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  • 2. Scientific chart of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening: Secretary General of the Conference: Dr. Ali Akbar Velayati Scientific secretary of the Conference: Dr. Abdullah Mobini Members of the Scientific Committee: Dr. Ibrahim Motaqi/ Dr. Manouchehr Mohammadi/ Dr. Seyyed Mohammad Raees-Zadeh/ Mohammad Ruivaran/ Ali Mohammad Fouladi/ Dr. Hamid Reza Akhavan-Fard/ Dr. Asghar Qaedan/ Dr. Mustafa Malakootian/ Dr. Hossein Sharifi Taraz-Karami/ Dr. Saeed Tavakoli/ Dr. Abdulhamid Sahrayi/ Ali Sabet/ Dr. Nabiollahi Rouhi/ Seyyed Mehdi Hosseini/ Dr. Niazi/ Dr. Reza Kalhor/ Dr. Hojjatollah Izadi/ Dr. Mostafa Izadi
  • 3. Papers of the International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Compiled by the scientific committee of conference Editors: Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Tahereh Zare, SeyedKamaloddin Rafiee, Seyyed Hossein Hosseini, Maryam Golbaz Layout: Rouholamini Institute Cover design: Abna’ Institute Translators: Abna’ Institute Publisher: Abna’ Institute First published in January 2012 (Bahman 1390) Circulation: 2000
  • 4. CONTACT 02. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation 30. Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening and role of youth in dealing with them 60. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions and Speculating on How to Implement It in Order to Maintain the Islamic Awakening Achievements 80. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of Islamic Awakening on the Basis of the Comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei 116. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic
  • 5. Awareness as viewed by the 249. The Role of the YouthSupreme Leader AyatollahKhamenei in the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model for136. Impact of Iran’s Islamic the Youth in the IslamicRevolution and Iranian AwakeningSupreme Leader’s Thoughtson Muslim Youth 284. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and184. Lebanese poet and fundamental framework ofwriter Mustafa Ghalayeeni the Islamic awakening and(Harbinger of Islamic the youth: Explanation ofawakening in the 20th the factors of authenticity,century) preservation and survival of the Islamic Awakening206. The Political Fiqh inIslam and its influence on the 319. Youth IslamicIslamic Awakening Process Awakening - Awaken the226. THE ROLE OF inner Conscience, ExecuteIQBAL LAHOURI IN Fears, Unite, Plan andAWAKENING THE Organize to Achieve VictoryMUSLIM YOUTH
  • 6. An introduction to theoretical foundations ofreligious...
  • 7. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious revolution and its formation and continuation Mostafa Malakootian PhD١ Introduction: Revolutions have broken out with different natures. However, no theorist in the field of revolution or revolutionary leader can claim that a revolution has occurred only for political, financial, or social state of a country. The main factor in the occurrence of a revolution is the society›s opinion, thought, cause, and will (Seyed Mohammad Bagher Sadr, Traditions of History in the Holy Quran). The emergence and representation is more evident8 and obvious in religious revolutions. In the writing, after discussing some issues about the philosophy of revolution, which include some key questions, types of revolutions and some western theories about revolution, we will explain what a revolution is and how a religious revolution forms and finally we will open a discussion about the experiences of the Islamic Revolution for continuation of religious revolutions. Considering that the Islamic Revolution of Iran is an ideal religious revolution, in the research we will utilize the revolution to prove the contents. Key questions about the phenomenon of revolution What is confined in the field of revolution is not out of the 1.Associate professor, Tehran University, the Faculty of Political Sciences
  • 8. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningfollowing questions: 1. What is a revolution? - The answer to the question involves the meaning,concept, and features of a revolution and recounts thedifferences between the phenomenon and relevant conceptssuch as movement, reform, civil war, coup-d›état, etc. andvarious types of revolution. In reply to the above question, different views, accordingto their philosophies and standpoints, have not reached aconsensus of opinion about the meaning of revolution andproposed various definitions. Considering the turmoil ofdefinitions about the phenomenon of revolution, the writerintends to open a discussion on the common features ofrevolutions and believes that in any credible definition ofrevolution, the features should be considered. The featureswill be mentioned in the writing. 2. Why does a revolution occur? 9 - Most revolutionary theories have been put forward toanswer the above question. In order to answer the question,any theory concludes with several key factors and conditionsafter its examination. In other words, after exploring for thereason behind the occurrence of a revolution, researcherfinds the emergence of several factors which have causedthe occurrence of the revolution. For example, Structural-Functionalism theory, after asociological examination of variables like social systems,recounts three conditions for occurrence of a revolution: thedecline of power or imbalance (value-environmental), thedissension among governing elite and accelerating factors.The conclusion recounts the reasons behind the occurrence
  • 9. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... of a revolution from this viewpoint. (Chalmers Johnson 1984 pp 9-134) 3. How does a revolution occur? - Sometimes differentiating between the two questions, why and how a revolution occurs, is difficult in action. However, by saying how the revolutions occur two issues are raised, first, how the conditions that was mentioned in the second question — why does a revolution occur? — are created and second, after the creation of such conditions the continuation of the developments that is how and by what means the victory or defeat of the rebellions occurs. In other words, we should refer to the history of a country in which a revolution has broken out to find how the revolution occurred. And by finding a point, in which we can surely say that the government had enough legitimacy, acceptability, authority, and stability, we should follow the events that10 occurred after the point and caused the government lose the legitimacy and stability, the events that caused the emergence of main and fundamental reasons behind the occurrence of the revolution, which were mentioned in the answer to the second question, and made the revolution inevitable. We should also take into account the conditions and events that caused the victory or defeat of the rebellions. It should be remembered that understanding how a revolution occurs is more difficult than why it occurs, and in historic analysis of revolutions, we will find numerous ways in which revolutions have occurred. Therefore, although we can find the main reasons behind the revolution in an easier way, summarizing the discussions concerning how a revolution occurs and proposing a theory is not that easy because of
  • 10. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe variety of historic routes of different revolutions. 4. What impacts and effects does a revolution have onthe country, in which it occurs, region and the world? What methods have foreign states used to confront arevolution which has threatened their colonialist interests? The works and writings about the phenomenon ofrevolution are mainly in the area of the first three questionsmentioned above and the analyses of the fourth questionhave relatively been rare. However, the internal effects ofrevolutions are numerous and at most times they have beenhistoric. In an article titled «Revolution and InternationalRelations,» Holiday criticizes western authors› ignorance ofthe international effects of revolutions and comments on thecampaigns of the world›s powers against the revolutions. Healso recounts the different aspects of revolutions› influenceover mutual or international relations and proposes somewritings in this field. However, Holiday himself did not 11examine the subject perfectly. This research is centered on questions 1 and 2, i.e. whyand how religious revolutions occur. Varieties of revolutions: Considering its long record, the phenomenon of revolutionhas emerged with various faces up to now. Authors haveclassified the phenomenon as following: A. The classification of revolutions according to the rateand type of changes caused by them From this view, revolutions have been classified into twogroups: political and social revolution (large and great)
  • 11. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... In the political revolutions changes are mostly social rather than political and in the worst state, the type of political regime changes. In these revolutions, the power of governmental structures may change and the political regime remains unchanged with the same name and form. Of course, there is no political revolution that does not cause any social changes. For example the Iranian Constitutional Revolution in 1906 is a political revolution. In the social revolutions, in addition to political changes, evident changes occur in the official culture, economic and political structures as well as foreign relations of a country. Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1949) and the Islamic revolution of Iran are instances of social or large revolutions. Of course, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, which can correctly be named great revolution, has had tremendous influences at national and international levels compared with other contemporary revolutions. At12 the national level, the revolution caused the formation of a government based on divine causes with reliance upon the people›s votes. The revolution proceeded to make serious efforts to achieve quickly self-sufficiency and development in various areas. At the international level, the nature of the revolution and its leadership, the similarity between the political cultural situation of the Muslim world and that of Iran before the Islamic Revolution, the importance and strategic position of Iran and some other reasons caused the emergence of an exclusive model of reflection of a revolution on the regional and international issues. B. Geographical-Cultural classification One of the authors in the 20th century has divided the
  • 12. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningrevolutions into two groups: Eastern revolutions andWestern revolutions. In this classification which is mostly geographical and tosome extent cultural, the priority of three issues is different.The three issues are as follows: 1. The breakup of power 2. The revolutionaries› entrance to the scene 3. The foundation of new political order Western revolutions Eastern revolutions 1. The breakup of power 1. The revolutionaries› entrance (governing system) to the scene 2. The revolutionaries› entrance 2. The institutionalization of new to the scene political order 3. The institutionalization of 3. The breakup of power new political order (governing system) According to the author, in the western revolutions, 13everyone at once find that the government has no powerand its political, military and managing power is declining.At this juncture, revolutionaries, who are mostly moderate,enter the scene and then move away because of theirinability to meet the revolutionaries› demands and handover the power to the radicals. And then the new politicalorder is institutionalized. While in the Eastern revolutions, due to the power ofgovernment which has not collapsed, rebellions who are notgenerally moderate, take actions against the governmentfrom jungles and mountains and if they occupy a place, theywill institutionalize the new political order and when theycapture the capital, the governing system collapses (SamuelHuntington 1991).
  • 13. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Revolutions in France (1789), Russia (1917), China (1911), are among Western revolutions, and revolutions in China (1949), Cuba (1959), Vietnam (1975), and Algeria (1962) are among Eastern revolutions. As you see, the classification is geographical at first sight. But a revolution can occur in the East on the basis of a Western model, and a revolution in the West on the basis of an Eastern model. The Islamic revolution of Iran, which is a religious revolution, cannot be placed in those classifications, because at the time of its occurrence the government had not collapsed, and did not begin by the entrance of revolutionaries to the scene (moves in jungles and mountains). C. The classification of revolutions according to the nature of revolutionaries› demands14 From the viewpoint of the nature of the revolutionaries› demands and requests, revolutions have divided into three groups: political revolution, economic revolution, and ideological (religious) revolution (Morteza Motahari, the surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, pp 23-43). For example the revolution occurred in France in 1789 is a political revolution due to its emphasis on liberalism and the revolution occurred in 1917 in Russia is economic due to its emphasis on the element of economics and the Islamic revolution of Iran, which occurred with an emphasis on the role of religion which itself includes political, economic, cultural, and social elements, is an ideological (religious) revolution. In this classification, the nature of revolutionaries›
  • 14. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdemands is the criterion for placing revolutions in one ofthe three groups and an ideological (religious) revolutionmeans a revolution in which leaders and the masses intend toput their religious beliefs into practice rather than insistingon only achieving freedom or equality like a number ofprevious contemporary revolutions. In addition, their causehas a political, social and economic nature. The classification of revolutionary theories Considering the multiplicity of the revolutionary theories,some theorists have classified revolutions accordingto their scientific approach or time of occurrence andrecounted famous examples for them. Two classificationsare mentioned as follows: 1. Stan taylor has divided the theories about the occurrenceof revolutions into four groups: sociological, psychological,economic and political. In the sociological theories there is an emphasis on 15sociological factors like social classes and stratifications,for instance, Structural-Functionalism theory by ChalmersJohnson. In psychological theories there is emphasis onthe psychological factors like personality of individuals,the mental conditions of society and issues like an increasein the expectations or feeling deprivation, for instance,‹J-curve› theory by James Chowning Davies and Relativedeprivation theory by Ted Robert Gurr. In the economic theories and in the Marxists› ideas, theeconomy is considered foundation or is a key factor, andfinally in the political theories there is an emphasis on thepolitical factors, for instance, Resource mobilization theoryby Charles Tilly.
  • 15. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... The Islamic Revolution of Iran as a genuine religious revolution was a challenge for theories about revolutions because the roles of cultural factors were outstanding compared with social, political and economic factors. Cultural factors like the clerics and mosques had independent, conceptual and coordinator roles in the revolution. 2. In the other famous classification, Jack Goldstone has divided theories about revolutions in the 20th century into three generations and after the Islamic Revolution of Iran and other revolutions in late 20th century proposed the fourth generation. A. First generation includes years between 1900 and 1940 and persons like Pitirim Sorokin, Crane Brinton, Samuel P. Huntington, Charles A. Ellwood. What was important to the generation was description of a revolutionary process and explanation of the signs of a revolutionary situation (Goldstone, 1980: 425-427). The theorists focused on16 the description of past famous revolutions like the French Revolution and did not make any effort to provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of revolution. B. Second generation theorists sought to develop detailed theories of why and when revolutions arise, grounded in more complex social behavior theories. They can be divided into three major approaches: psychological, sociological and political. The works of Ted Robert Gurr, Ivo K. Feierbrand, Rosalind L. Feierbrand, James A. Geschwender, David C. Schwartz and Denton E. Morrison fall into the first category. They followed theories of cognitive psychology and frustration- aggression theory and saw the cause of revolution in the state of mind of the masses, and while they varied in their
  • 16. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningapproach as to what exactly caused the people to revolt (e.g.modernization, recession or discrimination), they agreedthat the primary cause for revolution was the widespreadfrustration with socio-political situation. The second group, composed of academics such asChalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, Bob Jessop, Mark Hart,Edward A. Tiryakian, Mark Hagopian, followed in thefootsteps of Talcott Parsons and the structural-functionalisttheory in sociology; they saw society as a system inequilibrium between various resources, demands andsubsystems (political, cultural, etc.). As in the psychologicalschool, they differed in their definitions of what causesdisequilibrium, but agreed that it is a state of a severedisequilibrium that is responsible for revolutions. Finally, the third group, which included writers suchas Charles Tilly, Samuel P. Huntington, Peter Ammannand Arthur L. Stinchcombe followed the path of politicalsciences and looked at pluralist theory and interest group 17conflict theory. Those theories see events as outcomes of apower struggle between competing interest groups. (Ibid,428-429). C. Third generation of theories was formed in mid-1970sand with writers such as Theda Skocpol, Barrington Moore,Jeffrey Paige and others expanding on the old Marxist classconflict approach, turning their attention to rural agrarian-state conflicts, state conflicts with autonomous elites andthe impact of interstate economic and military competitionon domestic political change. Particularly Skocpol›s Statesand Social Revolutions became one of the most widelyrecognized works of the third generation; (Eisenstadt, 1978:86/ Godstone, 1980: 435-437)
  • 17. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... The 1970s was a decade during which the third generation became prevalent. Between the years 1970 and 1990 a number of revolutions occurred which were indicative of the fact that the theories had serious problems. In the Iranian and Nicaraguan Revolutions of 1979, multi-class coalitions toppled dictators that were backed by Western superpowers. In Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union big changes occurred in the systems on the basis of public demonstrations and protests rather than class struggle, and dictatorial regimes were overthrown. None of them could be explained by theories based on the few occasions in the history of Europe and China (Geldstone,2001/ Farhi, 1990). The occurrence of the Islamic Revolution questioned the theory of Skocpol in her book titled “States and Social Revolutions” in such a way that in 1982 in an article titled “Rentier State and Shi›a Islam in the Iranian Revolution,” she retracted her words that said revolutions are not made;18 they happen, and wrote that if there was only one revolution in the world that was made by a conscious revolutionary movement, the Iranian Revolution would be that revolution, and in this way emphasized the roles of leadership and the causes (Skocpol 205-206, 189-190). Problems of third generation theories in analyzing new revolutions, paved the way for the fourth generation of theories which are now in the making. Undoubtedly, the Islamic Revolution of Iran was one of the most important revolutions that challenged the third generation theories. The significant role of culture, leadership and the cause in the Islamic Revolution is the most important addition to the discussions over revolutions. The Islamic Revolution of Iran also challenged the enlightened theories of wisdom
  • 18. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening(the spread of liberal freedom). Not using weapons in the Islamic Revolution and movingthrough protests, rallies and public protests dissociate therevolution from other revolutions. In the new situation, Jack Goldstone, who divided theoriesabout revolutions into three generations, talked about theeruption of the fourth generation of theories in scientificand academic circles in a paper titled «Towards a FourthGeneration of Revolutionary Theory». Goldstone says it seems that the third generation ofrevolutionary theories is over; however the dominance ofthe fourth generation has not occurred yet. The generationhas regarded stability as the main issue and focusedon the conditions that regimes preserve over time. Thegeneration proves the significant role of issues on identity,ideology, gender, networks and leadership and regards therevolutionary processes and output data as the outcome ofinteraction among multilateral actors (Goldstone: 2001, 19175-176). According to Foran, the two revolutions occurred in Iranand Nicaragua prepared the way for the emergence of thefourth generation. A generation which dissociates itself fromsheer structural and determinism viewpoints and valuesthe roles of culture, ideology, mobilization of resources,unbalanced development and so on (Moshirzadeh 34 -1995,Foran 1993). Nature of a religious revolution Professor Morteza Motahari has defined revolution asa revolt and rebellion against governing system to createa favorable system which is associated with the sense
  • 19. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... of oppression, aggression and the spirit of rejection of oppression and unfavorable situation. According to his words, the orientation of divine movements is toward the deprived but its origin is not only the deprived. In this regard, he wrote that the Islam addresses all social classes and groups, whether the haves or the haves-not, because within each Pharaoh, there is a good human in shackles, of course, the poor usually say yes to God›s invitation, because the oppressor should give back the poor’s rights and ignore their own interests if they say yes to God›s invitation, but the poor by doing this say yes to their nature and also gain something. On the features of an Islamic revolution, Professor Motahari says «We know that Islam is not pure spirituality, as the westerners’ notion about religion. This fact not only applies to the current revolution (the Islamic Revolution of Iran), but it also applies to the revolution of early Islam.20 The revolution of early Islam was a political and religious revolution. While it was a spiritual and political revolution it was also an economic and financial one. It means that there are the concepts of freedom, justice, the absence of discrimination among social classes and social gaps in the context of Islamic teachings. It was thanks to the replacement of these concepts in the minds of the masses that our recent movements became epidemic and comprehensive. The movement was both rural and urban. Urban and rural, rich and poor, workers and farmers, open-minded and ignorant, all and all, participated in this movement. And it was also thanks to the Islamic nature of the movement that all groups joined together. The more important fact than the coordination is that our
  • 20. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmovement could tell people that they have their own schooland independent thought and that they can stand on theirown feet, and rely only on themselves.» If we suppose that the following features of a society canlead to the occurrence of a revolution, all the features willhave a religious origin in a religious revolution: 1. The alienation of society from current situation 2. The spread of new alternative causes 3. The leadership role and its structures 4. The role of the masses 5. The spread of the revolutionary spirit and the sense ofaggression 6. The change in cultural political and economic conditions Because: 1. Considering the intellectual contents of a religioussociety, dissatisfaction with the current situation occurs 21when individuals find that what occurs in the political, socialand economic areas in their community are in consistentwith their thoughts and intellectual contents which are theproduct of the religious culture of their country. 2. In a religious society, people are generally and rapidlyattracted by those revolutionary causes that are morecompatible with them which are religious causes. 3. In these communities, religious leaders occupy the roleof leadership of revolutionary movements and pave the wayfor the victory of the revolution with less casualties anddamages through devising special strategies. 4. In a religious society, religion plays a substantial role inthe formation of revolutionary causes, and its contents like
  • 21. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... opposing to oppression, seeking martyrdom, and complying with religious duties play important roles in creating the revolutionary spirit and leading the revolutionary movement toward its victory. 5. Religious revolution has the support of religious people who are ready to devote themselves to their causes. The purpose of these revolutions is not only political or financial, but people want to put their religious causes into practice which has also political and economic dimensions. At this juncture, the elements of religion and faith create an astonishing power which pushes aside the political power and its foreign supporters and prevent them to pursue any initiative. The situation was evident during the occurrence of the Islamic revolution which could achieve victory despite the enormous power of Pahlavi regime. In summary we can say that a religious revolution - that has a historical-religious culture, religious causes, religious22 leadership and faithful people – is possible to occur at the time of the regime’s contempt for the people and its anti- religious behaviors in cultural, political and economic areas, the backwardness of the country, and so on. The conditions are currently seen in the Arab Middle East countries. Formation and success of the religious revolutions For the formation of a religious revolution with the mentioned features some issues are necessary. What has been seen in every revolution is the bipolarization of the society, i.e. a conflict between two forces and the impossibility of resolving the conflict: political power and social (revolutionary) power (Manouchehr Mohammadi 1986 – pp 71-72)
  • 22. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In addition, the total power of a society should be muchmore than that of political power in order that a revolutionachieves victory. Of course, by power here we do not meanonly the material and tangible factors such as number ofpartners in power, military power, economic power andor external support. The intangible factors of power likethe power of faith and the cause, influence and leadershipstrategies and competencies, and depth of the revolutionaryspirit, etc. should be taken into account in examining thepower. 1. The role of political power’s features and measures A dependent, authoritarian and inefficient political powertakes some social, cultural and political measures whichare not accepted by the society and in this way lead thecommunity into bipolarization. The sense of alienation from the current situation in areligious revolution is much more than that sense in a secularrevolution. In a secular revolution, demands, which mostly 23relate to wealth, prosperity, and participation in politicalpower and the like, may end in reformist compromiseafter the withdrawal of the government. And possibly evensecular triumphed revolutions, accept to return to previousconditions after the revolution due to accepting the globalrules and lack of vigilance against pseudo-friends. In a religious revolution, the national humiliation, political,cultural, economic dependencies, wide gaps betweensocial classes and westernization of the government aremuch more outstanding thanks to the religious cultural andhistorical public views. Of course, the role of the revolutionary leaders at thisstage is crucial, in such a way that it is dangerous to trust
  • 23. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... demagoguery and efforts of the enemies. 2. The role of social power’s features and measures Social power in religious revolutions includes the causes of religious revolution, leadership of religious revolution, and faithful people. The combination of the three elements, which have the same origin, causes unity and a tremendous power in a revolutionary situation, and can lead to the victory of the revolution. The causes of a religious revolution, which are combined with the element of religious faith, are genuine and their holders rarely give up to the worldly promises of dependent regimes. Similarly, religious leaders prefer to achieve spiritual objectives rather than worldly affairs due to their piety. When the religious masses are added to the two elements, and when the concepts martyrdom seeking, sacrifice and the sense of religious duty enters the revolutionary movement,24 political power is weakened and becomes feeble facing the revolution. In religious revolutions (or any other revolution) the best result will be achieved only when the leadership has unity within itself and exude self-confidence as well as a strong will, and choose right strategies based on the current situation. 3. Counterrevolutionary measures of foreign powers As soon as a revolution occurs, especially a religious one, the hegemonistic powers begin to make every effort to preserve their colonialist interests according to the current situation. As we can see in the Islamic awakening current, in the Arab revolutions occurring in the North Africa and the littoral states in the Persian Gulf region, the efforts
  • 24. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningby the foreign powers include a range of measures frommilitary intervention for seemingly humanitarian reasons(such as in Libya, the powers entered the political game inorder to preserve their interests) to the measures like askingthe leaders of a country to assign the power to the militaryforces (such as in Egypt and Tunisia in order to have timefor making changes in favor of themselves) as well asmeasures like paving the way for military interventions ofneighbor countries (such as in Bahrain and Yemen). Theforeign domineering powers facing the revolutions mayalso take other measures like direct military intervention ifnational and international conditions allow them to do so,for instance the direct military intervention of the UnitedStates in Vietnam (1965-1975) which ended in infamousfailure. They also make efforts to penetrate weak elementsamong revolutionaries, to impose economic sanctions afterthe victory revolutions and so on, although they mostlyfail. The failures, especially in the religious revolutions, are 25broader and more intense, because there is no element offaith in their political terminology, and they are unaware ofits power. 4. The experiences of the Islamic Revolution forcontinuation of religious revolutions The Islamic Revolution of Iran as an excellent modelof religious revolutions, which is unique in the featuresmentioned for revolutions, has been able to preserve itsdynamics, remove the enemies› masks and witness theirgrowing weakness with its ever-increasing power. Considering the history of developments after the victoryof the Islamic Revolution, It can be said that the key factorsof the victories of the revolution are as follows, excluding
  • 25. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... the prominent role of the powerful leaders of the revolution over the past 33 years: 1. Writing and adopting a religion-oriented constitution After the victory of a revolution, writing a constitution is one of the first measures of the revolutionaries. Obviously the ideals and causes of a religious revolution can be achieved only through a religious constitution, and any effort by revolutionaries to evade the issue may prepare the ground for a return to the previous conditions and the surrender to the hegemonistic powers. 2. Establishment of revolutionary institutions In order to mange affairs during the occurrence of a revolution, avoid returning the previous conditions, and achieve the causes and objectives of the revolution, it is necessary to establish revolutionary institutions. For instance, Imam Khomeini (RA) stated that if the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps did not exist, the country would26 not exist either. Generally, in a religious revolution, the future of the revolution should be guaranteed though establishing such institutions as circumstances may allow. 3. Maintaining and sustaining the objectives and slogans of the revolution Constant attention to the slogans means enlivening the revolution and preparing the ground for achieving objectives. Among the slogans, the slogan of the role of religion in government and the slogan of independence is very important and vital. Countries that have lost their independence after their revolutions had no significant progress. The religious revolutions have global messages. In case of ignorance to the principle of Export of revolution, find
  • 26. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthemselves surrounded by the global counter-revolution.The revolutions, which have gained their driving force fromunity based on religious causes, if move toward dissension,will face serious problems in promoting and preserving therevolution. 4. Making efforts to build an advanced and self-sufficientsociety Advances in science, technology and industry and havingdeveloped and self-sufficient economy are an authenticreligious value. Islam has advised Muslims to avoid affairscausing the dominance of infidels and polytheists over them.The Islamic Revolution of Iran proved that it is possible towithstand pressures and imposed sanctions and to preparethe grounds for being at the height of your success andself-confidence with reliance upon your independence andcapabilities. 27 Conclusion: From the four questions concerning the phenomenon ofrevolution, the analysis focused on two questions: what is areligious revolution? And why does occur? The writing also regarded a religious revolution as a greatrevolution in which the leaders and the masses are seekingto put their religious thoughts and ideas into practice. In the research, the Islamic Revolution of Iran, whoseoccurrence challenged the revolutionary theories andchanged their generations, was also regarded as an excellentmodel of religious revolutions. Recounting the conditions which lead to the occurrenceof a revolution, the research highlighted the religious
  • 27. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... nature of the conditions in a religious revolution. On the formation of a religious revolution, It also explained that bipolarization of society and dispute between social power and political power is the main condition for the occurrence of a revolution and the superiority of social power (tangible and intangible) over the political power is the reason behind the victory of revolution. It also emphasized that the power of faith can create a complete unity among the forces. In the end, the writing proposed four examples of the most important experiences of the Islamic Revolution to serve as strategies for sustaining religious revolutions. References: 1. Skocpol. Theda, States and Social Revolutions, translated by Seyed Majid Rointan, Tehran, Soroush, 1997. 2. Johnson. Chalmers, Revolutionary Change, translated by Hamid Eliasi, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1984. 3. Sadr. Seyed Mohammad Bagher, Traditions of History in the Holy28 Quran, translated by Seyed Jamal Mousavi, Qom, Islamic Publications office, Bita 4. Green. Gerald, «Mobilizing the Opposition in Iran,» Comparative, Theoretical Historical Studies on Revolution, Jack Goldstone (Editor), translated by Mohammad Taghi Delafrooz, Tehran, Kavir, 2006. 5. Mohaamadi. Manouchehr, an Analysis of the Islamic Revolution, Tehran, Amir Kabir, 1986. 6. Moshirzadeh. Homeira, «A Brief Look at the Revolutionary Theories in Social Sciences,» series on the Islamic Revolution and its roots, Qom. 7- Motahari. Morteza, the Surroundings of the Islamic Revolution, Qom, Islamic Publications Office, Bita 8 - Malakootian. Mostafa, «Revolution from Beginning to End; Review of Seven Common Features of Revolution», Journal of Law and Political Science, No. 57, October 2002. 9- Eisenstadt, Revolution and the Transformation of Societies, New York: Free Press, 1978. 10- Farhi. F, States and Urban - based Revolution: Iran and Nicaragua,
  • 28. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningUrbana & Chicago, University of Illinois Press, 1990.11- Foran. John, «Theories of Revolution Revisited: Toward FourthGeneration?» Social Theory, 11, 1993.12- Goldstone. Jack, «Theories of Revolution: The Third Generation»,World Politics, 32, 1980.13- Goldstone. Jack, «Toward a Fourth Generation of RevolutionaryTheory», Annu. Rev Sci: 2001, 4:XX, Copyright 2001, by AnnualReviews. 29
  • 29. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious...
