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Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
Management and planning in Health
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Management and planning in Health

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  • 1. ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﺻﺤﯽ‬ ‫‪Health Planning‬‬ ‫دوﮐﺘﻮر ﺧﻮاﺟﻪ ﻣﻴﺮ اﺳﻼم ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫)‪MD( KMU), MSc- HPM (AKU‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﭘﺮﺳﺖ دﻳﭙﺎرﺗﻤﻨﺖ ﺁﻣﻮزش ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ و ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﻴﺴﺘﻴﺘﻮت ﻣﻠﯽ ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ‬
  • 2. Definition of Management ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮﯼ ﭘﻴﺸﮑﺶ‬Functions of ManagementEffectiveness and EfficiencyDefinition of PlanningWhy planning ?Scarcity and ChoiceTypes of Planning and their differencesBasics of planning and planning cycleSituation analysisStake holder analysisProblem analysisObjective analysisStrategy analysisAction plan 2
  • 3. ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ، ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪهﯽ ، رهﺒﺮﯼ و‬‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮول ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺗﻼش هﺎﯼ اﻋﻀﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ و اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ از‬‫دﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﻮﺛﺮ و ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ اوردن‬ ‫اهﺪاف ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ Management is the process of planning , organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of an organization members and using other organizational resources efficiently and effectively to achieve the stated organizational goals P . Drucker .‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت از اﻧﺠﺎم وﻇﻴﻔﻪ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺮدم اﺳﺖ‬ Getting job done through the people 3
  • 4. ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫در ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ و ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺳﻪ اﺻﻞ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ در ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫داﺷﺖ:‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻳﺎ ‪Resources‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ‪Activities‬‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ و ﻳﺎ اهﺪاف ‪Results‬‬‫ﭘﺲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺑﮑﺎر ﺑﺮدن ﻣﻮﺛﺮ و ﻣﺜﻤﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ از‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺼﻮل اهﺪاف ﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫4‬
  • 5. ‫ ﺳﻄﻮح ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬Management LevelsFirst-line Managers: responsible for day-to-day operation. They supervise the people performing the activities required to make the good or service.Middle Managers: Supervise first-line managers. They are also responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals.Top Managers: Responsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility. They establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers. 5
  • 6. Three Levels of Management Top Managers Middle Managers First-line Managers Non-management 6
  • 7. ‫ ﻣﻬﺎرت هﺎﯼ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬Managerial Skills 1. Conceptual skills: the ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and find the cause and effect. 2. Human skills: the ability to understand, alter, lead, and control people’s behavior. 3. Technical skills: the job-specific knowledge required to perform a task. Common examples include marketing, accounting, and manufacturing 7
  • 8. 1-22 Skill Type Needed by Manager Level TopManagers MiddleManagers LineManagers Conceptual Human Technical 8
  • 9. ‫وﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻳﺎ‬ Functions of Management Planning Choose GoalsControlling OrganizingMonitor & measure Working together Leading Coordinate 9
  • 10. ‫‪ Planning‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ‬‫ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد اﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ اﻳﺴﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻣﺪﻳﺮان‬‫ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ و ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ اهﺪاف ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫وﻳﮏ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﻪ اﯼ از ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺣﺼﻮل اهﺪاف‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻗﺮار ﻣﻴﮕﻴﺮد.‬ ‫‪Planning is the process used by managers to‬‬ ‫‪identify and select appropriate goals and‬‬ ‫.‪courses of action for an organization‬‬ ‫01‬
  • 11. ‫‪ Organizing‬ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪهﯽ‬‫ﺳﺎزﻣﺎﻧﺪهﯽ ﻋﺒﺎرت از هﻤﺎهﻨﮓ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺸﺮﯼ و‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﺑﺸﺮﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬ ‫اﻧﮑﺸﺎف ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎر ﺗﺸﮑﻴﻼﺗﯽ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻻﻳﺤﻪ وﻇﺎﻳﻒ‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد ﺗﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام و ﺁﻣﻮزش و اﻧﮑﺸﺎف‬ ‫11‬
  • 12. ‫‪Leading‬رهﺒﺮﯼ وﻳﺎ راهﻨﻤﺎﻳﯽ‬‫رهﺒﺮﯼ ﻳﺎ رهﺒﺮﻳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺗﻮاﻧﺎﺋﯽ ﻧﻔﻮذ ﻳﮏ ﺁﻣﺮ در رﻓﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﮐﺎرﻣﻨﺪان ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﺗﺎ اﻧﻬﺎ اﻋﻤﺎل ﻣﻌﻴﻦ را ﭘﻴﺮوﯼ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ .‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻴﺠﺮان ﻳﮏ راﻩ درﺳﺖ و اﺻﻮﻟﯽ را ﺗﻌﻴﻦ و ﭘﺮﺳﻮﻧﻞ را‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ ﻣﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﮐﻪ در هﻤﺎن ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪Motivating‬‬ ‫‪Delegating‬‬ ‫‪Managing Conflict‬‬ ‫‪Managing Change‬‬ ‫‪Communicating Information‬‬ ‫21‬
  • 13. ‫‪ Controlling‬ﻧﻈﺎرت و ﮐﻨﺘﺮول‬‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮول ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ از‬‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ان ﻣﺴﻮﻟﻴﻦ ﻗﺎدر ﻣﻴﮕﺮدﻧﺪ ،ﮐﻪ ﺑﺪاﻧﻨﺪ اﻳﺎ‬‫ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ در ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ اوردن اهﺪاف ﺧﻮد در‬ ‫ﺣﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﻴﺮ ؟‬ ‫‪Monitoring‬‬ ‫‪Supervision‬‬ ‫‪Auditing‬‬ ‫‪Evaluation‬‬ ‫31‬
