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Youth and islamic awakening2

  2. 2. Scientific chart of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening: Secretary General of the Conference: Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati Scientific secretary of the Conference: Dr. Abdullah Mobini Members of the Scientific Committee: Dr. Ibrahim Motaqi/ Dr. Manouchehr Mohammadi/ Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Raees-Zadeh/ Mohammad Ruivaran/ Ali Mohammad Fouladi/ Dr. Hamid Reza Akhavan-Fard/ Dr. Asghar Qaedan/ Dr. Mustafa Malakootian/ Dr. Hossein Sharifi Taraz-Karami/ Dr. Saeed Tavakoli/ Dr. Abdulhamid Sahrayi/ Ali Sabet/ Dr. Nabiollahi Rouhi/ Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini/ Dr. Niazi/ Dr. Reza Kalhor/ Dr. Hojjatollah Izadi/ Dr. Mostafa Izadi
  3. 3. Papers of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Compiled by the scientific committee of conference Editors: Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Tahereh Zare, SeyedKamaloddin Rafiee, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Maryam Golbaz Layout: Rouholamini Institute Cover design: Abna’ Institute Translators: Abna’ Institute Publisher: Abna’ Institute First published in January 2012 (Bahman 1390) Circulation: 2000
  4. 4. CONTACT 02. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation 30. Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening and role of youth in dealing with them 60. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions and Speculating on How to Implement It in Order to Maintain the Islamic Awakening Achievements 80. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of Islamic Awakening on the Basis of the Comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei 116. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic
  5. 5. Awareness as viewed by the 249. The Role of the YouthSupreme Leader AyatollahKhamenei in the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model for136. Impact of Iran’s Islamic the Youth in the IslamicRevolution and Iranian AwakeningSupreme Leader’s Thoughtson Muslim Youth 284. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and184. Lebanese poet and fundamental framework ofwriter Mustafa Ghalayeeni the Islamic awakening and(Harbinger of Islamic the youth: Explanation ofawakening in the 20th the factors of authenticity,century) preservation and survival of the Islamic Awakening206. The Political Fiqh inIslam and its influence on the 319. Youth IslamicIslamic Awakening Process Awakening - Awaken the226. THE ROLE OF inner Conscience, ExecuteIQBAL LAHOURI IN Fears, Unite, Plan andAWAKENING THE Organize to Achieve VictoryMUSLIM YOUTH
  6. 6. An introduction to theoretical foundations ofreligious...
  7. 7. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation Mostafa Malakootian PhD١ Introduction: Revolutions have broken out with different natures. However, no theorist in the field of revolution or revolutionary leader can claim that a revolution has occurred only for political, financial, or social state of a country. The main factor in the occurrence of a revolution is the society›s opinion, thought, cause, and will (Seyed Mohammad Bagher Sadr, Traditions of History in the Holy Quran). The emergence and representation is more evident8 and obvious in religious revolutions. In the writing, after discussing some issues about the philosophy of revolution, which include some key questions, types of revolutions and some western theories about revolution, we will explain what a revolution is and how a religious revolution forms and finally we will open a discussion about the experiences of the Islamic Revolution for continuation of religious revolutions. Considering that the Islamic Revolution of Iran is an ideal religious revolution, in the research we will utilize the revolution to prove the contents. Key questions about the phenomenon of revolution What is confined in the field of revolution is not out of the 1.Associate professor, Tehran University, the Faculty of Political Sciences
  8. 8. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningfollowing questions: 1. What is a revolution? - The answer to the question involves the meaning,concept, and features of a revolution and recounts thedifferences between the phenomenon and relevant conceptssuch as movement, reform, civil war, coup-dݎtat, etc. andvarious types of revolution. In reply to the above question, different views, accordingto their philosophies and standpoints, have not reached aconsensus of opinion about the meaning of revolution andproposed various definitions. Considering the turmoil ofdefinitions about the phenomenon of revolution, the writerintends to open a discussion on the common features ofrevolutions and believes that in any credible definition ofrevolution, the features should be considered. The featureswill be mentioned in the writing. 2. Why does a revolution occur? 9 - Most revolutionary theories have been put forward toanswer the above question. In order to answer the question,any theory concludes with several key factors and conditionsafter its examination. In other words, after exploring for thereason behind the occurrence of a revolution, researcherfinds the emergence of several factors which have causedthe occurrence of the revolution. For example, Structural-Functionalism theory, after asociological examination of variables like social systems,recounts three conditions for occurrence of a revolution: thedecline of power or imbalance (value-environmental), thedissension among governing elite and accelerating factors.The conclusion recounts the reasons behind the occurrence
  9. 9. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... of a revolution from this viewpoint. (Chalmers Johnson 1984 pp 9-134) 3. How does a revolution occur? - Sometimes differentiating between the two questions, why and how a revolution occurs, is difficult in action. However, by saying how the revolutions occur two issues are raised, first, how the conditions that was mentioned in the second question — why does a revolution occur? — are created and second, after the creation of such conditions the continuation of the developments that is how and by what means the victory or defeat of the rebellions occurs. In other words, we should refer to the history of a country in which a revolution has broken out to find how the revolution occurred. And by finding a point, in which we can surely say that the government had enough legitimacy, acceptability, authority, and stability, we should follow the events that10 occurred after the point and caused the government lose the legitimacy and stability, the events that caused the emergence of main and fundamental reasons behind the occurrence of the revolution, which were mentioned in the answer to the second question, and made the revolution inevitable. We should also take into account the conditions and events that caused the victory or defeat of the rebellions. It should be remembered that understanding how a revolution occurs is more difficult than why it occurs, and in historic analysis of revolutions, we will find numerous ways in which revolutions have occurred. Therefore, although we can find the main reasons behind the revolution in an easier way, summarizing the discussions concerning how a revolution occurs and proposing a theory is not that easy because of
  10. 10. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe variety of historic routes of different revolutions. 4. What impacts and effects does a revolution have onthe country, in which it occurs, region and the world? What methods have foreign states used to confront arevolution which has threatened their colonialist interests? The works and writings about the phenomenon ofrevolution are mainly in the area of the first three questionsmentioned above and the analyses of the fourth questionhave relatively been rare. However, the internal effects ofrevolutions are numerous and at most times they have beenhistoric. In an article titled «Revolution and InternationalRelations,» Holiday criticizes western authors› ignorance ofthe international effects of revolutions and comments on thecampaigns of the world›s powers against the revolutions. Healso recounts the different aspects of revolutions› influenceover mutual or international relations and proposes somewritings in this field. However, Holiday himself did not 11examine the subject perfectly. This research is centered on questions 1 and 2, i.e. whyand how religious revolutions occur. Varieties of revolutions: Considering its long record, the phenomenon of revolutionhas emerged with various faces up to now. Authors haveclassified the phenomenon as following: A. The classification of revolutions according to the rateand type of changes caused by them From this view, revolutions have been classified into twogroups: political and social revolution (large and great)
  11. 11. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... In the political revolutions changes are mostly social rather than political and in the worst state, the type of political regime changes. In these revolutions, the power of governmental structures may change and the political regime remains unchanged with the same name and form. Of course, there is no political revolution that does not cause any social changes. For example the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906 is a political revolution. In the social revolutions, in addition to political changes, evident changes occur in the official culture, economic and political structures as well as foreign relations of a country. Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1949) and the Islamic revolution of Iran are instances of social or large revolutions. Of course, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which can correctly be named great revolution, has had tremendous influences at national and international levels compared with other contemporary revolutions. At12 the national level, the revolution caused the formation of a government based on divine causes with reliance upon the people›s votes. The revolution proceeded to make serious efforts to achieve quickly self-sufficiency and development in various areas. At the international level, the nature of the revolution and its leadership, the similarity between the political cultural situation of the Muslim world and that of Iran before the Islamic Revolution, the importance and strategic position of Iran and some other reasons caused the emergence of an exclusive model of reflection of a revolution on the regional and international issues. B. Geographical-Cultural classification One of the authors in the 20th century has divided the
  12. 12. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningrevolutions into two groups: Eastern revolutions andWestern revolutions. In this classification which is mostly geographical and tosome extent cultural, the priority of three issues is different.The three issues are as follows: 1. The breakup of power 2. The revolutionaries› entrance to the scene 3. The foundation of new political order Western revolutions Eastern revolutions 1. The breakup of power 1. The revolutionaries› entrance (governing system) to the scene 2. The revolutionaries› entrance 2. The institutionalization of new to the scene political order 3. The institutionalization of 3. The breakup of power new political order (governing system) According to the author, in the western revolutions, 13everyone at once find that the government has no powerand its political, military and managing power is declining.At this juncture, revolutionaries, who are mostly moderate,enter the scene and then move away because of theirinability to meet the revolutionaries› demands and handover the power to the radicals. And then the new politicalorder is institutionalized. While in the Eastern revolutions, due to the power ofgovernment which has not collapsed, rebellions who are notgenerally moderate, take actions against the governmentfrom jungles and mountains and if they occupy a place, theywill institutionalize the new political order and when theycapture the capital, the governing system collapses (SamuelHuntington 1991).
