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Mexicanos: The History of Mexicans in the United States Author: Manuel G. Gonzales Summary By  Islay Nicklin
Chapter 1: Spaniards and Native Americans  Prehistory-1521
The Spaniards <ul><li>Around 600 BC…  Romans  brought philosophy, laws, Latin, material wealth, and  Christianity   </li><...
The Amerindians <ul><li>Olmec : 1st civilization in the Americas; southern lowlands of Vera Cruz and Tabasco </li></ul><ul...
The Conquest of Mexico <ul><li>Hernan Cortes : conqueror of the Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma II Xocoyotzin : Aztec E...
Chapter 2: The Spanish Frontier  1521-1821
Spanish Exploration of the Far North & Settlement of New Mexico <ul><li>Cabeza de Vaca  led the first white men and a blac...
Settlement of the Northern Frontier Beyond New Mexico <ul><li>Rene-Robert Cavelier - journeyed down the Mississippi river ...
Major Trends <ul><li>Ethnocentrism :  Spanish, like Europeans viewed natives as inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>“ B eing toler...
Chapter 3: The Mexican Far North  1821-1848
Mexican period of Southwest History <ul><li>Started in 1821 when Mexico severed from Spain Ended in 1848 when Mexico lost ...
Life in Different Parts of the Mexican Far North…   <ul><li>California </li></ul><ul><li>Californios advocated federalism ...
The Clash of Cultures! <ul><li>Anglo immigration in East Texas because of rich agricultural lands.  </li></ul><ul><li>Samu...
Chapter 4: The American Southwest  1848-1900
Gringos & Greasers <ul><li>Major Animosities between Mexicans and American in the second half of the 1800s. </li></ul><ul>...
California  <ul><li>Status of Spanish speakers declined dramatically after the war. Envy, racism, and desire to eliminate ...
Arizona, New Mexico, & Texas <ul><li>Arizona   </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty left the Mexicano population in Arizona under ...
Chapter 5: The Great Migration  1900-1930
Motives for Immigration <ul><li>The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz gained presidency in 1876 and rest...
Life of an Immigrant What they contribute to American economy is much more than they receive in return. <ul><li>Rural Life...
Mexican & European Immigration: A Comparison   <ul><li>Similar in many ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Contratista  = Italian  pad...
Chapter 6: The Depression  1930-1940
Urbanization & Other Important Points about Mexicanos and the Depression   <ul><li>The 1930’s was when a Mexican middle cl...
The “Mexican Problem” <ul><li>The Depression accentuated racism.   </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1920’s there was lots ...
The Dust Bowl Migration <ul><li>Between 1929-1933, farm income in the US dropped by 2/3...  </li></ul><ul><li>Then the mid...
Chapter 7: The Second World War and its Aftermath  1940-1965
Mexicanos in the Military <ul><li>The Pearl Harbor attack created an opportunity for Mexicanos to enter the American mains...
Urbanization: Trials and Tribulations <ul><li>Best jobs were in the cities; so there was a massive movement of Mexicanos i...
Rising <ul><li>World War II altered life for Mexican Americans much more </li></ul><ul><li>than Anglo Americans. </li></ul...
Chapter 8: The Chicano Movement 1965-1975
The Mexican Community in the Mid-Sixties <ul><li>The census categorized all Spanish-surnames together- Mexicans, Cubans, P...
The Chicano Movement <ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic condition was not great but there was steady prog...
The Chicana Movement & the Decline of Chicanoism <ul><li>The Chicano Movement   encountered some hostility from the Mexica...
Chapter 9: Goodbye to Aztlan 1975-1994
Demographic Trends <ul><li>After the 1970s Mexicanos stayed high-profile in American Society… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biling...
Resurgence of Immigration <ul><li>By the mid-nineties, Hispanic population was more than 93 million- a 30 million increase...
NAFTA & new Movements <ul><li>The North American Free Trade Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created free trade zone. </l...