  • 14. ‫‪Effectiveness & Efficiency‬‬‫‪ Effectiveness‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮﺛﺮﻳﺖ :ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺑﺪﺳﺖ‬ ‫اوردن اهﺪاف و ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬‫‪ Efficiency‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﺜﻤﺮﻳﺖ: ﻋﺒﺎرت از اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ و ﺑﻤﻮﻗﻊ از ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬‫ﺑﻨﺂ ﻳﮏ ‪ Manager‬هﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ‪ Effective‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ‬‫اهﺪاف ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ را ﺑﺪﺳﺖ اورد و هﻢ ‪ Efficient‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬‫، ﮐﻪ از ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ و ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدﻩ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ .‬ ‫41‬
  • 15. ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮﻳﺖ و ﻣﺜﻤﺮﻳﺖ‬ Effectiveness & Efficiency Reaching goals Using resource appropriatelyEffective & Efficient + +Ineffective and - -inefficientEffective but inefficient + -Ineffective but efficient 0 + 15
  • 16. ‫اﺳﺎﺳﺎت ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ‬Basics of Planning
  • 17. ‫ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬‫ﻳﮏ ﭘﻼن ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﻃﺮح وﻳﺎ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻣﺮوزﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﻓﺮدا ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ در ﺁن ﺗﻤﺎم ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ وار‬ ‫ذﮐﺮ ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد ﺗﺎ اﻳﻨﮑﻪ در دورﻩ اﻳﻨﺪﻩ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬‫ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ دواﻣﺪار و دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﮏ اﺳﺖ و ﺑﺎ‬‫درﺟﻪ ﺑﻠﻨﺪ اﻧﻌﻄﺎف ﭘﺬﻳﺮﯼ ﻣﺘﺼﻒ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ان ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺗﺤﻮل و ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﻴﺮوﻧﯽ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬‫ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﻨﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻓﻌﻼ ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن در ﮐﺠﺎ ﻗﺮار دارد‬ ‫و در ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ در ﮐﺠﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﻗﺮار داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫در ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ هﻤﻪ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ذﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫71‬
  • 18. ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ روﯼ ﺳﻪ ﺳﻮال ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ذﻳﻞ اﺳﺘﻮار‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ در ﮐﺠﺎ ﻗﺮار دارﻳﻢ؟ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ “اﻳﻨﺠﺎ”‬ ‫در اﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﮐﺠﺎ ﻣﻴﺨﻮاهﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ؟ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ “اﻧﺠﺎ”‬‫ﭼﻄﻮر ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ ﮐﻪ در ﻣﺤﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب ﺑﺮﺳﻴﻢ؟ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ از اﻳﻨﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ اﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﮐﺪام ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ را ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﻧﺠﺎم داد‬ ‫و ﮐﺪام ﻧﻮع ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ هﺎ را ﺿﺮورت دارﻳﻢ‬ ‫81‬
  • 19. ‫ﭼﺮا ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﺮد ?‪Why Planning‬‬ ‫‪“Failing to plan is planning to‬‬ ‫”‪fail‬‬‫ﻧﺎﮐﺎﻣﯽ در ﭘﻼن ﺳﺎزﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﻼن ﮐﺮدن ﺑﺮاﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﮐﺎﻣﯽ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫91‬
  • 20. ‫دﻻﻳﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ‬ ‫روﺷﻦ ﺷﺪن ﻣﺴﻴﺮ و اﺳﺘﻘﺎﻣﺖ ﮐﺎرﯼ‬ ‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ دهﯽ و ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺸﻮرﻩ دهﯽ ، ﻣﺬاﮐﺮﻩ و رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮ‬‫ﻣﻄﻤﻴﻦ ﺷﺪن از اﻳﻨﮑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم اﻓﺮاد ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ و دﻳﮕﺮ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ اهﺪاف ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﮐﺎر ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻴﺎن اوردن ﺗﻌﻬﺪ و اﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﺎﻟﮑﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺗﺎﻣﻴﻦ ﺛﺒﺎت ﺳﻴﺎﺳﯽ ، ﻣﺎﻟﯽ و ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ و ﺗﺪاوم اﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ رهﻨﻤﻮد ﻣﻨﻄﻘﯽ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ اﻣﻮر روزﻣﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ اﻓﻬﺎم و ﺗﻔﻬﻴﻢ ﺧﻮاﺳﺖ هﺎ و ﺁرزو هﺎﯼ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﮕﺮان‬ ‫02‬
  • 21. ‫‪ Scarcity and choice‬ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ و اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬‫ﺿﺮورت هﺎﯼ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎد داﻧﺎن ﻣﻴﮕﻮﻳﻨﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻮس ﻳﮏ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ هﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻣﺤﺪود ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬‫در ﺳﮑﺘﻮر ﺻﺤﺖ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺿﺮورت هﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯽ ﮐﻢ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ .‬‫اﺻﻄﻼح ‪ Scarcity‬ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ در ﮐﺸﻮر هﺎﯼ ﻧﺎدار ، ﺑﻠﮑﻪ در ﮐﺸﻮر‬ ‫هﺎﯼ ﻏﻨﯽ ﻧﻴﺰ دﻻﻟﺖ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬‫هﻴﭻ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺻﺤﯽ ﻧﻤﯽ ﺗﻮاﻧﺪ ،ﮐﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم ﻧﻴﺎزﻣﻨﺪﯼ هﺎﯼ ﺻﺤﯽ ﻳﮏ‬‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ را ﺟﻮاﺑﮕﻮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﺑﻠﮑﻪ اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ دادن ﻧﻴﺎزﻣﻨﺪﯼ هﺎ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ و اﻧﺘﺨﺎب اﺻﻞ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰﯼ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫12‬
  • 22. Indicators of health-care resources and needsHealth planning for developing countries by Andrew GreenCountries Health expenditure per Child Mortality Life Expectancy capita and per year , (US Rate per 1000 live rate at birth for $ )2002 births (under five ) female born (years ) Estimates for 2003 2003Afghanistan 4-6 ١٩١ 45Tajikistan 6 118 74Nigeria 19 198 46Zambia 20 182 39Indonesia 26 41 68India 30 87 63China 63 37 73Iran 104 39 72UK 2031 6 81USA 5274 8 80 22