  13. 13. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1911), are among Western revolutions, and revolutions in China (1949), Cuba (1959), Vietnam (1975), and Algeria (1962) are among Eastern revolutions. As you see, the classification is geographical at first sight. But a revolution can occur in the East on the basis of a Western model, and a revolution in the West on the basis of an Eastern model. The Islamic revolution of Iran, which is a religious revolution, cannot be placed in those classifications, because at the time of its occurrence the government had not collapsed, and did not begin by the entrance of revolutionaries to the scene (moves in jungles and mountains). C. The classification of revolutions according to the nature of revolutionaries› demands14 From the viewpoint of the nature of the revolutionaries› demands and requests, revolutions have divided into three groups: political revolution, economic revolution, and ideological (religious) revolution (Morteza Motahari, the surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, pp 23-43). For example the revolution occurred in France in 1789 is a political revolution due to its emphasis on liberalism and the revolution occurred in 1917 in Russia is economic due to its emphasis on the element of economics and the Islamic revolution of Iran, which occurred with an emphasis on the role of religion which itself includes political, economic, cultural, and social elements, is an ideological (religious) revolution. In this classification, the nature of revolutionaries›
  14. 14. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdemands is the criterion for placing revolutions in one ofthe three groups and an ideological (religious) revolutionmeans a revolution in which leaders and the masses intend toput their religious beliefs into practice rather than insistingon only achieving freedom or equality like a number ofprevious contemporary revolutions. In addition, their causehas a political, social and economic nature. The classification of revolutionary theories Considering the multiplicity of the revolutionary theories,some theorists have classified revolutions accordingto their scientific approach or time of occurrence andrecounted famous examples for them. Two classificationsare mentioned as follows: 1. Stan taylor has divided the theories about the occurrenceof revolutions into four groups: sociological, psychological,economic and political. In the sociological theories there is an emphasis on 15sociological factors like social classes and stratifications,for instance, Structural-Functionalism theory by ChalmersJohnson. In psychological theories there is emphasis onthe psychological factors like personality of individuals,the mental conditions of society and issues like an increasein the expectations or feeling deprivation, for instance,‹J-curve› theory by James Chowning Davies and Relativedeprivation theory by Ted Robert Gurr. In the economic theories and in the Marxists› ideas, theeconomy is considered foundation or is a key factor, andfinally in the political theories there is an emphasis on thepolitical factors, for instance, Resource mobilization theoryby Charles Tilly.
  15. 15. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... The Islamic Revolution of Iran as a genuine religious revolution was a challenge for theories about revolutions because the roles of cultural factors were outstanding compared with social, political and economic factors. Cultural factors like the clerics and mosques had independent, conceptual and coordinator roles in the revolution. 2. In the other famous classification, Jack Goldstone has divided theories about revolutions in the 20th century into three generations and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran and other revolutions in late 20th century proposed the fourth generation. A. First generation includes years between 1900 and 1940 and persons like Pitirim Sorokin, Crane Brinton, Samuel P. Huntington, Charles A. Ellwood. What was important to the generation was description of a revolutionary process and explanation of the signs of a revolutionary situation (Goldstone, 1980: 425-427). The theorists focused on16 the description of past famous revolutions like the French Revolution and did not make any effort to provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of revolution. B. Second generation theorists sought to develop detailed theories of why and when revolutions arise, grounded in more complex social behavior theories. They can be divided into three major approaches: psychological, sociological and political. The works of Ted Robert Gurr, Ivo K. Feierbrand, Rosalind L. Feierbrand, James A. Geschwender, David C. Schwartz and Denton E. Morrison fall into the first category. They followed theories of cognitive psychology and frustration- aggression theory and saw the cause of revolution in the state of mind of the masses, and while they varied in their
  16. 16. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningapproach as to what exactly caused the people to revolt (e.g.modernization, recession or discrimination), they agreedthat the primary cause for revolution was the widespreadfrustration with socio-political situation. The second group, composed of academics such asChalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, Bob Jessop, Mark Hart,Edward A. Tiryakian, Mark Hagopian, followed in thefootsteps of Talcott Parsons and the structural-functionalisttheory in sociology; they saw society as a system inequilibrium between various resources, demands andsubsystems (political, cultural, etc.). As in the psychologicalschool, they differed in their definitions of what causesdisequilibrium, but agreed that it is a state of a severedisequilibrium that is responsible for revolutions. Finally, the third group, which included writers suchas Charles Tilly, Samuel P. Huntington, Peter Ammannand Arthur L. Stinchcombe followed the path of politicalsciences and looked at pluralist theory and interest group 17conflict theory. Those theories see events as outcomes of apower struggle between competing interest groups. (Ibid,428-429). C. Third generation of theories was formed in mid-1970sand with writers such as Theda Skocpol, Barrington Moore,Jeffrey Paige and others expanding on the old Marxist classconflict approach, turning their attention to rural agrarian-state conflicts, state conflicts with autonomous elites andthe impact of interstate economic and military competitionon domestic political change. Particularly Skocpol›s Statesand Social Revolutions became one of the most widelyrecognized works of the third generation; (Eisenstadt, 1978:86/ Godstone, 1980: 435-437)
  17. 17. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... The 1970s was a decade during which the third generation became prevalent. Between the years 1970 and 1990 a number of revolutions occurred which were indicative of the fact that the theories had serious problems. In the Iranian and Nicaraguan Revolutions of 1979, multi-class coalitions toppled dictators that were backed by Western superpowers. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union big changes occurred in the systems on the basis of public demonstrations and protests rather than class struggle, and dictatorial regimes were overthrown. None of them could be explained by theories based on the few occasions in the history of Europe and China (Geldstone,2001/ Farhi, 1990). The occurrence of the Islamic Revolution questioned the theory of Skocpol in her book titled “States and Social Revolutions” in such a way that in 1982 in an article titled “Rentier State and Shi›a Islam in the Iranian Revolution,” she retracted her words that said revolutions are not made;18 they happen, and wrote that if there was only one revolution in the world that was made by a conscious revolutionary movement, the Iranian Revolution would be that revolution, and in this way emphasized the roles of leadership and the causes (Skocpol 205-206, 189-190). Problems of third generation theories in analyzing new revolutions, paved the way for the fourth generation of theories which are now in the making. Undoubtedly, the Islamic Revolution of Iran was one of the most important revolutions that challenged the third generation theories. The significant role of culture, leadership and the cause in the Islamic Revolution is the most important addition to the discussions over revolutions. The Islamic Revolution of Iran also challenged the enlightened theories of wisdom
  18. 18. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening(the spread of liberal freedom). Not using weapons in the Islamic Revolution and movingthrough protests, rallies and public protests dissociate therevolution from other revolutions. In the new situation, Jack Goldstone, who divided theoriesabout revolutions into three generations, talked about theeruption of the fourth generation of theories in scientificand academic circles in a paper titled «Towards a FourthGeneration of Revolutionary Theory». Goldstone says it seems that the third generation ofrevolutionary theories is over; however the dominance ofthe fourth generation has not occurred yet. The generationhas regarded stability as the main issue and focusedon the conditions that regimes preserve over time. Thegeneration proves the significant role of issues on identity,ideology, gender, networks and leadership and regards therevolutionary processes and output data as the outcome ofinteraction among multilateral actors (Goldstone: 2001, 19175-176). According to Foran, the two revolutions occurred in Iranand Nicaragua prepared the way for the emergence of thefourth generation. A generation which dissociates itself fromsheer structural and determinism viewpoints and valuesthe roles of culture, ideology, mobilization of resources,unbalanced development and so on (Moshirzadeh 34 -1995,Foran 1993). Nature of a religious revolution Professor Morteza Motahari has defined revolution asa revolt and rebellion against governing system to createa favorable system which is associated with the sense
