FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE
Foot and Mouth Disease is a
viral disease that affects
cloven hoofed animals.
The virus causes a fever ,
followed by blisters.
Susceptible animals include,
FMD virus belongs to family picornaviridae genus apthovirus.
Seven serotypes namely :
A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT2, SAT 3 and ASIA 1.
FMD virus is highly transmissible and cause high morbidity
outbreaks with moderate to low mortality in most cases.
(Grubman et al., 2004).
All FMD serotypes are immunogenically different from one
Vaccination with one serotype does not develop immunity to
against another serotype.
(Paton et al., 2005)
Incubation period 2-14 days
Swelling of testicles
Decline in milk production
Myocarditis and death in new
Wind-borne transmission - 10-250 km
semen and embryos
Infected Animals, infected utensils, food stuff and water etc,
Secretions and excretions like urine, saliva, faeces, milk
• Antigen or nucleic acid detection
• Complement fixation test
Notify authorities and wait for instructions before collecting
Prohibit live ruminants, swine and their products from
FMD affected countries.
Monitor travellers and belongings at the ports of entry.
State planning and training exercise.
Boisecurity protocols for livestock facilities.
Treatment and Control
No treatment available
Supportive care to those afflicted
Killed vaccine, serotype
Monitor disease outbreaks
worldwide and stock
active serotypes and
It is essential to isolate
virus and identify the
serotype to select the
FMD has a worldwide distribution with the exception of
Australia, New Zealand and North America.
The seven serotypes have their geographic domains.
SAT 1 to SAT 3 are predominantly found in Africa.
Asia 1 exists only in Asia.
Types A, O and C are found in Europe, South America and
Asia.The most common type in Europe is type O.
In the beginning of 20th century, FMD outbreaks occurred
periodically in Europe but these outbreaks have devastating
(Barteling and Vreeswijk.,1991)
In 1968, FMD outbreaks were reported in UK in which very high
number of animals were slaughtered.
(Gloster et al., 2005)
Foot and Mouth disease is endemic in Pakistan, India and
Afghanistan.FMD serotypes A, O and Asia 1 are prevalent in
these countries but FMD serotype O has been responsible for
high number of outbreaks in Pakistan.
(Abubakar et al., 2012)
The rates of three FMD serotypes in Pakistan are 70%, 25% and
4.7% for type O, Asia 1 and type A, respectively
No data is available regarding FMD in Afghanistan.
To describe the descriptive
epidemiology of a FMD
outbreak in Bihsud and
Surkhrod District Nangarhar
To identify the potential risk
factors associated with the
Materials and Methods
Descriptive Epidemiology of FMD
• Suspected cases of FMD from Live stock will be collected
from the Civil Veterinary hospital. Descriptive
epidemiological tool will be used to describe the data in
terms of place, person and time.
Study Population and Sampling unit
• Total population in the catchment area of Civil Hospital of
Nangarhar. Sampling units will be the suspected animal of
Retrospective study of the confirmed case of FMD
Sample size for case-control
Total number of cases and control will be 274 was calculated by
formula as describes by Schlesselman (1982). A total of 137
confirmed positive (cases) and 137 confirmed negative (control)
will be included in the study.
Each case will be matched with the control for age, breed and
Informed consent will be obtained from the owner of the animal
who will be willing to participate in the study.
Animals confirmed positive by either clinical examination
or laboratory test (Enzyme linked immunesarbant assay),
visited Civil Veterinary Hospital, Nangarhar and willing to
Animal’s owners who refuse to share data and those who
will not be confirmed by clinical examination or laboratory
test or complicated cases will be excluded from the study.
Data Collection Procedure
Data will be collected on a predesigned questionnaire by a
face-to face interview with Animal’s owner and data about
age, gender, demographic information, socioeconomic
status, source of feeding, hygienic measures and other
relevant factors will be collected.
Analysis by using R software. Chi square test will be used
to determine the relationship between time, person and
Multivariable analysis will be done to investigate various
factors related to positive cases of FMD.
p-value of <0.05 will be considered statistically significant.