  • 30. Challenges facing the Islamic Awakening androle of youth in dealing with them By Salman Karamian Ismail Hemmatian Introduction and significance of the problem: Emergence of the Islamic awakening wave, triggered bynations’ will and guided by committed Islamic intellectuals,has caused a tremendous evolution among internationalgoverning systems in the early 21st century. Islamic awakening, which had previously led to weakenworld powers and had caused great movements in Islamicworld, has entered into a new phase of evolvement andgrowth now. It is of an Islamic, cultural, social and politicalnature that on the one hand has developed fundamentalchanges in international, regional and global equations 31and on the other hand, its reflection has led to new Islamicmovements coming out in the region as well as all over theworld. The influence has been so much that a new literature,named theory of Islamic awakening, has been created. Thisis not a political or nominal theory, but a multidimensional,precise, scientific which is one based on facts and functionsas a serious reaction against Western colonialism. The Islamic and revolutionary nature of Islamic awakeningwave will lead to fundamental changes in future structureof international system. The spread’s moving forward andpicturing its future desirable perspectives is so difficult asthe influences of these revolutions are enormous. In the awakening movement and its deconstructionistdirectionality, we can observe recognition of colonialism,
  • 31. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... moving away from modern political culture and approaching a new political culture. Therefore, identifying challenges and newly emerged problems in national, regional and global context is essential. In such situation, a new discourse is needed to present solutions and create revolutionary directions at the appropriate time. The process of determining challenges, with which Islamic awakening movement is faced, has been done through identifying weak points and strong points in domestic context, foreign opportunities and treats and ultimately considering them altogether as well as the effect of social, cultural, political and economical stimulants. This process is evolved by developing a strategic management, picturing a desirable future perspective, recognizing the influences of the awakening movement and having a thorough knowledge of its capacities. So in this paper, the most important problem32 is identifying challenges with which Islamic awakening movement is faced. We will introduce these challenges and will present some solutions for them. Challenges encountering Islamic awakening movement: The third wave of Islamic awakening is a result of Marxism and liberalism inefficiency and empowerment of Islamic groups. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution says,” Talking of Islamic awakening was previously regarded as a kind of exaggeration and judged as out of reach, but today it is not surprising because of all Moslems’ being awakened and substantial deficiencies of world powers being revealed.” He has pointed out somewhere else that,” Islamic awakening will lead to developing an Islamic and
  • 32. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninginternational government which is one of the importantfeatures of future third wave of awakening.” In his pointof view, the third wave of Islamic awakening in the worldoccurred after Islamic revolution of Iran and thereby gavehope to Moslem people in the region. It collapsed the falseidea of United States and Soviet Union, two superpowersin the world, being unbeatable and showed people that theycan stand against them independent from Western or Easternblocs. Hence, after first wave of Islamic awakening, the nextwaves subsequently happened. At the present condition, wesee the third wave of Islamic awakening which is a resultof strengthening theoretical basis and developing Islamicgroups in the region. As we move forward from the firstmove to the third one, three main issues in theoretical andpractical context manifest themselves more: ● Increase in power of Islamic groups ● Emerging movements calling for Islam in the region ● Elimination of rival ideologies i.e. Marxism, liberalism, 33etc. The abovementioned issues become intensified withIslamic movements moving forward. However, sinceIslamic awakening wave has challenged all equations ofcolonial powers in the region, it has been considered asa serious threat to world powers and we will deal withthe most important challenges encountered in Islamicawakening movement. • Cultural invasion of the foreign and identity crisis After collapsing Soviet Union regime and subsequentstopping cold war between west and East blocs, Westerncountries, having six years of military experience in allover the world, changed their tactics in order to reach
  • 33. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... their strategic goals. They knew that after collapsing the communist Soviet, it is the power of Islam that stand against their wills, because this power had increased after Islamic revolution of Iran. Western countries focused on finding a way to standing against Islamic movements in Middle East region and Islamic world. Western countries, United States in particular, that regarded themselves as the absolute superpowers on the world adopted a policy of military and weaponry blockage as well as cultural war. The latter, named cultural invasion by supreme leader became the most important strategy of them. It refers to software-related measures with the aid of hardware such as media in order to gain the dominant culture of the world and prevent noble cultures such as Islamic culture to enter international arena. So Western world has tried to gain cultural dominancy based on its military power (NATO) with the aim of: firstly to restrain34 noble cultures (Islamic culture) and secondly introducing Western culture as the superior and dominant culture of the world. Undoubtedly, their primary tactic to stand against Islamic awakening wave in intellectual dimensions was cultural invasion, as named by supreme leader, and making use of Moslems’ ignorance. However, gradually and after power of Islam being revealed in West and East, cultural … has turned to a phenomenon which is no longer evident and tangible. It refers to a series of policies adopted by West, especially United States, which aim is to oppose against Islamic awakening movement and the Islamic nature of recent movements. They attempt to annihilate the youth identity and neutralize their influence on the movement. Therefore, the most important challenge encountered
  • 34. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin Islamic awakening movement is cultural invasion ofimperialist powers and lack of a strong strategy on anIslamic basis with an interacting approach to culture. In thisregard, the most important aims of enemies are as follows: ●annihilation of national identities of freedom-seekingnations, particularly Islamic countries, and weakening theirhope in becoming independent ●strengthening global Zionism and at the same timeweakening Moslems and Islamic awakening wave ●expansion of false religions and sects such as Vahabiatand other made up heresies in Islamic countries in order to… among them ●intellectual and moral deviation of youth throughimporting ruinous and unethical products ●strengthening Western capitalist system throughcontemptuous means and behaviors towards Moslems ●distorting religion and pushing Moslems away fromnoble and pure knowledge of Islam 35 ●presenting Western astray models in individual andsocial contexts ●intellectual and cultural permutation 2. Making Islamic movements democrat Increasing changes in the region as well as the world,which has started since two or three decades ago, has beenaccelerated by occurrence of Islamic awakening wavein Moslem countries. Meanwhile, domination-seekingof imperialist powers has increased. Avarice of worldarrogance and international Zionism with the aim of makingIslamic movements democrat, is one of their strategicand long-term policies to annihilate Islamic principles.Therefore, the importance and necessity of studying and
  • 35. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... following these changes has been reminded repeatedly by supreme leader. As he says,” one of the new concepts in political discourse of imperialist powers dominating international system is wealthy power-seeking stratum’s attempt to take control of vital and economical resources of the world which is a preface to ultramodern colonialism.” He points out somewhere else that,” The very important issue is increasing dominance of United States on Islamic countries’ political, economical and even military reserves. This cruel and dominance-seeking superpower, after collapsing of Soviet Union and elimination of this powerful rival, aims to turn all over the world and also rich region of Islamic countries to its own absolute arena.” So we should notice that colonialism and imperialism goals have so far demonstrated that they have many clear and hidden faces tangled with all dimensions of subaltern societies. In most cases, these faces are philanthropic, peace-seeking, and36 freedom-seeking and promotion of prosperity in surface which are truly snarls in the way of nations. It is crystal clear that by being aware of the appearance of these tricks we can release from these snarls and by following efficient and provident policies we can make keep colonial countries away from reaching their goals. As one of the methods of ultramodern colonialism is constant and indirect occupation with passing political governors by and without protest of people. Now because of spread of Islamic awakening wave and inclinations toward political and revolutionary Islam, many of colonial structures in the region and in also in the world have undergone drastic changes. Islamic awakening, i.e. revival of true Islam which is one of the earlier outcomes
  • 36. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof revolutions happened in the region, create basis foremergence of Islamic movements after a period of inactivityand quietness. Intellectual-political streams are happening in an unknownand surprising condition. So there are various interpretationsin recognizing and analyzing the phenomenon of Islamicrevolutions and the way to treat them. Thus, strategic andpolicy-making centers in powerful governments havepresented various and changing solutions and have tried toconceal their failure in standing against Islamic awakeningand its consequences as well as their concerns aboutdrastic changes in the structure of imperialist system andinternational exploitation. Besides they have attempted tomake a new complicated policy in the post-Cold War eraand follow it intensively in order to develop global moderndiscipline. Reviewing Western colonialism history in both old andmodern colonial era indicates that colonialism has followed 37the way to reach its goals in economical, political, cultural,social, confidential and scientific dimensions and hashad influences on other societies. Knowing ultramoderncolonialism necessitates a comprehensive look at ultramodernmethods applied by possessors of power and wealth in theworld. So we can say that this kind of colonialism, whichhas started with a sense of domination of liberalist ideologyon other ideologies, is a new all-embracing structure thatseriously threatens intellectual and structural dimension ofIslamic world. Dimensions of this structure are threatening,devastating, widespread and various. Imperialism seeksits dominance and superiority on Islamic world and triesto achieve this goal in any possible way. For this goal to
  • 37. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... be achieved it needs to eliminate its rivals and enemies. It has found the main cause of its problems in Middle East region and Islamic world; thus with occurrence of Islamic movements in the region, their influence on global equations increases. Consequently, Imperialism , in order to reach dominance over Islamic movements, apply methods some of which are as follows: ●priority of cultural dominance over military dominance ●infiltrating Western agents to temporary transitional governments ●inspiring inefficiency of religious democratic system in controlling Islamic countries’ affairs ● creating social and cultural crisis as well as individual and cultural alienation ●making standards and presenting Western models ●creating more inequity and more social, ethnic and religious gaps38 ●focusing on new capitalist centers in Islamic nations for realization of colonialism ●increasing individualistic activities, seclusion of influential figures and minimizing social participation of committed elites ●creating economical dependence and expansion of market in Islamic awakening wave countries ●changing people taste and making them consume more ●managing public thoughts and changing their direction towards the benefits of Imperialism 3. stopping, deviating or slackening the Islamic awakening movement Onset of Islamic movements in north Africa and Southwest Asia, their passing from emergence phase to
  • 38. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningreach stability and establishing temporary transitionalgovernments, is indicative of the profoundness of Islamicthoughts and noble nature of revolutions made by people inthe region. Continuity of these movements, their influenceon outside geographical area of Islamic world and otherfreedom-seeking societies following this trend leads tofomenting fear of Islamic awakening wave among otherpuppet regimes and governments representing Imperialismand Western liberal-democracy in the region. Hence,endangering situation and benefits of imperialist systemsin the region (and their supporters/ counterparts) has ledto adoption of preventing and defensive policies in orderto impede the accelerated movement of Islamic awakeningwave. Hence, imperialism is trying to impede the awakeningmovement through hidden and apparent measures,propaganda, sanctions (economical, military, political,etc), military operations, enticing and persuading former 39dictator regimes remaining in the region, subversion andentering to vital infrastructures of countries. As supremeleader says,” Their main goal is to assassinate influentialfigures of us. They want to seclude Islamic values andsuppress the Islam-seeking wave. The United States andother imperialist countries are using all their propagandaopportunities to delay, or suppress if possible, Islamicawakening movement.” But since these revolutions arederived from intellectual values and aware nature offreedom-seeking Moslems who are subjects of cruelty andinjustice, it is impossible to stop it. It will be acceleratedand intensified. , committed intellectuals, politicians andall influential figures in Islamic movements should be
  • 39. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... cognizant in order to guide the movement properly and manage it in its right path. 4. Creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps One of the influential challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is creating ethnic, racial, religious and tribal gaps done by imperialist powers to make divisions and alter Islamic integrity among different groups in Islamic countries. Religious identity, history and civilization and national honors all are ultra-national identities that affect individual identities of warriors and prepare a ground to unite Islamic world in its movements on the basis of religious, intellectual, cultural, political, revolutionary identity. Undoubtedly it is not ignored by imperial analysts and as supreme leader points out,” Quran pays attention to integrity and warns us that if we lose our integrity, we will lose our respect and identity too. Unfortunately, this problem exists in Islamic world today. There are lots of40 conspiracies against Moslems and it show that they are afraid of Islamic awakening wave and integrity among Islamic world.” Imperial theorists and analysts attempt to alter the essence of movements happened in the region and show their nature something apart from Islamic identity and thereby create ethnic quarrels among Islamic groups. They try to achieve their goal through presenting Islamophobia and Iranophobia projects, exaggerating the danger of fundamentalism and making Moslems despondent in their movement. Therefore, all social classes, tribes and ethnicities in Islamic societies should understand the sensitivity of the present condition and forget about their differences and personal benefits to incorporate in continuity and success
  • 40. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof Islamic awakening wave and maintenance of nationalbenefits. 5. Provoking differences and making the influentialfigures of the movement want their own share Islamic awakening wave, which is based on evaluative,intellectual and revolutionary ideology, has turned into themain discourse of Moslems and has changed the faces ofthe countries involved which were previously captives inpoverty, corruption and discrimination of their apparentlyeverlasting governors. The role of people in thesemovements is undeniable; because Islamic movementsare rooted in presence and will of people. The eternal andmain asset of a democratic society is the presence of peoplein different arenas of revolution. Because it is under thiscondition that happening revolutions will be immune frominterventions of aliens. We should bear in mind that the supreme leader askspeople to be present and influential in managing the 41country; because it is their presence that is considered as themain power of system in eliminating problems and barriers.Therefore, the integrity among people in Islamic revolutionsis one of the serious concerns of regional countries. Undoubtedly, agreement on defined goals and intellectualgrounds as well as considering national benefit of the systemnot only will lead to achieve national goals, but also willaffect global equations very much. Therefore, differencesand divisions and also influential figures’ demanding theirown share will impede desirable acting in internationalarena. So the benefits should be organized and commonwishes have to be inspired among people in the followingways:
  • 41. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... ●trying to ignore sectarian and individual benefits for the sake of national benefits of Islamic movements ●moving public thoughts towards national benefits and away from individualism ●trying to reduce the gaps between influential groups in the society on the basis of mutual respect and rejection of suppression ●creating a sense of welcoming criticism and allowing thoughts to flourish to the extent that it doesn’t damage the system principles and national benefit ●making people aware of enemies’ tricks to stop Islamic awakening movements and deviate people ●strengthening the ties between people, groups, streams and transitional government ●commitment of all groups, wings and parties to noble Islamic principles as a common criterion 6. Lack of a organizing and uniting leadership42 Emergence of Islamic awakening wave in the 21st century world which escapes from religion and fight against it, is indicative of a new crisis in the dominant trend of secularization of people individual and social life. Though the most important influence of such movements is making change in political system and establishing temporary transitional governments, no need to mention that without firm intellectual grounds their happening was impossible. In other words, recent Islamic movements in the region are prefaces to revolution of other Moslem countries against corrupt and dictator regimes. One of the main challenges encountering Islamic awakening wave is lack of a uniting and organizing leadership. An organizing leadership is the major basis for ruling
  • 42. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic countries and thereby revolutions happened inthe region can annihilate false grandeur of imperialism,unite people in standing against its invasion and bringprosperity to Islamic societies. As Imam Khomeini madeall impossible possible in the period of Islamic revolutionof Iran, the youth duty is to keep Islamic awakening waveimmune from deviation with the aid of clergymen andreligious men. Violating leadership’s orders and eliminatingcommitted clergymen from the system is a sinister plan ofWest and a country without leadership is like a countrywithout physicians. It is worth-mentioning that Islamicprinciples and thoughts are not just religious insights, buta state system of which political and legal theory has beencarried out in different ways. In other words, the idea ofIslamic government is a theocracy and a religious-politicaltheory based on the fact that religious governing is the onlylegitimate governing and the right law is what Prophet hadstated. According to this theory, religious and politics as 43well as government and clergymen are not separated fromeach other and divine laws should be applied in the society. “Application of this theory in contemporary era meansintegrity of politics and religion which was followed bySeyyed Jamal al-din Asadabadi and later by Modarres. Ithas been resurrected in recent decades and the main figureinvolved was Imam Khomeini in late decades of 20thcentury.” 7. provoking intellectual extremism and solidity ofthought among influential figures It is a long time that studying Islamic awakeningmovement and analyzing its dimensions has been a concernof international powers. They try to identify the challenges
  • 43. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... and weak points and thereby stop or seclude it. They aim to keep societies way from noble Islamic principles through altering its messages, spoiling people spirit and happiness and presenting false and extremist ideas instead of evaluative ones (such as justice, freedom, etc.). “Enemies have believed that their passage to survival is eliminating Islam from the societies or having a nominal Islam. Though they have been unsuccessful in achieving the first goal, they have managed to achieve the second.”, Imam Khomeini says. Examining extremism and sanctimoniousness is very essential in understanding Islamic awakening and its challenges. Imam Khomeini considers knowing provokers of extremism and ignorance as well as standing against them as being essential in expansion of Islam and maintains that,” United States and world arrogance have agents everywhere. I have warned you repeatedly that they have44 sanctimonious agents in universities that are supporters of religion in appearance, but they have hypocrisy and it ruins Islam and revolution.” Studying this issue shows that such people has caused hugest losses and damages to Islam throughout the history and now they want to repeat it in Islamic awakening wave. Because this wave is a phase in flourishing noble Islam by which freedom-seeking and aware nations find their right path in standing against manifestations of deviation and extremism. Consequently, it is the duty of committed intellectuals and thinkers to distinguish intellectuality criteria from Western theories and to introduce noble Islamic principles as an appropriate model to societies and have concerns regarding alienation, seclusion and ignorance.