  19. 19. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... of oppression, aggression and the spirit of rejection of oppression and unfavorable situation. According to his words, the orientation of divine movements is toward the deprived but its origin is not only the deprived. In this regard, he wrote that the Islam addresses all social classes and groups, whether the haves or the haves-not, because within each Pharaoh, there is a good human in shackles, of course, the poor usually say yes to God›s invitation, because the oppressor should give back the poor’s rights and ignore their own interests if they say yes to God›s invitation, but the poor by doing this say yes to their nature and also gain something. On the features of an Islamic revolution, Professor Motahari says «We know that Islam is not pure spirituality, as the westerners’ notion about religion. This fact not only applies to the current revolution (the Islamic Revolution of Iran), but it also applies to the revolution of early Islam.20 The revolution of early Islam was a political and religious revolution. While it was a spiritual and political revolution it was also an economic and financial one. It means that there are the concepts of freedom, justice, the absence of discrimination among social classes and social gaps in the context of Islamic teachings. It was thanks to the replacement of these concepts in the minds of the masses that our recent movements became epidemic and comprehensive. The movement was both rural and urban. Urban and rural, rich and poor, workers and farmers, open-minded and ignorant, all and all, participated in this movement. And it was also thanks to the Islamic nature of the movement that all groups joined together. The more important fact than the coordination is that our
  20. 20. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmovement could tell people that they have their own schooland independent thought and that they can stand on theirown feet, and rely only on themselves.» If we suppose that the following features of a society canlead to the occurrence of a revolution, all the features willhave a religious origin in a religious revolution: 1. The alienation of society from current situation 2. The spread of new alternative causes 3. The leadership role and its structures 4. The role of the masses 5. The spread of the revolutionary spirit and the sense ofaggression 6. The change in cultural political and economic conditions Because: 1. Considering the intellectual contents of a religioussociety, dissatisfaction with the current situation occurs 21when individuals find that what occurs in the political, socialand economic areas in their community are in consistentwith their thoughts and intellectual contents which are theproduct of the religious culture of their country. 2. In a religious society, people are generally and rapidlyattracted by those revolutionary causes that are morecompatible with them which are religious causes. 3. In these communities, religious leaders occupy the roleof leadership of revolutionary movements and pave the wayfor the victory of the revolution with less casualties anddamages through devising special strategies. 4. In a religious society, religion plays a substantial role inthe formation of revolutionary causes, and its contents like
  21. 21. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... opposing to oppression, seeking martyrdom, and complying with religious duties play important roles in creating the revolutionary spirit and leading the revolutionary movement toward its victory. 5. Religious revolution has the support of religious people who are ready to devote themselves to their causes. The purpose of these revolutions is not only political or financial, but people want to put their religious causes into practice which has also political and economic dimensions. At this juncture, the elements of religion and faith create an astonishing power which pushes aside the political power and its foreign supporters and prevent them to pursue any initiative. The situation was evident during the occurrence of the Islamic revolution which could achieve victory despite the enormous power of Pahlavi regime. In summary we can say that a religious revolution - that has a historical-religious culture, religious causes, religious22 leadership and faithful people – is possible to occur at the time of the regime’s contempt for the people and its anti- religious behaviors in cultural, political and economic areas, the backwardness of the country, and so on. The conditions are currently seen in the Arab Middle East countries. Formation and success of the religious revolutions For the formation of a religious revolution with the mentioned features some issues are necessary. What has been seen in every revolution is the bipolarization of the society, i.e. a conflict between two forces and the impossibility of resolving the conflict: political power and social (revolutionary) power (Manouchehr Mohammadi 1986 – pp 71-72)
  22. 22. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In addition, the total power of a society should be muchmore than that of political power in order that a revolutionachieves victory. Of course, by power here we do not meanonly the material and tangible factors such as number ofpartners in power, military power, economic power andor external support. The intangible factors of power likethe power of faith and the cause, influence and leadershipstrategies and competencies, and depth of the revolutionaryspirit, etc. should be taken into account in examining thepower. 1. The role of political power’s features and measures A dependent, authoritarian and inefficient political powertakes some social, cultural and political measures whichare not accepted by the society and in this way lead thecommunity into bipolarization. The sense of alienation from the current situation in areligious revolution is much more than that sense in a secularrevolution. In a secular revolution, demands, which mostly 23relate to wealth, prosperity, and participation in politicalpower and the like, may end in reformist compromiseafter the withdrawal of the government. And possibly evensecular triumphed revolutions, accept to return to previousconditions after the revolution due to accepting the globalrules and lack of vigilance against pseudo-friends. In a religious revolution, the national humiliation, political,cultural, economic dependencies, wide gaps betweensocial classes and westernization of the government aremuch more outstanding thanks to the religious cultural andhistorical public views. Of course, the role of the revolutionary leaders at thisstage is crucial, in such a way that it is dangerous to trust
  23. 23. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... demagoguery and efforts of the enemies. 2. The role of social power’s features and measures Social power in religious revolutions includes the causes of religious revolution, leadership of religious revolution, and faithful people. The combination of the three elements, which have the same origin, causes unity and a tremendous power in a revolutionary situation, and can lead to the victory of the revolution. The causes of a religious revolution, which are combined with the element of religious faith, are genuine and their holders rarely give up to the worldly promises of dependent regimes. Similarly, religious leaders prefer to achieve spiritual objectives rather than worldly affairs due to their piety. When the religious masses are added to the two elements, and when the concepts martyrdom seeking, sacrifice and the sense of religious duty enters the revolutionary movement,24 political power is weakened and becomes feeble facing the revolution. In religious revolutions (or any other revolution) the best result will be achieved only when the leadership has unity within itself and exude self-confidence as well as a strong will, and choose right strategies based on the current situation. 3. Counterrevolutionary measures of foreign powers As soon as a revolution occurs, especially a religious one, the hegemonistic powers begin to make every effort to preserve their colonialist interests according to the current situation. As we can see in the Islamic awakening current, in the Arab revolutions occurring in the North Africa and the littoral states in the Persian Gulf region, the efforts
  24. 24. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningby the foreign powers include a range of measures frommilitary intervention for seemingly humanitarian reasons(such as in Libya, the powers entered the political game inorder to preserve their interests) to the measures like askingthe leaders of a country to assign the power to the militaryforces (such as in Egypt and Tunisia in order to have timefor making changes in favor of themselves) as well asmeasures like paving the way for military interventions ofneighbor countries (such as in Bahrain and Yemen). Theforeign domineering powers facing the revolutions mayalso take other measures like direct military intervention ifnational and international conditions allow them to do so,for instance the direct military intervention of the UnitedStates in Vietnam (1965-1975) which ended in infamousfailure. They also make efforts to penetrate weak elementsamong revolutionaries, to impose economic sanctions afterthe victory revolutions and so on, although they mostlyfail. The failures, especially in the religious revolutions, are 25broader and more intense, because there is no element offaith in their political terminology, and they are unaware ofits power. 4. The experiences of the Islamic Revolution forcontinuation of religious revolutions The Islamic Revolution of Iran as an excellent modelof religious revolutions, which is unique in the featuresmentioned for revolutions, has been able to preserve itsdynamics, remove the enemies› masks and witness theirgrowing weakness with its ever-increasing power. Considering the history of developments after the victoryof the Islamic Revolution, It can be said that the key factorsof the victories of the revolution are as follows, excluding
  25. 25. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... the prominent role of the powerful leaders of the revolution over the past 33 years: 1. Writing and adopting a religion-oriented constitution After the victory of a revolution, writing a constitution is one of the first measures of the revolutionaries. Obviously the ideals and causes of a religious revolution can be achieved only through a religious constitution, and any effort by revolutionaries to evade the issue may prepare the ground for a return to the previous conditions and the surrender to the hegemonistic powers. 2. Establishment of revolutionary institutions In order to mange affairs during the occurrence of a revolution, avoid returning the previous conditions, and achieve the causes and objectives of the revolution, it is necessary to establish revolutionary institutions. For instance, Imam Khomeini (RA) stated that if the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps did not exist, the country would26 not exist either. Generally, in a religious revolution, the future of the revolution should be guaranteed though establishing such institutions as circumstances may allow. 3. Maintaining and sustaining the objectives and slogans of the revolution Constant attention to the slogans means enlivening the revolution and preparing the ground for achieving objectives. Among the slogans, the slogan of the role of religion in government and the slogan of independence is very important and vital. Countries that have lost their independence after their revolutions had no significant progress. The religious revolutions have global messages. In case of ignorance to the principle of Export of revolution, find