Chapter 10: The Hispanic Challenge 1994-Present
Mexicanos Galore <ul><li>It’s impossible to accurately know how many Mexicans there are in the United States at any given ...
“ Barbarians at the Gate” <ul><li>“ Barbarians at the Gate”:  the new nativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-immigration sent...
The Awakening Giant <ul><li>Grassroots Mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>“ The threat to their civil liberties led Mexican Am...
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Mexicanos r eport pt 1

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  • Transcript of "Mexicanos r eport pt 1"

    1. 1. Mexicanos: The History of Mexicans in the United States Author: Manuel G. Gonzales Summary By Islay Nicklin
    2. 2. Chapter 1: Spaniards and Native Americans Prehistory-1521
    3. 3. The Spaniards <ul><li>Around 600 BC… Romans brought philosophy, laws, Latin, material wealth, and Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>711… The Moors occupied the Iberian Peninsula for more than 750 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animosity led to Reconquista </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact of the Moors on Spain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, Agriculture, Music, Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religiosity </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Amerindians <ul><li>Olmec : 1st civilization in the Americas; southern lowlands of Vera Cruz and Tabasco </li></ul><ul><li>Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Toltec </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec </li></ul><ul><li>All Polytheistic </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Conquest of Mexico <ul><li>Hernan Cortes : conqueror of the Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma II Xocoyotzin : Aztec Emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aztec priests had prophesied that bearded, light-skinned god, Quetzalcoatl would return from the east in 1519, right when Cortez and his army happened to arrive! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The emperor invited the Spaniards in and they extorted vast amounts of treasure from the natives until Rebellion occurred on July 1st, 1520, la noche triste (the sad night). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spaniards fled, but returned several months later and achieved victory. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Chapter 2: The Spanish Frontier 1521-1821
    7. 7. Spanish Exploration of the Far North & Settlement of New Mexico <ul><li>Cabeza de Vaca led the first white men and a black man into the American Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrada (incursion): Spanish settlement of New Mexico (already occupied by both sedentary & nomadic native tribes - Zuni, Hopi, Pueblos) </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was a result of exploitation and attempted conversion. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Settlement of the Northern Frontier Beyond New Mexico <ul><li>Rene-Robert Cavelier - journeyed down the Mississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682 </li></ul><ul><li>Colonizing Alta California was the finale of Spanish expansion to the North </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1769 there more native Americans in California than anywhere else! Spaniards wanted to convert them to Catholicism… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missions brought disease, but achieved more good than bad. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Northern colonies consisted of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) California missions 2) New Mexico 3) Texas </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Major Trends <ul><li>Ethnocentrism : Spanish, like Europeans viewed natives as inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>“ B eing tolerant is a relatively modern ideal; few Europeans saw toleration as a virtue until the Age of the Enlightenment,” (Gonzales, p34-35). </li></ul><ul><li>Catholicism : “T h is missionary mindset, this blinding zeal, created a rationale for the many atrocities Indians suffered,” (Gonzales, p35). </li></ul><ul><li>18 th century: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family life was stable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontier life led to greater freedom for women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred social classes led to a trend toward democratization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race mixture! Much more on the frontier than in central Mexico. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Chapter 3: The Mexican Far North 1821-1848
    11. 11. Mexican period of Southwest History <ul><li>Started in 1821 when Mexico severed from Spain Ended in 1848 when Mexico lost its Northern territories with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo . </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Independence </li></ul><ul><li>The revolutionary wars ruined the mining industry, which was the country’s main source of revenue. Therefore independent Mexico was less able to provide military support on the frontier than Spain was. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Life in Different Parts of the Mexican Far North… <ul><li>California </li></ul><ul><li>Californios advocated federalism and liberalism, whereas the Mexican republic was conservative. Mexico City tried to impose governors on them, which they fought against. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The birth of commercial capitalism, affluence everywhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Life in New Mexico became more convenient and comfortable. Large landholding families are very successful- can compete with Yankee and Mexican traders. </li></ul><ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Elites 2) Pobres (poor Mestizos) 3) Pueblos (Hopi) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican government was unable to encourage emigration from the interior to Texas. This was a major factor in Mexico losing the territory to the United States. </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Clash of Cultures! <ul><li>Anglo immigration in East Texas because of rich agricultural lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Houston & The Texas Revolt initiated by Anglo Texans in 1835 </li></ul><ul><li>The Alamo – 1836—short-lived Mexican victory </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican War </li></ul>
