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Strategi pembelajaran 3
 

Strategi pembelajaran 3

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    Strategi pembelajaran 3 Strategi pembelajaran 3 Presentation Transcript

    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS• 1. Good teaching is as much about passionas it is about reason.– Its about not only motivating students to learn,but teaching them how to learn, and doing so in amanner that is relevant, meaningful, andmemorable.– Its about caring for your craft, having a passionfor it, and conveying that passion to everyone,most importantly to your students.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS• 2. Good teaching is about substance andtreating students as consumers of knowledge.– Its about doing your best to keep on top of your field,reading sources, inside and outside of your areas ofexpertise, and being at the leading edge as often aspossible.– Good teaching is also about bridging the gap betweentheory and practice.– Its about leaving the ivory tower and immersingoneself in the field, talking to, consulting with, andassisting practitioners, and liaisoning with theircommunities.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS3. Good teaching is about listening,questioning, being responsive, andremembering that each student and classis different.– Its about eliciting responses and developingthe oral communication skills of the quietstudents.– Its about pushing students to excel; at thesame time, its about being human, respectingothers, and being professional at all times.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS• 4. Good teaching is about not always having afixed agenda and being rigid, but being flexible,fluid, experimenting, and having the confidenceto react and adjust to changing circumstances.– Its about getting only 10 percent of what you wantedto do in a class done and still feeling good.– Its about deviating from the course syllabus or lectureschedule easily when there is more and betterlearning elsewhere.– Good teaching is about the creative balance betweenbeing an authoritarian dictator on the one hand and apushover on the other.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS• 5. Good teaching is also about style.– Should good teaching be entertaining? You bet! Doesthis mean that it lacks in substance? Not a chance!– Effective teaching is not about being locked with bothhands glued to a podium or having your eyes fixatedon a slide projector while you drone on.– Good teachers work the room and every student in it.They realize that they are the conductors and theclass is the orchestra. All students play differentinstruments and at varying proficiencies.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS6. This is very important -- good teaching isabout humor.– Its about being self-deprecating and nottaking yourself too seriously.– Its often about making innocuous jokes,mostly at your own expense, so that the icebreaks and students learn in a more relaxedatmosphere where you, like them, are humanwith your own share of faults andshortcomings.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS• 7. Good teaching is about caring,nurturing, and developing minds andtalents.– Its about devoting time, often invisible, toevery student.– Its also about the thinkless hours of grading,designing or redesigning courses, andpreparing materials to still further enhanceinstruction.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS8. Good teaching is supported by strong andvisionary leadership, and very tangibleinstitutional support -- resources,personnel, and funds.– Good teaching is continually reinforced by anoverarching vision that transcends the entireorganization -- from full professors to part-time instructors -- and is reflected in what issaid, but more importantly by what is done.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS9. Good teaching is about mentoring betweensenior and junior faculty, teamwork, and beingrecognized and promoted by ones peers.– Effective teaching should also be rewarded,and poor teaching needs to be remediatedthrough training and development programs.
    • GOOD TEACHINGTHE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTS10. At the end of the day, good teaching isabout having fun, experiencing pleasureand intrinsic rewards– Good teachers practice their craft not for themoney or because they have to, but becausethey truly enjoy it and because they want to.– Good teachers couldnt imagine doinganything else.
    • Fungsi Nilai• To describe unambiguously the worth, merit, or value ofthe work accomplished• To improve the capacity of students to identify goodwork, that is, to improve their self-evaluation ordiscrimination skills with respect to work submitted• To stimulate and encourage good work by students• To communicate the teachers judgment of the studentsprogress• To inform the teacher about what students have andhavent learned• To select people for rewards or continued education
    • Strategi Penilaian• Grade on the basis of studentsmastery of knowledge and skills.– Restrict your evaluations to academicperformance.– Eliminate other considerations, such asclassroom behavior, effort, classroomparticipation, attendance, punctuality, attitude,personality traits, or student interest in thecourse material, as the basis of coursegrades. (Source: Jacobs and Chase, 1992)
    • Strategi Penilaian• Avoid grading systems that put students incompetition with their classmates and limitthe number of high grades.– These normative systems, such as grading on thecurve, work against collaborative learning strategiesthat have been shown to be effective in promotingstudent learning.– Normative grading produces undesirableconsequences for many students, such as reducedmotivation to learn, debilitating evaluation anxiety,decreased ability to use feedback to improve learning,and poor social relationships. (Sources: Crooks,1988; McKeachie, 1986)
    • Strategi Penilaian• Try not to overemphasize grades. Explain toyour class the meaning of and basis for gradesand the procedures you use in grading.– Once you have explained your policies, avoidstressing grades or excessive talk about grades,which only increases students anxieties anddecreases their motivation to do something for its ownsake rather than to obtain an external reward such asa grade. (Sources: Allen and Rueter, 1990; Fuhrmannand Grasha, 1983)
