Embedded Systems Introdution


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Lecture by Prof Dr. Iram Baig (Dean Computer Software Department)
University of Engineering and Technology Taxila

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Embedded Systems Introdution

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Muhammad Iram Baig 1
  2. 2. What is an Embedded System?  A physical system that employs computer control for a specific purpose, rather than for general-purpose computation  Any device that includes a computer but is not itself a general- purpose computer  Hardware and Software, part of some larger systems and expected to work without human intervention.  Often the user of the device is not even aware that a computer is present.  Respond, monitor, control external environment using sensors & actuators. 2
  3. 3. A “short list” of embedded systems                       Anti-lock brakes Auto-focus cameras Automatic teller machines Automatic toll systems Automatic transmission Avionic systems Battery chargers Camcorders Cell phones Cell-phone base stations Cordless phones Cruise control Curbside check-in systems Digital cameras Disk drives Electronic card readers Electronic instruments Electronic toys/games Factory control Fax machines Fingerprint identifiers Home security systems                           Modems MPEG decoders Network cards Network switches/routers On-board navigation Pagers Photocopiers Point-of-sale systems Portable video games Printers Satellite phones Scanners Smart ovens/dishwashers Speech recognizers Stereo systems Teleconferencing systems Televisions Temperature controllers Theft tracking systems TV set-top boxes VCR’s, DVD players Video game consoles Video phones Washers and dryers Life-support systems Medical testing systems And the list goes on and on 3
  4. 4. Embedded System Applications Aerospace Navigation systems, automatic landing systems, flight attitude controls, engine controls, space exploration (e.g., the Mars Pathfinder). Automotive Fuel injection control, passenger environmental controls, anti-lock braking systems, air bag controls, GPS mapping. Children's Toys Nintendo's "Game Boy", Mattel's "My Interactive Pooh", Tiger Electronic's "Furby". Communications Satellites; network routers, switches, hubs. Home Dishwashers, microwave ovens, VCRs, televisions, stereos, fire/security alarm systems, lawn sprinkler controls, thermostats, cameras, clock radios, answering machines. 4
  5. 5. Embedded System Applications Industrial Elevator controls, surveillance systems, robots. Office Automation FAX machines, copiers, telephones, cash registers. Medical Imaging systems (e.g., XRAY, MRI, and ultrasound), patient monitors, heart pacers. Personal Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), pagers, cell phones, wrist watches, video games, portable MP3 players, GPS. Instrumentation Data collection, oscilloscopes, signal generators, signal analyzers, power supplies Computer Peripherals Printers, scanners, keyboards, displays, modems, hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Embedded Systems Hardware Embedded systems hardware is used for processing input to provide output in task specific fashion Input Interface Information Processing Systems Output Interface 7
  8. 8. Processors  Micro-processors and Microcontrollers  Key Requirements:  Energy Efficiency  High Code Density   Combined Size of all instruction Characteristics of a particular instruction set 8
  9. 9. Microprocessors  CPU for computers  No RAM, ROM, IO on CPU chip itself  Example: Intel x86, Motorola 680x0  CPU DataBus RAM  ROM I/O Ports Timers Serial Port Address Bus 9
  10. 10. Microcontrollers ?  Basically microcontroller is a device which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto a single microchip.  A Micro-controller combines onto the same microchip.  The CPU core CPU RAM ROM I/O Timers Serial Port  Memory (both RAM and ROM)  Parallel Digital I/Os  other I/Os & more 10
  11. 11. Components of a Micro-controller  A Timer module to allow the micro-controller to perform tasks for certain time periods  A serial I/O port to allow data to flow between the micro-controller and other devices such as a PC or another micro-controller  An ADC to allow the micro-controller to accept analogue input data for processing 11
  12. 12. Micro-controller 12
  13. 13. Why Micro-controller?  Low cost, small packaging  Low power consumption  Programmable, re-programmable  Lots of I/O capabilities  Easy integration with circuits  For applications in which cost, power and space are critical  Single-purpose 13