  • 23. ‫اﻧﻮاع ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ هﺎ ‪Planning –Types‬‬ ‫‪ Strategic Planning‬ﻳﮏ ﭘﻼن ﻃﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﻤﺪت اﺳﺖ‬ ‫١.‬ ‫، ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻋﻤﻮﻣﯽ ﺗﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫) ‪(Results / Goals / Strategy‬‬‫‪ Operational Planning‬ﻳﮏ ﭘﻼن ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﺪت‬ ‫٢.‬‫اﺳﺖ ،ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﻳﮑﺘﻌﺪاد ﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ﺗﻤﺮﮐﺰ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫)‪(Activities / Actions‬‬ ‫32‬
  • 24. Planning typesCorporate-level: decisions by top managers. Considers on which businesses or markets to be in. Provides a framework for all other planning.Business-level: details divisional long-term goalsand structure. Identifies how this business meets corporate goals. Shows how the business will compete in market.Functional-level: actions taken by managers indepartments of manufacturing, marketing, etc. These plans state exactly how business-level strategies are accomplished. 24
  • 25. Planning typesTime horizon: refers to how far in the futurethe plan applies. Long-term plans are usually 5 years or more. Intermediate-term plans are 1 to 5 years. Corporate and business level plans specify long and intermediate term. Short-term plans are less than 1 year. Functional plans focus on short to intermediate term.Most firms have a rolling planning cycle toamend plans constantly. 25
  • 26. Types of PlansStanding plans: for programmed decisions. Managers develop policies, rules, and standard operating procedures (SOP). Policies are general guides to action. Rules are a specific guide to action.Single-use plans: developed for a one-time,nonprogrammed issue. Usually consist ofprograms and projects. Programs: integrated plans achieving specific goals. Project: specific action plans to complete programs. 26
  • 27. Strategic framework Vision Picture of future Mission Why an organization exist? Goals Broad, long term statement of intend that define a desired result Results of specific activities or Objectives outcome to be achieved over a stated time. Strategies Set of actions to achieve goals 27
  • 28. Visions that changed the world “By the end of the decade we will put a man on the moon”.‫ﻣﺎ اﻟﯽ ﺧﺘﻢ اﻳﻦ دهﻪ اﻧﺴﺎن را در‬ . ‫ﻣﻬﺘﺎب ﭘﻴﺎدﻩ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﻧﻤﻮد‬ J.F Kennedy, 1960 Men landed on the Moon in 1969 28
  • 29. Visions that changed the world I have a dream… I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of they skin but they content of character .‫ﻣﻦ ﻳﮏ ارﻣﺎن دارم ، ﮐﻪ ﭼﺎر ﻓﺮزﻧﺪم ﻧﻪ‬‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس رﻧﮓ ، ﺑﻠﮑﻪ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺖ ﺷﺎن ﻣﻮرد ﻗﻀﺎوت ﻗﺮار‬ . ‫ﮔﻴﺮد‬ Washington 1963 Martine Luther king Law for ending discrimination voted in 1965 29
  • 30. ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﻬﺎﺗﻤﺎ ﮔﺎﻧﺪﯼ‬ ‫دﻣﻮﮐﺮاﺳﯽ ، ﮐﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻴﺎل دارم ، ﻳﮏ‬ ‫دﻣﻮﮐﺮاﺳﯽ اﺳﺖ ، ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ﻋﺪم‬‫ﺧﺸﻮﻧﺖ اﻳﺠﺎد ﺷﻮد و در ان هﻤﻪ ﺁزاد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و هﺮ ﻧﻔﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ﺧﻮد ﮔﺮدد . در‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت ، ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ اﻳﻦ ﺑﺎور ﺷﻮﻳﻢ ،‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﺑﻴﻦ هﻨﺪو و ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن را‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﻣﻮش ﻧﻤﻮدﻩ و ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﻮد را‬ ‫هﻨﺪوﺳﺘﺎﻧﯽ ﻓﮑﺮ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ و در ﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎرزﻩ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ اﺳﺘﻘﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎرزﻩ ﺧﻮاهﻴﻢ ﻧﻤﻮد.‬‫2491 ,‪Mahatma Gandhi‬‬ ‫03‬
  • 31. ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ ؟‬‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﺗﺼﻮر اﻟﻬﺎم ﺑﺨﺶ از ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ دﻟﺨﻮاﻩ و‬‫ﻣﻤﮑﻨﻪ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﺪﺳﺖ ﺁوردن ان‬ ‫ﺗﻼش ﻣﻴﻮرزﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪Dream‬‬ ‫‪Ideal Situation‬‬ ‫‪Social related‬‬ ‫‪Inspiration of your team and organization‬‬ ‫?‪What will success look like‬‬ ‫13‬
  • 32. ‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﻳﮏ دﻳﺪ ﮔﺎﻩ ﻳﺎ ‪Vision‬‬‫ﻣﺎ ﻣﺒﺎرزﻩ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ ، ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ را ﺑﻤﻴﺎن اورﻳﻢ ،ﮐﻪ در ان‬‫هﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪﻩ ان ﺣﻖ ﻣﺴﺎوﯼ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺖ هﺎﯼ ﺻﺤﯽ ﺑﺎ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬‫داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و در ﻳﮏ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ زﻧﺪﻩ ﮔﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺻﺤﺖ را‬‫از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ دﺳﺘﺮﺳﯽ ﺑﻪ اب ﺻﺤﯽ ، ﻏﺬا ﺻﺤﯽ و ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﻬﺪاﺷﺘﯽ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺘﻮاﻧﺪ‬‫ﺻﺤﺖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﺮاي ﮐﺎﻓﻪ ﻣﺮدم اﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎن ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر اﻧﮑﺸﺎف ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي و اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﮐﺸﻮر‬‫‪Better health for all afghans in order to contribute to‬‬ ‫‪economic and social development‬‬ ‫23‬
  • 33. What are values? ‫ارزش هﺎ ﭼﻴﺴﺖ‬‫ارزش هﺎ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻋﻘﺎﻳﺪ اﺳﺖ ، ﮐﻪ اﻋﻀﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ اﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎور دارﻧﺪ و اﻧﺮا در ﻋﻤﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ Your organizational values will determine your strategies and your operational principles. For example: If one of your value is emphasizing doing things “with” than rather than “for” people, then you are likely to involve beneficiaries, or potential beneficiaries closely in your planning process. Values are also useful in communicating the reasoning behind decision-making. 33
  • 34. Example of some planning values Equity Accessibility Effectiveness Community Efficiency participation Quality Stewardship Excellence Collaboration Accountability Integration Transparency Gender sensitivity Solidarity Discipline Flexibility Quality Competition Teamwork Competency Innovativeness 34
