Definition:
stem cell is the mother of all cells , it’s a blank unspecialized
immature cell that has the capacity of self-...
Classification of stem cells
Stem cells
According to potency
Totipotent: stem cells produced from fusion of an egg
and spe...
Stem cells
Stem cells
According to their Origin
Embryonic stem cells: isolated from the inner cell mass of
the blastocyst of the discarded embry...
Embryonic VS Adult stem cells
Stem cells
Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells
Pluripotent
can be differentiated to any ce...
Are there other sources of
stem cells ?
Stem cells
The answer was negative till the emergence of the
last few years , scie...
Induced pluripotent stem
cells
In the year of 2007 , professor Shinya
Yamanaka and his research team said
that aduld deffe...
Stem cells
Stem cells
Shinya Yamanaka was
given Nobel Prize in
physiology for the year
2012 in grateful to his
promising work .
The e...
Stimulus –Triggered Acquisition
of pluripotency (STAP)
The newest breakthrough in the field of
stem cell research was decl...
Stem cells
After doing the resarch using lymphoctes , Obokata did it on other cells
of the bdoy and the same results were ...
Ethical Debate
Stem cells
 some people are in favor of the stem cell and they have
their own motives …
embryonic stem cells will decrease human suf...
Stem cells
The solution
the emergence of the great discovery
of ShinyaYamanaka and the STAP
technique will put an end for this
debate...
Applications of stem cells
- Basic research
Stem cell theory of cancer
Role of signals in gene transcription and
different...
Stem cells
CVS
Stem cells are injected into the circulation or
directly into the injured heart tissue appear to
improve cardiac funct...
Stem cells
DM
 Researchers in California report that they
have reversed the equivalent of type 1
diabetes in mice through transplant...
Skin burns
 Stem cells may have a promising role in the
treatment of extenxive burns and lrge ulcer
through providing suf...
Parkinsonism
 Studies confirmed significant
effects of pluripotent stem
cell grafting in 6-OHDA and
MPTP animal models of...
Stem cells
Stem cells
Stem cells presentation by Islam Osman March 2014
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Stem cells presentation by Islam Osman March 2014

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an approach to stem cells in simple up-dated way

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Stem cells presentation by Islam Osman March 2014

