Chapter 2 (23-34)

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  • 1. 2 2 Bab Chapter Sel sebagai Unit Cell as a Unit of Life Asas Hidupan ISTILAH ! • Organisasi sel – Cell organisation WORD UP! • Cell organisation – Organisasi sel PENTING! BIG Picture! CHAPTER Konsep • Selulosa – Cellulose The • Cellulose – Selulosa • Klorofil – Chlorophyll • Chlorophyll – Klorofil • Kloroplas – Chloroplast • Chloroplast – Kloroplas • Sitoplasma – Cytoplasm • Cytoplasm – Sitoplasma • Organisma multisel – Multicellular 2 • Multicellular organism – Organisma multisel organism • Nucleus – Nukleus • Nukleus – Nucleus • Unicellular organism – Organisma unisel • Organisma unisel – Unicellular organism • Vacuole – Vakuol • Vakuol – Vacuole Soalan Tahun-tahun Lepas PMR PMR Past-year Questions Kertas 2 Paper 2 Tahun Kertas 1 Year Paper 1 Bhg. A Bhg. B Sec. A Sec. B 2005 S2 S1 2005 Q2 Q1 2006 S2, S3 S7 2006 Q2, Q3 Q7 2007 S3, S4 S1 2007 Q3, Q4 Q7 2008 S2, S3 2008 Q2, Q3 2009 S3 2009 Q3 23 23F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 23 7/22/10 10:30:37 AM
  • 2. Objektif Pembelajaran Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective Learning Objective 2.1 Memahami sel 1.1 Memahami sains adalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian 2.1 Understanding cells science is part of everyday life 1.1 Understanding that Eksperimen PEKA Aktiviti INQUIRY DISCUSSION Sains dan fenomena semula jadi tumbuhan Sel sebagai unit asas haiwan dan Cell as a and natural phenomena plants Science basic unit of animals and 2.1 INKUIRI 1.1 PERBINCANGAN Inkuiri-penemuan Kontekstual 2.1 Experiment PEKA 1.1 Activity Inquiry-discovery Contextual Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Mark (✓) in the boxes provided the natural phenomena. TUJUAN Membandingkan disediakan sel fenomena semula jadi. Tandakan (✓) dalam petak yang struktur (a)bagipipi dan (b) sel epidermis bawang KMS AIM To compare the structure of (a) cheek cells and (b) epidermal cells of an onion • Pastikan pencungkil ✓ ✓ SMS ✓ BAHAN gigi bersih ✓ Pencungkil gigi, kertas turas, larutan metilena biru, larutan iodin MATERIALS Toothpick, filter paper, blue methylene solution, iodine solution • Ensure that the toothpick is clean. RADAS Mikroskop, penutup kaca, sisip kaca, penitis, pisau cukur, forsep APPARATUS Microscope, cover slips, slides, dropper, razor blade, forceps CHAPTER BAB BAHAGIAN A Memerhati struktur sel pipi SECTION A To observe the structure of cheek cells 1 CHAPTER 2 1 kanta mata eye lens BAB Manual penggunaan mikroskop ✓ ✓ Microscope operating manual ✓ pelaras kasar ✓ 1 Letakkan mikroskop berhadapan coarse focus control 1 Place the microscope with its pelaras halus dengan sumber cahaya. fine focus control 2 Laraskan cermin sehingga mirror facing a light source. 2 Adjust the mirror to allow 2 objective lens kanta objek cahaya paling cerah dapat dilihat pentas menerusi mikroskop. stage maximum light to fall onto the slaid 3 Letakkan slaid di atas pentas mirror and reflect into the slide klip dan pastikan spesimen berada microscope tube. diafragma clip di tengah lubang. diaphragm 3 Place the slide onto the stage cermin 4 Pusingkan skru pelaras untuk and ensure that the specimen is mirror in the centre of the aperture. memfokuskan spesimen. Objektif Pembelajaran 4 Adjust the coarse focus control Learning Objective 1.2 Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains tapak to focus on the specimen. 1.2 Knowing the safety percautions and apparatus in a science laboratory base Aktiviti Radas makmal dan kegunaannya DISCUSSION Laboratory apparatus and their uses 1.2 PERBINCANGAN pencungkil gigi dan kikis bahagian dalam pipi anda dengan berhati-hati. PROSEDUR 1 Ambil sebatang Kontekstual 1.2 PROCEDURE Activity Contextual Palitkan pencungkil gigi tersebut di atas sekeping slaid yang bersih. 1 Using the blunt end of a clean toothpick, carefully scrape some cells from the inside Namakan radas2makmal dalam jadual di bawah. Name the laboratoryyour cheek.in the table below. of apparatus 3 Titiskan setitik larutan metilena biru di atas slaid. Kelalang Letakkan satu penutup kaca Balang gas sudut kepada larutan ditiga sisip kaca. 4 kon Buret pada satu Tungku kaki atas Conical Spread the scrapings onto a clean slide. 2 flask Burette Gas jar Tripod stand Dengan perlahan-lahan, turunkan penutup kaca untuk menutupi spesimen supaya Tabung didih Bikar Rod kaca Kelalang dasar bulat Boiling tube a drop of blue methylene solution to the smear. Round-bottomed flask 3 Add Beaker Glass rod Tabung ujitiada gelembung udara terperangkap. kaca Pipet Takung Corong turas 4 Place a cover slip at an angle to the solution on the slide. Slowly slide the cover slip Test tube Pipette Glass trough Filter funnel to cover the specimen without trapping any air bubbles. Silinder penyukat danKasa dawai sekeliling kaca penutup dengan menggunakan kertas turas. 5 Bersihkan keringkan Mangkuk pijar Corong tisel Measuring cylinder dry Wireany solutionCrucible slide and around thefunnel slip with a filter gauze Thistle cover 5 Clear and up on the Kelalang Perhatikan sel pipi di bawah Mangkuk penyejat menggunakan kuasa pembesaran 6 volumetri Kaki retort mikroskop dengan Penunu Bunsen MINDRobicsMINDRobics Volumetric flask paper. Retort stand Evaporating dish Bunsen burner rendah, diikuti dengan kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi. Lukis dan label sel pipi pada ruang yang disediakan. 6 Examine the cheek cells under the microscope, first on low magnification, then on 1 2 3 4 5 1 high 2magnification. Draw and label the structure of the cheek5cell in the space 3 4 BAHAGIAN provided. B Memerhati struktur sel epidermis bawang SECTION B To observe the structure of epidermal cells of an onion PROSEDUR 1 Kupas satu lapisan epidermis daripada kulit suatu bawang dengan menggunakan pisau cukur dan forsep. PROCEDURE 2 Letakkan potongan kulit bawang kira-kira sebesar 5 mm di atas slaid yang bersih. 