  • 44. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 8. Undermining the presence of committed religiousintellectuals Establishment of Islamic movements in recent century hasbeen an ascendant procedure and committed intellectualsand clergymen could guide the movements properly. Theirrole in preventing deviation from primary goals and hencevictory of movements is undeniable; as they have had animportant role through acquiring spiritual and politicalpower, infiltrating to thoughts and beliefs of people andawakening their revolutionary nature. They have provedthat whenever they have fought against corrupt powers, thegoverning political system has failed and has surrenderedthe political power. Committed intellectuals and clergymen have powerbecause of enjoying social and political bases and livingamong people. Their power is not comparable to thepower of non-religious leaders and this fact provokes thepoliticians’ jealousy and betrayal towards them. Therefore, 45imperialist leaders are aware of the importance of committedintellectuals and clergymen and try to remove them fromthe Islamic awakening context and its influences on thefuture world. With emergence of Islamic awakening movements in theregion, the duties of committed intellectuals and clergymenhave become more. As supreme leader points out,”Fortunately, there has been created a widespread awakeningin Islamic world and it is the task of clergymen and Moslemintellectuals to guide it towards a right direction. Theyshould act in a way that this awakening lead to governingand domination.” Another important duty of them is to solveproblems of people. It is not a minor task. It’s a fundamental
  • 45. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... issue related to an Islamic society. Here some functions and responsibilities of committed intellectuals and clergymen are presented: ●standing against cruel and corrupt regimes and their remaining agents in temporary transitional governments ●exercising liberality and intellectuality with people in order to make them know that intellectual deviations are injected in the form of Islamic principles ●establishing deep ties with people and accompanying them in different arenas ●presenting solutions based on Islamic principles in order to eradicate encountering challenges 9. Brain drain in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave Two centuries of dictatorship and political, social, economical and military dominance of corrupt governments in countries involved in Islamic awakening wave has46 led to emergence of a sense of alienation among elites, thinkers and their indifference towards their countries and remaining inactive in the process of progressing. Their not participating in managing a country and domination of a dictatorship atmosphere caused activating imperialist intelligence services in order to recognize and invite them to Western countries and International Zionism. As Tailor believes,” Persuading propaganda of United States has caused immigration of thousands of Islamic countries’ elites and genius thinkers to America.” Joseph Nay also emphasizes that,” more than half of the talented university students in America are from Islamic countries; they never return to their own countries or if they return, they have acquired secular positions.” Imperialist countries prepare
  • 46. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninggrounds and opportunities for these students, strengthen asense of alienation among them, use them in key positionsin scientific fields and provide them with financial resourcesand thereby decrease their interests to their countries andannihilate their will to return there. Through this procedurewhich is a pre-planned sinister program, world powerscause a lack of committed and expert human sources inIslamic countries. Therefore, the politicians in temporary transitionalgovernments have to carefully consider strategic variablesin international context and remember that efficient andrevolutionary elites play a crucial role in compensatingscientific, social and economical lags in their societies. Sowe should prepare attractive grounds for elites to returnand resurrect noble Islamic thoughts in them to preventempowering secular and western agents whose way ofthinking is not flexible. 10. A weak perspective for future harmonious with global 47changes One of the fundamental challenges encountering Islamicawakening wave is globalization which is happening asmain variable in modern global discipline theory proposedby economical and political powers. This variable is nota natural process; but a planned one. It is, in fact, thehegemony of Western liberal capitalist system to dominatethe world, especially the world of Islam. Since recentmovements in Islamic world has led to alteration in globalequations and establishment of new political discourses ofwhich influences have gone beyond the region, this theory isregarded as a fundamental and promoter theory by colonialtheorists. It is followed by them in different branches;
  • 47. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... however their main concerns are economy, politics and culture. In the field of economy, globalization refers to domination of Western capitalist companies over sources and capacities of Islamic world and also changing people taste and making them consume their products more. In the fields of politics it refers to political domination of them over all other countries. In the field of culture, it refers to making people consumption-driven, diversity-seeking and enjoyment-seeking. Globalization, in its third meaning, is spreading under the title of “modernist culture”. It is imposed on Islamic countries and imperialist powers aim to globalize their own values and human rights. The globalization project in the fields of economy, culture and politics proposed by imperialist system aims to cultural and economical domination over countries. Globalization necessitates elimination of geographical borders between common-wealth societies and other societies. So Islamic48 countries should understand the false hegemony of Western democracy and picture a perspective based on reality for themselves to act influentially in the international environments. Recommended solutions: Undoubtedly, Islamic awakening wave is one of the unique events happened in contemporary history. Recent events have had great influence on domestic equations of countries as well as international equations and have resurrected the Islamic identity and originality among Moslems. As supreme leader says,” With the will of God a new movement is starting in the region. It is the movement of nations and Islamic world under the title of Islam aiming
  • 48. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic goals. It is indicative of public awareness and Godhas guarantied the absolute victory of such movements.”Islamic awakening wave was established based on the factthat the only way to solve existing problems is returningto noble Islamic concepts and principles. This wave haspassed from the phase of emergence and crisis to stability;where free elections, with all people participating, areheld and Islamic groups win. Since the future perspectiveof the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave isin contrary to benefits and goals of international Zionismand imperialism, imperialist countries do all that they canto intervene in the occurring events and deviate freedom-seeking people. Regarding this fact, young generationact as promoter motor and motivator in continuity ofIslamic awakening movement. They should understandthe sensitivities of present time and stand against avariceof imperialists and Zionists and thereby help to realize theideals of their revolutions. They play a crucial role and 49their acting at appropriate time will guarantee the Islamicmovement. They should learn from the youth in early Islam,Islamic revolution in Iran, Hezbollah groups in Lebanonand resisting groups of Moghavemat in Palestine. So we should carefully examine occurring events toovercome probable problems and challenges encounteringrevolutions. Some recommended solutions that can moveIslamic revolutions in the region towards stability are asfollows: • Demanding establishment of a new political systembased on renewal of Islamic respect Now that Islamic awakening wave has happened in anera in which postmodernism is entering into a new phase,
  • 49. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Islamic revolutions in the region try to pay attention to people demands and return their sense of originality. Therefore, it is necessary that in the era, which is named “era of spirituality”, a system based on new evaluative atmosphere be created and introduced to the world. Supreme leader of Islamic revolution has repeatedly reminded influential leaders to establish such system. Now that Islamic awakening wave has endangered all theories of making global systems, it should propose a new discourse which answers all human demands. In this regard, following consideration should be met: ●preparing a perspective for political system according to the mentioned models ●not separating the new political system from noble religious principles ●structuring the system on the basis of cosmopolitan principle and its generalization to other political systems50 ●considering the principle of gaining political power based on justice ●considering standing against cruelty and defending the suppressed (e.g. Palestinian people) ●emphasizing on influential leadership as the ideological center of political system ●considering the principle of nation independence- readiness to defend the country ●aiming to a new political system on the basis of Islamic- revolutionary principles and avoiding application of laic, liberal, nationalist or Marxist stereotypes in the structures of new government 2. Gaining cultural independence and standing against cultural invasion
  • 50. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening One of the important concerns which plays a key role inguarantying prosperity of societies and realizing their futureperspectives is gaining independence and cultural identity.As Imam Khomeini, the founder of Islamic revolution,pointed out,” If a society has a dependent culture whichis feed by opposition cultures, other dimensions of thesociety will move towards the opposite direction too andfinally the society will lose its identity in all dimensions.Independence and identity of any society is derived fromindependence in its culture and it is naive to think that itis possible to gain independence while being culturallydependant. That’s why the main goal of colonials is toinvade the culture of subaltern societies.” And the supremeleader also maintains that,” Independence of a nation isnot achieved unless through independence in political,economical and cultural fields. If the culture and moralityand beliefs of alien countries is prevalent in a society, it cannot demand independence; because the real domination of 51powers is cultural domination. Some solutions are presented here: ●preparing a cultural perspective based on Islamic values ●developing and presenting religious models in culturaland social arenas ●identifying cultural measures taken by enemies andplanning to neutralize them ●learning from cultural achievements of Islamicrevolution in Iran ●having active, continuous and effective presence inmedia to stand against media imperialism ●generating variable cultural products in accordance with
  • 51. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... Moslems’ needs 3. Designing a model of development based on Quran and religion In this regard, supreme leader says,” Nations, whether Moslem or not, need Islamic orders today. It is because of being away from Islam that some countries are suppressed. Islamic awakening will save nations and that’s why the alertest people in different countries have turned towards Islam which is the way the holy Quran shows us; the way to survival and prosperity.” He adds somewhere else that,” The main issues that imperialist powers emphasize on them are: cultural, economical and scientific domination. That is enough for them not to allow the subaltern country to reach independence, progress and believing in itself.” Considering supreme leader’s point of view, the countries involved in Islamic awakening wave can prepare a perspective to act upon through adopting following approaches:52 ●designing domestic and Islamic models in order to eradicate economical, military, cultural and scientific dependence on aliens ●promoting productivity ●lessening class gaps ●promoting Islamic revolution ideals in cultural, economical and political dimensions ●eradicating poverty and deprivation; and development of the country ●making the country’s culture and economic efficient ●eradicating scientific, economical, political, military, cultural and social dependence through jehad-like measures 4. Preventing religious, ethnic and racial differences to become significant and relying on religion as a criterion
  • 52. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Now that Islam-seeking wave has turned into one ofthe main discourses in global theories and has violatedall international equations and Zionism’ benefits, the onlypossible way for enemies to deviate this trend is to createethnic and religious quarrels among people. So the younggeneration in the Islamic countries should maintain theachievements of happened revolutions through followingmeasures: ●aknowledgement of ethnic and religious differences ●managing existing differences ●maintaining integrity on the basis of religion ●maintaining integrity on the basis of saving countryfrom the barraters 5. identifying rival models in the region as well asinternational arena It can be concluded form supreme leader sayings that,” Theenemy has prepared a comprehensive and planned scenariofor Islamic system and Islamic awakening movements. 53But fortunately, using our philosophical and evaluativecapacities we will be able to stand against these scenarios.” 6. Increase in awareness, cognizant presence in differentarenas at appropriate time The role of people in emergence and continuity of Islamicawakening trend is undeniable. It was seen in Islamicrevolution of Iran too; where presence of people in differentscenes neutralized all the enemy’s plans against Islamicsystem. So the main treasure of awakening movements inIslamic countries has been presence of people at appropriatetimes. As supreme leader, in a question and answer session,says to the youth that,” Awareness of young generation isone of the three pillars in guarantying their own success in
  • 53. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... future and prosperity of the country.” He advised them to feel responsible, to build their own future and not to rely on chances, to have faith, which is the key component in making progress and gaining achievement in all fields, and finally to have awareness and distinguishing power. Because if they have these characteristics, they can become successful in all fields.” 7. Constant reviewing the principles of revolution Islamic awakening movement has emerged on the basis of people’s will and Islamic principles and its continuity is bound to commitment to its fundamental principles, a deep understanding of its different layers and avoiding simple- mindedness for the sake of keeping revolution achievements immune from deviations. Hence following items should be considered: ●maintaining and strengthening fundamental principles and directionalities of Islamic awakening wave54 ●focusing on the principles of revolution of which ignorance will lead to gradual changes ●the only way to prevent deviation from Islamic revolution principles is to making main indexes of system more prominent ●independence, freedom and justice-seeking ●not giving up to dictatorship and colonialism ●rejection of ethnic, racial and religious differences ●explicit rejection of Zionism ●maintaining originalities with a high sensitivity ●not allowing the enemy to determine future principles of the system ●not victimizing the principles in favor of passing benefits ●pessimism towards Europe, United States, NATO and
  • 54. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningnot believing their promises ●gaining solutions from Islamic origin and giving alienversions back ●pessimism towards any advise or measure proposed byAmerica 8. Using the achievements, advances and valuableexperiences of other Moslem nations Islamic awakening wave has started since decades agoand after victory of Islamic revolution in Iran. It has beenaccelerated and turned to the main discourse in political,economical and social arenas. Islamic revolution, actingas a stereotype, has gained lots of achievements and isgaining more power in the region. Therefore, the eliteand intellectual youth should use different experiences ofIslamic Republic of Iran and reach to their goals through acrosscut according to these items: ●using the principles of Islamic Republic of Iranconstitutional law as a model for developing their own laws 55and regulations ●using Iran’s achievement in the field of Nano- technology ●applying fundamental researches of Islamic Republic ofIran in cultural and social fields ●using the capacities of young generations in Islamiccountries ●believing young generation ●revival of self-confidence in the youth ●the youth’s application of older people experiences ●considering “Islamic democratic system” as desirable ●not confusing Islamic democracy with democracy 9. Aiming to release noble Qods (qodse-sharif) fromZionists
  • 55. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... International Zionism and imperialism use all their capacities to occupy and annihilate noble Qods; the first Qibla of Moslems. Therefore, one of the future goals of Islamic awakening wave should be releasing it from Zionist regime to create an integrated Islamic unity. Following items should be considered: ●aiming to release Palestine from Zionists ●continuity of great movement in Egypt to Palestine and Rafah passage ●taking big steps to overcome all barriers ●considering true treasures of Moslem nations (not being arrogant after victory) 10. Establishment of mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs Islamic awakening wave, while gaining stability, is facing different threats from international system. Imperialism and Zionism use all their capacities to challenge this trend and56 neutralize its achievements. So it is duty of all Moslem young people to maintain these achievements and learn from Islamic revolution of Iran and establish mobilizations of people (Basij) and Islamic organs. As Imam Khomeini, the great leader of Islamic revolution, says,” defending Islam and Islamic countries is a religious and divine task of people and it is due to them.” Basij is an eternal source for Islamic revolutions and guarantees the prosperity of developing societies. Its importance is to the extent that Sublime God emphasizes on its necessity in Holy Quran. Reviewing the history of Islam also confirms this point that whenever people were present in different social scenes, there came fortunate outcomes for the society.
  • 56. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The role of Basij in Islamic revolution is another proof forthe fact that it is of a revolutionary and constructive spirit.The existing bureaucracies in the societies are not barriersto achieving its goals. Hence, the young generation ofthe countries involved in Islamic awakening wave shouldprovide a ground for flourishing and development throughestablishing mobilizations of people. The following itemsshould be considered here: ●scientific mobilization and organizing the elites andinfluential figures in the trend ●defending revolutions through closing the ways ofenemies’ infiltration to managing layers in new politicalsystems ●deepening culture in the society ●comprehensive defending against software and hardwarethreats ●making stereotypes and presenting evaluable,revolutionary models in different arenas of new political 57systems ●neutralizing security and disciplinary threats in thesociety ●creating jobs and eradication of poverty ●identifying violators in new political systems ●construction and building appropriate infrastructures inthe country Conclusions: The influence of the events happened during recent monthsis so great that the Islamic awakening wave has turned toa new political discourse in the 21st century. It caused anew power, called power of Islamic world, to emerge and
  • 57. An introduction to theoretical foundations of religious... to become the center of attention for many political and nonpolitical analysts, who have presented different analysis of current changes. With spread of Islamic wakening wave, we should ask that “is it possible to consider an absolute ending to these changes? Is international imperialism and Zionism able to challenge these movements again?” Examining this issue demonstrates that this wave will be continued because of its expanding outcomes; Intervention of international Zionism and world arrogance will not impede it and will face with anger of revolutionary people and their justice-seeking stream. It is expected that intervention of imperialist system leads to spreading and fastening the cycle of changes and awakening movements and going their influence beyond the region. As supreme leader of Islamic revolution predicts, this wave will be expanded to other parts of the world and not only the Middle East and Africa, but also Europe will experience the58 outcomes of this movement. We should accept that international imperialist and Zionism have been weakening with emergence of Islamic awakening wave and with adopting different approaches and made up scenarios as well as creation of deviating models, they try to decrease the power of the countries involved in the Islamic awakening wave and their people. That’s why the responsibility of influential figures, committed youth, experts and leaders becomes more important and the necessity of taking needed measures is undeniable. These measures should be taken in order to overcome encountering challenges and making the best use of all capacities and capabilities of Islamic societies. Islamic nations and their people’s concentration on
  • 58. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningImam Khomeini, supreme leader of Islamic revolution andother committed influential figures’ thoughts in the first,second and now in the third wave of Islamic awakening,is an important and great responsibility of of them to standagainst international imperialism and Zionism as well astheir alliances and counterparts in all phases of emergence,crisis and gaining relative stability. Thereby they can defendIslam and Islamic identity with the aid of all intellectuals,thinkers and young people of Islamic awakening movementand use all political, economical and cultural capacitiesof Islamic world to dictate the abilities and potentialitiesof Islamic societies to heads of global infidelity andimperialism. Therefore, young generation in the countriesinvolved in Islamic awakening movements have a hugeresponsibility in standing against enemies’ conspiracies. Assupreme leader points out,” The youth should take most ofthe responsibilities for the future and have a regeneration.Do not let the enemies annihilate nation hopes through 59propaganda, conspiracy and lying. Do not let them makedivisions and create gaps between people and heads of thegovernments. They want you to become divided; becausethey are afraid of your integration. They have a fear of yourfirm slogans and the serious and firm will of the responsiblepeople in the Islamic governments. They aim to unstablethis will. When people of a country stand beside the heads oftheir government, nobody hesitate and they move forward.”
  • 59. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions...
  • 60. Designing a Model for Civil and IslamicInstitutions and Speculating on How to ImplementIt in Order to Maintain the Islamic AwakeningAchievements Roqayyeh Bahrami1 Introduction Many sociologists believe that as long as socialrevolutions and movements are opposed to the existingsituation, they can result in motion, but when they attaina political structure and system, they adopt an inactiveand justificationary, and it is at that very moment that therevolution and the movement expire and cease to attaintheir goals. According to this viewpoint, the process oftransformation of a movement to a system, in a manner thatleads to the maintenance and growth of ideals and revival of 61the revolutionary values resultant from Islamic Awakening,is one of the most important efforts which should be takeninto consideration after a revolution. On the other hand,organizing the revolutionary passion of people, whichhas aimed at disarranging the previous system, is eitherimpossible and might result in anarchism; or if achieved,leads to the extinction of this revolutionary passion.Formation of various civil circles is all the outcomes of these1.Junior Student, Third Level, Department of Fiqh and Usul, QabaHawzah Ilmiyya, Tehran09366447962 Email:"Muslim Ummah has sensed the breeze of awakening and has smelledthe aroma of returning to Islamic Knowledge."-Hazrat Imam Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Islamic Revolution
  • 61. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... approaches which have reached the "institutionalization" phase, and each has found a specific work in the system and the executive constitution of that approach. As a more elaborate instance, Imams emphasis on the formation of a "Global Mobilization" illustrates Imams high ends and endevours on one hand, and his determination to manage this revolutionary passion in an intelligent manner and spread it globally. This should be accomplished in a way to assure that the revolutionary passion does not extinct, and remembrance of the foreign adversary results in homeland unity and integration, so that a territorial order is achieved to establish a system. Constitution of such civil and revolutionary institutions, is illustrative of the strategic depth of the doctrinal leaders and proper understanding of the important point that revolutionary spirit can only last in civil institutions, rather than the structure of administrative and political systems62 where it fades gradually. "One of the key essentials in every social movement and upheaval,is that there must be word-making and institutionalization based on the ideas and the underlying basics of that movement," states Imam Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, elaborating on this specific issue, "When a new concept, like the concepts of Islamic rule, Islamic system, and Islamic Awakening are introduced, the movement which is based on this new idea must have its own appropriate terms and words. If it borrows its words from outsiders, the atmosphere will get troubled, leaving subjects untold. The same is true about institutionalization. When a revolution and a movement is realized, it must form its own operational systems - mechanisms to follow its intentions.
  • 62. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The Role of People in Islamic Rule Although the idea of a proper rule in the general senseis considered in a revolutionary nation, lack of a localmodel to implement it has always been a problem. Theprominent and permanent trait of the political system inan Islamic country is the "Islamic" nature of its rule. Thisis represented in forming civil institutions and dominanceof these institutions in the society. The key point is thatthe capability of the execution of a good rule depends tosome extent, on the nature of the correlation between theseinstitutions and the civil society. In Islamic rule, people makean informed, willing and desirous choice to have an Islamicregime, demanding the execution of the divines. Withoutpeoples volition and support, Islamic rule is fundamentallyand practically impossible. That explains why despite beingappointed for the protectorship and leadership of peopleby God, Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) actually didnttake on this responsibility until people vowed allegiance 63to him. He did this because before that, operational basisfor the protectorship and leadership of his majesty was notprovided. This shows that although establishing a rule forexecuting justice and regaining the rights of the oppressedfrom the oppressor is a duty, fulfillment of this duty notbeing possible without the presence, allegiance and supportof people, the holy immaculate Imam (Peace be uponhim) isnt obliged to make people obey him by force whenpeople are not ready to be present in the arena of an Islamicgovernment. Rather, Imam prepares the ground for peoplespresence by informing them. While realization of such a system without peoplesvolition is impossible, so are its management and
  • 63. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... maintenance which are functions of peoples presence in the arena and their choice. The statements of Hazrat Imam Khomeini (may Allah Grant him peace) well demonstrate the value of peoples rights in establishment of Islamic rule: "Self-determination and the option to determine form and type of the government, is among of the basic rights of every nation." From his point of view, other governments, including monarchy, are not legitimate as they are not reliant on peoples volition and opinion. The Position of Institutions and Civil Society in Islamic Rule Understanding development and progression of civil groups, studying peoples social activities and the role of these groups and organizations, are important subjects which have been investigated by some sociologists. These investigations include society, culture, community,64 behavior of the society and the groups, and the interactions of institutions and organizations. The growing number of civil institutions in all the fields results in their ascending role and power in micro and macro decision-making in the national and international level to an extent that some of these institutions have played an active role in international agreement developments. Though absent from governance and governing, these institutions certainly have a vital role in the operation and effectiveness of governmental efforts and the governments cant overlook their measures and proposals. They warn the political power about the societys weaknesses, negligences, and interests. If the governments dont heed their criticism and suggestions, they might face some problems. Thus these institutions which are the
  • 64. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmedium between citizen masses and the government, can bedefined as: "A set of independent associations, communitiesand institutions which discuss and take actions aboutissues and problems in the public domain of the societyand are formed as a result of increase in interaction anddiscourse between the government and independent socialinstitutions" It is noteworthy that in a religious society in which peopleobey the religious regulations, the civil institutions have areligious hue too and play a major part in the intellectualidentification and direction of the religious society. Thiscontribution is to an extent that the more religious thesociety is, the more effective and dominant these religiouscivil institutions will be, and the more independent theseinstitutions are from the government, the more operationallyeffective they will be in developing the society. It must bementioned that according to classic political philosophy,a civil society is systematic and government-based, as 65opposed to primary society, which reflects only on theassemblage of people without any political order. Also,in modern political terms, the concept of civil societyis closely related to the concept of social contract. Inanother perspective, civil society is defined as just the civilinstitutions and groups which are formed to attain goalslike handling the needy affairs and accomplishing religiousaffairs. Civil society in this sense is true about most humansocieties including Muslim societies. Mosques, religiousmourning bodies, social activities and movements are goodparadigms of the existence of civil and independent groupsand institutions which have traditionally been active inMuslim communities.
