Scenario 6 (a) Blossoms everywhere... You are among one of the lucky botany students at UniversitiPendidikan Sultan Idris that was selected to visit a famous botanical garden in Kew, Richmon, London. Along a few days trip in Kew Garden you are introduced to numerous types of flower and inflorescences of plants kept in the garden which include all types of flower around the world. Since the visit fell on spring, you can see all the plants around you were flowering, such a nice view to experience! Back to university you are instructed to write a report about those flowers seen in Kew garden then present it to the whole department so everybody can share your experience. You will try to make the presentations as interesting as possible so everybody can feel your experience. You are then working in two groups: Those working on the external structure of all variety of flowers and inflorescences seen.
Variety of Flowers and Inflorescences seen in Kew Garden
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Facts Lucky botany students from UPSI was selected to visit a famous botanical garden in Kew, Richman, London. We were introduced to numerous types of flower and inflorescences of plant which include all flower around the world All plants around were flowering because the visit fell on spring season. We were instructed to write a report once back to university. The external structure of all variety of flowers and inflorescences seen have to be presented.
Spring season is suitable for the flowers blooming.
There are many shape and colour of flowers.
All the flowers have different fragrances for pollination.
&The duration of blossoms are vary among the plants in Kew Garden.
Fertilizer is used to induce flowering in plants at Kew Garden before spring season.
Some plants are located inside the green house where they control the factor for plants to flower at the same time.
They are many kinds of pollination agent at the Kew Garden such as butterfly, bee and beetle for pollination of flowering in plants.
Why all the plants in Kew Garden can flower during the spring?
What is the variety and external structures of flowers seen in Kew Garden?
What type of inflorescences can be seen in Kew Garden?
What are the control factors that induce the plants flowering in the Kew Garden?
What type of flower does blooms during spring season in Kew Garden?
Result Discussion about questions in learning issues was made and the result is presented in the following slides.
Q1. Why all the plants in Kew Garden can flower during the spring?
Spring starts on 21st of March, each year.
Spring is the end of winter, and is marked by lengthening days.
Spring is often a very rainy and muddy season.
The phenological definition of spring relates to indicators, the blossoming of a range of plant species, and the activities of animals, or the special smell of soil that has reached the temperature for micro flora to flourish.
The first swallow to arrive or the flowering of lilac may be the indicator of spring. It therefore varies according to the climate and according to the specific weather of a particular year.
In spring, the axis of the Earth is increasing its tilt toward the Sun and the length of daylight rapidly increases for the relevant hemisphere. The hemisphere begins to warm significantly causing new plant growth to "spring forth," giving the season its name.
Snow, if a normal part of winter, begins to melt, and streams swell with runoff. Frosts, if a normal part of winter, become less severe. Many temperate climates have no snow and may have no frosts, and the air and ground temperature increase.
Many flowering plants bloom this time of year, in a long succession sometimes beginning even if snow is still on the ground, continuing into early summer.
Many temperate areas have a dry spring, and wet autumn (fall), which brings about flowering in this season more consistent with the need for water as well as warmth.
Subtropical and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, eg dry or wet, or monsoonal, or cyclonic.
While spring is a result of the warmth caused by the turning of the Earth's axis, the weather in many parts of the world is overlain by events which appear very erratic taken on a year to year basis, but the rainfall in spring, or any season, follows trends more related to longer cycles or events created by ocean currents and ocean temperatures which move to different complex effects.
A good and well researched example being the El Nino effect and the Southern Oscillation Index.
Q2. What is the variety and external structures of flowers seen in Kew Garden?
External Structure of Flower
All part of a flower are actually modified leaves that are speacialized for their role in reproduction.
Flower structure :essential organs and accessory organs.
Essential organs are reproductive structure the stamens and pistil.
Morphology of Flower According to Corolla 1. Sympetalous – Flowers coming under this group come with their petals joined, partially or fully. 2. Polypetalous – The petals of these flowers coming under this group are not joined. 3. Actinomorphic – The flowers coming under this group are having characteristic radial symmetry. The flower can be divided into two identical parts along any imaginary axis through centre. 4. Zygomorphic– The flowers display bilateral symmetry. Only two symmetrical parts are possible along a single axis passing through centre.
Classification Based on the position 1. Terminal – In this group, flowers or clusters of flowers arise on the ends of the axis or branches, like Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia) and Nerium oleander .2. Axillary – flowers or clusters of flowers are carried at the junction of the stem or axis and the leaf, like Catharanthusroseus (periwinkle), Callicarpamericana (beautyberry), and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibiscus) . Morphology of Flower
Classification based on Flower Branches, Clusters, and Inflorescences
1. Single Flower – In this group, single flower present at the tip of peduncle, an elongated stalk or branch of the main axis of the plant. 2. Cluster - In this, three or more flowers gathered in close formation together in simple or branched manner to enhance their conspicuousness. 3. Inflorescence – Inflorescence is the general term used for the arrangement of flowers or groups of flowers.. They are further classified into the racemose type and the cymose type. Morphology of Flower
Morphology of Flower
Classification Based on Blossom
1. Annual flowers – They offer a better option for a longer blooming time. Annuals come in different varieties like‘ Tender’ annuals and Stronger annuals. Some annuals can endure frost or stand up to the elements Perennials produce brilliant flowers over a number of years. Most popular in perennial is the rose, grown in thorny bushes 2. Biennial flowers – They don’t blossom at all the first growing season and die after the second.
