Chapter 2 (23-34)

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science form 1 chapter 2

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Chapter 2 (23-34)

  1. 1. 2 2 Bab Chapter Sel sebagai Unit Cell as a Unit of Life Asas Hidupan ISTILAH ! • Organisasi sel – Cell organisation WORD UP! • Cell organisation – Organisasi sel PENTING! BIG Picture! CHAPTER Konsep • Selulosa – Cellulose The • Cellulose – Selulosa • Klorofil – Chlorophyll • Chlorophyll – Klorofil • Kloroplas – Chloroplast • Chloroplast – Kloroplas • Sitoplasma – Cytoplasm • Cytoplasm – Sitoplasma • Organisma multisel – Multicellular 2 • Multicellular organism – Organisma multisel organism • Nucleus – Nukleus • Nukleus – Nucleus • Unicellular organism – Organisma unisel • Organisma unisel – Unicellular organism • Vacuole – Vakuol • Vakuol – Vacuole Soalan Tahun-tahun Lepas PMR PMR Past-year Questions Kertas 2 Paper 2 Tahun Kertas 1 Year Paper 1 Bhg. A Bhg. B Sec. A Sec. B 2005 S2 S1 2005 Q2 Q1 2006 S2, S3 S7 2006 Q2, Q3 Q7 2007 S3, S4 S1 2007 Q3, Q4 Q7 2008 S2, S3 2008 Q2, Q3 2009 S3 2009 Q3 23 23F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 23 7/22/10 10:30:37 AM
  2. 2. Objektif Pembelajaran Objektif Pembelajaran Learning Objective Learning Objective 2.1 Memahami sel 1.1 Memahami sains adalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan harian 2.1 Understanding cells science is part of everyday life 1.1 Understanding that Eksperimen PEKA Aktiviti INQUIRY DISCUSSION Sains dan fenomena semula jadi tumbuhan Sel sebagai unit asas haiwan dan Cell as a and natural phenomena plants Science basic unit of animals and 2.1 INKUIRI 1.1 PERBINCANGAN Inkuiri-penemuan Kontekstual 2.1 Experiment PEKA 1.1 Activity Inquiry-discovery Contextual Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Mark (✓) in the boxes provided the natural phenomena. TUJUAN Membandingkan disediakan sel fenomena semula jadi. Tandakan (✓) dalam petak yang struktur (a)bagipipi dan (b) sel epidermis bawang KMS AIM To compare the structure of (a) cheek cells and (b) epidermal cells of an onion • Pastikan pencungkil ✓ ✓ SMS ✓ BAHAN gigi bersih ✓ Pencungkil gigi, kertas turas, larutan metilena biru, larutan iodin MATERIALS Toothpick, filter paper, blue methylene solution, iodine solution • Ensure that the toothpick is clean. RADAS Mikroskop, penutup kaca, sisip kaca, penitis, pisau cukur, forsep APPARATUS Microscope, cover slips, slides, dropper, razor blade, forceps CHAPTER BAB BAHAGIAN A Memerhati struktur sel pipi SECTION A To observe the structure of cheek cells 1 CHAPTER 2 1 kanta mata eye lens BAB Manual penggunaan mikroskop ✓ ✓ Microscope operating manual ✓ pelaras kasar ✓ 1 Letakkan mikroskop berhadapan coarse focus control 1 Place the microscope with its pelaras halus dengan sumber cahaya. fine focus control 2 Laraskan cermin sehingga mirror facing a light source. 2 Adjust the mirror to allow 2 objective lens kanta objek cahaya paling cerah dapat dilihat pentas menerusi mikroskop. stage maximum light to fall onto the slaid 3 Letakkan slaid di atas pentas mirror and reflect into the slide klip dan pastikan spesimen berada microscope tube. diafragma clip di tengah lubang. diaphragm 3 Place the slide onto the stage cermin 4 Pusingkan skru pelaras untuk and ensure that the specimen is mirror in the centre of the aperture. memfokuskan spesimen. Objektif Pembelajaran 4 Adjust the coarse focus control Learning Objective 1.2 Mengetahui langkah-langkah keselamatan dan radas dalam makmal sains tapak to focus on the specimen. 1.2 Knowing the safety percautions and apparatus in a science laboratory base Aktiviti Radas makmal dan kegunaannya DISCUSSION Laboratory apparatus and their uses 1.2 PERBINCANGAN pencungkil gigi dan kikis bahagian dalam pipi anda dengan berhati-hati. PROSEDUR 1 Ambil sebatang Kontekstual 1.2 PROCEDURE Activity Contextual Palitkan pencungkil gigi tersebut di atas sekeping slaid yang bersih. 1 Using the blunt end of a clean toothpick, carefully scrape some cells from the inside Namakan radas2makmal dalam jadual di bawah. Name the laboratoryyour cheek.in the table below. of apparatus 3 Titiskan setitik larutan metilena biru di atas slaid. Kelalang Letakkan satu penutup kaca Balang gas sudut kepada larutan ditiga sisip kaca. 4 kon Buret pada satu Tungku kaki atas Conical Spread the scrapings onto a clean slide. 