  • 65. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... According to what was previously stated, and considering opinions and viewpoints on this subject matter, it can be stated that civil society in its modern sense enjoys these features: • The existence of families, informal groups, voluntary communities whose plurality and indipendency, allows for a diversity of life forms. • The existence of cultural and communicational institutions that include public or overt field of life. • Security and reverence of life and territory privacy, so that people can realize their capabilities and achieve to independent moral options. • Determining the borderline between the fields stated (for example, distinguishing between public and private scopes of life, or differentiating them from governmental sphere and economic life), which necessitates legal structures and a set of basic rights without which the realization of a civil66 society proves impossible. Civil Society and Power Transition Machanism When the field of civil society is powerful, and when its institutions consisting of parties, non-governmental organizations, guilds, unions, and the like, have accomplished their full capacities, and enjoy a relative independence and security at the same time, power transition has to happen in a peaceful manner. The reason is civil institutions acting as buffers between the governments unlimited exclusive power (force) and the masses. The necessity of governmental response to non-governmental and civil-centered institutions and the ability of these institutions to reflect and inform about measures and policies
  • 66. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof the government, results in an equation. According to thisequation: the more powerful and active civil institutions are inthe society in qualitative and quantitative terms, the morepeaceful and just the power transition will be and up willbuild the cost of act of violence to maintain the existingcircumstances. The issue which should be taken into consideration is oncethe basic parts of the civil institutions are formed, puttingthe field of civil society under pressure and oppressing itwill work no more. Upon the occurrence of a gap in thebody of the government, the institutions might work onretrieving their primary functions more seriously. Thisgap may be a result of various reasons including politicaland economic crises, but it is also interesting to note thatin many countries, the high velocity of economic growthand development, followed by the expansion of the middleclass, has provided this gap for civil institutions. In this 67situation, authoritarian powers will not meet the needsand new dynamic changes of the society. This issue makesgovernments face challenges like what has happenedin some countries. But as one of the most importantand distinct indicators of sustainable development,maintenance and continuation of authoritarian regimescause disorder in development process. This phenomenonhas hindered the progress on the route of progress andsustainable development in territorial and external level,particularly regarding social and political dimensions. Itis in this situation that countries experience upheavals andriots among people who have distinct demands focusedon establishing civil institutions and social organizations.
  • 67. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... Also, they demand change in structure, reinforcement and execution of democracy principles, and the rule of law rather than monopoly power of the individual. Various Types of Civil Institutions and Organizations Institutions and organizations in an Islamic state can have the highest influence on deepening religious beliefs and peoples superior ideas, and on the Islamic state framework using an elaborate and predetermined plan, while directing ideas, attitudes, tendencies and behavior of the individuals on the society in a widespread basis. In todays world, non- governmental institutions and organizations are more or less known in some countries, provided with internal, as well as external communications and even playing in role in the decision-making of the government and the interrelationship between governments. It must be noted here that there is a fundamental difference between institution and68 organization. The former is formed in the process of society changes and its functions, the role of individual, authority or government being absent in its establishment. In other words, social institutions are not predetermined. However, the latter is planned and organized by authorities, trusted ones, managers, investors, governments, etc. Institution is kind of a bond whose visible aspect is very limited and is only tangible in its relation to organizations. However, Organization is visible with regard to its establishment, implement, tool and human factors employed it, Civil institutions and organizations of a nation can be summarized as follows: • The customary and traditional institutions and organizations: Like religious groups and bodies which
  • 68. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninghave reached to such a degree of development that areconsidered traditions by the custom and their presence inthe society in tangible. They manage to prove themselvesby the formation of political struggle and contributing tothe changes in the society. • Unions, syndicates, and professional gild associations:They form with the objective of protecting their own guildrights, and their measures and actions, have a major politicalinfluence on the Islamic society. • Political parties: Establishment of political parties ina nation transforms a closed society to an open one, inwhich the citizens generally have a right to contribute totheir own social destiny. Political parties, who usually havea tendency to gain power, can directly communicate withpeople, declaring their political objectives and programs. • Legal and juridical entities: These institutions are knownby people and custom, as well as recognized by the law. 69 The role of Civil Institutions and Organizations inIslamic Society and Government In an Islamic government, Islamic is the main principle,and Islam, like other divine religions holds that governmenthas a divine root. Therefore, political knowledge in Islamis not an independent system to seek the highest peaks ofhuman understanding. In this system, people are not entitledchange the divine sharia; rather they can either obey or defyit. The rules of an Islamic state are of two kinds: • Sharia and what is the command of God. • Rules approved by the government and guardian of thejurists authorities. As the institutions and organizations compromise the
  • 69. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... foundation for every government, defining their function based on their necessities and sufficiencies is one of the main tasks of an Islamic government. So rather than disturbing the government, its goals and conventions, and the social contracts; civil institutions can be the best contributers to the government. Institutions and organizations can help governments solve various problems and suggest some solutions to revise and eliminate the shortcomings by conducting research on their own area of function and presenting the results of these researches to governmental agencies. Also, they can pave the ground for more contribution of their members in social activities, so that they can fill the gap between people and the government and play an effective role in cultural, social, political and economic affairs in the society. Institutions and organizations are closely familiar with the issues of the society and people, so having recognized the problems properly and on time, they70 can suggest the right, rationalized, and feasible solutions accordingly. In some countries, civil institutions appear to be highly respected and credited. No ideal social evolution or change can happen within legal structures unless these institutions have a major role as competent and trusted experts and advisors in it. Definition of Non-Governmental Organizations Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are popular these days and are created in different countries with various functions, regarding the culture of every given country. There have been several definitions for NGOs and every country has defined NGOs and the scope of their activities according to its culture, political strategy and peoples
  • 70. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningvolition. But the most common definition is the one putforward by the World Bank: "Private organizations thatpursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interestsof the poor, protect the environment, provide basic socialservices, or undertake community development" Based on the UN definition of NGOs, they should bearfour primary characteristics: • They operate independently from any government • They dont have any political activity and are independentfrom political parties. • They are non-profit and have no economic activity. • They are non-criminal and never pursue violent activities. In a broad term, non-governmental organizations are non-profit organizations which operate independently from anygovernment, and what is are usually expected from non-government associations is a leading value in the structureof their system, which pursues non-economic non-financialaims. One of the key indicators of these organizations is 71that their members activities are totally voluntarily. In thisview, two main types of NGOs are recognized: • Operational NGOs operational NGOs, whose primarypurpose is the design and implementation of developmentaland practical solutions, • Tracking and Assisting NGOs Organizations whichcontribute to improving service systems or specific types ofsocial systems. Other definitions for these organizations are statedbelow: • NGO is an independent legal entity which is non-governmental, non-profit and nonpolitical, and has been
  • 71. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... formed for taking on voluntary activities in cultural, social, religious and humanistic areas, based a statute, in the framework of positive law and executive administrative law of a given country. • Another definition of NGOs, based on the contents of executive administrative law passed on 30 July 2005 by the Councils of Ministers about establishment and activity of them, can thus be stated: NGO is a non-governmental, voluntary association of natural or legal persons that has been established within the relevant law and is non-profit, nonpolitical and open to membership. The Significance and Necessity of Establishing NGOs The main purpose and stimulus for establishing NGOs reflects on the social necessities and mobilizing civil, volunteer forces in organized frameworks, which is aim at improving society conditions and achieving balanced,72 sustainable development. Civil associations not only have access to different sections of the society and can get people trust them in order to improve the situation, solve problems, and eliminate shortcomings of the society, but also they find the oppurtunity to indicate and develop their own viewpoints, ideas and preferences in a legitimate and normal manner. There is no doubt that dynamic presence of effective and contributive NGOs can result in increased social security, as well as establish an order in the establishment of which everyone is participant and responsible. The cooperation of NGOs, which is within their nature, can be defined in 5 levels including contribution in: advisory, coordination, supplementary, operational and final participation. The final participation is the highest form and level of contribution
  • 72. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin which the parties involved (governmental or non-governmental) perceive each other as correlative in theprocess of development and achieving common goals andopinions. The Process and Model of the Formation of a SocialInstitution Highlighted characeristics and indicatives of NGOs: 1- Being organiezed it means that these organizationshave a specified statute, foundation and structure withdetermined goals. 2- Being private (non-governmental) It means thatgovernmental agencies are not involved in the establishmentand management of the organization. Of course NGOs andthe government system have a bilateral relation and effect,but despite being independent from the government, thecommon, main goal of all NGOs is maintaining nationalinterests and general benefits of the nation. 73 3- Being Autonomous and Independent NGOs should beable to have supervision and control over their activities,while having sufficient independence in the workflowof their internal affairs. These organizations attempt toachieve their goals within the framework of law, with thehighest possible degree of independence in order not to beinfluenced by the authorities or trends. 4. Being non-profit Participating in these organizationsis voluntary, so they can be financed through membershipfee, governmental aids, donors, international formalorganizations, offering services, etc. These donations are notsupposed to render NGOs dependent on the donor sourcesand deviant from their social goals and commitments.
  • 73. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... 5- Being voluntary NGOs are voluntarily established and operated based on the principle if free will of people, as a response to a normal need, derived from common stimuli, characteristics and ideals, as well as intellectual and environmental conditions. Accordingly, this definition is not true about organizations whose membership is legally compulsory. 6- Being nonpolitical NGOs should not be dependant on any political party or association. They are not suppesed to pursue any political activities. These organizations can issue manifestos and hold some meetings, but they cant recommend any candidates or provide a candidate with the facilities of the organization. NGO Functions • Providing information and public awareness74 (communication) • Attracting public participation (public mobilization) • Fundraising and attracting small public resources (resource mobilization) • Development, expansion and reinforcement of the coordination between people and the government. • expanding public supervision • Evaluating activities • Increasing efficiency in using resources • Normalization Especially important among the functions stated above are "Attracting public participation", "resource mobilization" and "supervision and evaluation".
  • 74. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The Main Activities of NGOs a) Operational activities • formal and informal recruitment • Planning, supervision and evaluation • Supporting affairs • Building income • Providing information b) Non-executive and software activities • Culture-building activities: holding religious meetings;publicity; promoting individual and social identity; givingresponsibility to people; preserving cultural monumentsand heitage; etc. • Public education: holding conferences and gatheringsand participating in them; training specialists; etc. • Research: assessing social needs; increasing efficiency;introducing paradigms; analyzing opinions. • Building a relationship with state sectors: giving advice;holding joint meetings; carrying out joint activities; pointing 75out problems; and providing suggestions regarding theimprovement of affairs. Major Roles of NGOs Because of the fact that NGOs work in various fields, builda social base for themselves and have a close correlationwith different groups of people, they have the capacity togain a proper understanding of the real needs and demandsof their target groups. Some major roles have been statedfor these organizations which are mentioned below: • Representation: They act as a link between people andthe government. In many cases, numerous demands ofpeople flow into these organizations. Based on the priority
  • 75. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... and importance of these demands, the organization acts the representative of people, and transfers their demands to the government agencies. Thus, NGOs significantly help recognize, modify and address the real needs of the society. Also, they act like buffers, preventing the government from having to deal with a huge amount of peoples demands. • Supervision: Being the best supervisors, they supervise the governments measures and activities. • Criticism: Actually, they act like a force leverage to impose more sense of responsibility on the government. • Advice: as advisers, they can make a contribution to policy-making and schematization. • Administrative: Then can participate in executing projects and the governmental planning. Pathology of Civil Institutionalization in the Establishment Process of a Muslim Community76 a) Internal pathologies Internal pathologies are the obstacles which are more related to the policy-making of civil institutions, rather that the performance of its members. Some of them are discussed bellow: • Lack of strategic planning and policy-making to acheive superior ideals and values of a Muslim community. Strategic long-term planning seems to be the best way for achieving the superior goals of an Islamic state, which in a proper cultural context, results reinforcement of religious beliefs including faith in God, the Unseen Universe and the Hereafter. Because of the fact that policy-making is a difficult task, religious elites should attempt further to go beyond the level of everyday issues and, using their
  • 76. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningknowledge of whats beyond the horizons ahead, reveala vivid image of the Muslim society and a revolutionarybeliever, while promoting religious and revolutionaryteachings, and rearranging integrated relations and stablesocial relationships between people in order to deepenreligious beliefs. • Dominance of the governmentalization approach invarious fields of the Islamic revolution and awakening. Unfortunately, the governments intervention in all thecultural fields and religious practices of people causes somedamages to the improvement process of Islamic societyculture expansion, while undermining the sanctity of divinecommandments as well as the culture. • Poor management mechanisms This factor has resulted in institutional parallelization aswell as lack of optimal use of available opportunities. Forinstance, hasty actions of elites and planners to establishnumerous agencies for popularizing Islamic Revolution 77have led to parallelization in this field. b) External pathologies If internal patholigies are not heeded and treated properly,they can definitely lead to abnormalities in the behavior ofindividuals in the society. Since behavior is influenced bythe insight, the latter will be subject to change, and wheninsights change, deviations emerge, rendering the activitiesand goals inconsistent with Islamic paradigms. In thissituation, the following concerns might emerge: • Lack of proper infrastructure to restore the Sharia lawand execution of the prophetic and divine commands. • Lack of adequate influence on how governments respondto a wide range of community concerns over the economic,
  • 77. Designing a Model for Civil and Islamic Institutions... political, cultural and social fields. • Failing to supply information and build coordination between individuals in the society. • Confusion in training expert and capable forces to lead and guide individuals towards a Islamic and revolutionary society. • Low motivation and delay in preparation for the formation of an ideal Islamic society. Conclusion In general, civil institutions and organizations are capable of increasing the legitimacy of a system or reducing it. If a system attempts to eliminate or weaken civil institutions, it has, in fact, lost part of its own social base. Similarly, governments can gain more legitimacy and a broader social and civil base, while creating more enthusiasm and delight, by providing civil institutions with the opportunity78 to take on activities, and strengthening them. Having formed according to ultimate merits of the individuals in the society, and deeply influenced by superior beliefs and ultimate merits, these civil institutions are relatively stable and have the ability to produce behavioral models which consequently take the form of tradition and public culture. Also, they can get so much coordinate and integrated that "any significant change in one institution, can lead to some changes in other institutions." Based on what has been said, in can be concluded that unless governments recognize civil, traditional, legal, and customary institutions and get backed by their association, they cannot effectively serve people and the society, nor can they claim to be based on democracy. The statements of Hazrat Imam Khomeini
  • 78. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningsupport this correlation. “People should support theirgovernments. A government lacking peoples support, willfail.” he stated. And this is unlike puppet governments ofthe countries in which Islamic Awakening is in progress.These governments have been intensifying suppressionday by day, while pursuing a constant war against publicopinion on Muslim societies, But ultimately they will haveto admit this fact, as “Islamic Awakening is a fact whichhas emerged, no matter what the opinion of Islamic Ummahadversaries might be. Walking this path necessitates theresolved determination of leaders of the nations.” 79
  • 79. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ...
  • 80. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements ofIslamic Awakening on the Basis of the Commentsof the Leader of Iran’s Islamic RevolutionAyatollah Khamenei Abdollah Moradi Introduction: Islamic Awakening is an issue that coincided with the all-out Western invasion on the Islamic World during the ageof Colonism and has passed through various stages sincethe time of late Imam Khomeini. This movement definitelystarted with the views and opinions of people like SayyedJamalodin Assadabadi and always remained limited andcould never work as a dominant discourse. Even when thismovement was expanded by people like Hassan al-Banaand Sayyed Qotb in Egypt, it couldn’t get into the lives of 81all Muslims and make a change. This was Imam Khomeiniwho, for the first time, managed to change the discourse ofIslamic Awakening into a political practice and involved notonly Muslims of all walks of life but also all of the oppressedpeople across the world. Merging collective memory withthe discourse of the Islamic Awakening was due to ImamKhomeini’s bright soul which could get huge achievementfor the Islamic and human community in a short while.The first and the most important accomplishment was thatdiscourse of Islamic Awakening changed into a dominantdiscourse. The development and victories of Hezbollah inLebanon, the breakthroughs of Hamas and Islamic Jihadfighter in Palestine as well as the victories of Islamist
  • 81. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... in several elections, indicate the capability of Islamic Awakening regarding the new developments and the will of the Muslim nations. It has been more than a year that the Islamic Middle East has been scene of political tensions and the eruption of popular demands. This is while, the Arab nations had never pressured their rulers to get their political, economic and social demands. This expansion and novelty has accelerated the developments in the Middle East and made them manifold and versatile. People’s demands in the Middle East include a wide range of political, economic and social demands. Seeking Justice, fighting totalitarian rule, political participation, democracy and free political activities, fighting economic and social corruption, and having economic welfare are among the demands of Arab protesters and revolutionaries. These demands take form in an Islamic context. These developments have created the82 third wave of political change in the Arab countries in the Middle East. The first wave of change was coupled with nationalism and led to the independence of Arab countries after the World War I. The second wave was inclined towards leftist movements and managed to make an uproar in Egypt via Nasserism Discourse for a while. Needless to say, these two waves that were a mixture of Pan-Arab nationalism and leftist ideology, failed to bear fruits after successive defeats against Israel and the humiliation of national and Islamic pride of the people in the Middle East and the political crackdown, economic underdevelopment. And now, the third wave of the developments in the Middle East, as the Leader of the Islamic Revolution says, are the calls for democracy by the people who think and live in an Islamic context.
  • 82. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The present article seeks to offer a political, analyticaldiscourse of Islamic Awakening. This paper doesn’t dealwith the history of Islamic Awakening, but focuses on therecent developments in the Middle East. The author seeksto explain the ideas, concepts, demands and semanticpatterns in the countries involved in Islamic Awakeningvia using a theoretic framework and an analysis of therevolutionary developments in the Middle East. This articlealso attempts to define the formation of the identity of theIslamic Awakening and give a political analysis in the fieldof Islamic Awakening. So the question is that how can thedemands, concepts, and patterns of Islamic Awakening becategorized into a coherent semantic system. Therefore,the present article will be divided into two sections. It willdiscuss the identity of Islamic Awakening discourse versusleftism, nationalism and liberal democracy. The secondsections will discuss the concepts and patterns of IslamicAwakening from Ayatollah Khamenei’s point of view. 83 Theoretical Framework Methods of study in human science research work liketoolbox. One of the qualitative methods in understandingpolitical phenomena and discovering political and socialbehaviors is discourse analysis on the basis of Lakalov andmoufe version. This article seeks to define the principalconcepts of Islamic Awakening via using discourse theorya simply a method without being loyal to its universal andcognitive requirement. That is because cognitive elementsof discourse like relativism, denying universality, and ...don’t suit the theoretical principles of Islam. Discourse analysis was used for the first time in 1952
  • 83. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... by the eminent linguist Zellig Hariss. With the emergence of “Michael Fuko” discourse analysis as a method for understanding literary and philosophical texts and was used for understanding political and social phenomena. Inspired by Fuko, people like Lakalov and Moufe partly completed this theory. In brief, it can be said that discourse means the framework of linguistic structures in context, if we accept the language as the meeting point of ideologies, historical context, power and other socio-cultural factors. Discourse, is a context with social background. The statements, clauses and raised issues, as well as words and phrases and their meanings all depend on this point that the rules and stated issues ... are asserted and organized when, where, how by who and against whom and with what incentives? And this means the function of language in a specific situational context that happens at every moment and of course has a political function.84 Words and concepts are the components of language structure, they are not static and their communicational roles change in different times and places to convey different meanings, therefore language structure is also prone to change. With this view, discourse can be considered as the indication of language role beyond sentences, words and phrases and can be sought in signs and non-linguistic acts and the communications among people. In general, the following approaches can be reviewed in discourse analysis studies: An approach focusing on the discourse itself that is text and talk structures An approach focusing on the study of social and cultural structure ( discourse background
  • 84. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening An approach focusing on reproduction of hegemony andpower in political, social and cultural context Therefore discourse analysis is a research attitude andseeks to study the formal effects of speech, to access thestructure of production, and the background context orspeech, namely, the extra-contextual elements (situational,cultural, social ... contexts). Discourse analysis claimsthat the analyst goes beyond the text while studying andevaluating it. In fact, as soon as we consider the contextualapproach to discourse more seriously, many social andcultural aspects are involved. This school of thoughtdeals with a method through which semantic systems ordiscourses form people’s understanding of their roles in thesociety and affect their political activities. Some of the most important objectives of discourseanalysis can be summarized as following: - Clarifying deep and complex structures of textproduction, that is the process of discourse production 85 - Indicating the effect of context(linguistic units) andsituational context( social, cultural, political, historical andcognitive factors) on discourse - Indicating the position and certain conditions of theproducer of discourse(producers conditions) - Discovering the relation between text and ideology (3) Lakalov and Moufe believe discourse is a field in whicha combination of signs come together as a network andtheir meanings get fixed. This semantic network formsour understanding of the universe and make our socio-political behaviors. In Lakalov and Moufe discourse, socialand political affairs and the universe in general, can becomprehended in discourse intra-structures. According to
  • 85. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... the discourse analysis theory, each society is made up of a group of discourses (at least two discourses). Discourse consists of a number of signs. A coherent intellectual context and an ideological complex can be placed in the frame of a single form and system. Each discourse system has a central point which is the final point of all patterns, instructions and symbols of that system. In fact, the central symbol produces meaning and other symbols are based on that meaning. This symbol supports other symbols and keeps them at their semantic realms. For example, freedom is a central symbol in liberalism and concepts such as government, person and equality find their meanings in light of this central symbol. Besides, in some views, each discourse is made up of two separate chains of rejections and approvals. In other words, each discourse approves or rejects some concepts according to the central symbol and its ruling logic in the form of a mean‫ﻅ‬ngful chain.(5)86 Elements in discourse are the signs that have several meanings and various discourses attempt to insert these elements into a semantic system to make them meaningful. Discourses are constantly competing to fix meaning. Discourse gets its meaning from discourse form which is distinct from the opposing discourses and that is why there are conflicting discourses for the interpretation of the world and these conflicts determine the fate of the society. Every discourse structure needs to set up an outsider to establish itself. The identity of the subject and discourse of the collective identity of both is formed through the contrast between the inside and outside. The identity of the subject is formed through the contrast between its subconscious mind and the people around him and the identity of the discourse
  • 86. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningis formed via the enemy or the outsider. As a matter offact, identity is established an outsider. In other words,discourses are formed in a conflictive relationship andbasically the identity arises from this conflict and hostility.Each discourse get its identity when it is compared to otherdiscourses. These outsiders constantly seek to break theruling structures and therefore, the ruling discourse can betoppled by the rejected discourses. Discourses reconstructthemselves through reconsidering the meanings of thesigns in different periods. If the discourses fail to reproducethemselves, they will be rejected and possibly destroyedby other discourses and this is the meaning of discourseconflict. Each discourse attempts to reject the meaning ofthe outsider to maintain its own meaning and get identitythrough these conflicts. Causing and experiencing social opposites is consideredas pivotal in the theory of discourse in three aspects. First,creating a hostile relation that results in the production 87of an enemy or an outsider, which is considered essentialfor setting up political borders. Second, the formation ofhostile relations and the establishment of political borders,is pivotal to the stabilization of part of discourse identityand social agents and third, experiencing the opposite, isan example that indicates the establishment of identity.According to the theory of discourse, acquiring a perfectand positive identity by the agents and groups is impossible.Therefore, the theory of discourse doesn’t suit essentialismand naturalism as the presence of the outsider forms theidentity. Lakalov and Moufe call this logic of contrast andconsider it as the basis for the violent separation of forcesthat resist merging attempts.
