racing yacht is concerned, it is quite natural that a man should wish her first success or fame to be identified with his name, and that Ile would not care to· own a vessel which had already become famous under another man's flag. On the other hand, there are plenty of men who, directly they hear tha.t a yacht is successfol, and read of Iler wonderful exploits in the reports of matches, long to possess the wonderful craft. And so it happens that there is always something for the builder to do. The man who finds excitement in building is always certain to fancy that there is something even in his last success that can be improved upon; and he is glad to meet with the obliging purchaser who so covets the possession of the property he is anxious to disca.rd. The man who knows nothing whatever of yachts and yachting, in setting out to build, will be mainly troubled to know which builder to go to. He will hear that one builder is famous for cutters, another for yawls, and another for schooners; whilst another, more wonderful than all the rest, is famous for every kind of craft, from the tiny Una to the bold Mediterranean cruiser of 300 tons. Then, again, one builder is celebrated for the soundness of the materials he uses; another for the excellence of his fastenings; and another, perhaps, for his disregaro of the quality of both materials a.nd fastenings. All this will be very perplexing to the man who has yet to serve his a.pprenticeship at the sport, and he at last dives into it with something like the 'feeling with which he took his first header, and inwardly a.ppeals to the honour of the builder: Build me straight, 0 worthy master, Staunch and strong, a goodly vessel, That sha1llaugh at aJ1 disa.ster, And with wave and whirlwind wrestle. c 2 Digitized by Coogle
  39. 39. 20 Yacht and Boat Sailing. And probably the :Ql8Bter does build him a staunch and strong and goodly vessel. But there need be no doubt about the matter. Lloyd's Society for the Register of Shipping have now for five years been in the habit of superintending the building, and afterwards classifying a vessel, a.ooording to rules based on the undoubted soundness of the practice of the best builders, and there is no reason why even a yacht intended for racing should not be classed. It may not be considered prudent to use materials to qualify her for the highest grade of seventeen years, but at least every yacht, whether intended for racing or not, should be built of materials to take a twelve year's class. The highest grade of class is A. 1 seven· teen years, and a vessel that is quaJified for. this high class is certain to be a 1I staunch and strong and a goodly vessel;" and it will be of little consequence, so far as these qualities go, which builder has the con- struction of the vessel, as it will be the duty of the surveyors to see that the work is carried out in a proper manner. The owner will know and feel that he has a vessel which will come out of the heaviest storm unstrained, and should he wish to dispose of her the unquestionable character which she has for strength will facilitate her sale at a full value. Therefore the advice to a man who knows little about yachts cannot be too urgently repeated-a.lways build up to Lloyd's rules and under Lloyd's survey. No matter how high the repute of the builder may be, he will be only the more willing to agree to the survey, and will take delight in showing that he, 80 far from having any objection to build up to Lloyd's rules, will actually exceed their requirements, both in quality of timber