2 flask Burette Gas jar Tripod stand Dengan perlahan-lahan, turunkan penutup kaca untuk menutupi spesimen supaya Tabung didih Bikar Rod kaca Kelalang dasar bulat Boiling tube a drop of blue methylene solution to the smear. Round-bottomed flask 3 Add Beaker Glass rod Tabung ujitiada gelembung udara terperangkap. kaca Pipet Takung Corong turas 4 Place a cover slip at an angle to the solution on the slide. Slowly slide the cover slip Test tube Pipette Glass trough Filter funnel to cover the specimen without trapping any air bubbles. Silinder penyukat danKasa dawai sekeliling kaca penutup dengan menggunakan kertas turas. 5 Bersihkan keringkan Mangkuk pijar Corong tisel Measuring cylinder dry Wireany solutionCrucible slide and around thefunnel slip with a filter gauze Thistle cover 5 Clear and up on the Kelalang Perhatikan sel pipi di bawah Mangkuk penyejat menggunakan kuasa pembesaran 6 volumetri Kaki retort mikroskop dengan Penunu Bunsen MINDRobicsMINDRobics Volumetric flask paper. Retort stand Evaporating dish Bunsen burner rendah, diikuti dengan kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi. Lukis dan label sel pipi pada ruang yang disediakan. 6 Examine the cheek cells under the microscope, first on low magnification, then on 1 2 3 4 5 1 high 2magnification. Draw and label the structure of the cheek5cell in the space 3 4 BAHAGIAN provided. B Memerhati struktur sel epidermis bawang SECTION B To observe the structure of epidermal cells of an onion PROSEDUR 1 Kupas satu lapisan epidermis daripada kulit suatu bawang dengan menggunakan pisau cukur dan forsep. PROCEDURE 2 Letakkan potongan kulit bawang kira-kira sebesar 5 mm di atas slaid yang bersih. 1 Peel off an epidermal layer of the leaf from an onion with a razor blade and forceps. Tabung uji3 TitiskanTabung didih Bikar Kelalang kon Kelalang volumetri dua titik larutan iodin di atasnya dengan menggunakan penitis. Test tube 2 Place a 5Boiling tube of the epidermal onion leaf onConical flask mm piece Beaker a clean slide. Volumetric flask 4 Letakkan satu penutup kaca pada satu sudut kepada larutan di atas sisip kaca. 3 Add two drops of iodine solution to the epidermal onion leaf. 6 Dengan perlahan-lahan, 8 7 9 10 turunkan penutup kaca untuk menutupi spesimen supaya 6 4 Place a cover slip at an angle to the solution 9 the slide. Slowly 10 the cover slip 7 8 on slide tiada gelembung udara terperangkap. to cover the specimen without trapping any air bubbles. 5 Bersihkan dan keringkan larutan sekeliling kaca penutup dengan menggunakan kertas 5 Clear and dry up any solution on the slide and around the cover slip with a filter turas. paper. 6 Perhatikan sel bawang di bawah mikroskop dengan menggunakan kuasa pembesaran 6 Examine the onion cell under the microscope, first on low magnification, then on rendah, diikuti dengan kuasa pembesaran yang lebih tinggi. Lukis dan labelkan sel high magnification. Draw and label the structure of the onion cell in the space bawang pada ruang yang disediakan. provided. Silinder penyukat Pipet Buret Kelalang dasar bulat Corong tisel Measuring cylinder Pipette Burette Round-bottomed flask Thistle funnel 2.1 HP • Mengenal pasti bahawa sel adalah unit asas hidupan 2.1 HP • Melabel struktur am sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2.1 LO • Identify that cell is the basic unit of living things 2.1 LO • State the function of each cell structure • Menyediakan slaid mengikut langkah yang betul • Menyatakan fungsi setiap struktur sel • Prepare slides following the proper procedures • State the similarities and differences between an animal • Menggunakan mikroskop dengan betul • Menyatakan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sel • Use a microscope properly cell and a plant cell 1.1 HP •• Menerangkan kepentingan sains sel haiwan dan harian Mengenal pasti struktur am dalam kehidupan sel 1.2 HP • Menggunakan radas saintifik yang umum dalam 1.1 LO •• Identify the general structures of animaleveryday life cells Explain the importance of science in cells and plant 1.2 LO • Use some common scientific apparatus in the • Menyenaraikan perkara di sekeliling anda yang berkaitan tumbuhan 24 haiwan dan sel tumbuhan makmal •• Draw thelist of things around youanimal