  1. 1. Definition: stem cell is the mother of all cells , it’s a blank unspecialized immature cell that has the capacity of self-renewal and differentiated cells regeneration . Stem cells Unique Features: stem cell has some properties that make it different from other cells Self-renewal : stem cells are capable of dividing and renewing themselves for long periods Differentiation: stem cells are blank cells that can be transformed to other types of cells. Plasticity: the ability of stem cells from one tissue to generate specialized cell type of another tissue, for example hemopoietic cells may give rise to skeletal, myocardial and hepatic cells. Potency: it’s the differentiation potential of the stem cells and according to potency stem cells can be classified.
  2. 2. Classification of stem cells Stem cells According to potency Totipotent: stem cells produced from fusion of an egg and sperm. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent. These cells can be differentiated into embryonic and extra embryonic cell types (e.g. placenta) Pluripotent: stem cells derived from inner cell mass of the blastocyst and can differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers excluding the placenta. Multipotent: stem cells that can produce only cells of closely related family of cells for example hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into red blood cells. White blood cells, platelets, etc.. . Oligopotent: stem cells that can differentiate to only few cells, for example lymphoid stem cells. Bipotent: dual differentiation, for example oval cells can differentiate into hepatic and biliary epithelium. Unipotent: stem cells that can produce only one cell type …
  3. 3. Stem cells
  4. 4. Stem cells
  5. 5. According to their Origin Embryonic stem cells: isolated from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst of the discarded embryos after IVF( in vitro fertilization) or from aborted embryos ,which has an ethical debate in different thoughts and religions as embryos are destroyed when inner cell mass is taken. Fetal stem cells: obtained from aborted fetal gonadal tissue. Cord blood stem cells: obtained from the remaining blood in the umbilical cord after delivery, these cells contain a big deal of hemopoietic stem cells. Adult stem cells: are multipotent stem cells present in few numbers in many sites(bone marrow and niches) of human body. Stem cells
  6. 6. Embryonic VS Adult stem cells Stem cells Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells Pluripotent can be differentiated to any cell Multipotent many but not any Unlimited self-renewal capacity Limited self- renewal Easier to get IVF , Reproductive clonoing Difficult to be obtained Tumorigenic (teratomes) Not Immunogenic (rejection) Not Ethical problems blastocyst is destroyed Accepted
  7. 7. Are there other sources of stem cells ? Stem cells The answer was negative till the emergence of the last few years , science have exceeded the classic limit of stem cells knowledge by the appearance of two miracles Induced pluripotent stem cells IPSC Stimulus- triggered Acquisition of pluripotency STAP
  8. 8. Induced pluripotent stem cells In the year of 2007 , professor Shinya Yamanaka and his research team said that aduld defferenitated cells can be transformed into pluripotent cells , and they published their results of transforming adult human fibroblasts into pluripotent cells by defined factors. Stem cells
  9. 9. Stem cells
  10. 10. Stem cells Shinya Yamanaka was given Nobel Prize in physiology for the year 2012 in grateful to his promising work . The evidence of success of the trial is the ability of the induced cells to develop tumors (teratoma) which is a sure sign of their pluripotency by the capacity to develop into ectodermal,mesenchymal, endodermal derived structures.
  11. 11. Stimulus –Triggered Acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) The newest breakthrough in the field of stem cell research was declared by the beginning of this year (2014) by the valuable research of Haruko Obokata . simply , adult cells like lymphocytes were exposed to strong external stimulus like transient low PH resulting in plruipotency. Stem cells
  12. 12. Stem cells After doing the resarch using lymphoctes , Obokata did it on other cells of the bdoy and the same results were obtained.
  13. 13. Ethical Debate Stem cells
  14. 14.  some people are in favor of the stem cell and they have their own motives … embryonic stem cells will decrease human suffering. embryonic stem cells are taken from excess IVF that will be discarded anyway ..so it’s better to use them. the other face of the debate is against stem cells research entirely and specially against embryonic stem cells ..also they have their own thoughts about that.. taking the cells from the blastocyst destroys it ..that’s murder.. embryonic stem cells research will open the door to reproductive cloning ..and that will replace the role of God .. Stem cells
  15. 15. Stem cells
  16. 16. The solution the emergence of the great discovery of ShinyaYamanaka and the STAP technique will put an end for this debate for sure ..there will no need to destroy embryos anymore ..as adult own cells will be transformed into pluripotency by usage of some transcription genes or some stressor factors..we can save embryos . Stem cells
  17. 17. Applications of stem cells - Basic research Stem cell theory of cancer Role of signals in gene transcription and differentiation of stem cells. -Biotechnology: specific cell lines to test new drugs and decrease animal testing. Development effictive antitumor drugs -cell based therapy: regerative therapy for many diseases like Parkinsonism , Alzhimer’s ,spinal cord injury , stroke , burns , heart diseases , diabetes … Stem cells
  18. 18. Stem cells
  19. 19. CVS Stem cells are injected into the circulation or directly into the injured heart tissue appear to improve cardiac function and/or induce the formation of new capillaries. Stem cells
  20. 20. Stem cells
  21. 21. DM  Researchers in California report that they have reversed the equivalent of type 1 diabetes in mice through transplants of stem cells.Their experiments have replaced cells in the pancreas damaged by the disease that are unable to make insulin. Stem cells
  22. 22. Skin burns  Stem cells may have a promising role in the treatment of extenxive burns and lrge ulcer through providing suffiecent numbers of epidermal and epithelial cell lines that can be used in replacing damged tissues. Stem cells
  23. 23. Parkinsonism  Studies confirmed significant effects of pluripotent stem cell grafting in 6-OHDA and MPTP animal models of motor parkinsonism. Pluripotent stem cells can nestle in affected organs and can differentiate into a variety of cells, including neural (dopamine producing) cells. (Pub-med, Jan 2014) Stem cells
  24. 24. Stem cells
  25. 25. Stem cells

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