  • 87. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Therefore, each discourse aims to conquer the essence of the words in the society. Different discourses are constantly conflicting over the creation of meaning in the society. In this conflict, when a discourse sets up its semantic system and manages to stabilize its semantic system in the minds of the subjects, it becomes hegemonic. In other words, when a discourse manages to stabilize its desirable semantic system in the collective mentality of the society, even temporarily, and attract public satisfaction, that discourse becomes hegemonic. Therefore, the success of political groups depends on their capabilities in producing meaning. Identity and formation of Islamic awakening discourse By studying the historical trend of Islamic Awakening movements from Sayyed Jamal to Imam Khomeini we can conclude that the cultural backgrounds of Islamic societies in the region have been coupled with the Islamic culture and88 Islam has always promoted political thought and practice. The development of Islamic movements may be deemed as the most superficial reason for the fact that the Islamic model has always been the most ideal future for the society and the most obvious response to the people’s problems. So, Islamic Awakening is not a new issue arisen out of the eruption of revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia, but it has been an inseparable part of individual and social lives of Muslims. Therefore, Islamic Awakening when it came as a response to rule crisis in the Islamic world and when it was fighting against colonism and now that it seeks to make political reform on the basis of Islam, has always been after a series of common goals. Islamic Awakening has been defined as religious reform or revival and in Arabic it has been
  • 88. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdescribed as Islamic Movement. Islamic Awakening hasbeen described as social phenomenon which means returnto alertness and wakefulness of the Islamic Ummah so thatit gets self-confidence and be proud of their religion, dignityand political and economic and intellectual independenceand try to take their role as the best Ummah for the people.But Islamic Awakening is now the product of an identity-seeking trend against the ruling Arab nationalist discoursedwhich also relies the historical experiences. Arab Nationalism Discourse Arab countries gained their independence after the WorldWar I. They got political sovereignty based on nationalregime years after being ruled by the Ottoman Empireand colonized by Europeans. This period coincides withexpansion of nationalism as political manual in thesecountries, like Pharaoh Pan-Arabism in Egypt, whichgets its identity from Pharaohism in Ancient Egypt. The 89changes caused the first wave of discourse which wasbased on Arab nationalism in Arab societies. This wave,first sought political independence for Arab countries.The second wave of Arab nationalism of course was moreextended and complex that the first discourse environment.It may be claimed that the second wave of discoursechange in Arab countries in the Middle East started afterJamal Abdolnaser came to power through a coup by armyofficer in 1954. Nasserism, changed the Arab identity intoan ideological discourse that was based on leftism andPan-Arabism elements. Nasser’s leftism was indicated byan anti-imperialism literature. Egyptian Intellectual SamirAmin writes:
  • 89. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Nasserism managed to take a clear anti-imperialism stance on the international level and propose modern socialist social reforms. Of course everything took place at the top level; democracy was not implemented as the people were not allowed to organize themselves. In fact, the political life of the society was eliminated. This vacancy caused by Nasser wan an invitation for political Islam to fill in the gap. Aarab nationalism that was in place in Arab world for nearly two decades was based on three fundaments of “fighting Israel, pro-socialism and Pan-Arabism. This secular discourse offered Pan-Arabism as its central symbol and managed to frame fighting West’s colonism, rejecting monarchies, implementation of social and political freedoms, and solving the problem of underdevelopment by promising to realize Arab Nation causes and separation from Israel. This discourse relied on popular masses and90 won victories like nationalization of Suez Canal and promoted its image among Arabs by confronting Israel. It managed to reproduce its political rule after hegemonizing its semantic context. Arab World was highly influenced by Egyptian president Jamal Abdul Nasser before June 1967 War. Millions of Arabs across the world would listen to Nasser’s fiery speeches on the radio. The only goal of Arab world was the liberation of the Palestinian territories and destruction of Israel. Many Arab countries especially Syria, Iran and Lebanon supported Abdul Nasser. Maybe Habib Bourguiba, then president of Tunisia, was the only Arab leader who called for establishing peace with Israel. His speech in the in the West Bank in 1964 drew fierce reaction from the Arab world and made him isolated. His
  • 90. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmain slogan about Palestine was that we have to take backwith force what they took from us forcefully. But afterdefeating in 1967 Arab war against Israel, the sentimentalenvironment of Nasserism subsided and a wave despair andhopelessness was created across the Arab world. This erashould be considered as the end of Nasserism. But militaryofficers like Anvar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak continued theArab nationalism discourse. Later they cemented alliancewith Arab monarchs and the US. The basic property of thisera was Sadat’s peace with Israel and pro-Palestinian groupsinclination towards making peace with Israel. Elements ina discourse can be internal part of it and abandon it after awhile. This feature makes a discourse change into anotherdiscourse under certain circumstances. The Pivotal meaningof discourse gets separated through deconstruction. Aftermaking peace with Israel, the Arab nationalism discoursewent through semantic divergence because the framedconcepts were disturbed after eliminating the symbol of 91fighting against Israel and even Imperialism. But, Arabnationalism discourse come up with a new frame throughseparation from Iran. In fact, deconstruction of the centralsymbol of Pan-Arabism, turned into Arabs’ separationespecially after the Islamic Revolution in Iran when Shiaideology boosted and confronted the US and Israel, andthe Arab stances against Iran intensified. Arab nationalismdiscourse offered the symbol of moderate-Arabism as itscentral symbol and managed to confront elements likeeconomic liberalism, development, secularism, security, andMiddle East peace. In this framework, security discourse,was created through peace between Israel and Palestiniansand emphasis on Madrid and Oslo talks. Of course, due
  • 91. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... to the political tyranny in Arab countries, securing these countries generally meant maintaining security for their rulers. This security could be gained through alliance with the US and the West. The Egyptian author writes about semantic changes through Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak: Egypt didn’t act as a regional and international activist as it had accepted global liberalization and the US strategies. It became the most important ally to the US, Saudi Arabia and Israel. This let Israel continue its colonist policy in the occupied Palestinian territories. Nasser had set up a guaranteed economic system to secure the growth of the middle class and proper distribution of wealth among the poor citizens. But Sadat and Mubarak replaced it with a system that only served the interests of corporations and imperialist capitalism. Back in 1990 in his speech at the Haj conference, The Leader of the Islamic Revolution described the result of92 the connection between Arab nationalism and the West as following: Fighting against Islamic Awakening has various forms across the world. In Algeria, majority of people vote for an Islamic group in a free and democratic elections but a violent coup annuls the election, cracks down on people and puts the elected people in jail. In Sudan, Islamic groups come to power through absolute popular support, and then the West start provocation and threaten them both inside and outside their borders. In Palestine, Muslims are brutally tortured by the Zionists and in southern Iraq, popular uprisings that are arisen out of Islamic motives, against the ruling Ba’ath party are savagely crushed and the US and the West that have already indicated their will for a strong response to
  • 92. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningSaddam in other cases, just come up with a muted response.In Egypt the most open-minded Muslim generations, areviolently prosecuted by the ruling incompetent and corruptregime and that great country’s puppet government getsfinancial and security support from the US. But the crackdown on these uprisings resulted inaccumulation of their potential energy and challenged themoderate Arab nationalism that was connected to the US. Bythe passage of time, anti-radicalism fight was framed alongwith moderate Arabism. Hamas, Hezbollah, and IslamicJihad were symbols of this radicalism in moderate Arabismdiscourse and found their identity through connection withIran. Of course, the geographical atmosphere of moderateArab nationalism spread across the region and passedthrough the borders of Saudi Arabia Jordan and Egypt,…and Persian Gulf states via severance from Iran. Analyzing Arab nationalism concepts 93 Now Islamic Awakening has offered a new discourseagainst the old Arab nationalism. In Arab nationalismdiscourse, the central symbol was Pan-Arabism andafter that moderate Arabism and the other concepts wereframed on the basis of the central symbol. Therefore, Arabnationalism discourse was an amalgamate of Arabism andWest and lived on for more than 30 years. This discourse,to get hegemonic, like any other discourse, must givemeaning to the wandering symbols in the political literatureand attempt to eliminate all rival discourses to get to thepinnacle of power. Therefore, Islamic ideologies, like thoseof Muslim Brotherhood’s, which is the most widespreadIslamic organization in Arab societies, have been considered
  • 93. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... as anti-regime discourse and have been cracked down. There is no doubt that Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most important Islamic movements in the recent history and has had profound effects on the developments in the Middle East and Islamic world. So while, cognitive gaps reveal in Pan-Arabism discourse, new political demands and concepts put the structure of this discourse under pressure. Since the framed concepts were likely to be disturbed, they had three properties of being “temporary, possible, and free.” In other words, each of the concepts could be separated from the central symbol and fueled their restlessness. This issue clearly was manifested in form of growing communications and democracy. Meanwhile, the growth of communication and the coherence of time and place are products of globalization process. But, the US took the next step unwillingly. According to its foreign policy, the US tries to introduce democratic, human rights and94 anti-terrorism values as accepted norms in the international community. Democracy is the main US instrument to establish its hegemony in the modern world. After George Bush junior came to power, the promotion of democracy was said to the best way to fight terrorism in the Middle East, at it was described as the biggest security threat for the US. According to this interpretation, despotic Arab rulers came under increasing pressure to open up political atmosphere. People in Arab societies had some democratic demands from their tyrant and puppet governments. In this stage, the concepts of Pan-Arabism discourse were challenged but the discourse itself was still stable because the opponents were not able to change the discourse. Discourses reconsider the meaning of their concepts periodically and if they fail to
  • 94. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningreproduce, they will be rejected and possibly eliminated byother discourses. Insistence on following up western policies led to thedisturbance of the concepts. These policies were challengedby Hezbollah’s victory against Israel during the 33 day warand Hamas victory in the 22 day Israeli offensive. Thesetwo accomplishments were both based on the ideology ofthe Islamic Revolution. This was of great significance asArab Nationalism mad no breakthroughs neither withinthe years of fighting against Israel nor during the years ofmake peace with the Zionist regime. It has humiliated thehonor and dignity of people in Arab societies due to thedefeat against Israel. As a result, following the September11 attacks and the US invasion of Iraq and the 33 daywar between Hezbollah and Israel, the central symbol ofmoderation declined and the concepts based on it lost theirorder. So the semantic weakness of Arab nationalism discourse 95in organizing concepts like democracy and the failure ofpeace policies imposed an increasing feeling of humiliationto Arab nations especially Egypt. It resulted in the collapseof Arab nationalism discourse. Afterwards, Arab dictatorsattempted to gain security and legitimacy through relationswith the West and support from the US, just like whatMohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran did to dodge hispeople’s demands, suppressing them and maintaining hisauthority. So the human dignity, and the idealistic Islamicthoughts of Arabs were hidden like illicit goods. Thisresulted in lack of suitable rule, tyranny, political crackdown,poverty, inequality in Arab societies. Of course it must benoted that many of these development originated from Iran’s
  • 95. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Islamic Revolution. The Islamic Revolution rejected one the fundaments of modernism, that is, isolation of religion in societies or secularism and ignoring the role of religion in political, economic, and cultural issues. The emergence of the Islamic Revolution has had rapid and far-reaching impacts in the past three decades. This led to the rejection of this view and the age of termination of religion turned into an end to this view and this was the beginning of all Islamic discourses which were basically being destroyed by the ruling secularism and tyranny. In fact, the most principal influence of the Islamic Revolution in Iran must be sought in the discourse environment of regional nations rather than in the geopolitics of the region. Arab Nationalism and Leftists ideas were the dominant ideologies across the Arab world in 60s and 70s and there was no room for the emergence of Islamism due to the tremendous pressures from the ruling governments. But Islamic Awakening emerged following96 the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979. Islamic Awakening discourse gets hegemonic The provided analysis includes descriptive function for the formation of Pan-Arabism discourse and obliteration of its symbols. In fact these are the reasons for ending Arab nationalism discourse. Setting out reason such as economic poverty, development of internet communications and …. that are used to define the reason of Arab uprisings can also be used to describe the causes of the failure of tyrant ruling regimes. In the meantime, people’s demand for Islam is one of the other several reasons behind the formation the developments in the region. But, a second question should be raised to define the main reason of the events
  • 96. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand to set up a system that represent the popular demandsin Arab revolutions as the issue fails to explain why IslamicAwakening discourse should replace the previous discourse.The second question is: why Islamic Awakening discourseshould be proposed as the main alternative for reformingthe political and cultural future of Islamic societies? According to discourse theory, the more efforts are madeto drive the dominant discourse towards power, the morethe opposite discourses will grow. While the powerful ruleris happy with the dominance of his discourse, resistancediscourses emerge from the underneath layers. This anti-power discourse needs an outsider to establish itself. Theidentity of the subject and the discourse or the collectiveidentity are formed in the confrontation between insideand outside. Each discourse attempts to protect its ownmeaning via rejecting the meaning of the outsider andfind its identity. So Islamic Awakening discourse shouldbe expected to organize its identity elements in contrast 97and conflict with the elements of Arab Nationalism. Thesediscourses, are placed against Arab Nationalism discourseand take stance against moderate Arab symbol, security,and connections with West. Besides, these discourses aremade up of two separate chains of rejection and approval.It is obvious that they reject moderate Arabism and supportfighting against Israel and seek democracy and seek theirown identity trough independence and democracy in thecombat against the tyranny and independence of Mubarak’sand Bin-Ali’s regimes. At the same time, Islamistmovements get dominant among the anti-power discoursesdue to their historical links with the social context of thesociety and their discourses against the secular and tyrant
  • 97. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Arab regimes. Therefore, when the identities of the subject get agitated, that is when the dominant discourse starts to decline because of pervasive social or economic unrests resistance discourses try to reconstruct their social concepts and identities through organizing rival discourses. Meanwhile, discourses try to make their own cognitive atmosphere dominant and a new discourse match begins. But the discourse that manages to make itself tangible, accessible and acceptable for the audience in the society gets dominant. In fact Lakalov and Moufe use the concept of accessibility to explain how some discourses face more success and are welcomed by the audience during the crises. So, Islamic Awakening discourse, can overcome other discourses like liberal discourse and replace Arab nationalism due to its accessibility and acceptability. This issue has been realized with the victory of Islamists in the parliamentary elections in Egypt and Tunisia and Islamic98 orientations in Libya and Morocco and has upset the US and Israel. Islamic Awakening discourse is acceptable, credible, and accessible because of its long presence in the political and intellectual arenas of social societies and it is more qualified and legitimate than other discourse to get political power because it has experience violent crackdown by the US-backed nationalist regimes. The anti-tyranny and justice-seeking characteristics of Islamic Awakening indicate that the focus of popular movements and Islamic uprisings may have been put on the internal problems of the society and they seek a different political reform for make Islamic growth and development. Islamic Awakening discourse saddles not the waves of ideas but the hearts and minds of deprived people and seeks to
  • 98. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningcreate a new order based on religious democracy throughrelying on the dignity of the people. Islamic Awakening discourse organization As mentioned before, each discourse tries to protectits own meaning with rejecting an outsider meaning andgains its identity through these conflicts. Therefore,Islamic Awakening discourse attempts to organize itssemantic symbols in contrast with Arab nationalismdiscourse and moderate Arabism. This discourse is madeup of two independent chains of rejections and approvals.The approvals of the Islamic Awakening are based on theIslamic culture and ideology that have been merged withthe history, idea, and culture of the people in the Islamicsocieties. The rejections of Islamic Awakening discourseare raised against the Arab nationalism discourse. Whilethe Arab nationalism discourse, using the central symbolof moderate Arabism, defines peace with Israel, relations 99with the West, secularism, political tyranny, and economicliberalism, the Islamic Awakening seeks its identity in Islam,democracy and independence. Considering the results of therecent elections in Islamic countries and the analysis givenon the basis of discourse theory, we realized that the IslamicAwakening discourse has the highest semantic capability inorganizing the wandering concepts in the demands of thepeople. Islamic Awakening is a general Islamic situationthat indicated different interpretation that analysts disagreeon. So, the slogans that the people follow alters. Analysisand description of this phenomenon, clarify the practicalreality of the revolutionary awakening and uprising as wellas its nature and basics and motives. Therefore, we try to
  • 99. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... describe and analyze the real identity of this phenomenon on the basis of the comments of the Leader of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei and provide a semantic system including the Islamic Awakening concepts (with the definition that the main roots of the developments in the Middle East should be sought in the discourse of Islamic Awakening) and place various demands in a single and coherent system. Ayatollah Khamenei defines the popular demands through a comprehensive Islamic interpretation: Independence, freedom, Justice, resistance against tyranny and colonism, rejecting ethnic, racial and religious discrimination, open rejection of Zionism, these are the basics of the uprising in the Islamic countries which are all extracted from Islam and Qur’an. Therefore, Islamic Awakening discourse is an extensive semantic system that seeks to bring together profound Islamic values, concepts and popular demands in a coherent semantic framework and100 involve other elements of Islamic Awakening with relying on the central symbol of religious democracy. Return and Awakening Islamic Awakening is based on three important principles: return to genuine Islam, Muslim world unity, and anti- hegemonism. In fact, Islamic Awakening, requires the admitting historical ignorance and underdevelopment and is a kind of social repentance. If we wish to sum up this new awakening in a sentence we should say it means that we return to Islam, its comprehensiveness and all of its aspects. Of course the meaning of return has nothing to do with historical retroversion. But the return to Islam means a historic repentance and social compensation. That is the
  • 100. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningMuslim Ummah should heed the far distance between theirbelieves, behaviors, and social performance and the Islamicvalues and concepts. This return is aimed at constructing anew Islamic civilization on based on the Islamic culture: Islamic Awakening is conspicuous all across the Muslimworld; a massive movement can be seen in all levels of theMuslim world; desire to return to the Islamic principlesand fundaments, which promotes honor, progress andadvancement. The Leader of the Islamic Revolution considers ImamKhomeini as the paragon of this return and view him as thesymbol of Islamic Awakening: The logic of our dear Imam was logic of wisdom, logicof thought, logic of insightful practice, logic of humanity,and human and moral virtues. Those who mistreat thepeople, even Muslims and believers, accuse some people ofblasphemy, assault people with tribalism and lousy pretexts. 101 But the Islamic Awakening must involve both will andaction: Today, the US, a cruel government that has huge wealth,modern technology and science and humiliate the worldnations, can be easily defeated in our Islamic region ifthe Muslim nations be hopeful about their future and goahead with their revolutions optimistically. Fortunately,the nations have been awakened; but awakening is notsufficient. After getting awakened they must move, and thismovement needs hope. So awakening finds it meaning in association withconcepts, knowledge, will and action.
  • 101. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... Popular presence The massive, wise, gracious and peaceful presence of people in Islamic Awakening developments are among the properties of this movement. Today, we witness that nations have a peaceful presence in all areas of Islamic Awakening and even in a country like Yemen, which is known as a free weapon market, stage an Islamic, civil and cultural revolution: The real and public presence of people in the scene of jihad is the most important factor in these revolutions. They participate in the revolutions not only with their hearts, will and faith, but also with their bodies. This presence is a far cry from a revolt by a military group or an armed resistance group that takes place in front of indifferent people over even happens with their consent. From the viewpoint of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, popular presence is not only a property of a102 revolution, but also guarantees the implementation of its objectives: In the past events in a number of these countries, a small and limited number of armed groups who staged coup, shouldered the heavy burden of the revolution, not the people who are from all walks of life. They made decisions, and put them into action and when they themselves or the generation after them altered their path, the revolutions turned into their own opposite and the enemies took control of those nations again. This is absolutely different from a development that is shouldered by a mass of people who sacrifice for it with their lives and force the enemies out of the scene. Here, the people themselves make the slogans, set the goals, identify and introduce and chase the enemy
  • 102. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand outline a desirable future and as a result don’t let thecorrupt infiltrators to deviate their path. The revolutionmay be slow in the popular movement, but it is far frominstability and superficiality. It is a sacred word as God saysin the holy Qur’an: “Seeth thou not how Allah sets forth aparable? – A goodly word like a goodly tree whose root isfirmly fixed in its branches to the heavens- of its Lord. SoAllah sets forth parables for men in order that they mayreceive admonition.” When I saw the Egyptian protestersat Tahrir Square on TV, I made sure that their revolutionwill be victorious. Therefore, popularity is the most important element in theidentity formation of these revolutions. Being anti-hegemony The anti-colonism origin of the Islamic Awakeningis almost taken for granted and there is little debateon it. Sayyed Jamalodin Assadabadi’s presence in the 103battlefield against Britain in Iran, Ottomans, Egypt and,...Mohammad Abdeh and Hass al-Banna the founders ofMuslim brotherhood in Egypt, Mirzaye Shirazi’s resistanceagainst the foreigners’ hegemony in Islamic societies, andfinally the Islamic Revolution in Iran to get rid of the UShegemony, all indicate that the prime purpose of thesemoves have been fulfilling the Islamic causes and notfollowing the orders of the colonists. So, despite all thetheories, Islamic Awakening doesn’t have a certain birthplace. Changing Muslims’ mentality about obedience to thehegemonic powers is an accepted fact in the contemporaryIslamic society.
