Geographic Information System for Egyptian Railway System(GIS)

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Introduction to Geographical Information System (GIS) for the Egyptian Railway System Project

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Geographic Information System for Egyptian Railway System(GIS)

  1. 1. Geographic Information System (GIS) Eng. Ismail El Gayar
  2. 2. What Is GIS??• Is any system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to location.• is the merging of cartography and database technology
  3. 3. Geographical InformationSystem Modules• Database• Map information• Computer-based link between them
  4. 4. Geographical Information SystemThis technology has developed from: – Digital cartography and CAD – Data Base Management Systems ID X,Y ID ATTRIB 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 CAD System Data Base Management System
  5. 5. Geographical Information System Digital Mapping Computer Photo- Aided grammetry Design GIS Databases Surveying Remote Sensing Cross-disciplinary nature of GIS
  6. 6. Geographical Information System components Spatial data GIS Computer hardware / ? Specific applications / software tools decision making objectives
  7. 7. What makes data spatial? Grid co-ordinate PlacenameLatitude / Longitude Postcode Description Distance & bearing
  8. 8. Characteristics of spatial data• Location • Description: Kingston University,PenrhynRoad Centre • Post Code: KT1 2EE • Grid Reference: 518106.72 168530.37 • Latitude/Longitude: 0° 21’ 55.38”W, 49° 36’ 17.62”N
  9. 9. System Process Flow•Input & update spatial information• Data conversion• Storage & management ofinformation• Manipulation of spatial data• Analysis of spatial information• Presentation of data
  10. 10. GIS Structure Data Input Geographic Query Database Transformation Output: Display and Analysis
  11. 11. Co-Ordinate System• A co-ordinate system is a standardized method for assigning codes to locations so that locations can be found using the codes alone.
  12. 12. Other GIS Features
  13. 13. Field ViewReal world is continuous– Infinite number of places exist– Coordinate system may be used to definelocations– Geographical variation may be described byvariables (or attributes)⇒Population density⇒ Elevation⇒Temperature• Attribute may be conceptualized as a field– Each field represents the variation ofattribute over the surface of the earth
  14. 14. Field ViewReferencing the Field {a, x, y, z, t}a = attribute (empirically confirmable)(tag)x,y,z = spatial coordinatest = reference to time
  15. 15. Database Management System
  16. 16. DBMS Components • Data model • Data input • Indexing – data structure • Query language • Security (controlled access) • Controlled update • Backup and recovery • Standard operations, data manipulation, administrative tools • Programmable interface - customization
  17. 17. DBMS Types • Tabular (flat file) • Hierarchical • Network • Relational • Object • Object-relational • Deductive
  18. 18. GIS Based Functionality • Layers of information – data integration • Visual inspection • Query • Buffering – regular and irregular • Overlay • Areal interpolation
  19. 19. GIS is a part of Decision Making process
  20. 20. Other GIS Features• Produce good cartographic products(translation = maps)• Generate and maintain metadata• Use and share geo-processing models• Managing data in a geodatabaseusing data models for each sector
  21. 21. Databases & GIS Spatial data • At a simple level a GIS may just form the graphical interface to a database • The majority of GIS applications MapILinked database SQL Query follow this nfotable Manager example
  22. 22. Buffering• Creation of an area of interest around an object – proximity analysis and environmental impact assessmen
  23. 23. GIS Provide Data IntegrationExample:- Roads- Population- Hospitals- Wells- Mines
  24. 24. Spatial Image• Information referenced by its location in space
  25. 25. Data Representation Raster Image Vector Image Real World
  26. 26. Spatial data storage 7,10 5,9 10Vector model • 9,8 4,7 polygon as geometric 1,6 8,6 5 2,5 6,6 objects: li ne 5,4 points, lines, point 2,2 4,1 polygons 5 10 as image files composed ofRaster model • grid-cells (pixels) A Desktop GIS should be able to handle both types of data effectively!
  27. 27. The benefits of GIS include:• Better information management• Higher quality analysis• Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios• Improve project efficiency 32
  28. 28. GIS Softwares• ArcGIS• ArcView• AutoCAD MAP• UNIX GIS• GRASS
  29. 29. Arc GIS
  30. 30. Arc GIShttp://www.esri.com/flashmedia/arcview06.swf
  31. 31. Thanks for your time

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