20100906140958 problem based learning pbl
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  • 1. Problem Based Learning Carbon Fixation TBF 3023 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
  • 2. Group Members Munirah Bt Safiee D20091034844 Nurul Ain Bt Abdul Hamid D20091034867 Nur Iliyana Bt Shafeai D20091034868 Muhammad Hafiz B Abd Kadir D20091034812
  • 3.
    • How does carbon dioxide is fixed in C3 Plants?
  • 4. What is C3 Plants?
    • Most of the plant are C3 plants about 95% of plant species on earth
    • Called C3 because the CO2 is first incorporated into a 3-carbon compound
    • Examples of C3 plant are wheat, barley, potatoes and many more
    • C3 plants flourish in cool, wet, and cloudy climates where there is high concentration of CO2
    • If water is plentiful, the stomata can stay open and let in more carbon dioxide
  • 5.
    • C 3  plants cannot grow in hot area because Rubisco incorporates more oxygen into RuBP as temperatures increase
    • This leads to photorespiration
    • In dry areas, C 3  plants close their stomata to reduce water loss, but this stops CO 2  from entering the leaves and therefore reduces the concentration of CO 2  in the leaves
  • 6. C3 plant anatomy
    • Involves only mesophyll cell
    • No krantz anatomy, only one type of chloroplast in mesophyll cell
    • CO2 fixation occur once only in mesophyll cells
    • Stomata open on the day
    • Stomata close on hot and dry day
    • Rubisco, the enzyme involved in photosynthesis, is also the enzyme involved in the uptake of CO2
    • Use rubisco to make a three-carbon compound as the first stable product of carbon fixation
    • Photosynthesis takes place throughout the leaf
  • 7. Leaf Anatomy
    • In C3 plants, bundle sheath cells do not contain chloroplasts; carbon fixation and Calvin Cycle reactions occur in mesophyll cells
    • In C4 plants, the bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts; carbon is fixed in mesophyll cells, then transported to bundle sheath cells where Calvin Cycle reactions occur
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. How does carbon dioxide fixation process in C4 plant?
  • 13. What is C4 plant?
    • C4 plant grow in tropical and subtropical regions.
    • It is named for the 4-carbon atoms present in the first product of carbon fixation in these plants, in contrast to the 3-carbon atom products in C 3 plants.
    • Carbon dioxide fixation is more efficient in c4 plant.
  • 14. C4 Plant Anatomy
    • The anatomy :
    • Contain two layers of green cell:
      • The outer mesophyll cell layer
      • The inner bundle sheath cell layer
      • The arrangement of these cell layers around vascular bundle is known as Kranz anatomy.
  • 15. Differences c3 and c4 plant
  • 16. c4 Plant Physiology
    • The physiology
      • Faster grow rate
      • High light intensity and temperature
      • Stomatal opening may be minimised ( to lowering transpiration rate)
      • Minimised stomatal opening reduce the carbon dioxide intake
      • To overcome:
        • The mesophyll cell absorb CO2 efficiently and maintain high concentration in bundle sheath cell.
        • PEP carboxylase in c4 plant has a higher affinity for CO2 compared to RuBP carboxylase in C3 plant and not combine with oxygen.
  • 17. C4 pathway
  • 18.
    • The anatomy and physiology of C4 plant give higher and efficient carbohydrate production compared in C3 plant due to the higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the c4 plant.
  • 19. How does carbon dioxide fixation process in CAM plant?
  • 20.
    • Evolved in plants living in very dry or arid conditions.
    • Members of CAM plants :
    • - Crassulaceae
    • - Cactaceae
    • - Euphorbiaceae
    • - Bromeliaceae (pineaple)
  • 21. The CAM pathway occurs at differents TIMES but within the same cell of a CAM plant; in the mesophyll cell
  • 22. Night Stomata Open chloroplast vacuole PEP CO 2 oxaloacetate Malic acid
  • 23. Day Stomata Close chloroplast vacuole PEP CO 2 Pyruvate Malic acid Calvin Cycle
  • 24. Since the stomata is closed during the day, this helps the plant prevent water loss as well as prevent CO 2 from entering the cell
  • 25. M Pla Differences Between C3, C4 and CAM Plants ?
  • 26. Separate reaction in different cell C3 C4
  • 27.
    • C3 plant:
      • No chloroplast in bundle sheath but found in mesophyll cell
      • Carbon fixation and Calvin cycle occur in mesophyll cell.
      • Stomata open during the day
      • Mesophyll cell arranged in parallel row.
    • C4 plant:
      • Contain chloroplast in bundle sheath and mesophyll cell
      • Carbon fixation occur in mesophyll cell
      • Calvin cycle occur in bundle sheath cell.
      • Stomata open during the day
  • 28. ANATOMY
    • CAM ( Crassulacean Acid Metabolism )
        • carbon fixation and Calvin cycle occur in mesophyll cell. (partitioning by the use of time)
        • Stomata close during the day and open at night
  • 29. habitat:
    • C3 plant:
      • Live at moderate temperature and rainfalls
    • C4 plant:
      • Live at hot and dry climate
    • CAM plant:
      • Live at warm and arid regions (desert environment)
  • 30. Carbon fixation:
    • C3 plants:
      • Carbon dioxide undergo carbon fixation by RuBP
      • Form two 3-carbon molecules ( 3-phosphoglycerate)
      • Catalyzed by protein rubisco.
      • Form carbohydrate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)
  • 31.
    • C4 plant:
      • Carbon acceptor : phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
      • Form four-carbon ( oxaloacetate)
      • Catalyzed by PEP carboxylase
  • 32.
    • CAM plant:
      • Fixation of carbon dioxide to oxaloacetate occur during night.
      • Oxaloacetate stored as malic acids in vacoule.