  26. 26. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthemselves surrounded by the global counter-revolution.The revolutions, which have gained their driving force fromunity based on religious causes, if move toward dissension,will face serious problems in promoting and preserving therevolution. 4. Making efforts to build an advanced and self-sufficientsociety Advances in science, technology and industry and havingdeveloped and self-sufficient economy are an authenticreligious value. Islam has advised Muslims to avoid affairscausing the dominance of infidels and polytheists over them.The Islamic Revolution of Iran proved that it is possible towithstand pressures and imposed sanctions and to preparethe grounds for being at the height of your success andself-confidence with reliance upon your independence andcapabilities. 27 Conclusion: From the four questions concerning the phenomenon ofrevolution, the analysis focused on two questions: what is areligious revolution? And why does occur? The writing also regarded a religious revolution as a greatrevolution in which the leaders and the masses are seekingto put their religious thoughts and ideas into practice. In the research, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, whoseoccurrence challenged the revolutionary theories andchanged their generations, was also regarded as an excellentmodel of religious revolutions. Recounting the conditions which lead to the occurrenceof a revolution, the research highlighted the religious
  27. 27. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... nature of the conditions in a religious revolution. On the formation of a religious revolution, It also explained that bipolarization of society and dispute between social power and political power is the main condition for the occurrence of a revolution and the superiority of social power (tangible and intangible) over the political power is the reason behind the victory of revolution. It also emphasized that the power of faith can create a complete unity among the forces. In the end, the writing proposed four examples of the most important experiences of the Islamic Revolution to serve as strategies for sustaining religious revolutions. References: 1. Skocpol. Theda, States and Social Revolutions, translated by Seyed Majid Rointan, Tehran, Soroush, 1997. 2. Johnson. Chalmers, Revolutionary Change, translated by Hamid Eliasi, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1984. 3. Sadr. Seyed Mohammad Bagher, Traditions of History in the Holy28 Quran, translated by Seyed Jamal Mousavi, Qom, Islamic Publications office, Bita 4. Green. Gerald, «Mobilizing the Opposition in Iran,» Comparative, Theoretical Historical Studies on Revolution, Jack Goldstone (Editor), translated by Mohammad Taghi Delafrooz, Tehran, Kavir, 2006. 5. Mohaamadi. Manouchehr, an Analysis of the Islamic Revolution, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1986. 6. Moshirzadeh. Homeira, «A Brief Look at the Revolutionary Theories in Social Sciences,» series on the Islamic Revolution and its roots, Qom. 7- Motahari. Morteza, the Surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, Qom, Islamic Publications Office, Bita 8 - Malakootian. Mostafa, «Revolution from Beginning to End; Review of Seven Common Features of Revolution», Journal of Law and Political Science, No. 57, October 2002. 9- Eisenstadt, Revolution and the Transformation of Societies, New York: Free Press, 1978. 10- Farhi. F, States and Urban - based Revolution: Iran and Nicaragua,
  28. 28. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningUrbana & Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 1990.11- Foran. John, «Theories of Revolution Revisited: Toward FourthGeneration?» Social Theory, 11, 1993.12- Goldstone. Jack, «Theories of Revolution: The Third Generation»,World Politics, 32, 1980.13- Goldstone. Jack, «Toward a Fourth Generation of RevolutionaryTheory», Annu. Rev Sci: 2001, 4:XX, Copyright 2001, by AnnualReviews. 29
  29. 29. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...
  30. 30. Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening androle of youth in dealing with them By Salman Karamian Ismail Hemmatian Introduction and significance of the problem: Emergence of the Islamic awakening wave, triggered bynations’ will and guided by committed Islamic intellectuals,has caused a tremendous evolution among internationalgoverning systems in the early 21st century. Islamic awakening, which had previously led to weakenworld powers and had caused great movements in Islamicworld, has entered into a new phase of evolvement andgrowth now. It is of an Islamic, cultural, social and politicalnature that on the one hand has developed fundamentalchanges in international, regional and global equations 31and on the other hand, its reflection has led to new Islamicmovements coming out in the region as well as all over theworld. The influence has been so much that a new literature,named theory of Islamic awakening, has been created. Thisis not a political or nominal theory, but a multidimensional,precise, scientific which is one based on facts and functionsas a serious reaction against Western colonialism. The Islamic and revolutionary nature of Islamic awakeningwave will lead to fundamental changes in future structureof international system. The spread’s moving forward andpicturing its future desirable perspectives is so difficult asthe influences of these revolutions are enormous. In the awakening movement and its deconstructionistdirectionality, we can observe recognition of colonialism,
  31. 31. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... moving away from modern political culture and approaching a new political culture. Therefore, identifying challenges and newly emerged problems in national, regional and global context is essential. In such situation, a new discourse is needed to present solutions and create revolutionary directions at the appropriate time. The process of determining challenges, with which Islamic awakening movement is faced, has been done through identifying weak points and strong points in domestic context, foreign opportunities and treats and ultimately considering them altogether as well as the effect of social, cultural, political and economical stimulants. This process is evolved by developing a strategic management, picturing a desirable future perspective, recognizing the influences of the awakening movement and having a thorough knowledge of its capacities. So in this paper, the most important problem32 is identifying challenges with which Islamic awakening movement is faced. We will introduce these challenges and will present some solutions for them. Challenges encountering Islamic awakening movement: The third wave of Islamic awakening is a result of Marxism and liberalism inefficiency and empowerment of Islamic groups. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution says,” Talking of Islamic awakening was previously regarded as a kind of exaggeration and judged as out of reach, but today it is not surprising because of all Moslems’ being awakened and substantial deficiencies of world powers being revealed.” He has pointed out somewhere else that,” Islamic awakening will lead to developing an Islamic and
  32. 32. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninginternational government which is one of the importantfeatures of future third wave of awakening.” In his pointof view, the third wave of Islamic awakening in the worldoccurred after Islamic revolution of Iran and thereby gavehope to Moslem people in the region. It collapsed the falseidea of United States and Soviet Union, two superpowersin the world, being unbeatable and showed people that theycan stand against them independent from Western or Easternblocs. Hence, after first wave of Islamic awakening, the nextwaves subsequently happened. At the present condition, wesee the third wave of Islamic awakening which is a resultof strengthening theoretical basis and developing Islamicgroups in the region. As we move forward from the firstmove to the third one, three main issues in theoretical andpractical context manifest themselves more: ● Increase in power of Islamic groups ● Emerging movements calling for Islam in the region ● Elimination of rival ideologies i.e. Marxism, liberalism, 33etc. The abovementioned issues become intensified withIslamic movements moving forward. However, sinceIslamic awakening wave has challenged all equations ofcolonial powers in the region, it has been considered asa serious threat to world powers and we will deal withthe most important challenges encountered in Islamicawakening movement. • Cultural invasion of the foreign and identity crisis After collapsing Soviet Union regime and subsequentstopping cold war between west and East blocs, Westerncountries, having six years of military experience in allover the world, changed their tactics in order to reach
  33. 33. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... their strategic goals. They knew that after collapsing the communist Soviet, it is the power of Islam that stand against their wills, because this power had increased after Islamic revolution of Iran. Western countries focused on finding a way to standing against Islamic movements in Middle East region and Islamic world. Western countries, United States in particular, that regarded themselves as the absolute superpowers on the world adopted a policy of military and weaponry blockage as well as cultural war. The latter, named cultural invasion by supreme leader became the most important strategy of them. It refers to software-related measures with the aid of hardware such as media in order to gain the dominant culture of the world and prevent noble cultures such as Islamic culture to enter international arena. So Western world has tried to gain cultural dominancy based on its military power (NATO) with the aim of: firstly to restrain34 noble cultures (Islamic culture) and secondly introducing Western culture as the superior and dominant culture of the world. Undoubtedly, their primary tactic to stand against Islamic awakening wave in intellectual dimensions was cultural invasion, as named by supreme leader, and making use of Moslems’ ignorance. However, gradually and after power of Islam being revealed in West and East, cultural … has turned to a phenomenon which is no longer evident and tangible. It refers to a series of policies adopted by West, especially United States, which aim is to oppose against Islamic awakening movement and the Islamic nature of recent movements. They attempt to annihilate the youth identity and neutralize their influence on the movement. Therefore, the most important challenge encountered
