History and Basic Concepts
of Information Science
1.0 History and basic concepts of information science
1.1 Evolution of information science
What is information science
1.2 The boundaries of information science
The basic structure of information science
Foundational disciplines of information science
Related field of study in information science
1.3 Information Lifecycle
Information lifecycle management
Explanation of the information lifecycle management
1.4 Spectrum of Knowledge
Is there a hierarchy of data, information and knowledge?
Knowledge and information
Comparison and differences between information and knowledge
Data and information
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:-
1. Define information science, information lifecycle
and information spectrum.
2. Explain the information lifecycle management.
3. Differentiate between data, information and
4. Describe the knowledge spectrum.
WHAT IS INFORMATION SCIENCE?
Our perception of the concept of information science
is based on the assumption that
are information systems.
The information system is an environment of person,
machines, and procedures that develop human
biology potential to acquire, process and
act upon data, thus improves our chances for
Any system of knowledge that is concerned with
the physical world and its phenomena
and that involve unbiased observations
and systematic experiment (research).
A discipline that deals with the processes of
storing and transferring of information.
Fundamentally it covers all theories, concepts and
methods in the collection, organization, storage,
retrieval and use of information.
THE BOUNDARIES OF INFORMATION SCIENCE
Basic structure of
• Technology and Systems - the application of IT
• Impact of IT on society - problems of information
society, copyrights, personal privacy, plagiarism,
• Resources - the human resources needed to
sustain the activities of the science worldwide,
encouragement of R&D, training, etc.
THE BOUNDARIES OF INFORMATION SCIENCE
Philosophy - provides infor. Sc. with the understanding
of inquiry system (state of the world) and the foundation
of the social sciences that are relevant to infor. system.
Mathematics (statistics). - the foundation of statistics
which is the tools used by infor. Scientist.
Linguistics - the study of language, which is important
to infor. Scientist as tool to represent events.
Behavioral science - include psychology and
sociology, important part for user study.
RELATED FIELD OF STUDY IN INFORMATION SCIENCE
Informatics – the study of automation and automated
technologies in document retrieving.
Information Engineering – refers to various aspects of
infor. System design.
Knowledge Engineering – artificial intelligence & expert
Cybernetics – the science of control, include
communications & system theory.
Bionics – the understanding of the functions & characteristics
of living systems & biomechanical systems.
INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT
Information life cycle management (ILM) is a comprehensive
approach to managing the flow of an information
system's data from creation and initial storage to the
time when it becomes obsolete and is deleted. ILM involves all
aspects of dealing with data, starting with user practices. ILM
enables more complex criteria for storage management than
data age and frequency of access.
INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT
FIVE PHASE OF ILM IN BUSINESS RECORDS
Process of managing the
information once it has
been created or received.
Includes internal and
Record from the
organization itself. Create 2. Distribution
by member of the
organization or receipt of Takes place after
information from an information is distribute
external source. Examples:- internally, can generate
reports, drawings, computer business decisions,
input/output etc. document further actions or
serve other purpose.
1. Creation and Receipt 3. Use
Handling the information
that is less frequently Management of the
accessed; relocate to an information. Example filing,
inactive records facility. If retrieval and transfers.
no longer valuable will be
5. Disposition 4. Maintenance
Find one situation in your daily life or business
environment and discuss the process of information
lifecycle involved for that situation.
Definition of Information
The term information has a number of different
meanings and connotations when used in a number of
different contexts. It is generally recognized as
processed data, text, voice and/or
image and is synonymous with
knowledge or intelligence.
Many information scientists accept the standard
definition of information as:
“Data which is used in
Fritz Machlup (1983) carefully assessed the different
meanings associated with the information. Some
interpretations from these sources are as follows:
– Something one did not know before.
– A clue.
– Something that affects what one already knows.
– How data is interpreted.
– Something useful in some way to the person receiving
– Something that reduces uncertainty.
– The meaning of words in sentences.
– Something that provides more than what is stated.
– Something that changes what a person who receives
believes or expects.
The representation of information
Signals – a sign with an emphasis on some
Sign – a physical evidence of the immediate
physical of the thing or event present.
Symbols – special kind of sign. They represent
an object, idea or event and elicit the same
response as if things they refferred to were
Languange – the principal method of human
The universe of recorded information and the number of
knowledgeable human beings are have expanded at
such a rate and in so short time a phenomenon knows as
information explosion will happen.
Occurs when the amount of information we receive
exceeds our ability to process it in a meaningful way.
Factors contribute to information overload
• Lack of time
• Poor self-organization
• Personal inefficiency
• Poor communication
• Ineffective use of information technology
• An organizational culture not geared up to
Consequences of information overload
• Stress and ill health
• Less free time
• Less job satisfaction
• Poor decision-making
• Loos of productivity
• Waste of resources
• Loos of competitive advantage
• Duplication and overlap of work
A model for managing information overload
Filter Pass to
Information Throw away
Function and Use
Information is a key resource and an important factor
in national progress and development. It used to be
regarded as playing only a supportive role in the
various national development programs like education,
economic planning, agriculture, medicine and the
transfer of science and technology.