  14. 14. Architectures Von Neuman  Only one Memory holds data + instructions  Data and Program share the same bus and the same memory, and so must have the same width.  CPU Registers:  PC, IR and other general purpose  Bottleneck: Getting instructions interferes with accessing RAM 14
  15. 15. Architectures contd… Harvard  Separate program bus and data bus  Can be different widths!  Pipelining Easy  Allows 2 simultaneous memory Fetches  Greater memory Bandwidth  More predictable Bandwidth  Most DSPs use Harvard Architecture for streaming data. 15
  16. 16. Architectures contd… CISC - (Complex Instruction Set Computer)  A large number of instructions each carrying permutation of the same operation  Instructions provide for complex operations  Different instructions of different format  Different instructions of different length  Many Addressing modes  Requires multiple cycles for execution 16
  17. 17. Architectures contd… RISC- (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)  Reduced set of Instructions for simple operations  Pipeline Friendly  Each instruction of fixed length  Instructions that can be executed in a single cycle  Large general purpose Register set  Can contain data or addresses  Load-store Architecture  No Memory Access for data 17
  18. 18. Architectures RISC vs contd… CISC 18
  19. 19. Architectures contd…  Super Scalar  Multiple CPUs in a single Processor  Processor decides at runtime about the instructions that can be executed parallel. (Complex HW)  Instructions will be executed in an order different from the strictly sequential one with the restriction that the result must be correct.  Execution policies:  1. In-order issue with in-order completion  2. In-order issue with out-of-order completion  3. Out-of-order issue with out-of-order completion  Examples: Intel’s Pentium, IBM Power2, AMD K5, MIPS R10K, HP PA8500, Cyrix 6x86 19
  20. 20. Architectures contd… VLIW (Very Large Instruction Word)  Multiple CPUs in a single Processor  Compiler decides about the instructions that can be executed parallel and can be grouped in one bundle (ILP, Instruction Level Parallelism)  Examples: i860 (dual mode: RISC and VLIW), TriMedia, SHARC, Itanium, EPIC, ST200, StarCore, Transmeta Crusoe, Xtensa 20
  21. 21. CISC vs RISC vs SS vs VLIW CISC RISC Superscalar VLIW Instruction size variable size fixed size fixed size fixed size (but large) Instruction format variable format fixed format fixed format fixed format Registers few, some special many GP GP and rename many, many (RUU) GP Memory reference embedded in many instr’s load/store load/store load/store Key Issues decode complexity data forwarding, hazards hardware dependency resolution code scheduling, (compiler) Instruction flow EX M WB IF ID EX M WB IF ID EX M WB IF ID EX M WB IF ID IF ID EX M WB IF ID EX M WB IF ID EX M WB IF ID EX M WB EX M WB IF ID EX M WB EX M WB
  22. 22. Performance Comparison
  23. 23. Performance Comparison contd…
  24. 24. Traditional Embedded Systems 24
  25. 25. Components of Embedded Systems 25
  26. 26. Simplified View of PIC MCUs
  27. 27. Few Examples of Embedded Systems Product: Hunter Programmable Digital Thermostat. Microprocessor: 4-bit 27
  28. 28. Product:Vendo V-MAX 720 vending machine. Microprocessor: 8-bit Motorola 68HC11.
  29. 29. Product: Sonicare Plus toothbrush. Microprocessor: 8-bit Zilog Z8.
  30. 30. Product: Miele dishwashers. Microprocessor: 8bit Motorola 68HC05.
  31. 31. Product: NASA's Mars Sojourner Rover. Microprocessor: 8-bit Intel 80C85.
  32. 32. Product: CoinCo USQ-712 coin changer. Microprocessor: 8-bit Motorola 68HC912.
  33. 33. Product: Garmin StreetPilot GPS Receiver. Microprocessor: 16-bit.
  34. 34. Product: TIQIT Computer’s “Matchbox PC”. Microprocessor: 32bit AMD Elan SC410.
  35. 35. Product: Palm Vx handheld. Microprocessor: 32-bit Motorola Dragonball EZ.
  36. 36. Product: Motorola i1000plus iDEN MultiService Digital Phone. Microprocessor: Motorola 32-bit MCORE.
  37. 37. Product: Rio 800 MP3 Player. Microprocessor: 32-bit RISC.
  38. 38. Product: RCA RC5400P DVD player. Microprocessor: 32-bit RISC.
  39. 39. Product: IBM Research’s Linux wrist watch prototype. Microprocessor: 32-bit ARM RISC.
  40. 40. Product: Sony Aibo ERS-110 Robotic Dog. Microprocessor: 64bit MIPS RISC.
  41. 41. Embedded Automotive More than 30% of the cost of a car is now in Electronics 90% of all innovations will be based on electronic systems 41
  42. 42. Concluding Remarks  Embedded computers are all around us.  Many systems have complex embedded hardware and software  Embedded systems have pose many design challenges: design time, deadlines, power, etc  Design methodologies help us manage the design process 43