  34. 34. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin Islamic awakening movement is cultural invasion ofimperialist powers and lack of a strong strategy on anIslamic basis with an interacting approach to culture. In thisregard, the most important aims of enemies are as follows: ●annihilation of national identities of freedom-seekingnations, particularly Islamic countries, and weakening theirhope in becoming independent ●strengthening global Zionism and at the same timeweakening Moslems and Islamic awakening wave ●expansion of false religions and sects such as Vahabiatand other made up heresies in Islamic countries in order to… among them ●intellectual and moral deviation of youth throughimporting ruinous and unethical products ●strengthening Western capitalist system throughcontemptuous means and behaviors towards Moslems ●distorting religion and pushing Moslems away fromnoble and pure knowledge of Islam 35 ●presenting Western astray models in individual andsocial contexts ●intellectual and cultural permutation 2. Making Islamic movements democrat Increasing changes in the region as well as the world,which has started since two or three decades ago, has beenaccelerated by occurrence of Islamic awakening wavein Moslem countries. Meanwhile, domination-seekingof imperialist powers has increased. Avarice of worldarrogance and international Zionism with the aim of makingIslamic movements democrat, is one of their strategicand long-term policies to annihilate Islamic principles.Therefore, the importance and necessity of studying and
  35. 35. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... following these changes has been reminded repeatedly by supreme leader. As he says,” one of the new concepts in political discourse of imperialist powers dominating international system is wealthy power-seeking stratum’s attempt to take control of vital and economical resources of the world which is a preface to ultramodern colonialism.” He points out somewhere else that,” The very important issue is increasing dominance of United States on Islamic countries’ political, economical and even military reserves. This cruel and dominance-seeking superpower, after collapsing of Soviet Union and elimination of this powerful rival, aims to turn all over the world and also rich region of Islamic countries to its own absolute arena.” So we should notice that colonialism and imperialism goals have so far demonstrated that they have many clear and hidden faces tangled with all dimensions of subaltern societies. In most cases, these faces are philanthropic, peace-seeking, and36 freedom-seeking and promotion of prosperity in surface which are truly snarls in the way of nations. It is crystal clear that by being aware of the appearance of these tricks we can release from these snarls and by following efficient and provident policies we can make keep colonial countries away from reaching their goals. As one of the methods of ultramodern colonialism is constant and indirect occupation with passing political governors by and without protest of people. Now because of spread of Islamic awakening wave and inclinations toward political and revolutionary Islam, many of colonial structures in the region and in also in the world have undergone drastic changes. Islamic awakening, i.e. revival of true Islam which is one of the earlier outcomes
  36. 36. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof revolutions happened in the region, create basis foremergence of Islamic movements after a period of inactivityand quietness. Intellectual-political streams are happening in an unknownand surprising condition. So there are various interpretationsin recognizing and analyzing the phenomenon of Islamicrevolutions and the way to treat them. Thus, strategic andpolicy-making centers in powerful governments havepresented various and changing solutions and have tried toconceal their failure in standing against Islamic awakeningand its consequences as well as their concerns aboutdrastic changes in the structure of imperialist system andinternational exploitation. Besides they have attempted tomake a new complicated policy in the post-Cold War eraand follow it intensively in order to develop global moderndiscipline. Reviewing Western colonialism history in both old andmodern colonial era indicates that colonialism has followed 37the way to reach its goals in economical, political, cultural,social, confidential and scientific dimensions and hashad influences on other societies. Knowing ultramoderncolonialism necessitates a comprehensive look at ultramodernmethods applied by possessors of power and wealth in theworld. So we can say that this kind of colonialism, whichhas started with a sense of domination of liberalist ideologyon other ideologies, is a new all-embracing structure thatseriously threatens intellectual and structural dimension ofIslamic world. Dimensions of this structure are threatening,devastating, widespread and various. Imperialism seeksits dominance and superiority on Islamic world and triesto achieve this goal in any possible way. For this goal to
  37. 37. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... be achieved it needs to eliminate its rivals and enemies. It has found the main cause of its problems in Middle East region and Islamic world; thus with occurrence of Islamic movements in the region, their influence on global equations increases. Consequently, Imperialism , in order to reach dominance over Islamic movements, apply methods some of which are as follows: ●priority of cultural dominance over military dominance ●infiltrating Western agents to temporary transitional governments ●inspiring inefficiency of religious democratic system in controlling Islamic countries’ affairs ● creating social and cultural crisis as well as individual and cultural alienation ●making standards and presenting Western models ●creating more inequity and more social, ethnic and religious gaps38 ●focusing on new capitalist centers in Islamic nations for realization of colonialism ●increasing individualistic activities, seclusion of influential figures and minimizing social participation of committed elites ●creating economical dependence and expansion of market in Islamic awakening wave countries ●changing people taste and making them consume more ●managing public thoughts and changing their direction towards the benefits of Imperialism 3. stopping, deviating or slackening the Islamic awakening movement Onset of Islamic movements in north Africa and Southwest Asia, their passing from emergence phase to
  38. 38. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningreach stability and establishing temporary transitionalgovernments, is indicative of the profoundness of Islamicthoughts and noble nature of revolutions made by people inthe region. Continuity of these movements, their influenceon outside geographical area of Islamic world and otherfreedom-seeking societies following this trend leads tofomenting fear of Islamic awakening wave among otherpuppet regimes and governments representing Imperialismand Western liberal-democracy in the region. Hence,endangering situation and benefits of imperialist systemsin the region (and their supporters/ counterparts) has ledto adoption of preventing and defensive policies in orderto impede the accelerated movement of Islamic awakeningwave. Hence, imperialism is trying to impede the awakeningmovement through hidden and apparent measures,propaganda, sanctions (economical, military, political,etc), military operations, enticing and persuading former 39dictator regimes remaining in the region, subversion andentering to vital infrastructures of countries. As supremeleader says,” Their main goal is to assassinate influentialfigures of us. They want to seclude Islamic values andsuppress the Islam-seeking wave. The United States andother imperialist countries are using all their propagandaopportunities to delay, or suppress if possible, Islamicawakening movement.” But since these revolutions arederived from intellectual values and aware nature offreedom-seeking Moslems who are subjects of cruelty andinjustice, it is impossible to stop it. It will be acceleratedand intensified. , committed intellectuals, politicians andall influential figures in Islamic movements should be
  39. 39. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... cognizant in order to guide the movement properly and manage it in its right path. 4. Creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps One of the influential challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps done by imperialist powers to make divisions and alter Islamic integrity among different groups in Islamic countries. Religious identity, history and civilization and national honors all are ultra-national identities that affect individual identities of warriors and prepare a ground to unite Islamic world in its movements on the basis of religious, intellectual, cultural, political, revolutionary identity. Undoubtedly it is not ignored by imperial analysts and as supreme leader points out,” Quran pays attention to integrity and warns us that if we lose our integrity, we will lose our respect and identity too. Unfortunately, this problem exists in Islamic world today. There are lots of40 conspiracies against Moslems and it show that they are afraid of Islamic awakening wave and integrity among Islamic world.” Imperial theorists and analysts attempt to alter the essence of movements happened in the region and show their nature something apart from Islamic identity and thereby create ethnic quarrels among Islamic groups. They try to achieve their goal through presenting Islamophobia and Iranophobia projects, exaggerating the danger of fundamentalism and making Moslems despondent in their movement. Therefore, all social classes, tribes and ethnicities in Islamic societies should understand the sensitivity of the present condition and forget about their differences and personal benefits to incorporate in continuity and success