Now, however its importance is being increasingly
recognized and its acquisition has emerged as a matter
of national policy.
Characteristics of Information
– Facts are never all in, we are constantly aware of
– While the amount is expanding exponentially, it can be
concentrated, integrated, summarized, miniaturized for
– It can replace capital or physical materials, information is a
commodity and on the current scene that means power.
– At the speed of lights, as quick as pushing a button.
– It tends to leak and in that regard cannot be possessed.
– Sharing transactions.
Source of Information
•Personal •Commercial •Computer •Production of
contact orgn based services litery work or
•Writings •Educational that provides written artistic
•Governmental information works as form
organization •Novel, Books,
SPECTRUM OF KNOWLEDGE
The hierarchical transformation of data, information,
knowledge, wisdom and enlightenment
What are the elements that trigger the transformation?
Intrinsic: the influence within oneself that turns these
elements into other entities on several basis like our
experience, background, education, belief, lifestyles etc.
Extrinsic: the external influences that turn these entities
into other form. For example the information that we
have through reading materials might may turn
something that we are aware of to be something that
we really understand its concept.
IS THERE A HIERARCHY OF DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE?
To determine whether the transformation is hierarchical
we need to
• understand the concept of information, knowledge,
wisdom and enlightenment in details.
• be able to understand the differences between these
Knowledge and Information
A close and firm link between information and
knowledge has always existed .
Distinctions between information and knowledge
have been proposed chiefly on the followings:
Information is fragmented, particular, whereas
knowledge is structured (well-thought of), coherent
(logical), and often universal.
Information is timely, transitory, whereas knowledge is
26 of enduring significance.
Information is a flow of messages, whereas
knowledge is a stock, largely resulting from the flow,
in the sense that the "input" of information may
affect the stock of knowledge by adding to it,
restructuring it, or changing it in any way
Information in the sense of telling and being told is
always different from knowledge in the sense of
knowing: The former is a process, the latter a state.
Data are the things given to the analyst, investigator,
or problem-solver; they may be numbers, words,
sentences, records, assumptions - just anything
given, no matter in what form and of what origin.
Information...is essentially raw data. Knowledge is
Comparison And Differences Between Information &
Knowledge may be considered as storage of
information by way the information makes changes
to the structure of the knowledge.
Information is acquired by being told, whereas
knowledge can be acquired by thinking. Thus, new
knowledge can be acquired without new
information being received.
Neither knowledge nor information needs to be
useful or valuable to merit its designation. People
speak of "useless information" and "useless
Nor is it a requirement of normal language use that
information is correct and knowledge is true.
When a new discovery or a new theory is
announced in newspapers and news broadcasts,
this will be information to most recipients but new
knowledge to specialists.
Data and Information
There is no need to establish either a hierarchy or a
temporal sequence in discussing data and
For example, consider the following three outputs:
a printout that gives us exactly what has been
fed into the memory of the computer
a new arrangement of the data, after sorting
(chronological or alphabetical ordering, or
selecting on the basis of detailed instructions)
an output different from the stored data as a
result of an analysis made by the computer using
a highly sophisticated piece of software.
Should all three printouts still be called data or
should they be referred to as information?
For some definers, information, to be information, has to
Sometime it is proposed that information must reduce
uncertainty on the part of those getting informed.
Information may in the ordinary sense is received by
people without any effect on their uncertainty; and some
news items may even raise uncertainty in several aspects.
FORMS OF INFORMATION
Information touches all human activity. It comes in a
multitude of different shapes –
speech, pictures, video,
office work, software,
great art and kitsch,
invoices, music, stock prices, tax returns,
Characteristics of Information
Information has several characteristics that make
information very different than other commodities:
1. It is reproducible.
2. The cost of reproduction is low.
3. It can be transported easily.
4. Its lifetime can be brief.
5. Its value is not additive.
Value of Information
One suggestion is that information has economic value
to people only if it can lead then to the acquisition of
tangible goods. Therefore, value of information is a
matter of form, not of amount.
Also, value of information often depends on the
preexisting form of the receiver as on the message itself.
Similarly, information has intangible value if it can enable
them to satisfy less tangible human desires.
An encyclopedia publisher, for instance, will find a
mailing list of prospective buyers useful because it might
Watching a soap opera has value for those people who
want to experience heartrending emotions.
Watching a soap opera has value for those
people who want to experience heartrending
Because information leads to goods only
indirectly, it seems reasonable to value it as a
fraction of the worth of the tangible goods to
which it leads.
Therefore the economic value of all sprawling
computer-and-network complexes may be
estimated as a fraction of the tangible goods to
which they will lead.
Value of US computer hardware and software,
including the work needed to run computer
systems within organizations, at almost a tenth of
its GNP - roughly about $500 billion.
Yet because some 60 percent of the work forces
have jobs that involve information, the value of
computerized information handling may well grow to
an even larger fraction of the global economy.
In spite of its importance, information is secondary to
people's principal needs - food, shelter, health and