Abdul wajid seminar


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Abdul wajid seminar

  2. 2. Introduction  Foot and Mouth Disease is a viral disease that affects cloven hoofed animals.  The virus causes a fever , followed by blisters.  Susceptible animals include, • Cattle • Buffalo • Sheep • Goat
  3. 3. FMD ruptured vesicles
  4. 4. Etiology  FMD virus belongs to family picornaviridae genus apthovirus.  Seven serotypes namely : A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT2, SAT 3 and ASIA 1.  FMD virus is highly transmissible and cause high morbidity outbreaks with moderate to low mortality in most cases. (Grubman et al., 2004).  All FMD serotypes are immunogenically different from one another.  Vaccination with one serotype does not develop immunity to against another serotype. (Paton et al., 2005)
  5. 5. Clinical signs  Incubation period 2-14 days  Fever  Blisters  Weight loss  Swelling of testicles  Teat lesions  Decline in milk production  Myocarditis and death in new born animals
  6. 6. Transmission  Direct contact  Wind-borne transmission - 10-250 km  Aerosol transmission  semen and embryos  Infected Animals, infected utensils, food stuff and water etc,  Secretions and excretions like urine, saliva, faeces, milk
  7. 7. Diagnosis  Laboratory Tests • Antigen or nucleic acid detection • Complement fixation test • ELISA • VNT  Notify authorities and wait for instructions before collecting samples.
  8. 8. Prevention  Prohibit live ruminants, swine and their products from FMD affected countries.  Monitor travellers and belongings at the ports of entry.  State planning and training exercise.  Boisecurity protocols for livestock facilities.  Treatment and Control  No treatment available  Supportive care to those afflicted  Vaccine available
  9. 9. Vaccination  Killed vaccine, serotype specific.  Monitor disease outbreaks worldwide and stock active serotypes and strains.  It is essential to isolate virus and identify the serotype to select the correct vaccine.
  10. 10. FMD Occurrence  FMD has a worldwide distribution with the exception of Australia, New Zealand and North America.  The seven serotypes have their geographic domains.  SAT 1 to SAT 3 are predominantly found in Africa.  Asia 1 exists only in Asia.  Types A, O and C are found in Europe, South America and Asia.The most common type in Europe is type O.
  11. 11. Continue ….  In the beginning of 20th century, FMD outbreaks occurred periodically in Europe but these outbreaks have devastating effects. (Barteling and Vreeswijk.,1991)  In 1968, FMD outbreaks were reported in UK in which very high number of animals were slaughtered. (Gloster et al., 2005)
  12. 12. Continue…  Foot and Mouth disease is endemic in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.FMD serotypes A, O and Asia 1 are prevalent in these countries but FMD serotype O has been responsible for high number of outbreaks in Pakistan. (Abubakar et al., 2012)  The rates of three FMD serotypes in Pakistan are 70%, 25% and 4.7% for type O, Asia 1 and type A, respectively (Zulfiqar., 2003)  No data is available regarding FMD in Afghanistan.
  13. 13. Objectives  To describe the descriptive epidemiology of a FMD outbreak in Bihsud and Surkhrod District Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.  To identify the potential risk factors associated with the outbreak.
  14. 14. Materials and Methods  Descriptive Epidemiology of FMD  Study Design • Suspected cases of FMD from Live stock will be collected from the Civil Veterinary hospital. Descriptive epidemiological tool will be used to describe the data in terms of place, person and time.  Study Population and Sampling unit • Total population in the catchment area of Civil Hospital of Nangarhar. Sampling units will be the suspected animal of FMD.
  15. 15. Continue…  Retrospective study of the confirmed case of FMD  Sample size for case-control  Total number of cases and control will be 274 was calculated by formula as describes by Schlesselman (1982). A total of 137 confirmed positive (cases) and 137 confirmed negative (control) will be included in the study.  Matching criteria:  Each case will be matched with the control for age, breed and geographical area.  Informed Consent  Informed consent will be obtained from the owner of the animal who will be willing to participate in the study.
  16. 16.  Inclusion Criteria  Animals confirmed positive by either clinical examination or laboratory test (Enzyme linked immunesarbant assay), visited Civil Veterinary Hospital, Nangarhar and willing to participate.  Exclusion Criteria  Animal’s owners who refuse to share data and those who will not be confirmed by clinical examination or laboratory test or complicated cases will be excluded from the study. Continue…
  17. 17.  Data Collection Procedure  Data will be collected on a predesigned questionnaire by a face-to face interview with Animal’s owner and data about age, gender, demographic information, socioeconomic status, source of feeding, hygienic measures and other relevant factors will be collected.  Statistical Analysis  Analysis by using R software. Chi square test will be used to determine the relationship between time, person and place.  Multivariable analysis will be done to investigate various factors related to positive cases of FMD.  p-value of <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Continue…