  • 103. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... For example, Imam Khomeini reiterates in his spiritual, political will that: Islamic scholars and lecturers in the Muslim countries should call on the governments to stop dependence on foreign powers and make deal with their own people, in this case they will be victorious.” But the matter which has not changed yet is the hegemonic powers problem with Islam: The direction of the movement in the Islamic society should be pointed against the global hegemonic powers which unfortunately have clinched at the Islamic World. They are hostile to Islam, they are hostile to Muslims’ awakening, and they are hostile to Iran because it is an Islamic country. Because that is where the Islamic Awakening started from. They are doing their best to stop the revival of the Islamic movement in the world. The US government is leading this hostility and is supported by minor and major powers that have an old hostility to Islam.104 But it must be noted that the victory of false movements and the deviation of the human community and oppression and tyranny is possible, but Qur’an considers them simply as fleeting movements. In this battle, righteousness ultimately overcomes falsehood. The Leader of the Islamic Revolution says the hegemonic plots against the Islamic Awakening are doomed. The hegemonic powers have never been and will never be able to stop the growing movement of the Islamic Awakening and the pro-Islam movement despite using all of their evil plots, force, false propaganda, and political ploys. The big enemies and bullying powers that are in control of the world feel weakness regarding the uprising and the
  • 104. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic Awakening in Muslim countries. Their way hasbeen blocked and this indicates God’s promise that: andsurely Allah will help him who helps His cause; most surelyAllah is Strong, Mighty. And He also said: And we wantedto confer favor upon those who were oppressed in the landand make them leaders and make them inheritors. These areGod’s pledges. God also said: “And Allahhath full powerand control over His affairs. These divine pledges graduallyshow themselves due to the movement and Awakening ofthe Muslims. Due to his historical knowledge of the Islamic Awakeningmovements and his faith in God’s pledge, The Leader ofthe Islamic Revolution considers the recent developmentsin the Middle East as an anti-hegemonic and anti-colonistmovement that had directly and indirectly affected Islamicsocieties for years: We believe that the movements seen in some of the Islamiccountries are the nations’ response to the hegemonic powers 105humiliation of them. Today, they have found an opportunityand have come to the scene. Independence Its obvious that Arab states whether kingdoms orpreviously progressive republics like Egypt defined theirsecurity in the context of close ties with the west aftershifting their discourse towards Arab moderation andthey put themselves under the support of the US. The U-Smilitary presence in these countries and Washington’sannual financial aid packages prove this. In return, thesecountries tried to coordinate their foreign policy with the USby adopting an Iran phobic policy. Naturally, the discourse
  • 105. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... of the Islamic Awakening is seeking independence from foreign domination by relying on principles of jurisprudence such as rejection of domination. This was the result of the slogan No to East, No to West, which began in the early days of the Islamic Revolution and is today the pivotal teachings and strategy in the Muslim world. "We are one and a half billion population and sit in the most sensitive parts of the world in terms of strategic significance and natural resources. But others are ruling us. Others are determining our fate. They are making decisions about our oil. They make decisions about our governments. The status quo needs to change and it will definitely change. We are seeing the signs of change today. This is the very Islamic Awakening thanks to Islams blessing." Islamic identity The wave of Islamic Awakening is one of meaning and106 spirituality. It seems that the Islamic Revolution has started a wave of spirituality in its political and civil sense that its final aim is global Islamic Mahdaviat. One of the aims of Islam is to emancipate humans from within. In this meaning, Islam has turned into the most inherent feelings and ideas and suggests itself in the form of identity by giving direction to human behavior. This Islamic identity in the first place appears in the form of symbols and individual behaviors and then in socio-ethical areas. Holding festivals and feats in a glorious manner, building mosques and religious places, attending prayer congregations, attitude towards Islamic veil or Hijab, establishing cultural and Islamic teaching institutions …. All these show the revival of Islamic values in the direction of Islamic Awakening. Therefore, the first
  • 106. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningstep of this identity is respectable, though it might not bepolitical and clear. "We support Islamic Awakening allover the world andapprove of the Muslims who want to return to return to theirIslamic life and culture. They are entitled to this. What isbeing heard in the world today is not the same. Slogans dnot point to a single reality. Judgment about the problemsof Muslims in the world is not the same with regard to allof them. But what is respectable for us is the very return toIslam by Muslims. Today, Muslims around the world areentitled to endear Islam and the Qur’an and this they willdo. They will also return to their Islamic life and plots andcrackdowns will be futile." If Islamic Awakening is not rooted in the spirit of servitudeto God, it will certainly face fundamental and significantvacuums. As a result, it will not have the necessarydynamism and efficiency. The essence of Islamic Awakeningis its being value-based and its quest for meaning. If these 107values become internalized, no power can confront IslamicAwakening. "Today is a day when Muslim nations will return totheir Islamic and true identity. What is in us of power andmagnificence originates from faith in Islam trust in a divinesupport and reliance on God the Almighty. Thats why nopower, no power can overcome it. This we should show inour actions as much as possible." Of course, the main share of this public desire for truespirituality belongs to Iran’s Islamic Revolution of. Theleader of the Islamic Revolution says: "All through theseyears of struggle following the Islamic revolution, ournation served humanity. They had closed many eyes. There
  • 107. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... was nothing about religion, spirituality, ethics, human responsibility and the name of God. You, the nation, revived all these and shouldered the difficulty of fighting for the honor of Islam and for eulogizing the name of God. Today, although arrogant states are galloping ahead without having to fight and without a rival, things have reached the point where the strongest arrogant powers are fearful of the wave of spiritual awakening of nations." Therefore, when this inherent identity turns outward towards arrogant powers, its political act can direct the waves of Islamic Awakening towards the rule of Islam. Seyyed Mohammad Qotb writes: "Today, Islamic Awakening is indebted to those who love Islam and faith serves as a torch for them. They rush towards fighting the enemy. They shout, "The Qur’an and the messenger of Gods Sunnah are the program of our life. They are ready to sacrifice their lives and respond positively to divine invitation."108 "Islam can go beyond a mere ethical advice and appear in the form of an ideological stance, which creates a political system. Islams enemies saw that the religion managed to stage a revolution. They saw that Islam managed to give a nation self-awareness and get them out of mental destruction and enable them to achieve self-confidence and reliance on themselves and their religion. They saw that Islam can make a nation so strong that all the tools we spoke of would not affect it. This is another indication that if Muslims trust Gods promise and fight in His cause they will definitely be victorious." Human Honor Speaking about the Arab world revolutions, Sheikh Abdol
  • 108. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningFattah Moro, the leader and founder of Tunisias IslamicUprising Movementsays: "The main aim of the Arabrevolutions is to reclaim the honor that can only be achievedthrough resorting to Islamic values. This Islamist leaderbelieves: "Sticking to Islamic values brings honor anddignity for Muslims and keep them away from oppressionand tyranny and insult by the arrogant powers." As we said before, under the Pan-Arabic discourse, theArab and Muslim nations felt that the issue of Palestine andal-Quds is important for it with Gamal Abdelnasser andit fought for the cause and for the liberation of al-Quds.However, the Arab moderation view prevailed. This causesMuslim states to adopt a reconciliatory approach to Israeland even Palestinian fighters joined the so-called peacetalks within the framework of the Palestine LiberationOrganization (PLO) in the hope of forming an independentPalestinian state. Although the view was propagated for years and slammed 109resistance as a cause of bloodshed and accused it of beingfutile, nevertheless the Palestinian state was never formedand al-Quds became Israels capital city nor did Israelisettlement expansions stop. Moreover, the Zionist regimedid not stop attacking Muslims for a second. Thus, thesefrequent defeats alongside poverty, economic corruptionand despotism in Arab states violated the human and Islamichonor of these nations very badly. Now, Islamic Awakeningis a voice for rebuilding the lost honor and dignity. "Reviving and restoring the national honor and dignitythat had been trampled upon during the despotic reign ofcorrupt rulers and under the domination of the US and theWest; hoisting the flag of Islam, which is the deep belief
  • 109. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... of the people in which they are deeply interested; and having access to psychological security and justice and development; all these can only be achieved through Islamic Shariah. Standing up to the domination and influence of the US and Europe that had inflicted the heaviest losses and humiliation on these nations over the past two centuries." However, the key events that gave credence to the righteousness of the resistance front in the face of the fake Israeli regime were the victory and Hezbollah and Hamas: "The Palestinian people were invigorated after decades of failure. The young people of the Arab states who had been disappointed after their governments were defeated in three consecutive wars by Israel, were revitalized. The first Intifadha, the al-Aqsa intifadha, Israels defeat and withdrawal from Lebanon nine years ago, the 33-day war, the 22-day war on the oppressed people of Gaza, all these were blows dealt to the Zionist regime. This is while Israel110 was considered an invincible regime, by the Muslim states and Muslim nations, most particularly the Arab nations, at the time when the Islamic Revolution {of Iran } achieved victory. The recent events in the Middle East also stemmed from the violation of the dignity and honor of the people. This has been mainly ignored in many political and economic analyses. However, the feeling that the Islamic honor of the people of Egypt, Tunisia, etc. had been trampled on created the revolutionary identity in those nations and make them thirsty for change. "This great movement, which can put an end to the era of underdevelopment, weakness and humiliation of Muslim nations, has gained a considerable amount of its energy and
  • 110. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningheroism from the issue of Palestine. One the one hand,increasing oppression and bullying on part of the Zionistregime and collaboration of some despotic and corruptrulers and US puppet-gloves with Tel Aviv, and on theother hand, the emergence of the courageous resistance ofPalestinians and the Lebanese and the miraculous victoriesof the Palestinian and Lebanese youths victories in the 22-day and 33-day wars were among the key factors that maderough the apparently calm seas in Egypt, Tunisia, Libyaand other regional nations. That is a fact that the armed-to-the-teeth regime of Israel, which claims being invincible,suffered a humiliating defeat from the clenched fists of thepious and brave Mujahedin in Lebanon and later testedits blunt sword in the face of the rock-hard and innocentresistance in Gaza and once again suffered failure. " Of course, this identity and honor is only gained throughrelying on Islamic principles and beliefs: "The hoisting of Islams flag allover the world gave 111Muslims a feeling of identity. It gave them self-esteem.Later, our noble Imam stood up in front of the world nationsafter long years of attempts to trample on Islamic identity.Then, all nations felt they have identity, prestige and origin.This caused the signs of Islamic Awakening to turn up in theeast and west of the Muslim world. Religious democracy One of the most fundamental problems of the societiesinvolved in the Islamic Awakening has been the long-rulingideological and nationalist tyrannies or kingdom families.This has been one of the reasons behind the popularprotests. Therefore, call for democracy, participation in
  • 111. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... decision making was among the most principal demands of the Muslim people of the Middle East. The Leader of Islamic Revolution says: Today, the Muslim Ummah is involved in major events. This experience that has been implemented in some Islamic countries and Islamic Awakening has led to the participation of people in deciding about their fate, are very important and valuable in Islam history. What you witness in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and some other countries where people themselves have come to the scene to make decision about their own fate, this can determine the historical path of Muslim Ummah and the region for a long time. But the basic point here is that how Islam and democracy, two principles demanded by the Muslim people of the region, can be merged. One of the senior members of Muslim Brotherhood says: The demands of the Egyptian112 youth don’t contradict with justice and Shariah because seeking freedom and justice and fighting the oppression and tyranny of Hosni Mubarak’s regime is based on Islam. Also, Tunisian Islamist leader Rashed al-Ghanoushi in his first TV speech emphasized the harmony between Islam and democracy and said: I will prove to the people of Tunisia that al-Nahzat is an Islamic movement that supports the rights of the people. Only enforcement of democracy and proper sharing of wealth and desirable economic conditions along with an Islamic government can guarantee Tunisia’s stability and the future of its people. In fact it should be said that religious democracy, as the meeting point of Islamic values and the methods of political decision making with presence of people, is the key demand of the people of
  • 112. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningregional nations. Ayatollah Khamenei says: One of the most important demands of the people isdecisive popular participation and role an vote in themanagement of their countries and as they believe in Islam,so their desirable government is Islamic democracy; that isthe ruler get elected by people’s vote and the ruling valuesand principles in the society be based on Islamic Shariah. In the meantime, the pattern of Islamic Revolution and itstheoretical capability in merging tradition and modernity,Islam and republic, religion and politics, and in generalestablishing a religious democratic government based onthe principles of Islam, made an intellectual evolution in linewith the Islamic Awakening. Basically, the independencefrom the West and the East in politics is the product of thevictory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran: The theory of political Islam has a great position amongintellectuals and has opened up bright horizons. The freedomand justice seeking image of Islam has now become more 113evident and unique following the decline of imported andcontroversial ideologies like socialism, Marxism, and hasbeen welcomed by experts, intellectuals and all justice andfreedom lovers. The youth in many Muslim countries havefaced to political, cultural and social Jihad in the name ofIslam and hope for the establishment of an Islamic justicegovernment as they boost resistance against the rule ofhegemonic powers. Islamic Awakening has disturbed thehegemonic calculations and has changed their desirableworld order. So the main purpose of using Islam is to make politicalreform in the society and from Ayatollah Khamenei’s pointof view there is no need to use the model of Islamic republic
  • 113. Discourse Analysis of Identity and the Elements of ... in the countries involved in Islamic Awakening: Muslim nations-from Africa to eastern Asia, decide to set up an Islamic government through different formula, and not necessarily that of the Islamic Republic, but they decided to have Islamic rule over their countries, some countries get successful, and some await a bright future. Now at the end of the study of different concepts of Islamic Awakening from Ayatollah Khamenei’s viewpoint, it should be noted that Islamic Awakening discourse, with offering a religious democracy, attempts as a central symbol; and organizes requests for justice, democracy, rule of religion, people’s awareness,…in its semantic framework. Conclusion: This research paper has been divided its study into two sections: first, how to use discourse analysis to describe the trend of political change in Islamic societies in the recent114 decades and define the formation of the Islamic Awakening identity in the recent developments which requires knowledge and background context of Islamic Awakening and second how to organize the concepts and requests of Islamic Awakening discourse in a semantic system. The following have been gained in the above mentioned sections: Islamic Awakening discourse as the front runner in the third wave of political change in Arab societies is the product of the formation of resistance discourse against Arab nationalism with the symbols of moderate Arabism, secularism, and dictators such as Hosni Mubarak. This discourse attempts to introduce its intellectual system against Arab nationalism and take position against the
  • 114. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmodels of Arab moderation, secularism, peace with Israel,relations with the West… Each discourse aims to conquer the words in the society.When a discourse sets up its semantic system and managed tostabilize it in the minds of the subjects, it gets hegemonic. So,the success of political groups depends on their capabilitiesin producing meaning. This semantic conflict is underwayin Arab societies but Islamic Awakening discourse due to itsaccessibility and acceptability is more capable of becominghegemonic. Of course, the frequent victory of Islamists alsoindicates Islamic Awakening discourse superiority. According to the comments of the Leader of the IslamicRevolution, Islamic Awakening has the highest potentialfor establishing a figurative hegemony in the Middle EastArab countries and gets this objective via using the centralsymbol of religious democracy. Discourse analysis iscapable of giving a comprehensive and factual analysis ofthe Middle East developments. 115 In fact, it should be said that the most principal influenceof the Islamic Revolution in Iran must be sought in thediscourse environment of regional nations rather than inthe geopolitics of the region. Arab Nationalism and Leftistsideas were the dominant ideologies across the Arab worldin 60s and 70s and there was no room for the emergence ofIslamism due to the tremendous pressures from the rulinggovernments. But Islamic Awakening emerged followingthe Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979.
  • 115. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ...
  • 116. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution ofIran on the Islamic Awareness as viewed by theSupreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei Mohsen Matlabi Junqani Introduction: In the late 20th century a phenomenon took place thatcontradicted all the international equations which had beendefined based on a bipolar world of East and West. At thattime, new equations were formed in the Middle East, whichwas of high geopolitical importance as the heart of theworld and the route of transferring oil and gas, as the West’svital needs. The phenomenon was the victory of the IslamicRevolution of Iran under the leadership of the late ImamKhomeini. The bipolar world was comprised of the twosuperpowers, the Soviet Union in the East and the United 117States in the West. On the one hand, liberal and secular thoughts wereformed in the U.S. and the Europe during a couple ofcenturies, based on which all the west’s infrastructures hadbeen founded. The liberal thoughts were disseminated inthe West after the victory of revolution in France during1789-1799 which had been infused by theories of scholarssuch as John Lock, Russo, Muntescio, and were promotedby viewpoints of Martin Luther, Adam Smith, Hanna Arent,Isia Berlin, Fridrisch Heik, Carl Popper, John Rawelz,Yorgen Habermas in different economic, political andsocial fields. The Marxism ideology came out in response to the vastproblems which had been emerged in European societies
  • 117. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... and the industrial revolution as well as the conflict between employers and employees and passing from the Feudalism to the Capitalism. The Marxism, which had been emerged from thoughts of Marx and Lenin emphasizing on state economy and supporting laborers against employers and removing production tools from the hands of capital owners, was introduced in the Soviet Union. The Marxism was established in Russia after the 1971 revolution and the collapse of Tsars. Both the two ideologies are the fruits of a phenomenon named the Modernism, the most important principles of which are the ruling out of metaphysical concepts and religious thoughts from political, social and economic aspects of life and promoting Humanism and Secular thoughts instead. In this situation, the dominant theory of governments in social and political environments was the Secular thought118 in the West and the Marxism thought in the East. With the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the Marxism thought was fallen into oblivion and the Marxism thought was introduced as the sole way for the mankind to realize his wishes and make his dreams come true. Men in the West saw him above all and believed in his thoughts as the most perfect among other thoughts. This dominance has been outlined in different ways by Immanuel Wallerstein, Alvin Toffler, Francis Fukuyama, Marshall McLuhan, George Bush, and Samuel Huntington. All the theories have been outlined so that people are inevitable to surrender to the West’s civilization. Even in the Muslim world, the daily increasing backwardness of such communities and the promotion of
  • 118. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwestern thoughts led to the belief that religious teachingsare the reason for the backwardness in the Islamic societies.Those persons who were referred to as intellectualscorroborated the belief. In such situation which the social communities weremoving toward setting religion aside their political andsocial lives, the Islamic Republic of Iran triumphed as it wascompletely unbelievable for the Western men of thought.The formation of the new element and the negation of theWestern and the Eastern thoughts by it in the strategic regionof the Middle East and cutting the hands of the U.S. in theregion were the reasons for the enmity and the hostility ofthe U.S. toward the Islamic Revolution. Due to its religiousentity, the former Soviet Union followed the U.S. in makinghostility with the Islamic Revolution. In these situations, many scholars and followers of thelate Imam were contended with just establishing an Islamicsystem in the country, but the founder of the Islamic 119Revolution showed his deep insight and stated that exportingthe Islamic Revolution was one of the most importantobjectives of the revolution. He said in a statement: “Wewill export the Islamic Revolution to around the globe,because the Revolution is of Islamic entity. So, as long asthe motto of no God exists but Allah and Mohammad isthe messenger of God has not dominated the world, combatwill continue and as long as combat against arrogant powerscontinues we will go on.” Imam Khomeini outlines the concept and the meaning ofexporting the Islamic Revolution as “When we say that wewant to export the Islamic Revolution, it does not mean thatwe will get on planes and pour down onto other countries.
  • 119. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... No, we have not said such a thing. But, we can introduce Islam, as it is really is, through using broadcasting systems and printed media as well and also through dispatching persons abroad. This way, they will surely accept.” Many persons expert in outlining Islamic movements believe that the Islamic Revolution of Iran was one of the important and effective factors in the progress of the Islamic Awareness and the promotion of activities in Arabic and Islamic communities. The theory of effectiveness of the Islamic Revolution on other Islamic countries was based on statements of leaders of freedom-seeking movements and going after the Islamic Republic of Iran as well as the study of developments which have been occurred in the Islamic countries. Imam Khomeini was aware of the issue and was proud of the fact that “The message of the Islamic Revolution of Iran has been disseminated in the Islamic states and in other120 countries and this is a source of pride.” The same issue was asked by a journalist from the late Imam one month before the victory of the Islamic Revolution: “Do you think the Islamic movement in Iran will reach Turkey?” the Imam replied: “The Islamic Republic of Iran is a sacred movement. So, it evidently affects Muslims across the globe.” The self-awareness of Muslims about their power, especially in Islamic states, returning to Quran, relying on the rich Islamic culture and inspiring from the Islamic Revolution of Iran were not easy to be believed by the men of power. Alexander Haig said: “I believe that the outcomes of promoting the Islamic fundamentalism, which have been started in Iran and are threatening stability in Iraq and
  • 120. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningall other moderate Arab regimes in the region, are moredangerous than (international problems). This phenomenonif gets out of control will seriously endanger interests of thesuperpowers.” The inspiration of Muslims from the Islamic Revolutionof Iran has been significantly evident in the compilation ofbooks and the edition of books as well as in media printedmedia. Mujibur Rahman, the journalist: “No one believed that inthe contemporary era, Islamic principles would work. TheIslamic Republic of Iran breathed a new life into the Islamicschool of thought and proved that the Islamic system ofruling still works and can be the used as the foundation forcontemporary communities.” “The most important work ofthe late Imam was to show that dictatorship is forbidden byIslam. People have the right to choose and they should notbe ignored.” Hassan Suleiman, the prayer leader at the Cape Town 121mosque said that the Islamic Republic of Iran played a keyrole in toppling the Apartheid in South Africa. He said that the influence of the Imam on countries wasthe result of Islam. “The source of the late Imam’s thoughtswas the religion of Islam. Undoubtedly, such thoughts andleadership of the late Imam give Muslims, especially theyouth, the power to fight.” In the book titled “Imam Khomeini, the new solution tothe Muslim world” Dr. Shaqaqi has said that the IslamicRevolution of Iran is effective and that the Islamic Revolutionof Iran is decent to be followed. The book introduces theImam: “He was the symbol of a new movement whichdescribed Islam as an ideology in order to remove problems
  • 121. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... of all aspects of life through establishing an Islamic system of ruling.” The time intellectuals and combatants turned to Nationalism and other leftism schools of thoughts to justify their followers he has referred to the Islamic Revolution as a new sample of human civilization which “has put an end to all other schools of thought which were planned to replace Islam.” The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution has described the situation: “Before the victory of the Islamic Revolution, in many countries, including Islamic communities, the youth and freedom-seeker groups were in combat with leftism ideologists. But, after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Islam was the base for freedom- seeking movements. Today, in each point across the vats Islamic World, freedom-seeking groups and movements launch anti-imperialism campaigns based on Islamic school122 of thought.” According to the Supreme Leader, the Islamic Awakening which is seen in the Islamic communities and has led to the collapse of the agents of imperial powers in Arab states has been inspired by the Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979. The present article is after introducing the most important factors and elements of the Islamic Revolution of Iran which have been effective in the Islamic Awakening in other Islamic states, as viewed by the Supreme Leader. A) Islamic Republic of Iran’s effects on Islamic Awakening movements In response the question of why the Islamic Republic of Iran has affected Islamic Awakening movements, we should refer to numerous common aspects between the
  • 122. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningIslamic Republic of Iran and the contemporary IslamicAwakening movements. These common aspects, whichare being referred to as the elements of convergence andsynergy, include: 1. A Single Idea The Islamic Revolution of Iran is a Shia one, but likeany other Islamic movements it believes in the oneness ofGod, believes in the Great Prophet, considers Kaaba its safehaven, considers Quran the word of Allah and the savior ofhuman beings, and believes in afterlife, brotherhood andreligious equality. As Imam Khomeini (P.B.U.H.) says:“We should be united together in our beliefs.” Of course,his charisma and anti-imperialist position which manyMuslims are aware of intensifies the influence of IslamicRevolution and other Islamic movements. Iran’s Supreme leader also told some government officials:“Many decades ago a wise man said ‘:‫ﺑﻨﻰ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻋﺎﻧﺘﻴﻦ‬ 123‫ّﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭ ّﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘ‬ ‫ .’ﻛﻠﻤﺔﺍﻟﺘ‬These two are the pillars of Islam:the first one in the unity, the second one unanimity; the latteris connected to the former, i.e., unity of word based on unityof God. We need this more than any other time; going backto unity and unanimity. “The hardships that Muslims are going through are rootedin the loss of unity in their lives. The closer we get to unity,the freer we will be from hardships. Iranian Muslims havetaken up the path of unity and are therefore free fromthe dominance of the US and other imperialists and theirinfluence. This is the result of unity and being a servant ofGod. Once you are God’s servant you can’t be servant toanyone else. This is the first rule.