1 Peel off an epidermal layer of the leaf from an onion with a razor blade and forceps. Tabung uji3 TitiskanTabung didih Bikar Kelalang kon Kelalang volumetri dua titik larutan iodin di atasnya dengan menggunakan penitis. Test tube 2 Place a 5Boiling tube of the epidermal onion leaf onConical flask mm piece Beaker a clean slide. Volumetric flask 4 Letakkan satu penutup kaca pada satu sudut kepada larutan di atas sisip kaca. 3 Add two drops of iodine solution to the epidermal onion leaf. 6 Dengan perlahan-lahan, 8 7 9 10 turunkan penutup kaca untuk menutupi spesimen supaya 6 4 Place a cover slip at an angle to the solution 9 the slide. Slowly 10 the cover slip 7 8 on slide tiada gelembung udara terperangkap. to cover the specimen without trapping any air bubbles. 5 Bersihkan dan keringkan larutan sekeliling kaca penutup dengan menggunakan kertas 5 Clear and dry up any solution on the slide and around the cover slip with a filter turas. paper. 6 Perhatikan sel bawang di bawah mikroskop dengan menggunakan kuasa pembesaran 6 Examine the onion cell under the microscope, first on low magnification, then on rendah, diikuti dengan kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi. Lukis dan labelkan sel high magnification. Draw and label the structure of the onion cell in the space bawang pada ruang yang disediakan. provided. Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret Kelalang dasar bulat Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Pipette Burette Round-bottomed flask Thistle funnel 2.1 HP • Mengenal pasti bahawa sel adalah unit asas hidupan 2.1 HP • Melabel struktur am sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2.1 LO • Identify that cell is the basic unit of living things 2.1 LO • State the function of each cell structure • Menyediakan slaid mengikut langkah yang betul • Menyatakan fungsi setiap struktur sel • Prepare slides following the proper procedures • State the similarities and differences between an animal • Menggunakan mikroskop dengan betul • Menyatakan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sel • Use a microscope properly cell and a plant cell 1.1 HP •• Menerangkan kepentingan sains sel haiwan dan harian Mengenal pasti struktur am dalam kehidupan sel 1.2 HP • Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam 1.1 LO •• Identify the general structures of animaleveryday life cells Explain the importance of science in cells and plant 1.2 LO • Use some common scientific apparatus in the • Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan tumbuhan 24 haiwan dan sel tumbuhan makmal •• Draw thelist of things around youanimal cell and a to Make a general structures of an that are related plant cell 24 Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Laboratory Activities laboratory Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Aktiviti Makmal • dengan sains Melukis struktur am sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2 2.1 & 2.2, hlm. 36–37; Essential Science PMR, • Label the general structures of an animal cell and a science plant cell 2 2.1 & 2.2, p. 36–37; Essential Science PMR, Preparing cell slides, p. 28 Preparing cell slides, hlm. 28 2.1 Understanding cells 2.2 DISCUSSION Activity 6 Label structures X, Y and Z for the animal cell below. INQUIRY 2.1 Experiment PEKA 1 What is the basic unit of life? (Cell) X (X: Cell membrane 2 Name two structures found in plant cells but not in animal cells. (Cell wall and chloroplast) Y Y: Nucleus Z: Cytoplasm) 3 Why plant cell has a fixed shape? (Plant cell has a cell wall) Z 4 State two animal cells that contain vacuole. (Amoeba and Paramecium) 7 Label structures P, Q, R, S, T and U for the plant cell below. 5 State two structures of cell that make up the cell protoplasm. (Nucleus and cytoplasm) P S (P: Cell wall S: Cytoplasm Q T Q: Cell membrance T: Vacuole U R: Chloroplast U: Nucleus) R 24 24 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 24 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  • 3. PEMERHATIAN OBSERVATION cell wall membran sel dinding sel cell membrane vacuole vakuol sitoplasma cell membrane membran sel cytoplasm Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life nukleus sitoplasma cytoplasm nucleus nukleus nucleus Sel pipi Sel epidermis bawang Cheek cell Epidermal cell of onion E1C1 E1C6 E1C1 E1C6 ANALYSIS 1 Which of the cells has a fixed shape, the cheek cell (animal cell) or the epidermal cell ANALISIS 1 Sel yang manakah mempunyai bentuk yang tetap, sel pipi (sel haiwan) atau sel of onion (plant cell)? E1C8 epidermis bawang (sel tumbuhan)? E1C8 The epidermal cell of onion CHAPTER BAB Sel epidermis bawang . 2 What causes the shape of a cheek cell to be different from the shape of an onion’s 2 Apakah yang menyebabkan bentuk sel pipi berbeza daripada bentuk sel epidermis epidermal cell? bawang? cell wall TSTS 2 2 KBSB The cheek cell does not have a as do the cells of • Comparing and Sel pipi tidak mempunyai dinding sel seperti yang terdapat • Membandingkan dan plants like the onion. contrasting pada sel epidermis bawang. membezakan E1 E1 C 3 Classify the observed cells into animal cell and plant cell. C 3 Kelaskan sel-sel yang diperhatikan kepada sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan. 1 1 2 Animal cell Plant cell 2 Sel haiwan Sel tumbuhan 6 6 Cheek cell Onion cell SPS 8 KPS E1C2 • Classifying 8 Sel pipi Sel bawang S E1C2 • Mengelaskan S 4 Study the cheek cell (animal cell) and the epidermal cell (plant cell) drawn above. 