    14. 14. Chapter 4: The American Southwest 1848-1900
    15. 15. Gringos & Greasers <ul><li>Major Animosities between Mexicans and American in the second half of the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>Root of Mexican animosity was losing the war and territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Several causes of American animosity… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican success in gold mines of California inspired envy and the portrayal of Mexicanos a foreign and unfriendly element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious prejudice- Irish Catholics deserted to the Mexican side during the war; so both Irish and Mexican Catholics came to be seen as lazy and irresponsible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The strongest prejudice was race- darker skin </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. California <ul><li>Status of Spanish speakers declined dramatically after the war. Envy, racism, and desire to eliminate competition made vigilante law very bad for minorities… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Act of 1851- violated the treaty and placed burden of proof on grantees not government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rancheros were land rich, but money poor and ended up surrendering large portions of their land in attorney’s fees </li></ul></ul></ul>“ N a turally, the vast majority of Mexicanos came to resent the arrogance they encountered. One consequence was the rise of lawlessness, which often took the form of banditry,” (Gonzales, p89). “ S o cial banditry model S u ggests that brigands, individuals or groups, are frequently members of conquered minorities who have been victimized by exploitation, often accompanied by racism, and that their oppressed status is the source of their criminality,” (Gonzales, p89).
    17. 17. Arizona, New Mexico, & Texas <ul><li>Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty left the Mexicano population in Arizona under Mexican sovereignty, but then America wanted to extend farther south. The Gadsden Purchase/Treaty of Mesilla was ratified in 1854. </li></ul><ul><li>Relations between Anglos and Mexicanos is southern Arizona were good before 1880. </li></ul><ul><li>The railroad caused the economic power of the Hispanic elite to wane, and the good relations waned also. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistas- mutual aid societies of Mexicanos in the American Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic population was better able to preserve its heritage than other parts of the Southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Affluence generated by expanding trade; substantial gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural marriage muted hostility. </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 divided New Mexicans, and the war’s </li></ul><ul><li>aftermath brought many new Anglos. Railroad increased this migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo-Mexican relations were worst here. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Chapter 5: The Great Migration 1900-1930
    19. 19. Motives for Immigration <ul><li>The Mexican Revolution 1910-1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Diaz gained presidency in 1876 and restored power of central government and economy. However material gains were not only at the expense of liberty, but also only enjoyed by a small powerful minority. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian culture and Mexican agrarian society was totally disrupted. Indians were basically made into slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The agrarian discontent was the biggest cause of the revolution. Loss of land by peasants brought on an economic crisis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The revolution created as many problems as it solved- looting, burning, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Development of the American Southwest </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation from a pastoral to an agricultural economy, which became heavily dependent on cheap, unskilled labor. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Life of an Immigrant What they contribute to American economy is much more than they receive in return. <ul><li>Rural Life </li></ul><ul><li>As bad as the exploitation was, there was no way to fight it; those who did were either blackballed or deported. Furthermore, when compared to life back in Mexico it didn’t seem so bad. Most accepted the situation with resignation. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicanos in the countryside were isolated from mainstream America and for the most part segregated from Anglos, although they did work along side many European immigrants in mines and railroads </li></ul><ul><li>The Contratista </li></ul><ul><li>Labor contractors who served as intermediaries between Mexican laborers & their employers </li></ul><ul><li>Worst abuse within ethnic community came from contratistas- even though they often were close with the workers; the workers’ extreme vulnerability invited exploitation, a temptation that too often was not resisted. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Mexican & European Immigration: A Comparison <ul><li>Similar in many ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Contratista = Italian padrone = Irish politician (all liaisons with the host society) </li></ul><ul><li>Common motives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of village economies caused by encroaching capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties adjusting to American society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coped with mutual benefit societies and family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differences are more important: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mindset : European immigrants planned on staying permanently and severed emotional ties with their home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography: Europeans landed in the East in a rapidly expanding industrial job market in cities, where they could establish roots, children could gain education, and conditions improved over time. Mexican immigrants were greatly restricted to mining, railroad, and agricultural jobs, which were often migratory; thus education difficult to acquire and conditions improved very slowly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans were able to purchase land and establish a land base . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of entry- Europeans were generally legal , whereas most Mexicans were illegal . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish, Italians, & Jews have been absorbed into the middle class, but Mexicanos are predominately working-class. = lack of socioeconomic progress </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Chapter 6: The Depression 1930-1940
    23. 23. Urbanization & Other Important Points about Mexicanos and the Depression <ul><li>The 1930’s was when a Mexican middle class first developed! </li></ul><ul><li>Major labor strife in the Southwest- 1930’s strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Americans were major participants in the labor movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The low-paying jobs worked by Mexicanos had previously been shunned by Anglo Americans, but now, with no alternatives, Anglo Americans entered these fields, and competition drove wages down. </li></ul><ul><li>The Depression forced many Mexicanos out of the countryside and into urban areas, where there was a greater variety of work opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>In the Midwest, assimilation was not occurring; intense hostility caused immigrants to withdraw into ethnic communities. </li></ul>
    24. 24. The “Mexican Problem” <ul><li>The Depression accentuated racism. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1920’s there was lots of suspicion and lots of stereotypes about foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion was extremely strong and pushed Congress to make illegal entry a criminal offense in 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>Repatriation </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration laws were unnecessary during the depression because there was no longer a strong economy attracting Mexicans. </li></ul><ul><li>Many (~1/3) Mexicans returned to Mexico during the 1930’s. </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Dust Bowl Migration <ul><li>Between 1929-1933, farm income in the US dropped by 2/3... </li></ul><ul><li>Then the mid-1930’s drought and windstorms devastated the lower great plains. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half a million people had to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Most headed to California </li></ul><ul><li>The new arrivals took many of the jobs previously worked by Mexicans and worsened their already extreme impoverished state. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Chapter 7: The Second World War and its Aftermath 1940-1965
    27. 27. Mexicanos in the Military <ul><li>The Pearl Harbor attack created an opportunity for Mexicanos to enter the American mainstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were drafted but many enlisted. More Mexicanos enlisted than anyone else! </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicans who served gained vastly from the experience, primarily in psychological benefits because of the respect and acceptance they finally earned from Anglo Americans. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Urbanization: Trials and Tribulations <ul><li>Best jobs were in the cities; so there was a massive movement of Mexicanos into urban centers . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard of living improved slowly! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External pressures started to have an adverse affect on family life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pachuco gangs emerged in the 1940s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marijuana & tattoos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reemergence of “T h e Mexican Problem ” - the media targeted pachucos, ideal scapegoats because of their appearance and low numbers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bracero Program </li></ul><ul><li>Brought in temporary workers as a solution to labor needs </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Wetback </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of illegal immigrants </li></ul>
    29. 29. Rising <ul><li>World War II altered life for Mexican Americans much more </li></ul><ul><li>than Anglo Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the Mexican middle class finally occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Children of immigrants, not first generation immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican American Generation </li></ul><ul><li>1930-1960~ in this cohort it was common for middleclass native-born Mexicans to fight for civil liberties. </li></ul><ul><li>Political advances made from 40’s-60’s </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican American Intelligentsia </li></ul><ul><li>1940-1965~ rise of intellectuals! </li></ul>
    30. 30. Chapter 8: The Chicano Movement 1965-1975