  • 123. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... “The second rule is unanimity. Muslim nations should be untied with each other. Nowadays, one of the greatest problems of Islamic World is because of what their enemies have done something that should unite Muslims (i.e. the existence of enemies and usurping Zionists) has turned into a bone of contention. Because of what they have done many Muslim governments stand against their brothers, causing real discord. But the presence of such enemy at the heart of Islamic countries should draw them closer and induce them to form a united front. This is the result of imperialist interference. If imperialist countries, especially the US, didn’t support Philistine occupation and international terrorists that are at the heart of Islamic countries (the Zionist regime) they wouldn’t stand a chance. The same is still true.” 2. The Same Rival124 Islamic Revolution and Islamic movements have a common enemy. This common enemy, i.e. is global imperialism ant at its head the US and Zionist regime which are like Quraysh infidels, savage Moguls, Christian crusaders, European imperialists, racist Serbians, etc. threaten Islam, while Islamic Revolution with its “Not Eats, Not West” slogan has taken on the fight against this common enemy. Imam Khomeini says: “Today, our common enemies are Israel and America and countries like them who want to destroy our integrity and suppress us again. Push back this common enemy.” Describing one of Imam Khomeini’s great achievements, Iran’s supreme leader said: “his important act was proving the fact that ‘Not East, Not West’ slogan was practical and
  • 124. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningpossible. Others thought that one should depend either onthe East or on the West, should worship one of these powers!They never thought that a nation could say no to the Eastand the West and keep getting stronger. Imam Khomeiniproved it!” 3. Common Goal The Islamic Revolution of Iran and contemporary Islamicmovements aim at stopping tyranny and corruption and theestablishment of Islamic rule and an independent systemwithout an emphasis on its Islamic shape. So it can be saidthat contemporary Islamic movements owe their life toIslamic Revolution, because Islamic Revolution gave Islamand Muslims a new life, and saved them from degradationand humiliation. It proved the inability of Marxism,Liberalism and Nationalism to guide Muslims and offeredIslam as the only solution for Muslims’ political life. Sheikh Abdulaziz Udeh, prominent Philistine spiritual 125leader says: “Khomeini’s revolution was the most importantand serious attempt at waking up Muslim nations.” So theexistence and the political nature of Islamic movements arerooted in Islamic Revolution. Therefore, they are greatlyinfluence by it. Talking about Muslims’ common goal, Imam Khomeinisaid: “Muslims have woken up and retrieved their Islamicidentity. They are proud of being Muslims. In Muslimcountries young people, students, intellectuals and elites areattracted to Islamic goals and respect them. In the IslamicWorld nations have found their true Islamic and nationalidentities and, although suppressed for many years, feelpowerful now. Philistine, Iraq, North Africa, and Lebanon
  • 125. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... are examples. Goals, Islam and independence can be found in these countries and they are full of hope and motivation. These are the results of the achievements of that great man.” 4. Unitarianism 5. The emphasis of Islamic Revolution and Iranian Leader on the necessity of unity among all the people and Islamic religions for achieving victory in internal and external fields is another reason for the interest of present Islamic political movements in Islamic Revolution, which follows the Prophet’s rule in not differentiating between black or white and European or non-European Muslims. It never highlights points that can lead to discord among Muslims, and has always acted in favor of bringing Muslims closer to each other; therefore, many non-Shia groups and even non- Islamic freedom-seeking movements follow the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a model.126 So it is not surprising that Palestinian Sunni Muslims go on Martyrdom operations with Imam Khomeini in mind. Mohen Al-Rahman Shami, Pakistani journalist says: “Another great influence of Imam Khomeini is that although he was a Shia leader… he didn’t preach discord. He shouted out in favor of Islam.” 5. People-Oriented The fact that the Islamic Revolution was people-oriented greatly influenced its acceptance among Muslim nations. The 1978 Revolution and its leader believed that people are more important that governments. For example, Haj and the important put on it by an Islamic Iran shows that the Islamic Revolution was people-oriented, because Imam
  • 126. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningKhomeini changed its state through reviving the act ofdeclaring freedom from infidelity. The price they had to payfor nationalizing Haj was the murder of about 400 Iraniansin 1987, but when Iranians returned to Haj three years later,they performed the declaration act will all their power andit still remains, though on a smaller scale. The Supreme Leader also has put great emphasis onthe important role of people, saying: “by the hand of theProphet and the help of God and the efforts of people, thelight of Islam which had first lighted up a small part of ArabWorld gradually extended to other parts of the world. Whenthe Prophet dies this government was an enduring one thatcould be a model for human kind; and if that governmenthad continued in that path, history would’ve been changed,and something that is supposed to happen in the presentera, at the time of Imam Zaman, would’ve happened then.A world full of justice and goodness and knowledge andlove is the world of Imam Zaman, and human beings will 127achieve great feats. So if the Prophet’s government hadcontinued, the history of human beings would’ve changed;but because of some reasons it never happened.” But aside from the similarities between Iran and therevolutions of Islamic World, there are also differences andproblems. Challenges for the Influence of Islamic Revolution onIslamic Awakening 1. Being a Shia: Shi Muslims comprise 10 percent of Muslims in the world.Aside from Iran, Iraq and Syria they don’t have politicalpower, although the majority of countries such as Bahrain
  • 127. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... and Lebanon are Shia. There’s a kind of historical conflict between Shia and Sunnis. Of course, Wahhabis are different from the Islamic Revolution and Syrian Sunnis are closer to it, and even Sufi Sunnis are not very different from the Shia. 2. Arab and Persian The conflict between Arabs and Persians started with the beginning of Islam in Iran. Sho’ubieh movement is an example. Abbasids and Ottomans and Safavids intensified this conflict, and Iraq’s war against Iran is called the most important was between Iranians and Arabs. They considered Iranians magi and believed that the Arabs were pro-Islam and Iranians were against it. 3. The Export of Islamic Revolution Some of the slogans and messages of Islamic Revolution such as Imam’s “our movement is developing and finding its way among other nations” is interpreted as Iran’s interference in other countries and its attempt to change128 their regimes. But one year later Imam said: “This transfer is not done by force. This transfer grows with the growth of Islam’s truths and morality and human morality.” All in all in spite of the difficulties in establishing a communication between Iran’s Revolution and the Islamic World, there are many similarities between them. In order to answer the question of the influence of Iran’s Islamic Revolution on contemporary Islamic and political movements we can refer o many different works and evidence that will not be studied further here. We’ll only take a look at its political and cultural effects. One of the most important achievements of Islamic Revolution is the revival of Islam in the world. According to Imam Khomeini, “in spite of the passage of more than
  • 128. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening150 years of modern plots against Islam we are witnessing agreat Islamic movement in today’s world and the revival ofIslam in African and Asia and even at the heart of Europe,and Muslims have found their true self.” He also says: “after the victory of the Islamic Revolutiongreat powers started to act against the so-called exportof Islamic Revolution, attacking it with propaganda. Allthe global media say that the Islamic Republic is tryingto export revolution! They aggressively equal the exportof revolution with the export of explosives and creatingconfrontation in other parts of the world. Like all the otherthings done by the West, this is also a villainous act. “The export of revolution means the export of Islam’shumanistic culture and emphasis on human values. We areproud of this deed and responsibility. This is the way ofprophets and we shall continue it. In other words, the time when educated Muslims had noself-confidence and many of them wanted to be swallowed 129up by the global identity and had forgotten their past andreferred to it only for fun, has come to an end. IslamicRevolution has restored this confidence and this Islamicrevival has greatly influenced Islamic movements. One ofthese influences is choosing at as the best way to fight andcontinue resistance. The speaker for Philistine Islamic Jihad once told ImamKhomeini: “Intifada is a spark of light and a reflection ofthe great victory of your Revolution, a revolution that wasthe biggest development of our time.” Before that Islam didn’t have a great role in the fightagainst Israel. This kind of attitude necessitated puttingaside secular thoughts especially Nationalism, Liberalism,
  • 129. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... and Communism and discarding the belief that man’s destiny is preordained, a belief that couldn’t save Islamic nations from domestic and foreign oppression. According to Sheikh Abdullah Shami, a Philistine fighter, “after Iran’s Islamic Revolution Philistines realized that to achieve freedon they needed the Quran and a gun.” Before that, all the Islamic movements were in the grip of Marxism. The Islamic Revolution emphasized the political aspect of Islam and afterwards many secret organizations formed in some countries and armed resistance on the basis of Islam developed. Fighting according to Islamic teachings was not the only result of Islam’s revival which many call fundamentalism; on the basis of “Islam, the only solution” there were new interpretations of Islam in which Muslims were encouraged to persist to gain their goals. Once, this was done by Hassan Al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb, but the Islamic Revolution130 offered it under a more serious light. B) The impact of the Islamic revolution on Islamic awakening 1- Islamic awakening as the legacy of Imam Khomeini (RA): The Islamic awakening is the result of Imam Khomeinis great achievements and efforts who sacrificed himself for Islam and the current wave of the Islamic awakening is the direct representation of his attitudes. Imams first achievement was the revival of Islam, especially in terms of politics. The second major achievement was to regenerate the spirit of dignity in the Muslims. His third achievement was reviving the sense of Islamic Ummah among the Muslims which was almost forgotten
  • 130. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin the Islamic countries. His forth accomplishment was totopple down one of the most corrupt political regimes in theworld. Establishing a government based on the Islamicprinciples and starting Islamic uprising were among otherachievements of the late Imam Khomeini. He also createda new attitude in the Shia Fiqh and also eliminated theincorrect and mistaken beliefs in the individual morality.His ninth major achievement was to revive the sprit ofpride and self-esteem in the Iranian nation. The tenthaccomplishment was to realize his great slogan of "No needto East, no need to west." 2- Universal approach toward Islam: Since the agreement was achieved on the Westphaliatreaties in 1648, every political unit in the world is busytaking care of its territorial integrity and national interests.Despite the huge economic and political problems at 131the beginning of the Islamic revolution, the late ImamKhomeini did not restrict himself to the political boundariesand adopted a broader perspective on the issues. His mainconcern was to improve the overall situation of the Islamicworld. The general headlines of Irans foreign policy werealso based on this attitude at the international level. 3- Reviving the religious identity The final emancipation of the Islamic societies fromhegemony and arrogance is regarded as one of the mainachievements of Islamic revolution in Iran. Muslims weremostly under the influence of the Western culture and theycould have no distinguished identity for themselves. Irans
  • 131. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... Islamic revolution headed by Imam Khomeini successfully managed to liberate the Muslims from such a devastating situation. 4- Creating a new model for the Islamic countries Before the Islamic revolution in Iran, the only models existing for the societies were the eastern and western models of administration and political governance. The establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in fact, created a new model to replace the old and out of date systems for the political governance in the countries. 5- Failure of the Nile to the Euphrates project Establishing the illegitimate state of Israel in the region by the Western powers at that time had doubled the problems of the countries in the middle east. Arabs were defeated in the 6 days war and the Israelis were continuing to dominate132 the region and follow their aspiration such as the Nile to the Euphrates project. Irans Islamic revolution prevented such malicious conspiracies to realize and Israelis were unable to continue their ploys in the region and extend their domination. 6- Muslims unity Divisions between the Muslims and lack of unity have been described as the most important factors behind the backwardness of the Islamic Ummah, especially over the recent decades. The old British colonial power has used such divisions in order to rule the Muslim countries and exploit their resources. In other words, "divide and rule" has been the main policy by the British hegemony to dominate
  • 132. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningon the Islamic world and people. Moreover, some of theIslamic sects including the Wahhabis have facilitated thiscolonialist domination because they are always on the sideof enemies and their plots against the Muslims. The Islamicrevolution in Iran in 1979 revived the concept of unityamong the Muslims and increased their solidarity. 7- Muslims sense of dignity Under the huge influence of Western propaganda, Islamiccountries have always had great difficulties dealing withtheir problems over the centuries. Faced with the progressand technological innovations, Muslims had nothing to sayand their sense of dignity was seriously undermined. IransIslamic revolution, in fact, revived the Muslims dignity andthe spirit of confidence among them. 8- Creating the beacon of hope and motivation amongMuslims 133 The increased ambiguity about the future and lack ofcomprehensive plans to deal with the challenges hasdiscouraged Muslims over the centuries. However, thesuccessful victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran overthe hegemonic powers encouraged Muslims and motivatedthem to confront the bullying powers of the world. Due tothis fact, the Islamic countries became more determined todeal with the challenges which had crippled them for manyyears. 9- Increasing success of the Islamic revolution, mainfactor behind the Islamic awakening Maintaining the general goals and objectives of a
  • 133. Effective factors of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on ... revolution is regarded as one of the main priorities of each revolution over the course the history. According to many prominent thinkers and philosophers, revolutions are bound to become short of their objectives, especially after a certain period of time in which the revolutionary ideas and slogans are weakened and the revolution is exposed to many threats. However, this historical experience has failed to prove when it comes to Irans Islamic revolution of 1979. In other words, the Iranian nation has maintained their revolutionary ideals even stronger than before and there is a bright future ahead of the country in many areas. Conclusion Political and social developments over the course of history have always been inspired by other developments. The current wave of developments in the Arab world is no exception in this regard. Undoubtedly, the Islamic awakening134 in the Arab countries is inspired by Irans Islamic revolution of 1979 and it is regarded as the backbone of the revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa. Due to the differences between the Arab states and Iran, one should not expect the establishment of a popular system in these countries like what happened in Iran after the revolution. However, the rise of democratic governments in these countries can ensure the swift transition of power to the people and their representatives. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries should protect their uprising from the foreign interventions which are mainly aimed at high jacking the revolutions and establishing liberal democratic regimes. Peoples orientation toward the Islamic Sharia will certainly have many effects on the future of these countries. Ratification
  • 134. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof the constitution based on the will and aspiration of thepeople will help the juvenile revolution to pass throughthe current critical juncture. Enlightening remarks of thelate Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader AyatollahKhamenei proves the depth of their insight about the Islamicawakening and their directives can serve as the best tool toprotect the current revolutions in the Arab world. 135
  • 135. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ...
  • 136. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and IranianSupreme Leader’s Thoughts on Muslim Youth Mohsen Movahedi1 Author Profile: Name and surname: Mohsen Movahedi (Professor of Tarbiat MoallemCenters in Isfahan Province, Iran); Academic background: Bachelor of Civil Engineering, Mater ofEducational Sciences; Research activities within past five years: Why apprentices of Najafabad Technical and Vocational Schools areinclined to take part in technical and vocational courses in 2003 (Masterthesis, 2004); Analysis of amount and type of study teachers of Najafabad Townshipwere involved in academic year of 2006-7 (research plan of IsfahanProvince Education Department General, 2006); Feasibility study on organizing virtual courses for improvingIsfahan Province Education Department human resources’ efficiencyin academic year of 2009-2010 (research plan of Isfahan ProvinceEducation Department General, 2010); 137 Comparing the effectiveness of short-term virtual and personal in-service training courses in education procedure and empowermentto improve East Azarbaijan Province Education Department humanresources (research plan of East Azarbaijan Province EducationDepartment General, in-hand); Analysis of external performance of Kohgiloyeh-BoyerahmadProvince technical schools and their effective factors (research plan ofKohgiloyeh-Boyerahmad Province Education Department General, tobe signed); Feasibility study on the short-term virtual education of teachersin Lorestan Province (research plan of Lorestan Province EducationDepartment General, to be signed); Some published articles: Promotion of logic of conversation among Muslims through Quranic 1. Master of Educational Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University
  • 137. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... criteria (the exemplary article of the 24th international conference on Islamic Unity, Tehran, 2010); Comparing insight outcomes outlined in Quran and Nahj al-Balagha in terms of Ayatollah Khamenei’s viewpoint (the exemplary article of the 27th international competition of Holy Quran in Islamic republic of Iran, 2010); Techniques and tools of the soft warfare and role of mosques to counteract them; Strategies and solutions of familiarity with the Quran during warfare time (the exemplary article of the 28th international conference on Islamic Unity, Tehran, 2011); Charity rules and condition in Razavi culture focusing on respecting human dignity (the exemplary article of the national festival of Imam Reza (A.S.), Shiraz, 2011). Abstract: Iran’s Islamic Revolution played a significant role in awakening Muslims of the world and reviving religious beliefs. The revolution, led by Imam Khomeini (RA), carried138 out when the Islamic dignity and glory were being threatened to be trampled by arrogant powers and enemies of Islam and when Islamic ethics and values were being forgotten; it brought about the original Islamic culture and civilization, it brought hopes back to life for millions of Muslims across the world and also resurrected Islam and its long-standing glory and magnificence. The cultural movement not only succeeded in creating a discourse space, which covered all micro-discourses, but also developed a new culture through conceptualization and intellectual reconstruction which was relied on religious democracy, Islamic thought revival, universalism of the Islamic civilization, cultural activities, empowerment of the new social movements, anti-imperialism and independence seeking culture. Iran’s Islamic revolution underwent a great development in political, cultural,
  • 138. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningsocial and economic aspects of Iran and also exerted aconsiderable influence across the world. The study initiallyanalyzes viewpoints of Ayatollah Khamenei on important ofyouthfulness, youth specialties and role of Islamic revolutionin awakening world’s Muslims, deals with the political-cultural impacts of the Islamic revolution under the followingtopics: Promotion of the Islamic democracy, promotion ofindependence seeking and anti-imperialism culture,empowering reformism culture in the new social movements,strengthening intellectual, cultural activities, increasingcultural interactions and exchanges, resurrection of Islamin social life, promoting Muslim world’s unity, revivingliberation movements, cultural-political discourses, revivingreligious identity, posing thought of Islamic government,defending sacred Palestinian aspirations, developing Islamicunity and correlation, international effective role of discourse. 139 Keywords: Islamic revolution, Hazrat Imam Khomeini(RA), the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, youth,Islamic Awakening Introduction As a divine, all-embracing and human nature basedmovement; Iran’s Islamic revolution has indicated thepower of religion and also as a revolution of values andnorms began to foster culture in national, regional andinternational levels. The cultural movement not onlysucceeded in creating a discourse space, which coveredall micro-discourses, but also developed a new culturethrough conceptualization and intellectual reconstruction
  • 139. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... which was relied on religious democracy, Islamic thought revival, universalism of the Islamic civilization, cultural activities, empowerment of the new social movements, anti-imperialism and independence seeking culture. Iran’s Islamic revolution underwent a great development in political, cultural, social and economic aspects of Iran and also exerted a considerable influence across the world. Although many revolutions have been carried out in different parts of the world, religious and anti-oppressive spirit, ambition to support disadvantaged people and fighting with diabolical powers have differentiated the Iran’s Islamic revolution from its other counterparts. The revolution was analyzed, supported and welcomed by world’s intellectuals and revolutionaries. The revolution was celebrated through theological and poetic thoughts of many thinkers and paved the way for recognition of the Islam in the current era. While having either political or social goals, the Islamic140 revolution considered Islamic civilization and worldview in a special trend. The phenomenon played a major role in awakening world’s Muslims and reviving their religious beliefs. Although, world’s bullies, particularly Western bloc, have spared no efforts to plot a counter-culture and aggressive image for the Islamic revolution; however, wise leadership of the revolution has relied on the new and fresh concepts, surging through the revolution’s spirit, and has insisted upon its affinities with the world and its specialties which cannot be found in various schools and intellectual currents of the world as they believe in dynamicity and emboldening, describing and promoting these specialties. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that the most energetic population of a society are youth. Young people
  • 140. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningare the most important capitals of each country, since thefuture fate of their country will be determined by youth.Young people more easily accede to change their attitudeand behavior in comparison with adults, for emotionaldimension of attitude and insight of young people towardsdifferent individuals and phenomena are changing veryquickly. Considering religious and theoretical demands andneeds of the current generation and providing a deservedanswer for such demands entails certain requirements.Therefore, anybody who is familiar with Islam, Quran andHoly Prophet’s household believes that the eternal treasuresand the divine undying reservoirs are not only able to meetneeds and to solve problems and uncertainties, but they arethe sole possible way to meet needs and to solve problems.The important role played by youth in the recent Islamicawakening as well as political and cultural impacts of theIslamic revolution on them are significant issues of thestudy which will be referred later. 141 Islamic Revolution and Muslims Awakening: Many scientists and researchers have described the Iran’sIslamic revolution as the last sample of the fundamentalrevolutions which have been analyzed in books and theorieson social development and revolution. Such revolutions areassociated with a number of substantial developments inthe society’s value system and the public dissatisfaction isfollowed by formation of disaffected people who try to alterthe ruling government. Beyond this situation, the revolution’sleader proposes a new proposal on political, economic andcultural dimensions and a new comprehensive paradigmof social development with both national and transnational
  • 141. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... features is presented. Iran’s Islamic revolution carried out a number of deep-tooted developments in both social and political systems of the country and inspired considerably Muslim and oppressed nations; it not only challenged the hegemonitic systems and unilateral dominant values over the international agencies, but deeply affected the theoretical framework of theories about revolution, which were relied in standard social and political perspectives of the second half of the twentieth century. Iran’s Islamic revolution was a turning point in the “Islamic Awakening” trend started since the late 19th century among Muslim countries and the most important features of the trend stood at reviving the Islamic values across the society, rejection of the domestic tyranny and foreign domination in the Islamic countries. Iran’s Islamic revolution is one of the greatest, deepest and widest Islamic movements whose impacts somehow can be compared with the upshots of the eternal revolution142 of Karbala2. Although the revolution is the outcome and result of the past Islamic revolutions, as a great revolution it has recorded different influences. Some of the results would be sought in more dynamicity, changed objectives, and developed methods of some Islamic movements. In reply to why the Iran’s Islamic revolution has affected its contemporary Islamic movements, numerous affinities between Iran’s Islamic revolution and the current Islamic movements would be pointed. The affinities made a condition in which Iran’s Islamic revolution and Islamic movement could mutually affect each other; some of the affinities are: 2 The Revolution of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq.