used and in fastenings. Vessels of the ra.ciilg sort, of 40 tons and under, are now built with keels out of aJl proportion to the sizes of their other scantling: thus the Freda of 20 tons has a keel sided (by 1I sided" is meant its transverse thick. ness) amidships 2ft. 2in. This enormously thick keel of course tapers fore and· aft, and is only 80 thick amidships in order that a heavy weight of lead or iron might be carried underneath. A. similar weight could onlI be carried on a smaJler wood keel by greatly increasing the draught.. and then the strength and thickness of the keel might be unequal to the weight of the lead and to the boring for the necessary bolts. Some- times a lead keel, or keelson, is worked inside, fore and aft, between the heels of the timbers and on top of the keel proper. Vmous plans have been used for strengthening and binding together the fabric of the hull; but the diagonal iron braces previously referred to are only used in large yachts of great length. In yachts of eighty feet and under in length, thick strakes of hard wood or pitch pine are worked under the clamp and shelf, and run the whole length of the vessel, and Digitized by Coogle
  40. 40. Building a Yacht. 21 are through-fastened with metal bolts. Simila.rly two bilge strakes along the curve of each bilge on each side are worked and through-fastened. Limber strakes are eJao sometimes worked over the heels of the first futtocb which join the heads of the floors, and are through-fastened. A limber ~e in a cruising veasel with a floor construction, where there is no keelson, would greatly add to the strength of the veBBel j but in yachts of 50 tons and under it would scarcely be necessary to have a tf thick strake" above the bilge stra.kes. Outside a wale or bend is worked and through-fastened; but where all the planking is of ha.l'd wood, the wales are dispensed with. It m1l8t be understood, if the yacht about to be built is intended for racing rather than cruising, that it will be an advantage to reduce the BOaJltling, and increase the spacing so far as may seem compatible with strength. The plank also (if the owner is not particular about obtaini:ng a long term of years in Lloyd's Register), from the bilge upwards, can be of red pine instead of teak: or oak, and the deck beams can also be of red pine i the bulW801'b of red pine, and the stanchions and rails reduced in size so far as may appear consistent with strength. There are racing vessels, of simi1a.r tonnage, with as muoh as two-fifths differ- ence in the size and height of stanchions i and in a 200-ton vessel half a ton of weight might very well be disposed of in this way. Of C01l1'88 it is only fair to say that some of our most succeasfol racing vessels, such 88 Florinda, Ooriaande, Sammna, or Gwendolin, are built of the heaviest material and fnll scantling. However.. although this may show that a vessel can be so built and succeed as a racer, it is at least an open question whether she would not have been a atill greater SUcceBB had her scantling been reduced. The metal fastenings of yachts form a subject about which there is a great deal of opposite opinion. The builder who constructs cheaply contends stoutly that there is nothing like iron j on the other hand, the builder who always asks and gets a good price for his work would as soon think of fastening a yacht with cabbage stumps as with iron. Others recommend iron for dead-wood bolts, shelf bolts, and floor bolts, with Muntz' metal for plank fastenings. Others recommend Muntz' metal for all bolts, and a mixture of Munts' metal and trenails for plank fastening. There is no doubt that iron has advantages, 80 far at least as long dead-wood bolts are concerned. Iron can be driven very much tighter than copper-rod, and its strength is greater. We have seen iron bolts, that had been made hot and dipped in varnish or oil before they were driven, taken out of a vessel thirty years old, long before galvanised iron was heard of, as clean and bright-in fact, the varnish unperished-as they were a.t the moment Digitized by Coogle