  • 35. ‫ارزش هﺎﯼ وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ زﻧﺪﻩ ﮔﻲ ﺳﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫‪Right to‬‬ ‫ﺷﻔﻘﺖ و ﺗﺮﺣﻢ‬‫‪healthy life‬‬ ‫)‪(Compassion‬‬ ‫‪Compassion‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪاﻗﺖ و ﺷﺎﻳﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﮐﺎري‬ ‫‪Honesty and‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ اﺻﻞ ﻋﺪاﻟﺖ در ﻋﺮﺿﻪ‬‫‪competence‬‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫‪Equity‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ از ﻧﻮاﺣﻲ روﺳﺘﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫‪Pro-rural‬‬ ‫53‬
  • 36. ‫رﺳﺎﻟﺖ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻣﻮرﻳﺖ‬‫ﻣﺎﻣﻮرﻳﺖ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮدﻳﺖ ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، دﻟﻴﻠﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻴﺎن ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭼﺮا ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ وﺟﻮد داﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ A mission statement should answer to following questions: What do we do (product or services delivering)? How do you do it in broad terms, what methods are used? With whom and for whom do we do it? 36
  • 37. Example of mission statement We are a School-based group working in the Rural area. We aim to improve the conditions in which elderly people in our society live. We do this providing people over the age of 65 who have limited resources with transport, meals and the opportunity to socialize. 37
  • 38. ‫دﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ‬‫وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮاهﻢ ﺁوري ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺖ ﺻﺤﻲ ﺑﺎ‬‫ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم اﻓﻐﺎﻧﻬﺎ ، ﺑﻪ وﻳﮋﻩ زﻧﺎن واﻃﻔﺎل و‬‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ از ﮐﺸﻮر ﮐﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺎل از ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﺻﺤﻲ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬‫ﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﻴﺴﺘﻨﺪ ، از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﮐﺎر ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺎ اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫وهﻤﮑﺎران وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻬﺪ اﺳﺖ.‬ ‫83‬
  • 39. ‫ﻣﺮام ﻳﺎ هﺪف ‪Goal definition‬‬ ‫هﺪف ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺑﻴﺎن وﺳﻴﻊ وﻃﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﻤﺪت ﻳﮏ ﻗﺼﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ و ﻳﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ. ﻳﺎ ﺑﻌﺒﺎرﻩ دﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻮب‬‫واﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام ﻳﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ اﺳﺖ. ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ در ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮدﻩ و ﺑﻪ ارﻗﺎم اراﻳﻪ ﻧﻤﻴﺸﻮد.‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺻﺤﯽ ﻣﺮدم اﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎن‬ ‫رﻳﺸﻪ ﮐﺮدن ﻣﺮض ﺗﻮﺑﺮﮐﻠﻮز از ﮐﺸﻮر‬ ‫ﮐﺎهﺶ ﻣﺮگ و ﻣﻴﺮ ﻣﺎدران و اﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد ﻳﮏ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﮐﺎرﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ اﮐﻤﺎل ﺗﺨﺼﺺ در وزارت‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫93‬
  • 40. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻳﺎ ‪objectives‬‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪﯼ اﻧﺪ ﮐﻪ در ﻗﻴﺪ زﻣﺎن ﺑﻮدﻩ و ﺑﻪ ارﻗﺎم اراﻳﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ.‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺼﻮل ﻳﮏ هﺪف ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺼﺪ را ﻗﺒﻼ اﻧﮑﺸﺎف دادﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻢ.‬ ‫اهﺪاف ﮐﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﺪت را ‪ target‬ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻪ داراﯼ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ذﻳﻞ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ. ‪SMART‬‬ ‫‪Specific‬‬ ‫‪Measurable‬‬ ‫‪Achievable‬‬ ‫‪Relevant- result focused‬‬ ‫‪Time related‬‬‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﭘﻮﺷﺶ واﮐﺴﻴﻦ ﺳﺮﺧﮑﺎن را اﻟﯽ ﺳﺎل ۵١٠٢ در اﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎن ﺑﻪ ٠٩‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺼﺪ ﻣﻴﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰان ﺳﻮاد اﺷﺨﺎص ﺑﺎﻟﻎ را در ﮐﺸﻮر اﻟﯽ ﺳﺎل ۵١٠٢ﺑﻪ ۵٧%‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺮﺳﺎﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫04‬
  • 41. ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﻳﺎ راهﺒﺮد‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ اﯼ از ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎزﻣﺎن را ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺼﻮل اهﺪاف ﺗﻮاﻧﻤﻨﺪ ﻣﻴﺴﺎزد.‬‫اﻧﮑﺸﺎف راهﺒﺮد هﺎ از ﻓﻬﻢ دﻗﻴﻖ اهﺪاف و ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ ﺁﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد.‬ ‫ﺳﺎدﻩ ﺗﺮ اﻳﻦ اﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺷﻴﻮﻩ رﺳﻴﺪن ﺑﻪ هﺪف را راهﺒﺮد ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫دواﭘﺎﺷﯽ ﺳﺎﺣﺎت ﻧﺸﻮ وﻧﻤﺎﯼ ﭘﺸﻪ ﻣﻼرﻳﺎ ذرﻳﻌﻪ ﻣﻮاد ﺣﺸﺮﻩ ﮐﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ ﭘﺸﻪ ﺧﺎﻧﻪ هﺎﯼ ﻣﻐﻄﻮس ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮاد ﺣﺸﺮﻩ ﮐﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ‪DOTS‬‬ ‫14‬
  • 42. Planning Cycle or Spiral Situational analysis……. Situational analysis Evaluation Priority- settingImplementationand Monitoring Option appraisal Programming 42
  • 43. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ و ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ اوﺿﺎع‬Situation Analysis
  • 44. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اوﺿﺎع ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬‫ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁورﯼ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت در ﻣﻮرد ﻣﺤﻴﻂ داﺧﻠﯽ و‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ ﺟﻬﺖ رهﻨﻤﺎﺋﯽ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ.‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁورﯼ و ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت هﻤﻪ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ راﺟﻊ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫وﺿﻴﻌﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮد و ﻳﺎ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺻﺤﯽ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﺎت رهﻨﻤﻮدﯼ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اوﺿﺎع ﻋﺒﺎرت از:‬ ‫اﺷﺘﺮاﮐﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ اﮐﺜﺮﻳﺖ ذﻳﺪﺧﻞ اﺟﺮا ﮔﺮدد‬‫ﺑﻴﺮون ﻧﮕﺮﯼ ﻳﺎ ‪ Outward looking‬ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺧﺎرج از ‪ Context‬ﻓﮑﺮ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﻴﻢ ، ﮐﻪ در اﻧﺠﺎ ﮐﺎر ﻣﻴﮑﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﺧﺘﻦ از دﻳﮕﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﻮدن ارﻗﺎم ﻧﻪ ﺑﺸﮑﻞ اﻓﺴﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫44‬
