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  1. 1. Engineering Management Leadership Lecture # 8 1
  2. 2. Leadership  What is a leader?  How leader differs from a manager?  Can leadership be learned? 2
  3. 3. Leadership    Like all other areas “there are some people who are more able than others” However, performance of so called born leaders can be improved by training And mediocre leaders can learn to become good leaders 3
  4. 4. Leadership  Natural circumstances create leader (e.g., at the onset of fire - temporary leaderships)  Industrial situations are different (sustained leaderships - Team work is important)  Most teams want to be lead; not managed 4
  5. 5. Leadership       Leaders can appear and disappear Leaders change their characteristics Team members change Attitude change Situation changes As a result existing leader is replaced by a new one 5
  6. 6. The manager and the leader   1. 2. 3. It is important that manager is also a leader If the manager is ineffectual; informal leaders will spring up who will challenge the manager’s position creating a team within a team 6
  7. 7. The manager and the leader  1. In such situations, manager has four options; Get rid of the informal leader (someone else will be chosen as informal leader by the team) 3. Undermine the informal leader Try to divide the group (so as to diminish the 4. Come to terms with informal leader 2. power of informal leader - team will stay loyal to informal leader) (to supplement the deficiencies in the manager’s ability only sensible solution, formal and informal leaders must work together for success) 7
  8. 8. The manager and the leader   Managers have the authority of their formal position – power is given to them by the company Leaders have the authority of the influence over the team given to them by the team members 8
  9. 9. The manager and the leader    Good leaders are not necessarily good managers May be very good at inspiring the team Could be poor at organizing and achieving the tasks set for the team 9
  10. 10. The manager and the leader  Good managers are usually good leaders (since leadership skill is one of the fundamental requirement of the management)   Leaders are insiders – part of team Managers will be outsiders if they are not good leader 10
  11. 11. The manager and the leader      Leaders do not always set out consciously to be the leader of the team; they are elected by the team members Managers on the other hand become managers by design Management is a profession; leadership is not A leader inspires the team to achieve goals manager can only help the team by traditional methods such as resources and training 11
  12. 12. The manager and the leader       Manager a collaborator draws on the strengths of the team to achieve joint goals which are; relatively short term targets with defined beginning and measurable end results 12
  13. 13. The manager and the leader   Leaders give the team its purpose, (enabling it to understand why it exists as a team - the purpose or mission of the team must also be clearly defined)      with no measurable beginning or end it may change with the time purpose enables team members to share the same vision a good leader, like a good manager works through the team to achieve its goals or aims organizational aims need to be balanced with individuals aims 13
  14. 14. Leadership 14
  15. 15. Leadership Theories    Importance of leadership in all aspects of human behaviors Methods - which can be used for identifying leadership qualities If such a method can be found, then those could be used for finding future leaders 16
  16. 16. Leadership Theories   Best One-dimensional model was proposed by Douglas McGregor (1960); Theory X & Theory Y  X & Y being selected not to indicate good or bad styles 25
  17. 17. Leadership Theories          Theory X manager believes that people; work only for monetary gain are motivated by fear do not want any responsibility want to be given detailed instructions Theory Y manager believes that people; are motivated by the achievements want to have freedom to act according to their own judgment resent close supervision 26
  18. 18. Stages in the relationship of new team members  Dependant stage; dependent on the team leader and other established members of the team, learning new skills and getting used to the environment; learn by following others  Independent stage; acquired sufficient knowledge and experience to work by themselves; good manager will ensure that their teams continue to learn  Interdependent stage; in this stage good manager becomes team’s leader 33
  19. 19. Stages in the relationship of new team members 34
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