  41. 41. 22 Yacht ana Boat Sailing. of driving. On the other hand, if the iron were driven through a shaky piece of timber, or loosely driven, so that salt water might get to it, decay of the iron would be very rapid; hence preference must be given to copper or Muntz' metal. Galvanised iron is often used for shelf fastenings, and it is less objectiona.ble there j but preference should be given to Muntz' metal for aJl dead woods, as it can be driven as tightly as iron, and, if of the best quality, will clench as well. Lloyd's give an additional year to all ships or yachts that are fastened from the keel upwards (to within one-fifth the depth of hold amidships from the deck) with yellow metal or copper bolts and dumps, or trena.ils; in such case the fastenings for the upper strakes of plank to the deck must be properly galva.nised, it being also understood that the iron bolts for frames, beams, &c., are to be galvanlsed. And a further two years are granted if no trenailB are used at aJl.* Whether trenails or bolts are used, one is to be put in each plank or strake at every timber j two-thirds of the trenails are required to be driven through, and the butts of the plank must be through-bolted with copper or yellow metal; and the bilge strakes and limber strake should be through-bolted. Trena.ils are scarcely adapted for vessels of less than 50 tons, on account of the small size of the timbers j and even in these they should be very sparingly used (and only in the bottom plank), as a Sin. timber must be very considerably weakened if it is bored with holes to receive 1in. trena.ils. Metal bolts should in all cases be used for bolting on lead keels; iron keels can be bolted on with iron bolts, but if the vessel is coppered a Sin. strip of zinc should be put between the lower edge of the copper and the iron keel. Some ten years ago it seemed likely that composite vessels would quite supersede those entirely of wood construction j but so far the composite plan has not advanced in favour. This is really a matter for surprise, as the composite build offers this advantage over the wood structure: so very much more room is obtainable inside on the same weight or displacement. The great question was ten years ago, could a composite vessel be 80 fastened as to be insured against the possibility of the fastenings giving out? We think the question has now, after fifteen years, been satisfactorily a.nswered by such vessels as Oima.ra., Selene, Nyanza, Palatine, or Garrion, built by Steele and Co., of Greenock j the Sun- beam and ModweDa, built by Bowdler and Chaftler, at Liverpool; the Bella Donna and Seabird, built by Hatcher j and many others. None of these vessels have, 80 far as we know, ever shown the slightest signs of straining, • Llo7d'. also ai'e aD uta 18&1' if the v"1I81ia built 1UUl. oover. Digitized by Coogle