  • 45. ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ و ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اوﺿﺎع‬‫داﻧﺴﺘﻦ و درﮎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ و ﻳﮑﺴﺎن از ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﻪ ﺗﻤﺎم ‪Stakeholder‬‬ ‫هﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﮐﺎر هﺎﯼ ﺗﻴﻢ وار و اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ اﻋﻈﻤﯽ از ﺗﻤﺎم ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ هﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد روﺣﻴﻪ ﺗﻌﻬﺪ و ﻣﺎﻟﮑﻴﺖ‬‫ﺑﻤﻴﺎن اوردن ﻳﮏ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﯽ و ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻗﺪﻣﻪ هﺎﯼ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺼﻮص ‪Monitoring & Evaluation‬‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻴﺎن اوردن ﻳﮏ ﭘﺲ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﺟﻬﺖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺢ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اوﺿﺎع ﻋﺒﺎرت از:‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻓﻌﻠﯽ ازﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺻﺤﯽ و ﺧﺪﻣﺎت ﺻﺤﯽ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ و ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ‪ Stakeholder‬هﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ هﺎ و ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ‬‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﻓﮑﺘﻮر هﺎﯼ داﺧﻠﯽ و ﺧﺎرﺟﯽ ، ﮐﻪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ‪ Project / Program‬را‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺑﺨﺸﻴﺪﻩ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد‬ ‫54‬
  • 46. Scope of Health Situation analysis1. Geography and physical features of the area2. Population characteristics Demography : size, density, breakdown• Socio-economic profile: economic activities, household income, basic services, group at risks…• Socio-cultural profile : religious, educational , and cultural characteristics, gender issues3. Policy and political environment Overall national policies Existing health policies Political environment 46
  • 47. ...‫اداﻣﻪ‬4. Stakeholders characteristics5. Health status Health indicators ( morbidity , mortality, disability….)6. Health services: public and private (profit and non profits) Service facilities, referral system Service utilization and performance Health service organizational arrangement 47
  • 48. ...‫اداﻣﻪ‬7.Health needs• Medical perceived needs• Community perceived health needs8.Management system which support provision of services• Structure : PPHD and contracting out• Financial management• Transport• Drug and vaccine supply• Communication• Health information• Human resource• Equipment• Building, land 48
  • 49. ...‫اداﻣﻪ‬10. Health institutional support11. Other sectors interventions Education Women affairs Water & sanitation Agriculture Transport Community development Public workers Industrial and mining sectors 49
  • 50. ‫از ﮐﺠﺎ و ﭼﻄﻮر ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت را ﺟﻤﻊ اورﯼ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ ؟‬‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﯽ هﺎ ، اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ ، ﭘﻼن هﺎ ، ﭘﺮوﺳﻴﺠﺮ هﺎ ،‬‫ﻣﻘﺮرات وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﻪ و ‪ stakeholder‬هﺎ و دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﮑﺘﻮر هﺎﯼ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺻﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﻪ هﺎﯼ روزﻣﺮﻩ : ‪HMIS‬‬ ‫اﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﻪ ﻣﺮﮐﺰﯼ‬ ‫راﭘﻮر هﺎﯼ ﺳﺮوﯼ هﺎ و ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎت‬‫راﭘﻮر هﺎ و اﺳﻨﺎد اداراﯼ ، ﻣﺎﻟﯽ و ﺗﺨﻨﻴﮑﯽ ) ﻣﺮﮐﺰ وزارت ﺻﺤﺖ‬‫ﻋﺎﻣﻪ ، ﺳﻄﻮح وﻻﻳﺘﯽ ، ﻣﺮاﮐﺰ ﺻﺤﯽ ، ﭘﺮوژﻩ هﺎ و ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام هﺎ ،‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﺴﺎت ﻣﻠﻞ ﻣﺘﺤﺪ ، ﺳﮑﺘﻮر ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯽ ...(‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺷﺨﺼﯽ ﺷﻤﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻔﺖ ﮐﺎرﻣﻨﺪ ﺻﺤﯽ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺴﻮل ﺻﺤﯽ‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ هﺮ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫05‬
  • 51. ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬‫‪ ( Participatory Rapid Appraisal ) PRA‬ﻳﺎ‬‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﯽ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ و اﺷﺘﺮاﮐﯽ ﻋﺒﺎرت ازﺗﮑﻨﻴﮏ هﺎﯼ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ‬‫از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ان ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺑﺸﮑﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ و اﺷﺘﺮاﮐﯽ از ﻣﺮدم ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫اورﯼ ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد .‬ ‫از ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ هﺎﯼ ذﻳﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪ هﻢ ﺟﻤﻊ اورﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫‪Community forums‬‬ ‫‪Focus group interviews‬‬ ‫‪Key informant interviews‬‬‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁورﯼ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ واﺿﺢ ، ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ، دﻗﻴﻖ ﻳﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫و ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫15‬
  • 52. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران‬Stakeholders analysis
  • 53. Who is Stakeholder? : ‫دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎر ﻋﺒﺎرت از هﺮ ﻓﺮد و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ‬‫در ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﭘﺮوژﻩ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﺜﺒﺖ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﻣﺘﺎﺛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺘﺎﺛﺮ ﺷﻮد‬ (affect)‫و ﻳﺎ ﻗﺎدر ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ،ﮐﻪ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﺜﺒﺖ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ ﭘﺮوژﻩ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام را ﺗﺤﺖ ﻧﻔﻮذ‬ influence ‫ﺧﻮد ﻗﺮار دهﻨﺪ‬ :‫دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران ﺑﻪ اﻧﻮاع ذﻳﻞ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻨﺪ‬ Key Stakeholders : Influence or are important to the success. Minor Stakeholders : Have less influence and are less important to the success Primary: Ultimately affected by a activity either as beneficiaries or dis-beneficiaries Secondary: Indirectly have a interests 53