cell and a to Make a general structures of an that are related plant cell 24 Refer to Essential Science Form 1, Laboratory Activities laboratory Rujuk kepada Essential Science Form 1, Aktiviti Makmal • dengan sains Melukis struktur am sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2 2.1 & 2.2, hlm. 36–37; Essential Science PMR, • Label the general structures of an animal cell and a science plant cell 2 2.1 & 2.2, p. 36–37; Essential Science PMR, Preparing cell slides, p. 28 Preparing cell slides, hlm. 28 2.1 Understanding cells 2.2 DISCUSSION Activity 6 Label structures X, Y and Z for the animal cell below. INQUIRY 2.1 Experiment PEKA 1 What is the basic unit of life? (Cell) X (X: Cell membrane 2 Name two structures found in plant cells but not in animal cells. (Cell wall and chloroplast) Y Y: Nucleus Z: Cytoplasm) 3 Why plant cell has a fixed shape? (Plant cell has a cell wall) Z 4 State two animal cells that contain vacuole. (Amoeba and Paramecium) 7 Label structures P, Q, R, S, T and U for the plant cell below. 5 State two structures of cell that make up the cell protoplasm. (Nucleus and cytoplasm) P S (P: Cell wall S: Cytoplasm Q T Q: Cell membrance T: Vacuole U R: Chloroplast U: Nucleus) R 24 24 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 24 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  3. 3. PEMERHATIAN OBSERVATION cell wall membran sel dinding sel cell membrane vacuole vakuol sitoplasma cell membrane membran sel cytoplasm Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life Chapter 2 Cell as a Unit of Life nukleus sitoplasma cytoplasm nucleus nukleus nucleus Sel pipi Sel epidermis bawang Cheek cell Epidermal cell of onion E1C1 E1C6 E1C1 E1C6 ANALYSIS 1 Which of the cells has a fixed shape, the cheek cell (animal cell) or the epidermal cell ANALISIS 1 Sel yang manakah mempunyai bentuk yang tetap, sel pipi (sel haiwan) atau sel of onion (plant cell)? E1C8 epidermis bawang (sel tumbuhan)? E1C8 The epidermal cell of onion CHAPTER BAB Sel epidermis bawang . 2 What causes the shape of a cheek cell to be different from the shape of an onion’s 2 Apakah yang menyebabkan bentuk sel pipi berbeza daripada bentuk sel epidermis epidermal cell? bawang? cell wall TSTS 2 2 KBSB The cheek cell does not have a as do the cells of • Comparing and Sel pipi tidak mempunyai dinding sel seperti yang terdapat • Membandingkan dan plants like the onion. contrasting pada sel epidermis bawang. membezakan E1 E1 C 3 Classify the observed cells into animal cell and plant cell. C 3 Kelaskan sel-sel yang diperhatikan kepada sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan. 1 1 2 Animal cell Plant cell 2 Sel haiwan Sel tumbuhan 6 6 Cheek cell Onion cell SPS 8 KPS E1C2 • Classifying 8 Sel pipi Sel bawang S E1C2 • Mengelaskan S 4 Study the cheek cell (animal cell) and the epidermal cell (plant cell) drawn above. 4 Kaji sel pipi (sel haiwan) dan sel epidermis bawang (sel tumbuhan) yang dilukis di Then, tick (✓) the structures that can be found in the cheek cell and the epidermal atas. Kemudian, tandakan (✓) pada struktur yang boleh ditemui pada sel pipi dan sel cell of onion. epidermis bawang. Cell structure Cheek cell Epidermal cell Struktur sel Sel pipi Sel epidermis bawang (animal cell) (plant cell) (sel haiwan) (sel tumbuhan) Nucleus ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ MINDRobicsMINDRobics Nukleus Cytoplasm ✓ ✓ Sitoplasma ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Cell membrane Membran sel ✓ ✓ ✓ Cell wall Dinding sel ✓ ✓ Vacuole Vakuol ✓ 5 What is cell protoplasm? 5 Apakah protoplasma sel? Protoplasm is the part of cell that consists of nucleus and Protoplasma sel adalah bahagian sel yang terdiri daripada nukleus dan cytoplasm . sitoplasma . 6 Name two low level animals that contain vacuole. Amoeba and Paramecium 6 Namakan dua haiwan peringkat rendah yang mengandungi vakuol. Ameba dan paramesium CONCLUSION 1 A cell is a basic unit of life. KESIMPULAN unit asas 2 Animal and plant cells have a few similarities and 1 Sel ialah bagi benda hidup. persamaan differences . 2 Sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan mempunyai beberapa dan perbezaan . 25 25 2.3 DISCUSSION Activity 8 Based on the given descriptions, determine the type of cell (animal cell or plant cell). 