  42. 42. Building a Yacht. 28 nor have their fastenings decayed; in fact, so :far there seems every chance of their out-enduring any of the wood yachts which were constructed at about the same period. For a composite yacht it is best that all the planking (excepting, of course, the deck) should be of hard wood, and that the plank fastenings should be of Muntz' metal screw bolts sunk in the plank, and so insulated that galvanic action could not be set up with the outside copper, the bolts, a.nd the frames. Mr. J. S. White, of East Oowes, has, within the last two years, provided the necessary plant for building composite vessels, and has built four large yachts a.coording to that system of construction, but as yet there is no evidence that composite vessels are coming into general use. Lloyd's have compiled a table of scantlings for composite and iron yachts, and will in future cl888 such as are built up to their mIes. Steel, however, is likely to supersede iron, as Lloyd's will give the same class for one-fifth less weight. A great many experiments have from time to time been made with compositions for preventing the fouling of the bottom of ships j but up to the present time no °speci1ic has been discovered, and the opportunity for someone to reaJise a large fortune still exists. So :far as yachts are con- cerned, they are generaJly sheathed with copper; and, for these waters at least, the bottom can be kept clean enough by a couple of scrubbings throughout the season. One of the compositions, such as JestTs, Day's, Pea.oock's, or Martin's, is sometimes put over the copper j but, for racing at least, we prefer the copper without the composition, as clean copper has a smoother surface than either of the compositions imparts. Of course, for a racing yacht, the copper cannot very well be cleaned too often; and a month is quite long enough for the vessel to be without a sarub, although there are but few which get one so often. The Admiralty have been making some experiments with zinc as a sheathing for iron ships (the iron being first protected by a slight wood skin), but so far zinc does not appear to offer many advantages. Oopper, on the other hand- if the ship be kept constantly moving, or moored, 88oy, in a five-knot tide -will keep comparatively clean, on a.coount of the extensive exfoliation which goes on of the oxychlorides and other soluble salts produced by the action of the salt water on the copper. Oxychlorides are similarly and much more rapidly formed on zinc, but are not 80 readily 8Oluble; hence very little exfoliation takes place, and a corroded and rough surface is the result, the zinc being finally eaten through. Zinc, therefore, we may conclude, is unsuitable as a sheathing for yachts, especially as evidence . exists that such sheathing lin. thick has been eaten through in one year. An alloy of copper (2) and zinc (8), popularly known as Muntz' metal, Digitized by Coogle
  43. 43. 24 Yacht and Boat Sailing. is largely used as a sheathing for ships; but it is Scarcely so good as copper for yachts, as, owing to its greater stiff:p.ess, it cannot be laid so well. Another objection to Muntz' metal sheathing. is that it does not e:rloliate to the extent copper does, and that after being under the in1luence of salt water any considerable time-say three or four years-the metal becomes rotten; but this defect, it is said, can be remedied by an addition of a small quantity of tin to the alloy. For composite ships Muntz' metal sheathing has some advantage, as it sets up very little, if any, galvanic action with iron; but the risk of galvanic action from copper sheathing in a well-constructed composite ship is so remote that copper is to be preferred even to these, if the difference in cost