  • 54. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪﮐﺎران‬‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺎﺗﻴﮏ ﺟﻤﻊ اورﯼ‬‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﮐﻤﯽ و ﮐﻴﻔﯽ در ﻣﻮرد ‪ Stakeholder‬هﺎ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ،‬‫ﮐﻪ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ان ﻋﻼﻳﻖ ‪ Stakeholder‬هﺎ در ﻃﺮح و ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮوژﻩ هﺎ و ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام هﺎ ﻣﺪﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻪ هﺎﻳﯽ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﺮدد ﻋﺒﺎرت اﻧﺪ از:‬ ‫ﭼﻪ ﻧﻮع ﻃﺮز ﺗﻠﻘﯽ وﻳﺎ ﺗﻔﮑﺮ دارﻧﺪ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻮاﻓﻖ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ ﭘﺮوژﻩ اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻤﻨﺪﯼ اﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ ﺷﮑﻞ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫رول اﻧﻬﺎ در اﺟﺮاﯼ ﭘﺮوژﻩ ﭼﻄﻮر اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺎ ﭼﻪ اهﻤﻴﺖ ﺧﻮاهﻨﺪ داﺷﺖ‬‫ﺗﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺣﺪودﯼ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ روﯼ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ دارﻧﺪ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﺗﻮان اﻧﻬﺎ روﯼ ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬارﯼ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﭼﻪ اﻧﺪازﻩ اﺳﺖ‬ ‫45‬
  • 55. Stakeholders Analysis ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران و ﻳﺎ‬High High power High powerP Low interest High interestOW Advocacy PartnershipER Low interest High interest Low power Low power Awareness Capacity buildingLow Low High INTEREST 55
  • 56. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ‬Problem Analysis
  • 57. ‫ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ و ﻳﺎ ﻣﺸﮑﻞ ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﭼﻪ؟‬‫ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﺧﻼ و ﻳﺎ ‪ Gap‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬‫ﻓﻌﻠﯽ و ﺣﺎﻟﺖ دﻟﺨﻮاﻩ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ﺳﺘﻨﺪرد هﺎ و رهﻨﻤﻮد هﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬‫ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ اﻳﺠﺎد ﻋﻠﺖ و ﻣﻌﻠﻮل ﺑﻴﻦ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻣﯽ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ در اﻳﻦ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ در ﺟﺮﻳﺎن ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اوﺿﺎع‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﻣﯽ ﮔﺮدد‬‫هﺪف اﺳﺎﺳﯽ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ‬‫رﻳﺸﻪ ﺋﯽ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﺁ در ﻃﺮح ﭘﺮوژﻩ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮار ﮔﻴﺮد .‬ ‫75‬
  • 58. ‫دﻻﻳﻞ ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ‬ ‫داﻧﺴﺘﻦ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ اﺳﺒﺎب ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ‪ Constraint‬هﺎ‬‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎﯼ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﯽ ، ﻣﻬﻢ و داراﯼ‬ ‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﯽ اﻧﺪازﻩ اﺻﻠﯽ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد ﺗﻔﺎهﻢ دﺳﺖ اﻧﺪرﮐﺎران‬ ‫85‬
  • 59. ‫اﻧﮑﺸﺎف ‪Problem tree‬‬‫ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ‪ Focal problem‬را از ﻟﺴﺖ‬ ‫١.‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻧﻤﻮدﻩ و دﻳﮕﺮ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ را ﺑﻪ ان ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺳﺎزﻳﺪ‬‫در ﺻﻮرﺗﯽ ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ از ﺳﺒﺐ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ، اﻧﺮا‬ ‫٢.‬ ‫در زﻳﺮ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻓﻮﮐﺎل ﻗﺮار ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬‫در ﺻﻮرت ، ﮐﻪ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ از ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ،‬ ‫٣.‬ ‫اﻧﺮا در ﺑﺎﻻﯼ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ ﺷﺮوع ﮐﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﯽ ﻳﺎ ‪ Logical order‬ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ را ﭼﮏ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫۴.‬‫در ﺻﻮرت ﺿﺮورت ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ را دوﺑﺎرﻩ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻧﻤﻮدﻩ ،‬ ‫۵.‬ ‫ﺣﺬف و ﻳﺎ ﻋﻼوﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫95‬
  • 60. Problem Tree Income insufficient to meet basic needs Farmers cannot market their perishable( ‫ ) ﺗﺮﮐﺎرﯼ‬goods in timeEffects People are late at work Passengers injuredFocal Problem Frequent bus accidentCauses Bad conditions Drivers not Bad conditions of vehicles careful enough of roads Vehicles Insufficient Driving period Little knowledge are old maintenance is too long of traffic rules 60
  • 61. ‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ دهﯽ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ‬Problem Prioritization
  • 62. ‫اﻟﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻣﺸﮑﻼت ﭼﻴﺴﺖ‬‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ دهﯽ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد ﻋﻴﻨﯽ و ﻣﺪﻟﻞ‬‫ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ از ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ان ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد ، ﮐﻪ در رﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﮐﺪام ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ در ﻗﺪم اول اﻗﺪام ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد‬‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺿﺮورت هﺎ ﮐﻢ اﺳﺖ ، ﺑﻨﺂ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ از‬‫ﺗﺨﺼﻴﺺ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ در ﺟﺎ هﺎﯼ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺿﺮورت اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ‬‫ﻳﮏ ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ و ﻳﺎ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﺧﻮد را ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺘﻌﻬﺪ در ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺤﺪود و ﻣﻬﻢ اﺣﺴﺎس ﻣﯽ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫26‬
  • 63. Steps of problem prioritization Criteria ‫اﻧﮑﺸﺎف ﻣﻌﻴﺎرات‬ .١ Weighting ‫وزن ﮐﺮدن اﻧﺪازﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﯼ‬ .٢ Identifying ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ ﮐﺮدن‬ .٣ Ranking ‫درﺟﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﮐﺮدن‬ .۴ Summarizing ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﮐﺮدن‬ .۵ Reaching consensus ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﻧﻤﻮدن‬ .۶ 63
  • 64. Steps of problem prioritizationStage 1 : developing criteria Some main criteria: Magnitude : Severity/danger: Vulnerability to intervention (technical and economic feasibility) Cost effectiveness of the intervention to solve - the problem Political will Demand of the community List is not exhaustive 64