    31. 31. The Mexican Community in the Mid-Sixties <ul><li>The census categorized all Spanish-surnames together- Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 1/3 of all Mexicanos lived in Los Angeles, San Antonio, San Francisco, and El Paso. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 290,000 Mexicans entered the country legally in the 1950s. Illegal immigration may have been 4 times greater. Still, over half the Mexicanos in the Southwest were second-generation U.S. citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic gains- working class Latinos decreased! – from 42% to 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Education levels were improving! – Spanish speaking high school graduates increased almost 75% </li></ul><ul><li>BUT Mexicanos still averaged 3-4 years less education than Anglos… less than 6% went to college. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Mexicanos still had unskilled or semi-skilled, low-wage jobs. </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Chicano Movement <ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic condition was not great but there was steady progress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The black civil rights movement set the foundation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The termination of the Bracero agreement in 1964 brought about a United Farm Workers (UFW) strike the following year. This was led by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militant Non-Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Student Movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of cultural regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1968 High School walk outs in Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly evident among the working class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I n spired by patriotism, machismo, and the chance to escape dead-end jobs in rural towns and urban barrios,” (Gonzales, p214). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NACS - National Association for Chicano Studies (Now, NACCS - National Association for Chicana and Chicano Studies) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Chicana Movement & the Decline of Chicanoism <ul><li>The Chicano Movement encountered some hostility from the Mexicano community; so they attempted to form ties with Anglo Feminist movement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>example: Chicana Women’s Political Caucus within the National Women’s Political Caucus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Decline of Chicanoism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent immigrants were reluctant to participate in the movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The country changed a lot after the end of the Vietnam war, and many civil rights movements faded. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy of the Movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education!- Chicano/a Studies Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Chapter 9: Goodbye to Aztlan 1975-1994
    35. 35. Demographic Trends <ul><li>After the 1970s Mexicanos stayed high-profile in American Society… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major increase in numbers (109 towns and cities reached Hispanic majority by 1990); because of very high birthrate. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Resurgence of Immigration <ul><li>By the mid-nineties, Hispanic population was more than 93 million- a 30 million increase in 20 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation was still economic gain, but now more Mexican immigrants were coming from cities, only ~ シ of Mexico’s population worked in agriculture by the mid-nineties. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous people started to become more visible in the immigrant population now. </li></ul><ul><li>Many illegal immigrants entered the country legally (with visas) and then did not leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-standing Mexicano communities were usually more opposed to illegal immigration than the rest of the American population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worried that their livelihood would be threatened. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)- It enacted sanctions against employers of illegal immigrants and it granted amnesty and a path to citizenship to undocumented workers who had been in the country for a certain period of time. It diminished illegal entry until another immigration law was passed in 1990, which increased immigration by 40%. </li></ul>
    37. 37. NAFTA & new Movements <ul><li>The North American Free Trade Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created free trade zone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: to create jobs in Mexico and for the US economy to benefit from lucrative Mexican markets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Decade of the Hispanic: an Unfulfilled Promise </li></ul><ul><li>Feministas : the second generation of Chicana movement </li></ul><ul><li>The Chicano Renaissance: vast cultural and artistic growth. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Chapter 10: The Hispanic Challenge 1994-Present
    39. 39. Mexicanos Galore <ul><li>It’s impossible to accurately know how many Mexicans there are in the United States at any given time. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of mass immigration after 1994 were generally the same as before 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico is still a society of privilege, with a small minority at the top of the status ladder </li></ul>
    40. 40. “ Barbarians at the Gate” <ul><li>“ Barbarians at the Gate”: the new nativism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-immigration sentiment is still prominent in the United States </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. The Awakening Giant <ul><li>Grassroots Mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>“ The threat to their civil liberties led Mexican American communities to mobilize politically throughout the country,” (Gonzales, p282). </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latinos are not consistent supporters of either party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadly, coalition building has been difficult because of animosities between ethnic minority groups. </li></ul></ul>
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