is not a consideration. A curious feature in connection with yacht construction is that naval arohitects should have had so little to do with the designing of yachts. Yacht builders, as a rule, keep draughtsmen, who are instructed as to a design, and thus the builder becomes his own architect. That this plan has succeeded there can be no doubt, and it might even be questioned whether an arohitect could at present compete with the builder, if the latter bestowed so much time on a design as he ·ought. But, as a mIe, builders are too much occupied with the cares of their business to devote much time to the mathematical consideration of a design; and it is only their experience, and a prudent purpose not to depart in any radical way from a model which practice has proved to be possessed of undeniable good qualities, that keep them from blundering ~to failure. If we were asked to give a reason why the business of designing happens to be in the same hands as the business of building, we could give no satisfactory answer, if a true one. The truth is that, in the early days of yachting, a. naval arohitect who confined the exercise of his talents to the designing of yachts would have found his occupation by no means a. lucrative one j and perforce the builders were compelled to do their own designing, mostly on th6 pattern of Government cruisers, with such trifling alterations as their experience permitted them to venture upon. Occa- sionally gentlemen made models of yachts, and the late :Mr. Joseph Weld and :Mr. T. Assheton Smith had a. large share of success; it is even c1.a.imed for Mr. Smith that he invented or discovered the valne of "wave lines" before :Mr. Scott Russell did. But, be this as it may, there can be no doubt that he was as clever at designing as the professional builders of the day. Builders were, in fact, compelled to do their own designing, because the profession of a. yacht-naval arohitect . would have been unprofitable. But if builders as a. matter of necessity did their own designing fifty years ago, it can scarcely be said that a. similar necessity exists now, although the custom does. During Digitized by Coogle • I
  44. 44. BuiZding a Yacht. 25 the 1ast ten yean there have been, on the average, fifty vessels of all riga and sizes built annuaJIy, and it might be assumed that the emoluments for designing these would keep a goodly number of naval architects in the neoeBB&ries of life. The few who have made yacht-naval architecture a study and profession have undoubtedly succeeded well enough to lead to the conclusion that, with more opportunities, they would make a very considerable advancement in yacht design. Builders would be relieved of a great source of anxiety, as the responsibility of a vessel answering the requirements or expectations of the person for whom she was built would be shifted from their shoulders to those of the architect. Such a shift of responsibility would unquestionably be an advantage for the yaoht owner, as it is much more likely that a scientifically trained ~hitect, who has opportunities of tracing causes of success or failure, would achieve any given object than that a builder would, whose b118iness occupations necessarily restrict the exercise of his attention and experience on the important work of designing. It is, therefore, satisfactory to note tha. yacht designing is graduaJIy gaining recognition as a profession j and if improvement is to be made in the form of yachts, we must look for it from the hands of professional yacht designers. Digitized by Coogle