4 Kaji sel pipi (sel haiwan) dan sel epidermis bawang (sel tumbuhan) yang dilukis di Then, tick (✓) the structures that can be found in the cheek cell and the epidermal atas. Kemudian, tandakan (✓) pada struktur yang boleh ditemui pada sel pipi dan sel cell of onion. epidermis bawang. Cell structure Cheek cell Epidermal cell Struktur sel Sel pipi Sel epidermis bawang (animal cell) (plant cell) (sel haiwan) (sel tumbuhan) Nucleus ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ MINDRobicsMINDRobics Nukleus Cytoplasm ✓ ✓ Sitoplasma ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Cell membrane Membran sel ✓ ✓ ✓ Cell wall Dinding sel ✓ ✓ Vacuole Vakuol ✓ 5 What is cell protoplasm? 5 Apakah protoplasma sel? Protoplasm is the part of cell that consists of nucleus and Protoplasma sel adalah bahagian sel yang terdiri daripada nukleus dan cytoplasm . sitoplasma . 6 Name two low level animals that contain vacuole. Amoeba and Paramecium 6 Namakan dua haiwan peringkat rendah yang mengandungi vakuol. Ameba dan paramesium CONCLUSION 1 A cell is a basic unit of life. KESIMPULAN unit asas 2 Animal and plant cells have a few similarities and 1 Sel ialah bagi benda hidup. persamaan differences . 2 Sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan mempunyai beberapa dan perbezaan . 25 25 2.3 DISCUSSION Activity 8 Based on the given descriptions, determine the type of cell (animal cell or plant cell). 12 What is the structure of a cell that contains chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis? (Chloroplast) (a) A cell has a cell wall. (Plant cell) 13 Explain why plant cells can carry out photosynthesis. (Plant cells contain chloroplast/chlorophyll) (b) A cell has a chloroplast. (Plant cell) (a) A cell has a cell membrane but does not have a fixed shape. (Animal cell) DISCUSSION 2.4 Activity 9 State the function of a nucleus. (Controls all activities in the cell) 10 State the function of a cell membrane. (Protects the cell) 11 What is the function of a cell wall? (Maintains the shape of the cell/Protects the cell) 25 25 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 25 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  • 4. Aktiviti Struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan DISCUSSION Structures of animal and plant cells 2.2 PERBINCANGAN Masteri 2.2 Activity Mastery 2005 Bhg. A, S1(a) 2005 Sec. A, Q1(a) 1 Label the following diagrams of animal and plant cells. 1 Label rajah sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan yang berikut. Dinding sel Sitoplasma Cell wall Cytoplasm Kloroplas Vakuol Chloroplast Vacuole Nukleus Membran sel Nucleus Cell membrane (d) Dinding sel (d) Cell wall CHAPTER BAB (a) Membran sel (e) Membran sel (a) Cell membrane (e) Cell membrane2 2 (f) Kloroplas (f) Chloroplast (b) Nukleus (b) Nucleus (g) Vakuol (g) Vacuole (h) Sitoplasma (h) Cytoplasm (c) Sitoplasma (c) Cytoplasm Sel haiwan Sel tumbuhan (i) Nukleus Animal cell Plant cell (i) Nucleus 2 Bulatkan organisma yang mempunyai struktur sel seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah. 2 Circle the organisms which have the cell structure as shown below. tapak sulaiman mukor lumut starfish Mucor moss arnab paku pakis helang rabbit fern eagle 2.2 HP • Label sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2.2 LO • Label animal cell and plant cell 26 26F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 26 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  • 5. Aktiviti Perbandingan antara sel tumbuhan dengan sel haiwan DISCUSSION Comparison between plant cells and animal cells 2.3 PERBINCANGAN Masteri 2.3 Activity Mastery Bandingkan dan bezakan antara sel tumbuhan dengan sel haiwan. Compare and contrast between a plant cell and an animal cell. Persamaan Similarity Mempunyai nukleus Has a nucleus Mempunyai membran sel Has cell membrane Sel tumbuhan Mempunyai sitoplasma Sel haiwan Plant cell Has cytoplasm Animal cell CHAPTER BAB Perbezaan Difference Ada Dinding sel Tiada 2 2 Present Cell wall Absent Ada Kloroplas Tiada Present Chloroplast Absent Tetap Bentuk sel Berubah-ubah Fixed Cell shape Changes Tiada, kecuali dalam Ada Vakuol haiwan peringkat rendah Absent, except in lower Present Vacuole level animals Aktiviti DISCUSSION Functions of the internal structures of a cell Fungsi struktur dalaman sel 2.4 Activity Constructivism 2.4 PERBINCANGAN Konstruktivisme 2005 Sec. A, Q1(b) Padankan struktur sel kepada fungsinya. 2005 Bhg. A, S1(b) Match the cell structures to the given functions. Fungsi sel Function of cell Mengandungi sap sel yang berisi glukosa dan Cell wall Contains cell sap which is filled with dissolved Dinding sel garam mineral yang terlarut glucose and mineral salt Cell Membran sel Melindungi dan memberi bentuk kepada sel membrane Protects and gives shape to the cell Mengawal keluar dan masuk semua kandungan Vacuole Controls the exit from and entry of materials into Vakuol the cell/protects the cell bahan sel/melindungi sel Sitoplasma Mengawal semua aktiviti sel Cytoplasm Controls all activities in the cell Kloroplas Tempat berlakunya proses-proses kimia Chloroplast The place where chemical processes occur Mengandungi pigmen klorofil yang menyerap Nucleus Contains chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight to Nukleus make food cahaya matahari untuk membuat makanan Sel tumbuhan Plant cell 2.3 HP • Menyatakan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sel haiwan 2.4 HP • Menyatakan fungsi setiap struktur sel 2.3 LO • State the similarities and differences between animal 2.4 LO • State the function of each cell structure dan sel tumbuhan and plant cells 27 27F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 27 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  • 6. Objektif Pembelajaran Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective 1.1 Memahami sains adalahunisel dan organisma multisel 2.2 Memahami organisma sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian 2.2 Understanding unicellular and part of everyday life 1.1 that science is multicellular organisms Eksperimen Aktiviti Sains dan fenomena semula jadi multisel Organisma unisel dan organisma INQUIRY DISCUSSION Unicellular and multicellular organisms Science and natural phenomena 2.5 1.1 PERBINCANGAN INKUIRI Inkuiri-penemuan Kontekstual 2.5 1.1 Experiment Activity Inquiry-discovery Contextual Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Mark (✓) in the boxes provided the natural phenomena. Tandakan (✓) dalam petak yang disediakan bagi fenomena semula jadi. TUJUAN Memerhati organisma unisel dan organisma multisel AIM To observe unicellular and multicellular organisms ✓ ✓ ✓ BAHAN ✓ MATERIALS Pond water Air kolam RADAS APPARATUS CHAPTER BAB Sisip kaca, penutup kaca, mikroskop, penitis Slide, glass cover, microscope, dropper PROSEDUR PROCEDURE 1 Put a drop of pond water on a clean slide. 1 Titiskan setitik air kolam ke atas sisip kaca yang bersih. 2 Perhatikan air kolam itu di bawah kuasa rendah mikroskop. 2 Observe the pond water under a low power microscope. 1 1 3 Namakan beberapa organisma yang diperhatikan. 3 Name some of the organisms seen. CHAPTER PEMERHATIAN BAB Spirogira Klamidomonas Paramesium Ameba OBSERVATION ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Spirogyra Chlamydomonas Paramecium Amoeba 2 2 Paramesium Ameba Spirogira Klamidomonas Paramecium Amoeba Spirogyra Chlamydomonas Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective 1.2 Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains ANALISIS ANALYSIS 1.2 1 You are given theKnowing the safetythe above organisms. Study the photos and name the photos of percautions and apparatus in a science laboratory 1Aktivitidiberi foto organisma di atas. Kaji gambar-gambar itu dan namakan organisma Anda itu. Kemudian,Radas makmal dan petak yang diberi bagi organisma unisel. Kontekstual tandakan (✓) dalam kegunaannya DISCUSSIONThen, mark (✓) in the boxesand their uses organisms. Laboratory apparatus provided the unicellular organisms. 1.2 PERBINCANGAN 1.2 Activity Contextual ✓ ✓ ✓ Namakan radas makmal dalam jadual di ✓ ✓ bawah. ✓ Name the laboratory apparatus in the table below. Kelalang kon Buret Balang gas Tungku kaki tiga Conical flask Burette Gas jar Tripod stand Tabung didih Bikar Rod kaca Kelalang dasar bulat Boiling tube Beaker Glass rod Round-bottomed flask Tabung uji Pipet Takung kaca Corong turas Test tube Pipette Glass trough Filter funnel Silinder penyukat Kasa dawai Mangkuk pijar Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Wire gauze Crucible Thistle funnel Kelalang volumetri Kaki retortParamesium penyejat Mangkuk Penunu Bunsen MINDRobicsMINDRobics Ameba Spirogira Klamidomonas Volumetric flask Amoeba Retort stand Evaporating dishSpirogyra Paramecium Bunsen burnerChlamydomonas 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 Name the minute organisms which cannot be 4 2 3 5 seen with the naked eye. 2 Apakah nama yang diberi kepada organisma seni yang tidak dapat dilihat dengan Microorganisms mata kasar? Mikroorganisma 3 State the meaning of the following organisms. 3 Nyatakan maksud organisma yang berikut. (a) Unicellular organisms Organisms which consist of only one cell Tabung uji Tabung didih Bikar Kelalang kon Kelalang volumetri satu Test tube Boiling tube Beaker Conical flask Volumetric flask more (a) Organisma unisel Organisma yang terdiri daripada (b) Multicellular Organisms which consist of sel sahaja organisms many 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 than one cell or9 cells 10 (b) Organisma multisel Organisma yang terdiri daripada lebih banyak daripada satu sel atau sel CONCLUSION Pond water contains many unicellular and multicellular organisms. KESIMPULAN Air kolam mengandungi pelbagai organisma unisel dan multisel . Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret Kelalang dasar bulat Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Pipette Burette Round-bottomed flask Thistle funnel 1.1 HP •• Menerangkanmaksud organisma unisel dan 2.5 HP Menyatakan kepentingan sains dalam kehidupan harian 1.2 HP • Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Aktiviti 1.1 LO • Explain the importance of science in everyday life 2.5 LO • State the meaning of unicellular and multicellular 1.2 LO Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Laboratory Activity • Use some common scientific apparatus in the • Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan organisma multisel makmal Makmal 2.3, hlm. 41; Essential Science PMR, • organisms of things around you that are related to Make a list laboratory 2.3, p. 41; Essential Science PMR, Unicellular and dengan sains 2 28 Unicellular and multicellular Organisms, hlm. 30 science 2 28 Multicellular Organisms, p. 30 2.2 Understanding unicellular and multicellular organisms 4 Name the following organisms. INQUIRY (a) (b) (c) (d) 2.5 Experiment 1 Name the tiny organisms that only can be seen through a microscope. (Microorganisms) DISCUSSION 2.6 Activity 2 Name the living things that have only one cell. (Unicellular organisms) (Amoeba) (Spirogyra) (Paramecium) (Chlamydomonas) 3 Name the living things that made up of many cells. (Multicellular organisms) (e) (f) (g) (Euglena) (Mucor) (Yeast) 28 28 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 28 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  • 7. Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective Aktiviti 1.1 Memahami sains adalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian Pengelasan organisma unisel dan multisel DISCUSSION 1.1 Understanding of unicellular and multicellular organisms Classificationthat science is part of everyday life 2.6 PERBINCANGAN Sains dan fenomena semula jadi Aktiviti Masteri 2.6 Activity DISCUSSION Science and natural phenomena Mastery 1.1 PERBINCANGAN Kontekstual 2007 Bhg. B, S7 1.1 Activity Contextual 2007 Sec. B, Q7 Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life The diagram below shows a few types of organisms. Observe the organisms. Mark (✓) in the boxes provided the natural phenomena. Rajah di bawah menunjukkan beberapa jenis organisma. Perhatikan organisma tersebut. Tandakan (✓) dalam petak yang disediakan bagi fenomena semula jadi. ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ CHAPTER BAB Amoeba Mucor Paramecium 1 1 Ameba Mukor Paramesium CHAPTER BAB ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 2 2 Chlamydomonas Hydra Spirogyra Klamidomonas Hidra Spirogira Objektif Pembelajaran (a) State one characteristic of the Learning Objective organisms. 1.2 Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains (a) Nyatakan satu ciri bagi organisma-organisma tersebut. 1.2 Knowing the Consists of one cell safety percautions and apparatus in a science laboratory Aktiviti Terdiri daripada satu seldan kegunaannya Radas makmal Amoeba: DISCUSSION of many cells 1.2 PERBINCANGAN Consists Laboratory apparatus and their uses Ameba: Terdiri daripada banyak sel Kontekstual 1.2 Mucor: Activity Contextual Mukor: Namakan radas makmal dalam jadual di bawah. Consists of one cell Name the laboratory apparatus in the table below. Paramecium: Terdiri daripada satu sel Paramesium: kon Kelalang Buret Balang gas Tungku kaki tiga Conical flask ConsistsBurette cell of one Gas jar Tripod stand Chlamydomonas: Tabung didih TerdiriBikar Klamodomonas: daripada satu sel Rod kaca Kelalang dasar bulat Boiling tube ConsistsBeaker cells Glass rod of many Round-bottomed flask Tabung uji Hydra: tube Terdiri daripada banyakTakung kaca Pipet sel Corong turas Test Pipette Glass trough Filter funnel Hidra: Silinder penyukat Kasa dawai Mangkuk pijar Corong tisel ConsistsWire gauze Measuring cylinder of many cells Crucible Thistle funnel Spirogyra: Kelalang volumetri TerdiriKaki retort daripada banyakMangkuk penyejat sel Penunu Bunsen MINDRobicsMINDRobics Spirogira: Volumetric flask Retort stand Evaporating dish Bunsen burner (b) Classify the organisms above into two groups based on common characteristics. (b) Kelaskan organisma-organisma di atas kepada dua kumpulan berdasarkan ciri sepunya. 1 2 3 4 5 1 Name the organisms belonging to each group. 2 3 4 5 Namakan organisma bagi setiap kumpulan itu. Amoeba, Mucor, Paramecium, Chlamydomonas, Hydra, Spirogyra Ameba, Mukor, Paramesium, Klamidomonas, Hidra, Spirogira Tabung uji Tabung didih Kumpulan 1 Bikar Kelalang Kumpulan 2 kon Kelalang volumetri Test tube Group Boiling tube 1 Beaker Group Conical flask 2 Volumetric flask Common Ciri sepunya characteristics 6 Terdiri daripada satu sel 7 8 9 Terdiri daripada10 banyak 6 7 Consists of one cell 8 9 Consists of many cells 10 sel Ameba Mukor Amoeba Mucor Nama Paramesium Hidra Name of Paramecium Hydra organisma Klamidomonas Spirogira organisms Chlamydomonas Spirogyra Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret Kelalang dasar bulat Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Pipette Burette Round-bottomed flask Thistle funnel 1.1 HP 2.6 HP • • Memberi contoh organisma unisel dan organisma Menerangkan kepentingan sains dalam kehidupan harian 1.2 HP • Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam 1.1 LO Give examples of unicellular in everyday life 2.6 LO • • Explain the importance of scienceand multicellular 1.2 LO • Use some common scientific apparatus in the • multisel Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan makmal • Make a list of things around you that are related to organisms laboratory dengan sains 2 29 science 2 29 5 State whether the following microorganisms are a plant cell or an animal cell. (c) Spirogyra (Multicellular organism) (a) Mucor (Plant cell) (d) Mucor (Multicellular organism) (b) Amoeba (Animal cell) (e) Chlamydomonas (Unicellular organism) (c) Paramecium (Animal cell) (f) Euglena (Unicellular organism) (d) Spirogyra (Plant cell) 7 Explain why Spirogyra is classified as a multicellular plant. (Spirogyra consists of many cells (e) Chlamydomonas (Plant cell) and contains chloroplast) 6 State whether the following organisms are a unicellular organism or a multicellular organism. (a) Amoeba (Unicellular organism) (b) Paramecium (Unicellular organism) 29 29 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 29 7/22/10 10:30:39 AM
  • 8. Objektif Pembelajaran Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective 2.3 Memahami sel membentuk tisu, organ dan sistem dalam badan 1.1 Memahami sains adalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian manusia 1.1 2.3 Understanding that cells form tissues,everyday life systems in the human body science is part of organs and Aktiviti Aktiviti Organisasi sel DISCUSSION Science and natural phenomena Cell organisation Sains dan fenomena semula jadi 2.7 PERBINCANGAN 1.1 PERBINCANGAN Konstruktivisme Kontekstual 1.1 2.7 Activity Contextual Constructivism Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Mark (✓) thethe boxes provided the natural phenomena. Tandakan (✓) struktur yangyang disediakan bagi fenomena semula jadi. 1 Namakan dalam petak diberi. 1 Name in given structures. Sel saraf Tisu epitelium Sel pembiakan Tisu otot ✓ Nerve cell Epithelial tissue Reproductive cell✓ Muscle tissue ✓ ✓ (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) CHAPTER BAB Tisu epitelium Sel saraf Sel pembiakan Tisu otot 1 1 Epithelial tissue Nerve cell Reproductive cell Muscle tissue CHAPTER BAB 2 Tulis dengan betul turutan organisasi sel dalam organisma berdasarkan pernyataan yang diberi. ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ 2 Write out in sequence the organisation of cells in an organism based on the given statements. (a) Sel ➯ (b) Tisu (c) Organ ➯ (d) Sistem ➯ (e) Organisma ➯ (a) Cell ➯ (b) Tissue ➯ (c) Organ ➯ (d) System ➯ (e) Organism 2 2 Unit asas bagi Sekumpulan sel Terdiri daripada Dua atau lebih Terdiri daripada Consisting of Basic unit for A group of cells Consisting of Consisting of semua hidupan. yang sama jenis dua atau lebih organ yang semua sistem all systems all living things. of the same two or more two or more yang jenis tisu yang bekerjasama yang working type carrying types of tissue organs working menjalankan Pembelajaran Objektif bekerjasama. untuk bekerjasama. together. out the same working Learning Objective together to carry menjalankan fungsi yang Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains 1.2 function. 1.2 Knowing the safety percautions and apparatus outscience laboratory together. in a specific Aktiviti sama. Radas makmal dan kegunaannya fungsi tertentu. DISCUSSION Laboratory apparatus and theirfunctions. uses 1.2 PERBINCANGAN Kontekstual 1.2 Activity Contextual Namakan radas makmal dalam jadual di bawah. RESERACH Classification of Name the laboratory apparatus in the table below. organs in a system Aktiviti PUSTAKA Pengelasan organ-organ dalam sistem 2.8 Conical flask LIBRARY Activity Mastery 2.8 Tabung didih PENYELIDIKAN Buret Kelalang kon Bikar Balang gas Rod kaca Tungku kaki tiga Kelalang dasar bulat Masteri Boiling tube Burette Beaker Gas jar Glass rod Tripod stand Round-bottomed flask Tabung uji Pipet Takung kaca Corong turas 2007 Bhg. A, S1(a) Test tube Pipette Glass trough Filter funnel 2007 Sec. A, Q1(a) Silinder penyukat Kasa dawai Mangkuk pijar Corong tisel Classify Measuring cylinder into systems listed below. the following organs Wire gauze Crucible Thistle funnel Kelaskan organ-organ yang berikut kepada sistem-sistem yang disenaraikan di bawah. Kelalang volumetri Kaki retort Mangkuk penyejat Penunu Bunsen MINDRobicsMINDRobics Volumetric flask Retort stand Evaporating dish Bunsen burner Heart Kidneys Joint Spinal cord Nerve fibre 1 Jantung 2 Ginjal 3 Sendi 4 Saraf tunjang 5 Gentian saraf 1 Bone 2 Brain 3 Cartilage 4 Testis 5 Stomach Tulang Otak Rawan Testis Perut Blood vessels Skin Urinary bladder Mouth Ovary Salur darah Kulit Pundi kencing Mulut Ovari Uterus Nose Lungs Trachea Intestine Uterus Hidung Peparu Trakea Usus System Sistem Tabung uji Tabung didih Bikar Kelalang kon Kelalang volumetri Test tube Boiling tube Beaker Conical flask Volumetric flask 6 7 8 9 10 6 7 8 9 10 Blood Peredaran Respiratory Digestive Reproductive Nervous Excretory Skeletal Pernafasan Pencernaan Pembiakan Saraf Perkumuhan Rangka circulatory darah Nose Mouth Uterus Brain Skin Bone Blood vessels Hidung Mulut Uterus Otak Kulit Tulang Salur Trachea Stomach Testis Spinal Lungs Joint Heart Trakea Perut Testis Saraf Peparu Sendi darah Lungs Intestine Ovary cord Urinary Cartilage Peparu Usus Ovari tunjang Pundi Rawan Jantung Gentian kencing Nerve fibre bladder Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret saraf Ginjal dasar bulat Kelalang Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Pipette Burette Kidneys Round-bottomed flask Thistle funnel 1.1 HP •• Menerangkan kepentingan sainsyang berbeza 2.7 HP Namakan jenis sel-sel manusia dalam kehidupan harian 1.2 HP 2.8 HP • • Menyatakan fungsi jenis sel-sel manusia yang Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam 2.7 LO • Name the different types of human in everyday life 1.1 LO • Explain the importance of science cells 2.8 LO • • Usethe function of different types of human cells 1.2 LO State some common scientific apparatus in the •• Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan Susun mengikut urutan organisasi sel dari ringkas ke makmal berbeza • Arrange list of things around you that are related toto • Make a sequentially cell organisation from simple laboratory dengan sains kompleks dengan menggunakan istilah sel, tisu, organ, sistem dan organisma 2 30 complex using the terms cell, tissue, organ, system science and organism 2 30 2.3 Understanding that cells form tissues, organs and systems in the 2.8 RESEARCH Activity LIBRARY 5 Based on the given organs, state the type of system that is formed in a human body. human body (a) Brain, spinal cord (Nervous system) DISCUSSION (b) Skin, lung, kidney (Excretory system) 2.7 Activity 1 State the sequence in the cell organisation in humans. (Cell, tissue, organ, system, human) (c) Blood vessel, heart (Blood circulatory system) 2 A group of similar cells that performs the same work is called …….……. (tissue) (d) Testis, ovary (Reproductive system) (e) Mouth, stomach, liver (Digestive system) 3 A group of tissue that works together is called ……………. (organ) (f) Nose, lungs, trachea (Respiratory system) 4 A few organs work together to carry out certain function in a life process to form a …………… (system) (g) Bones, joints (Skeletal system) 30 30 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 30 7/22/10 10:30:39 AM