  40. 40. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof Islamic awakening wave and maintenance of nationalbenefits. 5. Provoking differences and making the influentialfigures of the movement want their own share Islamic awakening wave, which is based on evaluative,intellectual and revolutionary ideology, has turned into themain discourse of Moslems and has changed the faces ofthe countries involved which were previously captives inpoverty, corruption and discrimination of their apparentlyeverlasting governors. The role of people in thesemovements is undeniable; because Islamic movementsare rooted in presence and will of people. The eternal andmain asset of a democratic society is the presence of peoplein different arenas of revolution. Because it is under thiscondition that happening revolutions will be immune frominterventions of aliens. We should bear in mind that the supreme leader askspeople to be present and influential in managing the 41country; because it is their presence that is considered as themain power of system in eliminating problems and barriers.Therefore, the integrity among people in Islamic revolutionsis one of the serious concerns of regional countries. Undoubtedly, agreement on defined goals and intellectualgrounds as well as considering national benefit of the systemnot only will lead to achieve national goals, but also willaffect global equations very much. Therefore, differencesand divisions and also influential figures’ demanding theirown share will impede desirable acting in internationalarena. So the benefits should be organized and commonwishes have to be inspired among people in the followingways:
  41. 41. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... ●trying to ignore sectarian and individual benefits for the sake of national benefits of Islamic movements ●moving public thoughts towards national benefits and away from individualism ●trying to reduce the gaps between influential groups in the society on the basis of mutual respect and rejection of suppression ●creating a sense of welcoming criticism and allowing thoughts to flourish to the extent that it doesn’t damage the system principles and national benefit ●making people aware of enemies’ tricks to stop Islamic awakening movements and deviate people ●strengthening the ties between people, groups, streams and transitional government ●commitment of all groups, wings and parties to noble Islamic principles as a common criterion 6. Lack of a organizing and uniting leadership42 Emergence of Islamic awakening wave in the 21st century world which escapes from religion and fight against it, is indicative of a new crisis in the dominant trend of secularization of people individual and social life. Though the most important influence of such movements is making change in political system and establishing temporary transitional governments, no need to mention that without firm intellectual grounds their happening was impossible. In other words, recent Islamic movements in the region are prefaces to revolution of other Moslem countries against corrupt and dictator regimes. One of the main challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is lack of a uniting and organizing leadership. An organizing leadership is the major basis for ruling
  42. 42. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic countries and thereby revolutions happened inthe region can annihilate false grandeur of imperialism,unite people in standing against its invasion and bringprosperity to Islamic societies. As Imam Khomeini madeall impossible possible in the period of Islamic revolutionof Iran, the youth duty is to keep Islamic awakening waveimmune from deviation with the aid of clergymen andreligious men. Violating leadership’s orders and eliminatingcommitted clergymen from the system is a sinister plan ofWest and a country without leadership is like a countrywithout physicians. It is worth-mentioning that Islamicprinciples and thoughts are not just religious insights, buta state system of which political and legal theory has beencarried out in different ways. In other words, the idea ofIslamic government is a theocracy and a religious-politicaltheory based on the fact that religious governing is the onlylegitimate governing and the right law is what Prophet hadstated. According to this theory, religious and politics as 43well as government and clergymen are not separated fromeach other and divine laws should be applied in the society. “Application of this theory in contemporary era meansintegrity of politics and religion which was followed bySeyyed Jamal al-din Asadabadi and later by Modarres. Ithas been resurrected in recent decades and the main figureinvolved was Imam Khomeini in late decades of 20thcentury.” 7. provoking intellectual extremism and solidity ofthought among influential figures It is a long time that studying Islamic awakeningmovement and analyzing its dimensions has been a concernof international powers. They try to identify the challenges
  43. 43. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... and weak points and thereby stop or seclude it. They aim to keep societies way from noble Islamic principles through altering its messages, spoiling people spirit and happiness and presenting false and extremist ideas instead of evaluative ones (such as justice, freedom, etc.). “Enemies have believed that their passage to survival is eliminating Islam from the societies or having a nominal Islam. Though they have been unsuccessful in achieving the first goal, they have managed to achieve the second.”, Imam Khomeini says. Examining extremism and sanctimoniousness is very essential in understanding Islamic awakening and its challenges. Imam Khomeini considers knowing provokers of extremism and ignorance as well as standing against them as being essential in expansion of Islam and maintains that,” United States and world arrogance have agents everywhere. I have warned you repeatedly that they have44 sanctimonious agents in universities that are supporters of religion in appearance, but they have hypocrisy and it ruins Islam and revolution.” Studying this issue shows that such people has caused hugest losses and damages to Islam throughout the history and now they want to repeat it in Islamic awakening wave. Because this wave is a phase in flourishing noble Islam by which freedom-seeking and aware nations find their right path in standing against manifestations of deviation and extremism. Consequently, it is the duty of committed intellectuals and thinkers to distinguish intellectuality criteria from Western theories and to introduce noble Islamic principles as an appropriate model to societies and have concerns regarding alienation, seclusion and ignorance.
  44. 44. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 8. Undermining the presence of committed religiousintellectuals Establishment of Islamic movements in recent century hasbeen an ascendant procedure and committed intellectualsand clergymen could guide the movements properly. Theirrole in preventing deviation from primary goals and hencevictory of movements is undeniable; as they have had animportant role through acquiring spiritual and politicalpower, infiltrating to thoughts and beliefs of people andawakening their revolutionary nature. They have provedthat whenever they have fought against corrupt powers, thegoverning political system has failed and has surrenderedthe political power. Committed intellectuals and clergymen have powerbecause of enjoying social and political bases and livingamong people. Their power is not comparable to thepower of non-religious leaders and this fact provokes thepoliticians’ jealousy and betrayal towards them. Therefore, 45imperialist leaders are aware of the importance of committedintellectuals and clergymen and try to remove them fromthe Islamic awakening context and its influences on thefuture world. With emergence of Islamic awakening movements in theregion, the duties of committed intellectuals and clergymenhave become more. As supreme leader points out,”Fortunately, there has been created a widespread awakeningin Islamic world and it is the task of clergymen and Moslemintellectuals to guide it towards a right direction. Theyshould act in a way that this awakening lead to governingand domination.” Another important duty of them is to solveproblems of people. It is not a minor task. It’s a fundamental
  45. 45. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... issue related to an Islamic society. Here some functions and responsibilities of committed intellectuals and clergymen are presented: ●standing against cruel and corrupt regimes and their remaining agents in temporary transitional governments ●exercising liberality and intellectuality with people in order to make them know that intellectual deviations are injected in the form of Islamic principles ●establishing deep ties with people and accompanying them in different arenas ●presenting solutions based on Islamic principles in order to eradicate encountering challenges 9. Brain drain in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave Two centuries of dictatorship and political, social, economical and military dominance of corrupt governments in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave has46 led to emergence of a sense of alienation among elites, thinkers and their indifference towards their countries and remaining inactive in the process of progressing. Their not participating in managing a country and domination of a dictatorship atmosphere caused activating imperialist intelligence services in order to recognize and invite them to Western countries and International Zionism. As Tailor believes,” Persuading propaganda of United States has caused immigration of thousands of Islamic countries’ elites and genius thinkers to America.” Joseph Nay also emphasizes that,” more than half of the talented university students in America are from Islamic countries; they never return to their own countries or if they return, they have acquired secular positions.” Imperialist countries prepare