  45. 45. CHAPTER IV. THE EQUIPMENT OF THE YACHT. To equiP.Ilent of a. ya.cht embra.ces generaJ.ly everything tha.t is used or required for working her. UsoaJly it is understood to consist of the spars, sta.nmn.g a.nd running rigging, sa.ils, various ta.ckles or puroha.ses, a.nahors, chains, warps, boa.ts, lights, &C. The dia.gram, Pla.te I., a.nd the referellC6s, will a.ssist the exp1a.na.tions tha.t will follow of the various parts a.nd uses of a vessel's outfit or equipment. &!Ls. A. MaiDaa.i1. Go Clew of ma.inea.il, with traveller OIl the horae 18 (oha.fn OIlthaul aDd tr.olde shown underllea.th boom). b. MaiD. taok. c. Throat. d. Peak-.riDg. e. Head. . /. Foot aDd roach ofla.i1. g. Luff or _ther leech. ,.. Leech, or after leech. i. FirIt, 1I8OOJld,third, aDd c10ae reef oriDglea. j. FIrat, 1I8OOJld, third, aDd oloee reef point.. •• FirIt,IIIIOODd, third, aDd o1oee reef oriDglel or luff oriDglell. B.F~. G. Luff. b. Foot. c. Leech. d. Head. 8. Taok'. /. Beef point.. C. Jib. G. Luff. b. Foot. c. Leech. d. Head. 8. Tack. D. Gatr Topaail. G. Clew. b. Tack• c. Weather -.riDg, or head 1IIIol'Iq. d. Peak-.riDg. 8. Head. /. Foot. g. Luff. ,.. Leech. E. Jib Topla.i1. G. Luff. b. Foot. c. Leech. d. Head. e. Taok. SPua. 1. KMt. 2. Top Hast. 8. Bcnnprit. 4. Boom. 5. Gatr. 6. eTopla.i1,ard. 7. Bpbmaker bo9m. 8. H01IJldB, bclner, aDd JOb. e Formerq balloon topa,ilB, with a. footyard or ja.akya.rd, ware 00IIIDl0Il in aJ1 ra.ofDg yacht.; th8J a.re DOW generally dOIle a._y with, uoeptiDg in lIOhocmera aDd ya.wll, loB th8J lI'f8&tq iB_ the weight a.1oft, without much inoreuiDg the me of topla.i1. Digitized by Coogle
  46. 46. Digitized by Coogle
  47. 47. • I ~ Digitized by Coogle
  48. 48. r • The Equipment oj the Yacht. 27 8P~ued. • 9. Cap. 10.~ 11. Pole of topmut. IS. Track. 1. • IIaiD riaiDI ahrouda. S. • m-r pole, termed rJao Bheer batteD and aheer metohar. 8. • Dead 8J8II and Jatvuda. •• • Pon stay. s.-PeDdazd; 6. - Bmmer. 7. B_taokle. 8. Fall of rIIDJUIr taokle. 9 • TCIpIIIMt -7 (topmMf; baok-eiaya or BhIoaAla DOl; abown.) 10. • TGpJIIMt IIhiftiJqr baobta7, or "pze. TaD_baobtay." 11. Taokle of IIhiftiDtr baobta7. 12•• Bobe1ay. 18. BobBlay taokle and faD. 1.. )(aiD halyuds. 15. P_ ha1prda. 16. JIaiD.beet. 17. ToppiDg liftB. 18. Beaf--.rbtg or pendant. 19. Po-.u ha1prda. SO.:rm-n IJheat MY. through block OD aJew of.u. Sl. J'0IIIUl fIIok. sa Jib haqa,rde. sa. .Jib IIbeetia fait to olew of .n. 18. hoD harIIe at boom _a for mam.U em. haul to travel OD. 141. JIut hoopa. ~. Jib fIIok. 115. Jib traTeller. 116. Jib ODthaul. 117. Jib dowDhaul and fore-.i1 d01nlhr.ul. 118. Topeail haJ,Jarda. 119. Topeail upper ha1pIda, or trippiDg hal· ~. 80. Top..u eheet, ~tb!ouJh blook with pendant, fait round muthead. 81. Top..u tack. n. Topeail tack taokle. 88. Topeail olew tiDe. 840. Jib-top..u~. 85. Jib.topaail taok. 86. Jib.topaail sheet, fu1; to aJew of ail 87. II'abuaW c1ownhaul. 88. BpinDaker-boomI toppiDao lift. 89. SpinDaker-boom I after ~. 410. BpinDaker-boom I hauli.:Dtr and nanaiDr pariII of whip plll'OhaH of after ~. oil. SpinDaker-boom; fore f1I7• .til. SpiDDabr outhaul, the hauli.:Dtr pan OD the 1Illc1er Bide of the boom. 41. Spbmroker outhaul, on the upper Bide of . boom I this iI the pari; ma.de fMt; to ephmaker taok. 'fte pa.rta of the I:'iniDIr _bel thus. are tmnecl "1ItiandiDa l'iainI," and the other paria ..~~." 1. Load water.liD8. (L.W.L.) 2. Keel. 8. BfIIImpoef;. "" Badcler. 5. D.dwoocL 6. Forefoot, tenDed a.1ao pipe. 7. stem. 8. I'Neboud. 9. Co1mter. 1. J'Ioor. I. Fzamee or timbers. Ht1LL. 10. Archboa.rd. 11. Ta.flrail. Ill. Quarter timbel'l. 18. CcrreriDg board or plank eheer. 1"- Bail, or rough 6ree rail 16. ChanneL 16. ChaiD platee, or ohaImel pw.. 17. Bobe1ay IhaoIde pia•• :mG. 1. 6. Deak. 7. Deak Beam. 8. Bul_k ltianohione. 9. OhanDela and ohanuel platee. Digitized by COOSIe
  49. 49. · .r Jr,",_
  50. 50. The Equipment 01 the Yacht. 29 J[uor 4JID BIaGm'G. 10...... 11.BoImda. 11. Yoke or lower Gap aDd boWer. 18.~. U. TopDUIIt. 15. Kain rInIDC 01' Bhrouc1a. 18. TopJDMt.hmada ow bMbtay. 17. BIICbfaJ falle or taeldee. 18. Lap oftoplll&lt bMbtaye tr.kea off wh8ll the topIII&It fa ho1ll8d. Fm. S. JIDJIlI' 01' Y.A.WL. 1. )(De 1II&It. I. Pole of miseD mut. 8. JliMa boom. iDat.d of a ,.rd). f. JIiMD ,.rd (a Iaf! fa frequatIJ ueecl S. JliMa bumpJda. 8. 8pic1R baDd.on 1II&It. 7. JIiHD Ihrouc1a ... 1I.p with ~ aud eheepole. 8. KilI8Il b1l.mpldD ~ or IhroadL 9. KilI8IlIdaiftiDIr .tar, ODe OIl I80h BIde. 10. Tackle f01' miseDlIhift;iq .tar. 11. SVop OIl mUeD ,.rd. 11. hoB traftller OIl miseD mut, with ohafn t,e or haIJMd ..... thJoqh Iheav. hole aboye. The tackle OIl the obaiD • luIqud fa hiddea OIl the oIiher dde of themut. 18. JIiHD.heat leIIdiDa' fa boRd. 14,. JIJs8Il 01l.thaal aud whip purabMe Ilaot. eaad l1p. The OIlt1ur.ul fa a.lIo IIOIIl8f;iDa III'l'IIo1Iged in thfa DIIIoIID81': the oat- haul fa 1m put oyer the a of the boom 117 a l'I1DlIiDtr 811, thea ,...... through a lingle blockOIl the olew oriDgle of the ...n, through a &heaT. hole in the boom a, aud thea OIl boMd. In I1lOh ... there is no whip pmchaee. 16. JIis8Il _11: aud _11: taotle. 18. JIJs8Il toppiq Uft. 17. Ma.iDboom aud put of ...m-u. Digitized by Coogle
  51. 51. 80 1. KaInmaat. I. li'0ftIIIMt. 8. JIain topman. •• li'ore topmut. Yacht and Boat Sailing. , _-nT_ -~" FIe. 8. M:~ An BIOODI'G 01' Saa:OODB. 11. JIain.topmut 1fa7. 11. Fore-topman baalt.J. 18. Fore-lItaJaaU ha1Jr.rdI. U. Head of fore-ata,..u. Ii. Bounda OIl oheeb of mut. 15. Head of main·topman .Jail. 6. r.o,rez OIop on whioh 0l'0IIItreea reat, fore 16. Taok II .. liae of topmaat. 17. Clew .. II 7. Cap. 18. Ld " .. 8. Topman Id. 19. Foot .. .. 9. Triatdo 1fa7. 20. Sheet .. " 10. Foreata,. leadiDtr to quarter nil. li'o:am.m: li'1'l"1'IlIGI, BoWll'BlT AlO) BrOODI'G. G. The bowIprit. b. Heel of bowsprit. c. Bitta. d. W"mdJua. •. Gammon iroD. alIo oa.l1ec1 ipAD Ihaokle. ,. Ji'id. N.B. The bJook il1II1I&lq g. Whiakera hiDged OIl aD iron llddle ODe hooked to the litem. here. A. Wire IIhzonda. le. CoveriDg board. i. TaoJde for aettiJqr up IIhzonda. Digitized by Coogle
  52. 52. The E~uipment of the Yacht. 81 c A ]I JIA.aTJnAD F1'rl'1N08. Pig. A IIhowa a.- of the top IidAI of the lOb or lower oap. CI is the IOke with an iroD bud roUDd it. b is a U-Ihaped iroD plate, IOmetimee fitted oyer the IOke .. showD, and is the Btrou.geet plan. c is an iroD bolt. d is the malt. • is the topmut. I the ~ fitted with eorew bolts and Iluts 011 the fore Bide of top- malt &I shown. Fig. B is the 10ke and malt TiBWed from aft. CI, the ends of the aft &rJIIII of 10b. b, the cheeks, the upper part on which the bolsters r8lt beiDg the hoUDdB. c, iroll bolt at aft lide of mut- cJ, the mut- " bolBterB on which the rfaiD. reetB. Pig. C allows a broadIide new of the IOke and muthea.d. CI, the IOke. b, the cheeb. c, iroD bolt. d, the 1IIMthe&d. 1l, iron oap. " bolater -ttnr OIl the hoUDdB. I, oroutreee. 9, topmMt. i, jib ha.IJard blook (one OIl each Bide of _t, on iron hoop). i, pee.k-halJ&rd bloob. •, main-ha.IJard block, and span bolt. Thia bolt should be long enOlllh to keep the parts of the halJ&rdB olear of the ;JOke. Sometimee a BiDgle bolt is used with strong spur and plate below. "', f0rBBta1. (Bee page 52). " shOWIthepoBitionon theoheeks wherethe e1e platee '5;: are bolted to take the .0" " •) bloob for the topping lift. The shean in the muthead for the heel rope of the topmalt is not shown; the sheave ill fitted ma,onally, not in the fore and aft line. Digitized b~ GoogIe