  • 65. Steps of problem prioritizationStage 2. Weighting Some criteria are more important than others. Weight should be assigned to reflect their importance On a scale of 1 to 3 ( 3 = most important, 2 = very important, 1= important), decide which criteria will be weighted 1, 2 or 3.Stage 3. identifying, Review problem tree and decide if all problems are have to be considered 65
  • 66. Prioritization of problemsStage 4. Ranking ( use the prioritization matrix) Criteria 1 Criteria 2 Criteria 3 TotalProblem1Problem2Problem3 All members of the group should fill out the grid 66
  • 67. Prioritization of problemsStage 5. Summarizing Ask participants to give their facilitator their final score on each problem Add up t the total scores for each problem Rank the problems in order of scoreStage 6. reaching consensus Ask the group if they agree with the ranking Raise the issue of disparate scores and determine why people have strong differences of opinion Reach a consensus at least acceptance by the group through discussion 67
  • 68. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اهﺪاف‬Objective analysis
  • 69. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اهﺪاف ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ اﻳﺠﺎد راﺑﻄﻪ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ و ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻳﺎ‬‫)‪( (Means-Ends‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻻت ﻣﺜﺒﺖ در ﻳﮏ اﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اهﺪاف ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ذﻳﻞ ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﻨﻔﯽ را ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺜﺒﺖ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫راﺑﻄﻪ ﻋﻠﻞ و ﻣﻌﻠﻮل را ﺑﻪ وﺳﻴﻠﻪ و ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺪهﻴﺪ‬‫از ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﺑﻮدن و دﻗﻴﻖ ﺑﻮدن درﺧﺖ اهﺪاف اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫96‬
  • 70. Transforming Problems into Objectives 70
  • 71. Problem tree and Objective tree Objective tree Problem tree shows shows cause and effect the means-end relationship relationshipbetween problems between objectives 71
  • 72. Problem Tree Income insufficient to meet basic needs Farmers cannot market their perishable goods in timeEffects People are late at markets Passengers injuredFocal Problem Frequent bus accidentCauses Bad conditions Drivers not Bad conditions of vehicles careful enough of roads Vehicles Insufficient Driving period Little knowledge are old maintenance is too long of traffic rules 72
  • 73. Objective tree Income sufficient to satisfy basic needs Perishable goods are marketed in timeEnds Arrival of passengers at scheduled time Passengers injury rate decreasesObjective Frequency of bus accident reducedMeans Conditions Drivers Roads conditions of vehicles is good careful enough improved Old vehicles Maintenance regularly Driving work schedules Drivers are taught regularly replaced are followed meticulously On traffic rules undertaken 73
  • 74. ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ ﻳﺎ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ هﺎ‬ Strategy analysis or analysis of alternatives
  • 75. ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ ﭼﻄﻮر ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮔﺮدد‬‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﭘﺮوﺳﻪ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ و ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬‫ﮔﻴﺮﯼ در ﻣﻮرد اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻳﮏ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ از ﻣﻴﺎن‬‫ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس ﻳﮑﺘﻌﺪاد ﻣﻌﻴﺎرات ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ،ﺗﺎ‬‫در رﻓﻊ ﭘﺮاﺑﻠﻢ هﺎ و ﺿﺮورت هﺎﯼ ﺻﺤﯽ اﻗﺪام ﻧﻤﻮدﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ ﺑﻪ دﻻﻳﻞ ذﻳﻞ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد:‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﺋﯽ راﻩ هﺎﯼ ﺑﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻤﮑﻨﻪ‬ ‫ارزﻳﺎﺑﯽ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ اﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدن در ﻣﻮرد ﻳﮏ اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﻪ ﺁن ﻋﻤﻞ ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮد‬ ‫57‬
  • 76. ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ اول : ‪ Clustering‬ﮔﺮوپ ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ:‬ ‫اهﺪاﻓﯽ را ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎ هﻤﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ اﻧﺪ در ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮوپ ﻗﺮار دهﻴﺪ‬ ‫در ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮوپ ﻗﺮار دادن ‪ Objective‬هﺎ ﻳﺎ ‪Clustering‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ذﻳﻞ را ﻣﺪﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻴﮕﺮﻳﻢ‬‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ ﻧﻈﺮ هﻤﻪ در ﺑﺎرﻩ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﮎ ‪Common sense‬‬ ‫داراﯼ ارزش ﻋﻤﻠﯽ ﺑﺮاﯼ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ ﭘﻼﻧﮕﺬارﯼ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫داراﯼ ﻳﮏ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺑﺴﻴﺎر وﺳﻴﻊ و ﺑﺴﻴﺎر ﻣﺤﺪود ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺒﺎهﺖ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﺑﻌﺪﯼ و ﻳﺎ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻣﻮرد ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫67‬
  • 77. ‫اداﻣﻪ...‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ دوم : ‪ Selecting‬ﻳﺎ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ‬‫از ﻣﻴﺎن ‪ cluster‬هﺎ ﻳﮏ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ اﻧﻬﺎ را اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﯽ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻢ ، ﮐﻪ ﻣﺎ را ﺑﻪ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ دﻟﺨﻮاﻩ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ‪ Criteria‬هﺎ ، اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ اﻳﮑﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬‫و ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ) ‪ ( Relevant & Feasible‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ،‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﻣﻴﮕﺮدد‬‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ هﺎ ﯼ را ﮐﻪ دﻟﺨﻮاﻩ و ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﺼﻮل ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ ،‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫77‬
  • 78. ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎرات ﺟﻬﺖ اﻧﺘﺨﺎب ﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﯼ‬Institutional CapacitySocial benefitTechnical CriteriaFinancial criteria Less expensive Sustainability Availability of resourcesEffectivenessEfficiencyAssumptions and risks 78
