• Like
Gardiasis presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Gardiasis presentation

  • 317 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
317
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
32
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Cysts are resistant forms and are responsible for transmission of giardiasis. Both cysts and trophozoites can be found in the feces (diagnostic stages) . The cysts are hardy and can survive several months in cold water. Infection occurs by the ingestion of cysts in contaminated water, food, or by the fecal-oral route (hands or fomites) . In the small intestine, excystation releases trophozoites (each cyst produces two trophozoites) . Trophozoites multiply by longitudinal binary fission, remaining in the lumen of the proximal small bowel where they can be free or attached to the mucosa by a ventral sucking disk . Encystation occurs as the parasites transit toward the colon. The cyst is the stage found most commonly in nondiarrheal feces . Because the cysts are infectious when passed in the stool or shortly afterward, person-to-person transmission is possible. While animals are infected with Giardia, their importance as a reservoir is unclear.

Transcript

  • 1. GARDIASIS PRESENTED TO : DR SHAKIRA SADIQ GILL PRESENTED BY : Abdul Wajid 2012-mphil- 2180 department epidemiology and public health
  • 2. Contents  Introduction and etiology  Epidemiology  transmission  Who is at Risk?  Signs & symptoms  Incubation period  Life cycle  Diagnosis  Differential diagnosis  Treatment  Prevention
  • 3. Introduction and etiology  Giardiasis is a diarrheal illness caused by Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia)  The parasite is passed in the stool of an infected person or animal (both cysts & trophozoites)  The motile ,vegetative tropozpite is 10-20µm long and 8-15µm wide.  The parasite is protected by an outer shell that allows it to survive outside the body and in the environment for long periods of time  During the past 2 decades, one of the most common causes of waterborne disease (drinking and recreational) in humans in the United States  Very contagious
  • 4. Epidemiology  Giardiasis is a global disease.  It infects nearly 2% of adults and 6% to 8% of children in developed countries worldwide.  Nearly 33% of people in developing countries have had giardiasis.  In the United States, Giardia infection is the most common intestinal parasitic disease affecting humans  G. intestinalis has high prevalence rates particularly among young children in third world countries.
  • 5. Continue…..  In tropical areas , about 50-80% of people are carriers.  The variable occurrence in distinct groups of the population is apparently related to certain nutritional conditions.  Latin america is about 200 million, with some 500,000 new infections per year.  In humans,giardiasis is one of the the most common intestinal parasitoses in western industrialized countries.
  • 6. Geographical distribution of Giardia  Worldwide.  More prevalent in warmer climates and in young age animals and humans.  Infection occurs mostly in areas of low sanitation standards and all the day care centers.
  • 7. Who is at risk? Everyone Persons at increased risk include: child care workers children who attend day care centers international travelers hikers, campers, swimmers people drinking or accidentally swallowing untreated water
  • 8. Symptoms  Symptoms include  diarrhea  loose or watery stool  foul-smelling stool  stomach cramps  upset stomach  weight loss  dehydration  Some may be asymptomatic
  • 9. Giardiasis Host examples  Humans  Cats, dogs  Cows, lamb  Beavers, deer  Manifest in 7-10 days  Lasts 2- 6 weeks  Symptoms  Severe diarrhea  Abdominal cramps  Bloating  Flatulence  Nausea  Vomiting  May lead to  Weight loss  Dehydration Common Chronic vs. • More severe condition • Lasts 2 months - years • Symptoms – Increased gas – Dehydration – Burping – Loose stools – Slowed growth
  • 10. Incubation Period & Duration  Incubation period  Symptoms generally begin 1-2 weeks after being infected  Duration  Healthy persons, symptoms may last 2-6 weeks
  • 11. Transmission  Giardiasis is passed via the face- oral route.  Primary routes are personal contact and contaminated water and food.  people who have contact with individuals already infected.  It is a particular danger to people hiking or backpacking in wilderness areas worldwide, especially if they have no immediate access to medical supplies.
  • 12. Transmission and Life cycle of Giardia
  • 13. Life Cycle (Pectoral representation)
  • 14. Life cycle  Cysts are resistant forms and are responsible for transmission of giardiasis. Both cysts and trophozoites can be found in the feaces (diagnostic stages) .  The cysts are hardy and can survive several months in cold water. Infection occurs by the ingestion of cysts in contaminated water, food, or by the fecal-oral route (hands or fomites) .  In the small intestine, excystation releases trophozoites (each cyst produces two trophozoites) .
  • 15. o Trophozoites multiply by longitudinal binary fission, remaining in the lumen of the proximal small bowel where they can be free or attached to the mucosa by a ventral sucking disk o Encystation occurs as the parasites transit toward the colon. The cyst is the stage found most commonly in no diarrheal feces . o Because the cysts are infectious when passed in the stool or shortly afterward, person-to-person transmission is possible. While animals are infected with Giardia, their importance as a reservoir is unclear.
  • 16. Zoonotic Aspects of Giardia  Giardia lamblia which parasitize humans belong to either of two genotypes, A or B,  These two genotypes also were found in cysts from fecal samples of animal origin such as dogs, cats, some farm animals and wild animals.  In addition, trophozoites recovered from cysts obtained from environmental samples belonged to these two genotypes as well, suggesting that the G. lamblia genotypes A and B are widespread and possibly zoonotic.
  • 17. Diagnosis  Fecal immunoassays that are more sensitive and specific should be used.  Rapid immune-chromatographic cartridge assays also are available but should not take the place of routine ova and parasite examination.  PCR (e.g.,polymerase chain reaction) can be used to identify the subtypes of Giardia.
  • 18. Continue…. • Giardia should be identified 50 to 70% of the time after one stool, and 90% identification after three stools • Biopsy tissue/duodenal aspirate stained by trichrome or Giemsa stain. • Enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent-anitbody monoclonal antigen detection systems
  • 19. C  Giardia is also suspected to be zoonotic communicable between humans and other animals.  Major reservoir hosts include  Dogs  Cats  horses  humans  cattle and birds
  • 20. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Giardiasis must be differentiated from:  Bacterial diarrhoea,  Amoebic diarrhoea,  Salmonellosis  Viral gastroenteritis.
  • 21. Giardia – Zoonotic transmission?
  • 22. Treatment Several prescription drugs are available metronidazole Tinidazole Nitazoxanide. Alternatives to these medications include paromomycin, quinacrine, and furazolidone. Young children & pregnant women may be more susceptible Drink plenty of fluids while ill
  • 23. Prevention Practice good hygiene Wash hands properly with soap and water after using the toilet before handling or eating food after every diaper change Protect others by not swimming if experiencing diarrhea
  • 24. Continued…  Avoid food that might be contaminated  Wash and/or peel all raw vegetables and fruits before eating  Use uncontaminated water to wash all food that is to be eaten raw  Avoid eating uncooked foods when traveling in countries with minimal water treatment and sanitation systems
  • 25. Refrences  http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/giardia/gen_info/index.html  http://ideas.health.vic.gov.au/diseases/Giardiasis-facts.asp  http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2006/Giardiasis/ epidemiology.htm  http://www.uptodate.com/contents/epidemiology-clinical- manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-giardiasis