    • Strategi Penilaian• Keep students informed of theirprogress throughout the term.– For each paper, assignment, midterm, orproject that you grade, give students a senseof what their score means.– By keeping students informed throughout theterm, you also prevent unpleasant surprisesat the end. (Sources: Lowman, 1984; Shea,1990)
    • Mengatasi Complain Nilai• Clearly state grading procedures in your coursesyllabus, and go over this information in class.– Students want to know how their grades will bedetermined, the weights of various tests andassignments, and the model of grading you will beusing to calculate their grades: will the class begraded on a curve or by absolute standards?– If you intend to make allowances for extra credit, lateassignments, or revision of papers, clearly state yourpolicies.– Set policies on late work. Will you refuse to acceptany late work? Deduct points according to how latethe work is submitted? Handle late work on a case-by-case basis? Offer a grace period?
    • Mengatasi Complain Nilai• Avoid modifying your grading policiesduring the term.– Midcourse changes may erode studentsconfidence in your fairness, consistency,objectivity, and organizational skills. If youmust make a change, give your students acomplete explanation. (Source: Frisbie,Diamond, and Ory, 1979)
    • Mengatasi Complain Nilai• Provide enough opportunities for students toshow you what they know.– By giving students many opportunities to show youwhat they know, you will have a more accuratepicture of their abilities and will avoid penalizing astudent who has an off day at the time of a test.– So in addition to a final exam, give one or twomidterms and one or two short papers.– For lower-division courses, Erickson and Strommer(1991) recommend giving shorter tests or writtenassignments and scheduling some form of evaluationevery two or three weeks.
    • Mengatasi Complain Nilai• Consider allowing students to chooseamong alternative assignments.– One instructor presents a list of activities withassigned points for each that take into account theassignments educational and motivational value,difficulty, and probable amount of effort required.– Students are told how many points are needed for anA, a B, or a C, and they choose a combination ofassignments that meets the grade they desire for thatportion of the course.
    • Mengatasi Complain• Stress to students that grades reflect work on aspecific task and are not judgments about people.– Remind students that a teacher grades only a pieceof paper. You might also let students know, ifappropriate, that research shows that grades bearlittle or no relationship to measures of adultaccomplishment (Eble, 1988, p. 156).• Give encouragement to students who are performingpoorly.– If students are having difficulty, do what you can tohelp them improve on the next assignment or exam. Ifthey do perform well, take this into account whenaveraging the early low score with the later higherone. (Source: Lowman, 1984)
    • Mengatasi Complain• Deal directly with students who are angry or upsetabout their grade.– When you meet with the student in your office, haveall the relevant materials at hand: the test questions,answer key or criteria, and examples of goodanswers.– Listen to the students concerns or read the memowith an open mind and respond in a calm manner.– Describe the key elements of a good answer, andpoint out how the students response was incompleteor incorrect.– Help the student understand your reasons forassigning the grade that you did.
    • Mengatasi ComplainKeep accurate records of students grades.– Your department may keep copies of final gradereports, but it is important for you to keep a record ofall grades assigned throughout the semester, in casea student wishes to contest a grade, finish anincomplete, or ask for a letter of recommendation.
    • Grading Tactics• Return the first graded assignment or test before theadd/drop deadline.– Early assignments help students decide whether they areprepared to take the class (Shea, 1990).– Some faculty members give students the option of throwing outthis first test (Johnson, 1988).– Students may receive a low score because they did not knowwhat the instructor required or because they underestimated thelevel of preparation needed to succeed.• Record results numerically rather than as lettergrades, whenever possible.– Tests, problem sets, homework, and so on are best recorded bytheir point value to assure greater accuracy when calculatingfinal grades. (Source: Jacobs and Chase, 1992)
    • Grading Tactics• Give students a chance to improve their grades byrewriting their papers.– Many faculty encourage rewriting but do not count the grades onrewritten papers as equivalent to those of papers that have notbeen rewritten. See "Helping Students Write Better in AllCourses."• If many students do poorly on an exam, scheduleanother one on the same material a week or so later.– Devote one or more classes to reviewing the troublesomematerial. Provide in-class exercises, homework problems orquestions, practice quizzes, study group opportunities, and extraoffice hours before you administer the new exam. Thoughreviewing and retesting may seem burdensome and time-consuming, there is usually little point in proceeding to newtopics when many of your students are still struggling. (Source:Erickson and Strommer, 1991)
    • Evaluasi Sistem Grading• Compare your grade distributions with thosefor similar courses in your department.– Differences between your grade distributions andthose of your colleagues do not necessarily mean thatyour methods are faulty. But glaring discrepanciesshould prompt you to reexamine your practices.(Source: Frisbie, Diamond, and Ory, 1979)• Ask students about your grading policies onend-of-course questionnaires.– Here are some sample questions (adapted fromFrisbie, Diamond, and Ory, 1979, p. 22):
    • Evaluasi Sistem GradingTo what extent:– Were the grading procedures for the course fair?– Were the grading procedures for the course clearlyexplained?– Did you receive adequate feedback on yourperformance?– Were requests for regrading or review handled fairly?– Did the instructor evaluate your work in a meaningfuland conscientious manner?