  46. 46. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninggrounds and opportunities for these students, strengthen asense of alienation among them, use them in key positionsin scientific fields and provide them with financial resourcesand thereby decrease their interests to their countries andannihilate their will to return there. Through this procedurewhich is a pre-planned sinister program, world powerscause a lack of committed and expert human sources inIslamic countries. Therefore, the politicians in temporary transitionalgovernments have to carefully consider strategic variablesin international context and remember that efficient andrevolutionary elites play a crucial role in compensatingscientific, social and economical lags in their societies. Sowe should prepare attractive grounds for elites to returnand resurrect noble Islamic thoughts in them to preventempowering secular and western agents whose way ofthinking is not flexible. 10. A weak perspective for future harmonious with global 47changes One of the fundamental challenges encountering Islamicawakening wave is globalization which is happening asmain variable in modern global discipline theory proposedby economical and political powers. This variable is nota natural process; but a planned one. It is, in fact, thehegemony of Western liberal capitalist system to dominatethe world, especially the world of Islam. Since recentmovements in Islamic world has led to alteration in globalequations and establishment of new political discourses ofwhich influences have gone beyond the region, this theory isregarded as a fundamental and promoter theory by colonialtheorists. It is followed by them in different branches;
  47. 47. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... however their main concerns are economy, politics and culture. In the field of economy, globalization refers to domination of Western capitalist companies over sources and capacities of Islamic world and also changing people taste and making them consume their products more. In the fields of politics it refers to political domination of them over all other countries. In the field of culture, it refers to making people consumption-driven, diversity-seeking and enjoyment-seeking. Globalization, in its third meaning, is spreading under the title of “modernist culture”. It is imposed on Islamic countries and imperialist powers aim to globalize their own values and human rights. The globalization project in the fields of economy, culture and politics proposed by imperialist system aims to cultural and economical domination over countries. Globalization necessitates elimination of geographical borders between common-wealth societies and other societies. So Islamic48 countries should understand the false hegemony of Western democracy and picture a perspective based on reality for themselves to act influentially in the international environments. Recommended solutions: Undoubtedly, Islamic awakening wave is one of the unique events happened in contemporary history. Recent events have had great influence on domestic equations of countries as well as international equations and have resurrected the Islamic identity and originality among Moslems. As supreme leader says,” With the will of God a new movement is starting in the region. It is the movement of nations and Islamic world under the title of Islam aiming
  48. 48. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic goals. It is indicative of public awareness and Godhas guarantied the absolute victory of such movements.”Islamic awakening wave was established based on the factthat the only way to solve existing problems is returningto noble Islamic concepts and principles. This wave haspassed from the phase of emergence and crisis to stability;where free elections, with all people participating, areheld and Islamic groups win. Since the future perspectiveof the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave isin contrary to benefits and goals of international Zionismand imperialism, imperialist countries do all that they canto intervene in the occurring events and deviate freedom-seeking people. Regarding this fact, young generationact as promoter motor and motivator in continuity ofIslamic awakening movement. They should understandthe sensitivities of present time and stand against avariceof imperialists and Zionists and thereby help to realize theideals of their revolutions. They play a crucial role and 49their acting at appropriate time will guarantee the Islamicmovement. They should learn from the youth in early Islam,Islamic revolution in Iran, Hezbollah groups in Lebanonand resisting groups of Moghavemat in Palestine. So we should carefully examine occurring events toovercome probable problems and challenges encounteringrevolutions. Some recommended solutions that can moveIslamic revolutions in the region towards stability are asfollows: • Demanding establishment of a new political systembased on renewal of Islamic respect Now that Islamic awakening wave has happened in anera in which postmodernism is entering into a new phase,
  49. 49. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Islamic revolutions in the region try to pay attention to people demands and return their sense of originality. Therefore, it is necessary that in the era, which is named “era of spirituality”, a system based on new evaluative atmosphere be created and introduced to the world. Supreme leader of Islamic revolution has repeatedly reminded influential leaders to establish such system. Now that Islamic awakening wave has endangered all theories of making global systems, it should propose a new discourse which answers all human demands. In this regard, following consideration should be met: ●preparing a perspective for political system according to the mentioned models ●not separating the new political system from noble religious principles ●structuring the system on the basis of cosmopolitan principle and its generalization to other political systems50 ●considering the principle of gaining political power based on justice ●considering standing against cruelty and defending the suppressed (e.g. Palestinian people) ●emphasizing on influential leadership as the ideological center of political system ●considering the principle of nation independence- readiness to defend the country ●aiming to a new political system on the basis of Islamic- revolutionary principles and avoiding application of laic, liberal, nationalist or Marxist stereotypes in the structures of new government 2. Gaining cultural independence and standing against cultural invasion
  50. 50. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening One of the important concerns which plays a key role inguarantying prosperity of societies and realizing their futureperspectives is gaining independence and cultural identity.As Imam Khomeini, the founder of Islamic revolution,pointed out,” If a society has a dependent culture whichis feed by opposition cultures, other dimensions of thesociety will move towards the opposite direction too andfinally the society will lose its identity in all dimensions.Independence and identity of any society is derived fromindependence in its culture and it is naive to think that itis possible to gain independence while being culturallydependant. That’s why the main goal of colonials is toinvade the culture of subaltern societies.” And the supremeleader also maintains that,” Independence of a nation isnot achieved unless through independence in political,economical and cultural fields. If the culture and moralityand beliefs of alien countries is prevalent in a society, it cannot demand independence; because the real domination of 51powers is cultural domination. Some solutions are presented here: ●preparing a cultural perspective based on Islamic values ●developing and presenting religious models in culturaland social arenas ●identifying cultural measures taken by enemies andplanning to neutralize them ●learning from cultural achievements of Islamicrevolution in Iran ●having active, continuous and effective presence inmedia to stand against media imperialism ●generating variable cultural products in accordance with
  51. 51. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Moslems’ needs 3. Designing a model of development based on Quran and religion In this regard, supreme leader says,” Nations, whether Moslem or not, need Islamic orders today. It is because of being away from Islam that some countries are suppressed. Islamic awakening will save nations and that’s why the alertest people in different countries have turned towards Islam which is the way the holy Quran shows us; the way to survival and prosperity.” He adds somewhere else that,” The main issues that imperialist powers emphasize on them are: cultural, economical and scientific domination. That is enough for them not to allow the subaltern country to reach independence, progress and believing in itself.” Considering supreme leader’s point of view, the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave can prepare a perspective to act upon through adopting following approaches:52 ●designing domestic and Islamic models in order to eradicate economical, military, cultural and scientific dependence on aliens ●promoting productivity ●lessening class gaps ●promoting Islamic revolution ideals in cultural, economical and political dimensions ●eradicating poverty and deprivation; and development of the country ●making the country’s culture and economic efficient ●eradicating scientific, economical, political, military, cultural and social dependence through jehad-like measures 4. Preventing religious, ethnic and racial differences to become significant and relying on religion as a criterion
  52. 52. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Now that Islam-seeking wave has turned into one ofthe main discourses in global theories and has violatedall international equations and Zionism’ benefits, the onlypossible way for enemies to deviate this trend is to createethnic and religious quarrels among people. So the younggeneration in the Islamic countries should maintain theachievements of happened revolutions through followingmeasures: ●aknowledgement of ethnic and religious differences ●managing existing differences ●maintaining integrity on the basis of religion ●maintaining integrity on the basis of saving countryfrom the barraters 5. identifying rival models in the region as well asinternational arena It can be concluded form supreme leader sayings that,” Theenemy has prepared a comprehensive and planned scenariofor Islamic system and Islamic awakening movements. 53But fortunately, using our philosophical and evaluativecapacities we will be able to stand against these scenarios.” 6. Increase in awareness, cognizant presence in differentarenas at appropriate time The role of people in emergence and continuity of Islamicawakening trend is undeniable. It was seen in Islamicrevolution of Iran too; where presence of people in differentscenes neutralized all the enemy’s plans against Islamicsystem. So the main treasure of awakening movements inIslamic countries has been presence of people at appropriatetimes. As supreme leader, in a question and answer session,says to the youth that,” Awareness of young generation isone of the three pillars in guarantying their own success in