  • 9. PMR Kunci Kejayaan Soalan-soalan berikut melibatkan konsep atau fakta yang kerap ditanya dalam peperiksaan PMR. Pastikan anda boleh menjawap semua soalan berikut. PMR Key To Success Questions in this section contain concepts and facts that are frequently tested in the PMR exam. Make sure you can answer all the questions correctly. 1 Label struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan di bawah dan nyatakan fungsinya. 1 Label the structures of animal and plant cells below and state their function. Fungsi: Kloroplas Function: Membran sel Mengandungi klorofil Chloroplast Fungsi: Function: Cell membrane Contains chlorophyll Mengawal semua Nukleus yang menyerap cahaya Controls all the Vakuol Nucleus Vacuole which absorbs light aktiviti sel Nukleus semasa fotosintesis Nucleus cell activities during photosynthesis Membran Cell sel Sitoplasma membrane Cytoplasm Sel haiwan Dinding sel Fungsi: Animal cell Cell wall Fungsi: Function: Function: Melindungi sel Mengekalkan bentuk sel/ Maintains the shape of Sel tumbuhan Protects the cell Plant cell Melindungi sel the cell/Protect the cell dinding sel kloroplas vakuol cell wall chloroplast vacuole 2 Sel-sel haiwan tidak mengandungi , dan . 2 Animal cells do not contain , and . 3 Organisma unisel hanya mempunyai satu sel. Unicellular 3 organisms have only one cell. 4 Organisma multisel mempunyai banyak sel. Multicellular 4 organisms have many cells. 5 Lengkapkan organisasi sel di bawah. 5 Complete the cell organisation below. Sel Tisu Organ Sistem Badan manusia Cell Tissue Organ System Human body 6 Namakan organisma di bawah. Tuliskan simbol ‘u’ atau ‘m’ masing-masing untuk mewakili organisma unisel dan multisel. 6 Name the organisms below. Write the symbols ‘u’ or ‘m’ to represent the unicellular and multicellular organisms respectively. u m u m u m u m Ameba Mukor Paramesium Spirogira Amoeba Mucor Paramecium Spirogyra (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) 7 Nyatakan jenis sel berdasarkan struktur dan fungsinya. 7 State the type of cell based on its structure and its function. Sel pembiakan Sel darah merah Sel darah putih Sel saraf Reproductive cell Red blood cell White blood cell Nerve cell (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) Sel darah merah Sel pembiakan Sel saraf Sel darah putih Red blood cell Reproductive cell Nerve cell White blood cell • Mengangkut • Memainkan peranan • Menghantar maklumat • Membunuh bakteria oksigen dalam badan dalam pembiakan (impuls) dalam badan • Transports oxygen • Takes part in • Sends information • Kills bacteria in the body reproduction (impulse) in the body 8 Nyatakan struktur yang berikut sebagai ‘sel’, ‘tisu’, ‘organ’ atau ‘sistem’. 8 State the following structures as ‘cell’, ‘tissue’, ‘organ’ or ‘system’. Sel Organ Sistem (a) Sperma: (b) Kulit: (c) Perkumuhan: Cell Organ System (a) Sperm: (b) Skin: (c) Excretory: Sistem Tisu Organ (d) Pencernaan: (e) Gegendang telinga: (f) Peparu: System Tissue Organ (d) Digestive: (e) Eardrum: (f) Lung: Organ Sel Organ (g) Mata: (h) Ovum: (i) Otak: Organ Cell Organ (g) Eye: (h) Ovum: (i) Brain: 31 31F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 31 7/22/10 10:30:39 AM
  • 10. PMR Sudut Pengukuhan 2 PMR Enhancement Corner 2 KERTAS 1 PAPER 1 Tiap-tiap soalan yang berikut diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan, A, B, C dan D. Pilih jawapan yang terbaik. Each question is followed by four options, A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer. 1 Maklumat yang berikut menunjukkan 4 Rajah 2 menunjukkan pengelasan 7 Rajah 5 menunjukkan sejenis tisu 1 The following information shows 4 Diagram 2 shows the classification 7 Diagram 5 shows a type of tissue in ciri-ciri satu sel. organisma. dalam badan manusia. the characteristics of a cell. of organisms. human body. Mukor Mucor • Bentuk tetap P • Has a fixed shape P • Vakuol besar Spirogira • Has big vacuole Spirogyra • Berdinding sel Organisma Rajah 5 • Has cell wall Organisms Diagram 5 Yis Tisu ini ialah Yeast The tissue is a Antara yang berikut, yang manakah Which of the following is the other Q A nerve tissue Q A tisu saraf CLONE me-rupakan ciri lain bagi satu sel KLON characteristic of a cell which has Amoeba B epithelial tissue Ameba B tisu epitelium 2006 2006 the properties listed above? yang mempunyai sifat-sifat di atas? C tisu otot C muscle tissue Rajah 2 A No cell membrane Diagram 2 C A Tidak mempunyai membran sel D tisu penghubung C D connective tissue B Membuat makanan sendiri Antara yang berikut, yang manakah B Makes own food Which of the following represents P C Tidak bergerak balas terhadap mewakili P dan Q? C Does not respond to light 8 Diagram 6 shows four types of 8 Rajah 6 menunjukkan empat jenis and Q? cahaya D Has more than one nucleus microorganisms. P Q mikroorganisma. B D Mempunyai lebih daripada satu P Q nukleus A Multisel Unisel A Multicellular Unicellular B 2 Which of the following involves B Unisel Multisel Mukor Ameba Spirogira Paramesium B Unicellular Multicellular Mucor Amoeba Spirogyra Paramecium in the fertilisation to produce 2 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah C Tidak ber- Berdinding Rajah 6 offspring? C Have no Have cell Diagram 6 terlibat dalam persenyawaan untuk dinding sel sel A C cell wall wall Antara yang berikut, yang manakah Which of the following are multi- menghasilkan anak? D Bervakuol Tidak mikroorganisma multisel? D Have vacuole Have no cellular organisms? A C bervakuol A Mukor dan spirogira vacuole A Mucor and Spirogyra KLON B Paramesium dan ameba B Paramecium and Amoeba A B D CLONE A 2008 C Mukor dan paramesium 2008 C Mucor and Paramecium D Ameba dan spirogira A D Amoeba and Spirogyra A 5 Diagram 3 shows the structure of a B D 5 Rajah 3 menunjukkan struktur sel KLON KLON CLONE CLONE 2006 2007 plant cell. 2006 2007 tumbuhan. CLONE C A C A 9 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah 2009 C 9 Which of the following builds up an membina organ? D B KLON D B organ? 2009 C A C 3 Diagram 1 shows a cell organisation. Diagram 3 A C Rajah 3 Which of the labelled structures A, 3 Rajah 1 menunjukkan suatu Antara struktur berlabel A, B, C dan Cell X Y B, C or D is not found in an animal organisasi sel. D, yang manakah tidak terdapat cell? CLONE B D Sel X Y pada sel haiwan? 2000 D B D KLON D Organism System 2000 Organisma Sistem 6 Diagram 4 shows the structure of Diagram 1 a cell. 6 Rajah 4 menunjukkan struktur sel. KLON D Rajah 1 2008 Which of the following belong in CLONE C C D groups X and Y? 2008 Antara yang berikut, yang manakah A A 10 Antara struktur yang berikut, yang X Y tergolong dalam kumpulan X dan Y ? D manakah terdapat pada Spirogira A Platelet White blood cell D 10 Among the following structures, X Y tetapi tidak terdapat pada sel kulit B Kidneys Ovum B which are found in Spirogyra but A Platlet Sel darah putih B manusia? C Stomach Sperm not in human skin cells? B Ginjal Ovum I Dinding sel III Vakuol D Epithelial Lungs Diagram 4 I Cell wall III Vacuole C Perut Sperma Rajah 4 II Kloroplas tissue Which of the structures A, II Chloroplast D Tisu Peparu Antara struktur A, B, C dan D, yang CLONE CLONE A I dan II sahaja 2000 2002 D B, C or D absorbs light for A I and II only epitelium manakah berfungsi menyerap cahaya D B I dan III sahaja photosynthesis? B I and III only KLON KLON untuk fotosintesis? 2000 2002 C II dan III sahaja C II and III only KLON KLON CLONE CLONE B 2004 2005 B D I, II, dan III D 2004 D I, II and III D 2005 32 32F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 32 7/22/10 10:30:39 AM
  • 11. KERTAS 2 PAPER 2 Bahagian A Section A Jawab semua soalan. Answer all the questions. 1 Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur satu sel. 1 Diagram 1 shows the structure of a cell. CLONE KLON Chloroplast X :__________________ 2005 Sec. A, Q1 X: __________________ Kloroplas 2005 Bhg. A, S1 Cell wall Z :__________________ Z: __________________ Dinding sel Nucleus Y :__________________ Y: __________________ Nukleus Rajah 1 Diagram 1 (a) On Diagram 1, label structures X, Y and Z using the following words: (a) Pada Rajah 1, label struktur X, Y, dan Z dengan menggunakan perkataan yang berikut: Cell wall Chloroplast Nucleus Dinding sel Kloroplas Nukleus (b) Padankan struktur X, Y, dan Z dengan fungsinya. (b) Match structures X, Y and Z with their functions. Struktur Fungsi Structure Function X • • Mengawal semua aktiviti sel X • • Controls cell activities Y • • Mengandungi klorofil yang menyerap cahaya semasa fotosintesis Y • • Contains chlorophyll which absorbs light during photosynthesis Z • • Melindungi sel Z • • Protects the cell • Tempat berlakunya proses kimia • Place where chemical processes occur 2 (a) Rajah 2 menunjukkan beberapa contoh organisasi sel dalam badan manusia. KLON 2007 Bhg. A, S1 2 (a) Diagram 2 shows some examples of the cell organisation in the human body. CLONE (i) Antara yang berikut, yang manakah sel? Tandakan (✓) dalam petak yang disediakan. 2007 Sec. A, Q1 (i) Which of the following is a cell? Tick (✓) in the box provided. ✓ ✓ Rajah 2 Diagram 2 (ii) Bulatkan perkataan dalam petak di bawah untuk menunjukkan dua contoh lain bagi sel. (ii) Circle the words in the box below to show two other examples of cells. Telinga Ovum Peparu Sperma Ear Ovum Lungs Sperm (b) Lukis garisan untuk memadankan setiap jenis sistem dengan fungsinya. (b) Draw lines to match each type of system with its function. hidung mouth nose mulut esofagus trakea oesophagus trachea cartilage rawan perut peparu stomach lungs pancreas pankreas usus intestines bones tulang Memecahkan makanan Menyerap oksigen dan Breaks up food into a Absorbs oxygen and Menyokong dan melindungi Supports and protects the kepada bentuk ringkas menyingkirkan karbon simpler form to be absorbed eliminates carbon dioxide organ dalaman badan internal organs of the body untuk diserap oleh badan dioksida dari badan by the body from the body 33 33F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 33 7/22/10 10:30:39 AM
  • 12. Bahagian B Section B Jawab soalan di bawah. Answer all the questions. KLON CLONE 2004 Bhg. A, S1 2004 Sec. A, Q1 3 Rajah 3 menunjukkan organisma P, Q, R, dan S. 3 Diagram 3 shows organisms P, Q, R and S. P Q R S P Q R S Rajah 3 Diagram 3 Berdasarkan pemerhatian pada Rajah 3, jawab soalan-soalan yang berikut. (a) Nyatakan satu ciri bagi setiap organisma P, Q, R, dan S. Based on the observations in Diagram 3, answer the following questions. P: Mempunyai membran sel/Mempunyai sitoplasma (a) State one characteristic for each of the organisms P, Q, R and S. Q: Mempunyai membran sel/Mempunyai sitoplasma P: Has a cell membrane/Has cytoplasm R: Mempunyai dinding sel/Mempunyai kloroplas Q: Has a cell membrane/Has cytoplasm S: Mempunyai dinding sel/Mempunyai kloroplas R: Has a cell wall/Has chloroplast (b) Kelaskan organisma P, Q, R, dan S kepada dua kumpulan berdasarkan ciri sepunya. Namakan organisma-organisma S: Has a cell wall/Has chloroplast dalam setiap kumpulan. (b) Classify organisms P, Q, R and S into two groups based on their common characteristics. Name the organisms in each group.s P, Q, R and S P, Q, R dan S Tidak mempunyai Common Have a cell wall/ Do not have a cell wall/ Ciri Mempunyai dinding sel/ dinding sel/Tidak characteristics Have chloroplast Do not have chloroplast sepunya Mempunyai kloroplas mempunyai kloroplas Name Chlamydomonas Paramecium Nama Klamidomonas Paramesium of organisms Spirogyra Amoeba organisma Spirogira Ameba 34 34F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 34 7/22/10 10:30:40 AM