  • 79. Strategic Options 79
  • 80. ‫ﭘﻼن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﮐﺎرﯼ‬Operation plan &Activity Scheduling
  • 81. ‫ﭘﻼن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﺑﻴﺎن ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ و ﺑﻮدﺟﻪ ﻣﺮﺑﻮط ﺑﻪ ان‬‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ﻣﯽ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﭘﻼن اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﻳﮏ ﺿﺮورت‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬‫ﻋﺒﺎرت از ﻳﮏ ﻣﻴﺘﻮد اراﻳﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮوﮔﺮام ﻳﺎ ﭘﺮوژﻩ ﻣﯽ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ، ﮐﻪ در ان ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﯽ‪ sequence‬ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ و‬‫واﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ‪ dependency‬ﺑﻴﻦ اﻧﻬﺎ اﻧﻌﮑﺎس ﻣﯽ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ و ﻳﮏ‬‫اﺳﺎس را ﺑﺮاﯼ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﻣﺴﻮﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﯽ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ‬ ‫ان ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻣﯽ ﺳﺎزد‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺘﺮادف ﺑﺮاﯼ ان ﻗﺮار ذﻳﻞ اﻧﺪ:‬ ‫‪Work plan‬و‪Implementation plan‬و ‪Activity schedule‬‬ ‫‪Action plan‬و‬ ‫18‬
  • 82. ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻳﮏ ﭘﻼن ﮐﺎرﯼ وﻳﺎ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ اول : ﻟﺴﺖ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ دوم : ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ‬ ‫ﮐﻮﭼﮏ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺳﻮم : وﺿﺎﺣﺖ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻞ و واﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ هﺎ‬ ‫‪sequence : in what order should related‬‬ ‫?‪activities be undertaken‬‬ ‫‪dependencies : is the activity dependent on‬‬ ‫‪the start-up or completion of any other‬‬ ‫?‪activity‬‬ ‫28‬
  • 83. ‫اداﻣﻪ...‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﭼﻬﺎرم : ﺷﺮوع ، دوام و ﺧﺘﻢ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ را ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﭘﻨﺠﻢ : ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ اوﻗﺎت ﺑﻨﺪﯼ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ را ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺷﺸﻢ :ﻓﺮﺳﺦ هﺎﯼ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎر و ﻳﺎ ‪ Milestone‬را‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ و واﺿﻴﺢ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ هﻔﺘﻢ : ﻣﻬﺎرت هﺎﯼ ﻣﺴﻠﮑﯽ را ﺗﻌﻴﻦ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ هﺸﺘﻢ : ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎﯼ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ را ﺑﻴﻦ اﻋﻀﺎﯼ ﺗﻴﻢ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫38‬
  • 84. ‫ﭘﻼن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ را ﭼﻄﻮر ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﻴﺪهﻴﻢ‬1. Simple activity schedule2. Gantt Chart3. PERT ( Program Evaluation and Review Technique ) 84
  • 85. ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﭘﻼن ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ : ﺟﺪول ﺳﺎدﻩ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ‬ ‫‪Simple Activity Schedule‬‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺖ ﻧﻤﻮدن ﺳﺎدﻩ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ ﺑﺪون ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ راﺑﻄﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ ﺟﺪول واﺑﺴﺘﮕﯽ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ را ﻧﺸﺎن ﻧﻤﯽ دهﺪ‬‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪What‬‬ ‫‪When‬‬ ‫‪Where‬‬ ‫‪Who‬‬ ‫58‬
  • 86. ‫ﭼﺎرت ﮔﺎﻧﺖ ‪Gantt chart‬‬‫• ﻋﺒ ﺎرت از ﻳ ﮏ ﺧﻼﺻ ﻪ ﭘ ﻼن ﮐ ﺎرﯼ ﻣ ﯽ ﺑﺎﺷ ﺪ ، ﮐ ﻪ ﺑ ﺸﮑﻞ‬‫ﭼ ﺎرت ﻧﻤ ﺎﻳﺶ دادﻩ ﺷ ﺪﻩ و ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴ ﺖ ه ﺎﯼ ﻋﻤ ﺪﻩ را ﺑ ﺎ ﺗﺴﻠ ﺴﻞ‬ ‫زﻣﺎﻧﯽ ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻴﺪهﺪ‬‫• هﻤﭽﻨ ﺎن زﻣ ﺎن اﺟ ﺮا ان ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴ ﺖ ه ﺎ را ) ﺑ ﺸﮑﻞ هﻔﺘ ﻪ وار ﻳ ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺎهﻮار در ﭘﻼن ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﯽ و ﺑﺸﮑﻞ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ در ﭘﻼن اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﮋﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎن دادﻩ ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫• اﻓﺮاد ﻣﺴﻮل ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ اﺟﺮاﯼ اﻧﻬﺎ را واﺿﺢ ﻣﯽ ﺳﺎزد‬‫• اﻳﻦ ﭼ ﺎرت ﮔ ﺎهﯽ ﻣﻨ ﺎﺑﻊ را ﺟﻬ ﺖ اﺗﻤ ﺎم ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴ ﺖ ه ﺎ ﻧﻴ ﺰ ﺑﻴ ﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪارد‬ ‫68‬
  • 87. ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﭼﺎرت ﮔﺎﻧﺖ‬1. List activities in the plan For each task estimate: Time of starting Length of time to complete it If tasks are parallel or sequential2. Put the task onto the Gantt chart Schedule activities according to their sequence Draw programming and duration of the activity as a bar Show progression of each activity by shading the bar as progress are made 87
  • 88. Gantt chartActivity Duration Who? Year / Year/ Year / month month/ month/ /week 1 week 2 week 3Activity 1Activity 2Activity 3 88
  • 89. ‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮول ﺑﺮ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ هﺎ ‪Controlling‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ هﺎ اﺳﺎس ﺑﺮاﯼ ﮐﻨﺘﺮول ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ. ﻳﻌﻨﯽ ﻧﻈﺎرت،‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﯽ و ارزﻳﺎﺑﯽ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﭘﻼن ﻗﺒﻼ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ.‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮐﻨﺘﺮول در ﺳﺎﺣﺎت ذﻳﻞ ﺻﻮرت ﮔﻴﺮد‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺎ اﻣﻮرات ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﭘﻼن ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﻣﻴﺮود؟‬ ‫اﻳﺎ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﮐﺎر ﺑﺎ ﺳﺘﻨﺪرد هﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺖ دارد؟‬ ‫اﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺼﻮرت ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻮرد اﺳﺘﻔﺎدﻩ ﻗﺮار ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ اﺳﺖ؟‬‫اﻳﺎ ﮐﺎرﯼ ﮐﻪ اﻧﺠﺎم ﻣﻴﺸﻮد ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑﻪ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﻪ را در ﺑﺮ دارد؟‬‫در ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﮑﻪ در ﮐﺎر ﻧﻮاﻗﺺ ﺑﺮﻣﻼ ﮔﺮدد، ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ در ﻣﻮرد اﺻﻼح‬ ‫ان ﺑﺎﻳﺪ اﺗﺨﺎذ ﮔﺮدد‬ ‫98‬
  • 90. 90

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