  53. 53. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... future and prosperity of the country.” He advised them to feel responsible, to build their own future and not to rely on chances, to have faith, which is the key component in making progress and gaining achievement in all fields, and finally to have awareness and distinguishing power. Because if they have these characteristics, they can become successful in all fields.” 7. Constant reviewing the principles of revolution Islamic awakening movement has emerged on the basis of people’s will and Islamic principles and its continuity is bound to commitment to its fundamental principles, a deep understanding of its different layers and avoiding simple- mindedness for the sake of keeping revolution achievements immune from deviations. Hence following items should be considered: ●maintaining and strengthening fundamental principles and directionalities of Islamic awakening wave54 ●focusing on the principles of revolution of which ignorance will lead to gradual changes ●the only way to prevent deviation from Islamic revolution principles is to making main indexes of system more prominent ●independence, freedom and justice-seeking ●not giving up to dictatorship and colonialism ●rejection of ethnic, racial and religious differences ●explicit rejection of Zionism ●maintaining originalities with a high sensitivity ●not allowing the enemy to determine future principles of the system ●not victimizing the principles in favor of passing benefits ●pessimism towards Europe, United States, NATO and
  54. 54. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningnot believing their promises ●gaining solutions from Islamic origin and giving alienversions back ●pessimism towards any advise or measure proposed byAmerica 8. Using the achievements, advances and valuableexperiences of other Moslem nations Islamic awakening wave has started since decades agoand after victory of Islamic revolution in Iran. It has beenaccelerated and turned to the main discourse in political,economical and social arenas. Islamic revolution, actingas a stereotype, has gained lots of achievements and isgaining more power in the region. Therefore, the eliteand intellectual youth should use different experiences ofIslamic Republic of Iran and reach to their goals through acrosscut according to these items: ●using the principles of Islamic Republic of Iranconstitutional law as a model for developing their own laws 55and regulations ●using Iran’s achievement in the field of Nano- technology ●applying fundamental researches of Islamic Republic ofIran in cultural and social fields ●using the capacities of young generations in Islamiccountries ●believing young generation ●revival of self-confidence in the youth ●the youth’s application of older people experiences ●considering “Islamic democratic system” as desirable ●not confusing Islamic democracy with democracy 9. Aiming to release noble Qods (qodse-sharif) fromZionists
  55. 55. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... International Zionism and imperialism use all their capacities to occupy and annihilate noble Qods; the first Qibla of Moslems. Therefore, one of the future goals of Islamic awakening wave should be releasing it from Zionist regime to create an integrated Islamic unity. Following items should be considered: ●aiming to release Palestine from Zionists ●continuity of great movement in Egypt to Palestine and Rafah passage ●taking big steps to overcome all barriers ●considering true treasures of Moslem nations (not being arrogant after victory) 10. Establishment of mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs Islamic awakening wave, while gaining stability, is facing different threats from international system. Imperialism and Zionism use all their capacities to challenge this trend and56 neutralize its achievements. So it is duty of all Moslem young people to maintain these achievements and learn from Islamic revolution of Iran and establish mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs. As Imam Khomeini, the great leader of Islamic revolution, says,” defending Islam and Islamic countries is a religious and divine task of people and it is due to them.” Basij is an eternal source for Islamic revolutions and guarantees the prosperity of developing societies. Its importance is to the extent that Sublime God emphasizes on its necessity in Holy Quran. Reviewing the history of Islam also confirms this point that whenever people were present in different social scenes, there came fortunate outcomes for the society.
  56. 56. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The role of Basij in Islamic revolution is another proof forthe fact that it is of a revolutionary and constructive spirit.The existing bureaucracies in the societies are not barriersto achieving its goals. Hence, the young generation ofthe countries involved in Islamic awakening wave shouldprovide a ground for flourishing and development throughestablishing mobilizations of people. The following itemsshould be considered here: ●scientific mobilization and organizing the elites andinfluential figures in the trend ●defending revolutions through closing the ways ofenemies’ infiltration to managing layers in new politicalsystems ●deepening culture in the society ●comprehensive defending against software and hardwarethreats ●making stereotypes and presenting evaluable,revolutionary models in different arenas of new political 57systems ●neutralizing security and disciplinary threats in thesociety ●creating jobs and eradication of poverty ●identifying violators in new political systems ●construction and building appropriate infrastructures inthe country Conclusions: The influence of the events happened during recent monthsis so great that the Islamic awakening wave has turned toa new political discourse in the 21st century. It caused anew power, called power of Islamic world, to emerge and
  57. 57. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... to become the center of attention for many political and nonpolitical analysts, who have presented different analysis of current changes. With spread of Islamic wakening wave, we should ask that “is it possible to consider an absolute ending to these changes? Is international imperialism and Zionism able to challenge these movements again?” Examining this issue demonstrates that this wave will be continued because of its expanding outcomes; Intervention of international Zionism and world arrogance will not impede it and will face with anger of revolutionary people and their justice-seeking stream. It is expected that intervention of imperialist system leads to spreading and fastening the cycle of changes and awakening movements and going their influence beyond the region. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution predicts, this wave will be expanded to other parts of the world and not only the Middle East and Africa, but also Europe will experience the58 outcomes of this movement. We should accept that international imperialist and Zionism have been weakening with emergence of Islamic awakening wave and with adopting different approaches and made up scenarios as well as creation of deviating models, they try to decrease the power of the countries involved in the Islamic awakening wave and their people. That’s why the responsibility of influential figures, committed youth, experts and leaders becomes more important and the necessity of taking needed measures is undeniable. These measures should be taken in order to overcome encountering challenges and making the best use of all capacities and capabilities of Islamic societies. Islamic nations and their people’s concentration on
  58. 58. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningImam Khomeini, supreme leader of Islamic revolution andother committed influential figures’ thoughts in the first,second and now in the third wave of Islamic awakening,is an important and great responsibility of of them to standagainst international imperialism and Zionism as well astheir alliances and counterparts in all phases of emergence,crisis and gaining relative stability. Thereby they can defendIslam and Islamic identity with the aid of all intellectuals,thinkers and young people of Islamic awakening movementand use all political, economical and cultural capacitiesof Islamic world to dictate the abilities and potentialitiesof Islamic societies to heads of global infidelity andimperialism. Therefore, young generation in the countriesinvolved in Islamic awakening movements have a hugeresponsibility in standing against enemies’ conspiracies. Assupreme leader points out,” The youth should take most ofthe responsibilities for the future and have a regeneration.Do not let the enemies annihilate nation hopes through 59propaganda, conspiracy and lying. Do not let them makedivisions and create gaps between people and heads of thegovernments. They want you to become divided; becausethey are afraid of your integration. They have a fear of yourfirm slogans and the serious and firm will of the responsiblepeople in the Islamic governments. They aim to unstablethis will. When people of a country stand beside the heads oftheir government, nobody hesitate and they move forward.”
  59. 59. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...
  60. 60. Designing a Model for Civil and IslamicInstitutions and Speculating on How to ImplementIt in Order to Maintain the Islamic AwakeningAchievements Roqayyeh Bahrami1 Introduction Many sociologists believe that as long as socialrevolutions and movements are opposed to the existingsituation, they can result in motion, but when they attaina political structure and system, they adopt an inactiveand justificationary, and it is at that very moment that therevolution and the movement expire and cease to attaintheir goals. According to this viewpoint, the process oftransformation of a movement to a system, in a manner thatleads to the maintenance and growth of ideals and revival of 61the revolutionary values resultant from Islamic Awakening,is one of the most important efforts which should be takeninto consideration after a revolution. On the other hand,organizing the revolutionary passion of people, whichhas aimed at disarranging the previous system, is eitherimpossible and might result in anarchism; or if achieved,leads to the extinction of this revolutionary passion.Formation of various civil circles is all the outcomes of these1.Junior Student, Third Level, Department of Fiqh and Usul, QabaHawzah Ilmiyya, Tehran09366447962 Email:"Muslim Ummah has sensed the breeze of awakening and has smelledthe aroma of returning to Islamic Knowledge."-Hazrat Imam Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution