Earth, sun and moon Interactions
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Earth, sun and moon Interactions

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Earth, sun and moon Interactions Earth, sun and moon Interactions Presentation Transcript

  • EARTH , SUN, andMoonInteractions
  • How does what happens up there
    Affect what happens down here
  • Understanding Climate and Weather
    What?Why and How?
  • Guide Questions
    Why do we have night and day?
    How long is a day/a year?
    How does sunlight hit the Earth’s surface? (equator vspoles)
    Why is it warmer at the equator and colder at the poles?
    Why are there seasons?
    What is climate and what causes different climates?
    What is longitude and latitude and how are they related to climate?
  • What causes Night and Day?
  • Length of Day:
    http://www.cs.sbcc.net/~physics/flash/LengthofDay.swf
  • DAY AND YEAR
  • DAY AND YEAR
    Rotation earth’s spinning on its axis
    1,600 km/hr (rate of spin at any point along the equator)
    Revolution movement of earth
    around the sun
  • Leap Year
    It actually takes the Earth a little longer than a year to travel around the Sun — 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46 seconds, to be exact.
    It was the ancient Egyptians who first figured out that the solar year and the man-made calendar year didn't always match up.
    It was the Romans who first designated February 29 as leap day
    That extra day was added to February because February used to be thelast month of the year
    http://www.chiff.com/a/leap-year.htm
  • When do we have leap years?
    a leap day happens in years only divisible by four, i.e., 1996, 2000, 2004
    Another stipulation ruled that no year divisible by 100 would have a leap year, except if it was divisible by 400. Thus, 1900 was not a leap year ... but 2000 was! Go figure.
  • Leap Years
    When was the last leap year?
    2008
    When is the next?
    2012
  • Number of Daylight Hours
    Every part of Earth gets about the same number of hours of daylight per year
    half a year of full daylight
    BUT, not received the same way
    EQUATOR: it is delivered evenly -- exactly half a day, every single day, throughout the year.
    POLES: it is delivered all at once -- half a year of daylight, and then half a year of darkness.
    MIDLATITUDES: it is delivered in greater or lesser amounts, throughout the year -- some days having more than half a day of daylight, but others, half a year later, having less than half a day, and the average, throughout the year, being half a day of daylight per day
  • AMOUNT OF SUNSHINE
    However, although the different regions receive the same number of hours of daylight, they do NOT receive the same amount of sunshine
    the amount of sunshine which is received over a certain amount of the ground depends upon how high the Sun is in the sky (the angle of the sun’s rays)
  • How sunlight hits the Earth’s surface
  • When sunlight shines from overhead (on left), one square foot of sunlight falls on one square foot of ground. When it shines at a shallow angle (on right), each square foot of sunlight spreads out over many feet of ground.
    http://cseligman.com/text/sky/climate.htm
  • Effect of How Sun Hits Earth
    Equator always warmer (tropical)
    Poles always colder (arctic)
  • REASON FOR THE SEASONS
  • Earth Motions: PRECESSION
    Precession – Earth’s axis maintains approximately the same angle of tilt, but the direction in which the axis points continually changes.
    Currently, the axis points toward Polaris.
    In the year 14,000, it will point toward Vega.
    By 28,000, it will point toward Polaris again.
  • PRECESSION
  • SEASONS
    We have seasons because:
    The Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5o, so different locations receive different amounts of direct sunlight throughout the year.
  • March Equinox
    June Solstice
    December Solstice
    Sun
    September Equinox
  • SOLSTICE
    http://members.shaw.ca/len92/geography.htm
  • SOLSTICE
    http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0020-solstices-and-equinoxes.php
  • Peralta Colleges, Physical Geography
  • FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE
    Axis or tilt of the Earth
    -length of day & seasons
    Latitude (sun angle)
    Elevation
    Precipitation (rain, snow, hail)
    Currents (wind, ocean)
  • What patterns do you notice with the colors?
  • Geography basics
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95TtXYjOEv4
    9 mins
  • How sunlight hits the Earth’s surface?
  • Peralta Colleges, Physical Geography
  • The latitude and longitude system
    Longitude lines run north-south and meet at the North and South Poles; also called meridians.
    Latitude lines run east-west and don't meet; also called parallels.
  • Latitude
    The latitude of a country is its angle above or below the equator.
    For example
    • North Pole - 90° North
    • South Pole - 90° South
    • Paris, France - 48° North
    • Sydney, Australia - 34° South
  • Latitude
    Paris
    Equator
    48°
  • Latitude
    Some important lines of latitude include
    The Equator – 0°
    The Tropic of Cancer – 23.5° N
    The Tropic of Capricorn – 23.5° S
    The Arctic Circle – 66.5° N
    The Antarctic Circle – 66.5° S
  • Longitude
    The longitude of a country is how far around the earth it lies from London = 0 ° (Prime Meridian).
    For example
    Manila - 120° East
    New York - 74° West
    The time zones follow lines of longitude that are every 15° away from London
  • Longitude
    London
    New York
  • TIME ZONES
    Time zones: Every 15˚, changes by 1 hour
  • Climate change due to a country’s location
    • Latitude effect on seasonal change
    • day-light hours
    • precipitation levels (rainfall and snowfall)
    • average (and max, min) temperatures
    • crop growth
    • tourism
    • ecosystems
    • cultural changes due to climate differences (e.g. S.A.D)
  • THE TIDES...
    What are they?
    The rising and falling of sea level twice each day.
  • Tides
    Tides are created by the gravitational force of the Sun and Moon.
    The Moon’s gravity pulls Earth along an imaginary line connecting Earth and the Moon.
    This creates bulges of ocean water (tides).
    The bulges remain aligned with the Moon, so that ocean levels rise and fall as the Earth rotates.
  • Why are there two each day?
    • The side of Earth facing the Moon feels a stronger gravitational attraction.
    • This creates two tidal bulges…One facing the Moon & the other on the opposite side.
    • Oceans facing Moon bulge because they are being pulled out from the Earth.
    • Oceans on opposite side bulge because Earth is pulled out from under them.
  • Sun has minimal gravitational effect on Earth but when Sun and Moon align, their gravitational pulls combine
    Spring Tides – larger tidal range; occur at new moon and full moon.
    Neap Tides – smaller tidal range; occur at 1st and 3rd quarter.