  53. 53. ~ Yacht given .for schooners of Sailing. following table ~'Ue.i}0'0~{e take the sizee below; thus, is 100 tons, for blocks from the column assigned to 80 tona. 'ULitters j for the tlte sizes TABLE OF SIZES OF BLOOXS FOB YACHTS OF VARIOUS SIZES. IDa. IDa. Jfa.iD halyarde G ) - ~ 't Pea.k haJyarda Ii ~ 41 Jfa.iDaheet ............... 1 1 't ~t MaiDaheet lead ......... ) S S Jib halJa.rda ............ 8 ~ 't Fore haJya.rd. Z S S Bobat&y (iron bloob) . 1 1 40 D4JTR7iliili;t>:EkTI: b ... II II 6& ) St II II 6&-:0; 1 S 1 S 40 ~ 3 II ) S whip................... ) S S Jib tack .................. 1 S S Jib purohue ............ 1 1 3 at Jib pmohaae l'1UIJI8l'... 1 lIIAin purohaae •••.....• 1 1 8 at Pea.k purchaae ......... 1 1 S st Topping lifta ............ II 8 st ~;l;;~:t~j;;=: 40 S ~ ) - 8 II S 1 S II S ) ) 40 " ~ Beef·tackle(fiddledbL) 1 1 6&S'USt Boomgny ............... 1 1 'I'IICii tacklea ............ 3 3 8 S Bnrlon .................. ) ad topaaiJ. sheet whip 1 8 S Down·hanls (forward) S Dead eyes! Sf Sf............ 'ULL"La.t pnrchaae is US'U¥ h01I'fard block is a. liDrL01L'fL.hL the hauling part. -:0;'f'f-:0;le blocks on the -:0;01L:~-:0;LLLLner has only four €lLLnld be Bingle np t •.!. 'UiLnld be aiDgle up to IBON BTBop BLOCltII. ",=~ ",gi i g! iii ~~~ ~ ..i o;j~ Ot;0&k E-<8~ E-<o~ E-<c');:: Blz:e. Size. Blz:01 Ins. IDa. IDa. IDa. IDa. Ii lit 6 7 8 Ii .lit 6 7 8 Ii lit 6 7 8 ~ 't Ii 5t 6 5 lit 6 7 8 40 ~ Ii 6 6t Ii 5t 6 7 8 &41 7t&5 S&5t St -:0;t 5 St &41 7t&S S&5t ~t 5 40. 5 40t 5 't 5 St 40 't 5 5t St S! 40 't 5 St 40 't 5 5t I) 8t 40 ~t I) 5t St ~ 't 5 I)t ~ 't Ii lit 40t 5 ~~ ~t Ii =>¥ Ifiil'll BTBOP BLocKs. 41 5 't I) 40 40t 6 6t lit 6 *U 6t&4 7 7. 8 St S St ~ 't I)t St 4. ~t I) 5t S 40 't Ii 5t St 4. 40t Ii lit S 40 't I) 5t 40 40t 41 5 5t "LL"L...."'L' is in racing yaoh'U of the halJards is _d runner tackle baokataYB, two on ",8=.......0 ..-; E-<81>< Blz:e. IDa. IDa. IDa. 9 9. 10 9 :t 10 9 10 6i 7 7t 9 9t 10 7 7t 8 9 9t 10 & 7 10&71 7t 10&7 7 7 7 7 6 6t 7 lit 6 6t 6 6t 7 6 7 8 6 6t 7 6 6t 7 6 6t 7 6l 7 43t 7 7 7 6t 8t S s st 10 I 6t 7 7t I 6 6t 7 6 6t 7 6 6t 7 6 6t 7 I 6l 71 8t ~ M_"""","~. _ _ _ over, the ?:Lmohaae, Some fiTe·toDDerB have only two shrouda on eaoh aide; ten tou and upwarda three ; above Bixty tou four shroud. for raoini. roogle
  54. 54. The Equipment 0/ the Yacht. 88 TABLE 01' SIZB8 01' CORDAGE roB C1JTTEB AND YAWL YAOBTB 01' VABIOUS SIZES.- IToIIL TORL TORL I ToN•• ToIlL TONL TOR•• To... ToRL Ton Out..a. 0..&.6. Cu&. 10. CuL III. OuLIO. CuL 80. OuL40. OuL80. 0u&.80. ~IOO. Ii... o. Bop•. Yawl6. Yawl7. Yawll4. YawllO. Yawlao. Yawl40. Yawl80. Yawl80. YwllOO Ywl.l. --------------------CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. CI. ------------ ---- -IDa. IIUI. Iu. In•. IIUI. IIUI. IIUI. IIUI. Iu. Iu. haquda .......... Ii It 2 IIi IIi 2t 8 3i 8i atPeIIk hal,yarda............ H It 2 IIi IIi 2t 8 8i 8i- 8tKaiJlahaet; (manilla) ... Ii li- It 2 2i IIi- lit 8 8i 8iFore halJuda............ 1 Ii It It It 2 IIi Ii 2t 8Bobat&y taokle li- It IIi Ii- 2t 8 8i 8i- 8t •Bowsprit IIhmuda taekJe 1 Ii Ii H It 2 2t 2t lit 8Pendant; .........;........ H a 2 2i 2i- 2t a at at 8tBu_ .................. H II Bi- st 8 8t 8i- 8t •B1UIIUIJ'