Q3. What type of inflorescences can be seen in Kew Garden?
INFLORESCENCE An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch. It is the part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and which is accordingly modified. Spikes, racemes, umbels, whorls, panicles, cymes, and corymbs are common types of inflorescences.
Types of inflorenscences
Q4. What are the control factors that induce the plants flowering in the Kew Garden?
Two Major Factors Light (photoperiod)
The flowering response to day length varies with the species
Short day plants (SDP) - require one or more days with less than a certain amount of daylight. Or, the critical day length to induce flowering must be less than some maximum. These species usually flower in the spring or fall.
Long day Plants (LDP) - require one or more days with more than a minimum day length to flower. The critical day length must be longer than a minimum.
Day neutral plants (DNP) - ambivalent to day length
Plants exhibit a variety of intermediate responses and combinations. For example, there are long-short day plants. After an inductive long-day photoperiod, these plants require short days to flower. This is a good strategy to insure flowering in the late summer.
One inductive photoperiod may suffice to induce flowering (i.e., cocklebur, Japanese morning glory); or, flowering many require several days, with a cumulative effect.
Light may have a quantitative effect on flowering - in other words, SD may stimulate the percentage of plants that flower.
The night period is more important than the day.
Using cocklebur, a SDP, Bonner & Hamner showed that it flowers if it received one critical photoperiod with less than 8 hours of light (or, > 16 h darkness). The proportion of light/dark is not important in flowering. A light break during the night interrupts the flowering response, but a dark period during the day has little effect on flowering. The timing of the night break is important.
Conclusion: long day plants can be called "short night plants" and short day plants can be called "long night plants".
Temperature (cold treatment)
Overview.Many plants require a cold treatment to induce flowering. This is termed vernalization and is a "smart" way to time when winter is over.
Vernalization is common in biennials and winter annuals (such as winter wheat). The effect can be qualitative or quantitative. Vernalization usually works in concert with photoperiod. In other words, vernalization is required to make the plants sensitive to photoperiod. Thus, this acts as a "fail-safe" system to insure flowering at the appropriate time of year (after winter).
Signal.Cold, actual temperature varies from -5 to 15 C.
Some seeds can be vernalized. However, they must be hydrated (dry, unimbibed seeds are insensitive). Biennials not responsive as seeds.
The meristem perceives cold treatment - grafting experiments and tissue culture experiments with rye.
Some plants (henbane) need to reach a certain size to be responsive to cold treatment, whereas others (rye) can be treated as seeds.
Size (more important than age)
Age (i.e., century plants, bamboo);
Growth conditions (conditions that favor growth promote the transition to adult phase; poor conditions, such as water stress, lack of light, low temp, prolong the juvenile phase)
Nutrient levels (i.e., lack of a carbohydrate supply to the meristematic region),
Other chemicals, that in turn trigger the developmental switch to adulthood.
Q5. What type of flowers does blooms during spring season in Kew Garden?
Flowers & Seasons
The various Climatic Changes that occur in cyclic pattern are termed as 'Seasons'. There are four general seasons occuring on Earth - Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter.
Spring Time the time of growth and renewal of new plant and animal life. Spring comes at different times in the North and South Hemispheres.
Spring time in the Northern hemisphere is between March - May, and between September - November in the Southern hemisphere. Most flowering plants bloom during spring time. Therefore, flowers that bloom only during spring, Spring Flowers, bloom at different times in the two hemispheres.
Flowers Blooming Spring are:
Birds of Paradise
Amaryllis Amaryllis belladonna is a very colorful, showy flower and hence the flower is symbolically used to represent the meanings - splendid beauty or pride
Birds of Paradise Birds of Paradise are one of the most colorful flowers in the world. The name comes from the spectacular flower shape which resembles a birds beak and head plumage. Known as Crane flowers are one of the most beautiful Exotic Flowers. Native to South Africa. Bloom from September through May. The flowers of the Birds of Paradise resemble a brightly colored bird in flight and so the name Birds of Paradise.
Cherry Blossom Cherry Blossom are one of the most beautiful flowers, coming in bright colors. T The Cherry Blossom trees in full bloom, during the arrival of spring, is one of the most beautiful sights to behold. Cherry Blossom is so popular that festivals are celebrated in its honor- the Cherry Blossom Festival, celebrated in the months of March and April.
Heather Flowers Hyacinths are spring-flowering bulbs with long, narrow leaves that are folded lengthwise. Hyacinths are highly fragrant flowers that bloom in dense clusters. Hyacinth is the common name for approximately 30 perennial flowering plants of the genus Hyacinthus (order Liliales, family Liliaceae) of the Mediterranean region and Africa.
Tulips Tulips are one of the most popular spring flowers of all time, and the third most popular flowers world-wide next only to the Rose and Chrysanthemum Tulips come in an incredible variety of colors, heights, and flower shapes. Some Tulips are even fragrant.