12 What is the structure of a cell that contains chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis? (Chloroplast) (a) A cell has a cell wall. (Plant cell) 13 Explain why plant cells can carry out photosynthesis. (Plant cells contain chloroplast/chlorophyll) (b) A cell has a chloroplast. (Plant cell) (a) A cell has a cell membrane but does not have a fixed shape. (Animal cell) DISCUSSION 2.4 Activity 9 State the function of a nucleus. (Controls all activities in the cell) 10 State the function of a cell membrane. (Protects the cell) 11 What is the function of a cell wall? (Maintains the shape of the cell/Protects the cell) 25 25 F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 25 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  4. 4. Aktiviti Struktur sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan DISCUSSION Structures of animal and plant cells 2.2 PERBINCANGAN Masteri 2.2 Activity Mastery 2005 Bhg. A, S1(a) 2005 Sec. A, Q1(a) 1 Label the following diagrams of animal and plant cells. 1 Label rajah sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan yang berikut. Dinding sel Sitoplasma Cell wall Cytoplasm Kloroplas Vakuol Chloroplast Vacuole Nukleus Membran sel Nucleus Cell membrane (d) Dinding sel (d) Cell wall CHAPTER BAB (a) Membran sel (e) Membran sel (a) Cell membrane (e) Cell membrane2 2 (f) Kloroplas (f) Chloroplast (b) Nukleus (b) Nucleus (g) Vakuol (g) Vacuole (h) Sitoplasma (h) Cytoplasm (c) Sitoplasma (c) Cytoplasm Sel haiwan Sel tumbuhan (i) Nukleus Animal cell Plant cell (i) Nucleus 2 Bulatkan organisma yang mempunyai struktur sel seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah. 2 Circle the organisms which have the cell structure as shown below. tapak sulaiman mukor lumut starfish Mucor moss arnab paku pakis helang rabbit fern eagle 2.2 HP • Label sel haiwan dan sel tumbuhan 2.2 LO • Label animal cell and plant cell 26 26F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 26 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM
  5. 5. Aktiviti Perbandingan antara sel tumbuhan dengan sel haiwan DISCUSSION Comparison between plant cells and animal cells 2.3 PERBINCANGAN Masteri 2.3 Activity Mastery Bandingkan dan bezakan antara sel tumbuhan dengan sel haiwan. Compare and contrast between a plant cell and an animal cell. Persamaan Similarity Mempunyai nukleus Has a nucleus Mempunyai membran sel Has cell membrane Sel tumbuhan Mempunyai sitoplasma Sel haiwan Plant cell Has cytoplasm Animal cell CHAPTER BAB Perbezaan Difference Ada Dinding sel Tiada 2 2 Present Cell wall Absent Ada Kloroplas Tiada Present Chloroplast Absent Tetap Bentuk sel Berubah-ubah Fixed Cell shape Changes Tiada, kecuali dalam Ada Vakuol haiwan peringkat rendah Absent, except in lower Present Vacuole level animals Aktiviti DISCUSSION Functions of the internal structures of a cell Fungsi struktur dalaman sel 2.4 Activity Constructivism 2.4 PERBINCANGAN Konstruktivisme 2005 Sec. A, Q1(b) Padankan struktur sel kepada fungsinya. 2005 Bhg. A, S1(b) Match the cell structures to the given functions. Fungsi sel Function of cell Mengandungi sap sel yang berisi glukosa dan Cell wall Contains cell sap which is filled with dissolved Dinding sel garam mineral yang terlarut glucose and mineral salt Cell Membran sel Melindungi dan memberi bentuk kepada sel membrane Protects and gives shape to the cell Mengawal keluar dan masuk semua kandungan Vacuole Controls the exit from and entry of materials into Vakuol the cell/protects the cell bahan sel/melindungi sel Sitoplasma Mengawal semua aktiviti sel Cytoplasm Controls all activities in the cell Kloroplas Tempat berlakunya proses-proses kimia Chloroplast The place where chemical processes occur Mengandungi pigmen klorofil yang menyerap Nucleus Contains chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight to Nukleus make food cahaya matahari untuk membuat makanan Sel tumbuhan Plant cell 2.3 HP • Menyatakan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sel haiwan 2.4 HP • Menyatakan fungsi setiap struktur sel 2.3 LO • State the similarities and differences between animal 2.4 LO • State the function of each cell structure dan sel tumbuhan and plant cells 27 27F1MR-ch2(23-34).indd 27 7/22/10 10:30:38 AM

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