  • 142. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Common opinion: like any other Islamic movement, Iranbelieves in unity of god (monotheism) and the slogan of “NoGod but Allah”, prophecy of the holly prophet Muhammad(PBUH) (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messengerof God), and considers the Kaaba as its kiblah of ideals. Common foe: Iran’s Islamic revolution and Islamicmovements have common enemies, the arrogant powersheaded by the United State (The Great Stan) and the Zionistregime, like Quraish infields, savage Mongols, Christiancrusaders, European expansionist countries and racist Serbs,who threaten Islam foundation. Chanting “No Eastern bloc,No Western bloc” slogan, Iran is the vanguard of battleagainst the Muslim world’s common foe. Common purpose: Iran’s Islamic revolution and othercurrent Islamic movements are seeking for rooting outoppression and corruption, applying Islamic rules and laws,establishing Islamic governments in Muslim societies andhoisting the flag of “No God but Allah” all over the world 143through negation of the arrogant powers and relying oneternal power of God and people. However, some Islamicmovements only intend to apply Islamic laws in theircountries while others are desperate for establishment of anindependent government whether Islamic or not. Moreover, the Islamic movements confess that theirsurvival is indebted to the Iran’s Islamic revolution, because,the current continuance of resurrected Islam and Muslims,rescued them obliquity and humility, demonstrated failureof Marxism, Liberalism and Nationalism to direct and leadMuslims and introduced Islam as the sole way for politicallife of Muslims. Hence, the essence and political survivalof the Islamic movements depend on the Iran’s Islamic
  • 143. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... revolution. It has paved way for the Islamic revolution to affect other movements (Halabi, 2005, p 69-70). The emphasis and reliance of the Islamic revolution of Iran and its leader on the necessity to preserve unity among all walks of life and all religions which is necessary to clinch victory in both domestic and foreign scenes, are another aspect of Islamic movements’ inclination towards the Islamic revolution of Iran. In the wake of the real Islam thoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution makes no difference among various races of Muslims, European and non-European Muslims and does not stimulate the divisive aspects among Muslims. Instead, it has tried to unite all Muslims through establishing The World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought, organizing international day of Quds, issuing historical fatwa calling for the death of Salman Rushdie and holding the international “week of unity”. For the reasons, a wide range of non-Shiite groups and even144 non-Islamic liberation movements has used the Islamic revolution of Iran as a proper paradigm to follow. Islam resurrection is one of the most important achievements of the Iran’s Islamic revolution. Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei says: “In spite of more than 150 years of modern and comprehensive planning against Islam, Muslims have found their real personality and identity.” (Khamenei, 2008, vol.1, p. 90). The resurrection has brought about various achievements for the Islamic movements; one of them is choice of Islam as the best and most complete style of combat. The approach says that we should put the non-religious thoughts, e.g.
  • 144. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningNationalism, Liberalism and Communism, aside and tossaway the thought that say our destination is coercive. Forexample, Sheikh Abdullah Shami, the Islamic Jihad leaderin the Gaza Strip says, “After Islamic revolution of Iran,Palestinians found that Quran and guns are necessary forachieve liberty.” Adhering fighting based on Islam is not the sole result ofIslam resurrection, but in this new approach relying on thethought that Islam is the sole solution, a new perceptionof Islam has been developed by which Muslims have beenencouraged to resist and insist on achieving their own rights.However, the combat is not limited to armed struggle, buta number of reconciliatory methods, e.g. the method whichis pursued by the Turkish Refah/Welfare Islamist Party, areseen there as well. The Islamic system, developed after victory of the Islamicrevolution in Iran, has become the best paradigm and themost important political demand of jihadists. The issue 145is manifested in different forms in their rhetoric and/orpolitical tasks. Muslim rebellious’ interest for building an Islamicgovernment has been announced in three ways: First: A plethora of Islamic groups overtly have asked forestablishment of the Islamic government in their countriesand have announced their demand in articles of associations(Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq) and or in theirdeclarations (Islamic Dawa Party3). However, a number ofIslamic movements (e.g. Kashmir and Afghanistan) havedefined achieving the political independence as their firstpolitical objective. 3. Islamic Call Party
  • 145. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... Second: Some other Islamic groups have expressed their interest to install an Islamic government through different approaches such as outlining the necessity of applying Islamic laws (e.g. the Islamic Guidance Society of Egypt), emphasizing the Islamic Republic of Iran as the sole solution (e.g. the Muslim Brotherhood), translation of Imam Khomeini’s Islamic Government (e.g. Al-Yasar Al- Islami party of Egypt) etc. Third: A range of Islamic movements have left the narrow circle of nationalism and are seeking for building a unite Islamic system from the Persian Gulf to the Atlantic Ocean (e.g. Islamic Dawa Party in Algeria) ad or following leadership of Iran’s Islamic revolution based on Protectorship of the Islamic Jurisprudence. The latter is divided in two classes, a class who religiously follows the Supreme Leader of Iran (Amal Movement of Lebanon) and another who religiously and politically follows Iranian146 leaders (e.g. Hezbollah of Lebanon). Some movements stuck on coercive and armed operations (e.g. Hezbollah of Hejaz) and coup détat (e.g. Bahrain) to overthrow the ruling regimes. On the opposite side, there are groups who do not find the armed operations as the proper option and intend to try reconciliatory methods including participation in parliamentary elections for changing the ruling system (e.g. welfare Islamic party in Turkey); however there are several groups who believe in both methods. The Hezbollah of Lebanon is one of such groups who have used two different approaches against Israel (armed struggle) and St. Maroun based Lebanese government (participation in parliamentary elections). The birth and existence of some Islamic groups are
  • 146. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningindebted to the Iran’s Islamic revolution. Such groups aresplit into two classes: a group who has been separated froma passive Islamic movement (Islamic Amal movement fromAmal Movement) and another group who is not linked toany certain group and is considered as a new entity suchas Pakistan’s Movement for the Implementation of JafariFiqh. Though the latter has more influenced by the Islamicrevolution rather the former, all of them are shared indefending Iran’s Islamic revolution, following its leadershipand pursuing the revolution as a paradigm. Another range of the Islamic groups have shook offtheir stagnation, lethargy and passiveness as the result ofIslam resurrection, which was began as the fruit of Islamicrevolution victory in Iran, and by taking advantage of newpower and organization are being prepared to struggle withthe arrogant rulers. A part of such groups have embarked onincreasing their activities and focus on the reconciliatoryapproaches, while another part of them have boosted the 147intensity of their anti-governmental efforts and are aftertoppling their ruling states through armed struggles. ArabPeninsula Islamic Revolution Organization and SyrianIslamic Front can be exampled for the first and secondmentioned groups, respectively (Seddighi, 1996, p. 78-89). Iran’s Islamic revolution has been either effective tostimulate even those semi-Islamic movements who areinterested in Islamic revolution of Iran. The groups, whichhad been formed with the aim of tackling with the Islamicrevolution of Iran, are supported and sponsored by Iran’senemies, particularly the King of Saudi Arabia, Vahabiatin Pakistan, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) inthe occupied territories of Palestine and Organization of
  • 147. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... the Islamic struggle in Iraq are some of them. Thus, after victory of Iran’s revolution in 1979, the compromiser Islam (American Islam) was completely separated from the real Islam. Islamic revolution has introduced novel cultural values for political struggle against hegemonistic powers. Tendency to Jihad is one of the values. After Islamic revolution of Iran, Islamic movements have accepted jihad, martyrdom, and sacrifice as the fundamental principles and consider them as the religious obligation. Therefore, they have applied these principles in the various forms such as martyrdom operations (in Palestine), armed struggle and warfare (Afghanistan). Thus, “Jihad” has been used instead of fight and battle. It has been found that Islam is able to mobilize poor walks of life. Hence, Islamic movements have left intellectuals for general public and have developed their popular base. As148 Dr. Hasan al-Torabi, the leader of Islamic Front of Sudan, says, “The Islamic Revolution has bestowed the experience [popular working and using general public] as a precious gift to the Muslim countries” (Ashrafzadeh, 1995, p.112). Inclination to the popular working thought has directed the Islamic movements toward the religious and ethnic unity-seeking. For Instance, it helped them to avoid disputation and division and have provided them with stronger organizations, more facilities, more supports and greater stability. Imitation of Islamic revolution slogans is another way by which rebellious Muslims have taken advantage of Iran’s revolution. “Independence, Freedom and Islamic Republic”, “No Eastern Bloc, No Western Bloc, only Islamic Republic” and “Down with USA” are
  • 148. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningsome key slogans which are now imitated by the Islamicrevolutionists. For example, the slogan Turkish Muslimprotestors were chanting before coup détat 1980 wasIndependence, Freedom and Islamic Republic. Kabulisshouted Allahu Akbar (God is Greatest) over roofs oftheir houses, Egyptian Muslims carried placards sayingNo Eastern, No western . Kashmiri people in their knownrally in 1980 shouted Allahu Akbar, Khomeini Rahbar . AsAyatollah Khamenei has said, Allahu Akbar shouts overroofs o Algerians have been learned from revolutionaryIranians” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 2, p. 133). Roger Garaudy, French Muslim intelelctual has describedthe Islamic revolution of Iran as: “As a matter of fact, the Islamic revolution [of Iran], whichwas led by Ayatollah Khomeini, is not similar to none of therevolutions that have been launched before that. Human’shistory is full of revolutions organized with the aim ofchanging the ruling political systems. Social revolutions 149across the world are indicative of the needy’s wrath overthe wealthy, the national revolutions released their angerat colonialists and occupiers. But, Iran’s Islamic revolutionconveyed all of such motivations as well and it bore newconcepts which not only overthrew Shah’s political, socialgovernment but also more importantly reversed the certaincivilization and worldview which have been raised againstthe religion.” Iran’s Islamic revolution exerted so many effects inawakening world’s Muslims and reviving the religiousbeliefs. The revolution, led by Imam Khomeini (RA),carried out when the Islamic dignity and glory were beingthreatened to be trampled by arrogant powers and enemies
  • 149. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... of Islam and when Islamic ethics and values were being forgotten; it brought about the original Islamic culture and civilization, it brought hopes back to life for millions of Muslims across the world and also resurrected Islam and its long-standing glory and magnificence. Referring to the specifications of the Islamic republic and the necessity of information dissemination on values of the revolution, the Supreme Leader says, “[Our] revolution had two aspects; one was fighting against the domestic tyranny and the corrupted government which have beggared people and the country; the revolution was seeking for rescuing people, fostering people under Islamic instructions and governing the country by an Islamic government. Another aspect was bringing a new message for the world and mankind in general; it was what attracted the world, thus, those European, Western, African or Latin American intellectual who hail Imam Khomeini and our150 revolution and Islamic system are not in our country till be informed about it, it is the Islam’s global and human message that persuade him/her to praise. The second aspect is very important, we should express this” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 3, p. 79). Pointing to the necessity of identifying the new concepts of the revolution and presenting them to enthusiastic people and truth-seekers throughout the world, the Supreme Leader says, “Either Islamic revolution or Islamic system has original and fresh concepts for the world, although the concepts share with the world some affinities, the specialties of the concepts differentiate segregate them from various schools and intellectual currents across the world; we should find them all and protect and promote them” (Khamenei, 2008, vol.4, p. 143).
  • 150. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The emphasis of the Supreme Leader upon the critical roleof the Islamic revolution in awakening Muslims indicatesits political-cultural impact or even its all-embracing effecton people of the world, particularly Muslims: “Today, when we see the Muslim World, it is evidentthanks to awakened Iranians the awakening of Muslims inthe Islamic countries and lands has been developed. Thanksto Imam Khomeini (RA), who put himself in the path ofbullets of the enemy and spoke and acted honestly, Iranianpeople in turn have begun the struggle. Thanks to brave andloyal leadership of Imam Khomeini, Iranians have succeededto impose their dignity and glory to the world where tries tohumiliate Muslims. Protectorship of Imam Khomeini (RA)was a ray of the “blazing sun” of Ghadir, hence it could todevelop these outcomes, to awaken Iranians and reconstructIran either spiritually or materially. An ancient nation, witha glorious history and culture have become a puppy inhands of foreign arrogant powers; they made decision about 151the nation and did anything they wanted with its wealth;they humiliated Iranians and pursued their own interestswithout considering ours, it is the biggest contempt a nationmay incur over another nation. Our nation awakened andregained its glory strongly” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 3, p.143-145). Based on the Supreme Leaders perspective, thanks tothe Islamic revolution, today, Iranian people, particularlyyouth, youngsters, and intellectuals are taking advantage ofIslamic motivation, inclination to the Islamic governance,and they hate domination of tyrants and colonialists. Hesays, “Today, if you go any Islamic country from East to West
  • 151. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... of the Muslim World including the Middle East, Arab states, northern Africa or Easter Asian countries, anywhere in which Muslims have formed their own organization, you will see that people, particularly youth, youngsters, and intellectuals are taking advantage of Islamic motivation, inclination to the Islamic governance, and they hate domination of tyrants and colonialists. The Muslim World was not a world like this. What were the principles of Imam Khomeini which brought such enormous success? The pivot of all principles and instructions of our deceased leader would be summed up in two things: Islam and People. He adopted his belief on people from Islam as well. It is Islam which emphasizes nations’ rights, importance of people’s votes and impact of jihad and their participation; thus, Imam Khomeini considered Islam and people as the pivot of everything; Islam glory, people glory; Islam power, people power, Islam invincibility, people’s invincibility.152 The most important work Imam Khomeini conducted across the Muslim World was resurrection of political and social dimensions of Islam. Since the day in which the colonialism appeared in the Islamic countries, all tyrants and arrogant powers pared no efforts to omit political and social dimensions of Islam, justice, freedom and independence- seeking of Islam. In order to increase their domination over Islamic nations and resources, the hegemonistic countries tried to separate Islam from its political dimensions and to introduce an Islam which is clueless against the occupiers and oppressive adversaries. Imam Khomeini revived the lost fact of Islam; hoisted Islamic justice; showed Islam’s opposition against discrimination and class division and aristocracies” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 5, p. 55-56).
  • 152. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Hating United States and its interventions in countries,where are governed by its puppy government, are increasingin the Muslim World, and the Supreme Leader say in thisissue that: “Awakening in the Muslim World was created thanks toawakening of Muslims in our country. Today, the awakenedpeople of Palestinian has encountered the United States andthe Zionist Regime with a great trouble and it is the outcomeof awakening of the Iranian nation, otherwise, nobodythought that Palestinian nation would be able to challengeIsrael, the Zionist occupiers and the United States. Already,a same phenomenon has not been occurred in the occupiedterritories of Palestine. It is the case for other Muslimnations living in other countries. Hating United States andits interventions in countries, where are governed by itspuppy government, are increasing in the Muslim World.The dignity offered by Islam to nations is being boostedgradually. They feared that Iran’s Islamic revolution would 153be copied exactly by other countries. They tried to preventthis using various methods and techniques; but they failedto prevent extension of the Islamic thought and Islamicawakening. The Islamic awakening has been expandedthroughout the Muslim World; we have to take the point inour minds” (Khamenei, 2008, vol. 4, p. 69-70). The Supreme Leader’s Perspective on Youthfulness Analyzing issues related to the young generation is vitallyimportant and expressing all reasons for such importance isnot possible in this study, but consideration of the SupremeLeader’s perspective on youth and their relationship withmaterialistic and spiritualistic issues will somehow reveal
  • 153. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... the importance: “Like their body which is full of freshness and strength, youth spirits is full to the brim with exhilaration. The creature, with his/her mind capacity, wisdom, physical strength, nervous capability and unknown powers, has been created by the Almighty God and allowed him/her to enjoy the nature, feed and sleep, the material world and approach the Almighty God by using all means which are available in the world. It should not be considered that such looking is a secluded look. The closeness of God passed among such materials, but it does not stop in the midst of materials. Sin of the people who have soaked themselves in the worldliness is not they have addressed only the world, but their main sin is that they have underestimated the objective and aims of their lives” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 44). He also refers to the opportunity which has been created in the Islamic Republic System and any other Islamic and154 divine system else to the youth and says, “You, youth, girls and boys, are in the begging of your long path, you have either strength or selection power and you are able to pass the route and the route is open in the Islamic republic system and other Islamic and divine systems. The way of spirituality and serenity is not a dead- end alley.” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 46). Stressing the commitments of youth, the Supreme Leader recalls conspiracies of enemies and says, “Today, the country drastically needs your exhilaration, your power, your innovation, and your serenity. Today, the youth should empower their wisdom, their knowledge and cognition, their faith, their correlation and integrity as far as possible; exactly the zones which the enemy does not want to be
  • 154. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningempowered. The enemy does not want to see our scienceis being developed, it want to see our universities performsomething other training and teaching; it does not want tosee faith of our youth is strengthened and they want thefaithful youth become swingers” (Khamenei, 2001, p. 51). Evaluation of youth-related issues of the Islamic awakeningand how they are affected by the Islamic revolutiondepends on analysis of features of youth before any otherthing. Undoubtedly, taking advantage of perspectives ofthe Supreme Leader in this issue would be helpful. Henumerously has emphasized his deep and old relation withthe young generation and describes characteristics of thegeneration very well. A number of the most importantfeatures of the youth outlined by the Supreme Leader are: Righteousness: While believing in youth righteousness,the Supreme Leader outlines it along with two other keyvariables namely honestly protest and worriless act: “Youngpeople accept right things very easily. It is very important. 155Young people protest simply and honestly and take actionswithout any concern or internal worry, it is very importantas well. Put the easy accepting, honest protest and worrilessaction together and see how beautiful truth is emerged andwhat key is prepared for solving problems.” (Khamenei,2002, p. 60). Reform-seeking. The supreme Leader differentiates thereactionary-based reformism from youth reformism andassociates it with some issues such as justice-seeking,legitimate freedoms and realization of the Islamicambitions: “Youth naturally seeking for reforms; of courseI do not deal with the common definitions of reformists,conservatives etc. Reformism as a political gesture is not
  • 155. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... my intention. Some people speak about reformism, while they do not know what they want and what is exists in their minds is not reformism, but is a type of reactionary and stagnation. You see that some people behind the beautiful cover reformism try to get back to era in which the religion was only a ritual in human’s life and not anymore! It is not reformism, but it stands in the point opposite the reformism. Reformism is associated with evolution and development and not with stagnation. There are some people who are actually reformists. They actually suffer from shortages, insufficiencies, difficulties and deviations and are seeking to reform them, which is good act. Young real reformists are seeking for justice, legitimate freedoms and realization of Islamic aspirations. Islamic facts and aspirations electrify and attract them. The icon of Imam Ali (AS) which is developed in their minds electrifies them; they compare the current shortcomings with Imam Ali’s era and desperate for156 reforms, it is a very bold and considerable feature which should be focused (Khamenei, 2004, p.60). Energy and vitality of youth: The Supreme Leader believes that energy and validity of youth is a blessing which brings about commitment; so conscious presence in the scene and more information about different issues makes heavier youth burden of duty: “One of significant features of youth is power, energy, innovation and exhilaration of youth. You have such features naturally. They are a part of long list of youth advantages. Are youth have acquired them? No. you have not made any effort to achieve right-seeking, energy, exhilaration and youth ambition. It is a natural term of life of human beings. So, it is a kind of blessing which is followed by duty and accountability.
  • 156. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening Keep in your mind that the duty is heavier during youthin comparison with other stages of your life, why? becauseyouth have played significant and special roles in the society;because young people of the country have been increased;because significance of youth people in political, socialand cultural equations of the country is very eye-catching.Hence, it is not the case whether the young individualshave any commitment for themselves; no. the case isthat the dense young population of the country and theirparticipation in events and especially the consciousnessfrom which our youth are enjoyed- there are a few placesacross the world where such consciousness, sensitivityand excitement could be found- make their commitmentsheavier and more important. However, the duty is a kind ofduty which is exciting for youth and is not a boring duty. Itis a duty which is accompanied with the youth nature and ispersuading and progressive for young people” (Khamenei2008, vol.3, p.88). 157 4. Identification: Identity means the state or fact ofremaining the same one or ones, as under varying aspectsor conditions. Identity indicates who we are and is resultedfrom human’s need to be identified and to introduce itself tosomething or somewhere (Sarokhani, 1991, p.91). While proposing a brief definition for identity, the SupremeLeader explains the enemy’s works and plans to severIranian youth from his/her identity and its outcomes: “Themajor need of youth is identity; youth should recognize theiridentity and objectives; they should know who they are andwhy they want to work and make efforts. The enemy intendsto sever the Iranian youth from their identity; to demolishtheir goals, to darken horizons, to humiliate them, rely me
  • 157. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... to taking advantage of a good fostering and supporting; It is obvious that our rich country and very important and strategic region in which our country is located as well as numerous effects our nation can exert would be destructed through humiliation of our youth personality my adversaries. Today, enemy is planning is what as I said, so you must be vigilant about them” (Khamenei, 1994, p. 112). 5. Conscious responsibility: the Supreme Leader generalizes the responsibility sense of youth not only to the personal issues but also to some broader issues such as nation, history and humanity: “What is important for you as youth, like others, is having conscious sense of responsibility. Of course you are young and full if energy and enjoy more sensitivity. Sense of responsibility means that human being should not restricted himself/herself only to personal issues such as life, job, etc., but it means human must consider issues and goals which are beyond158 personal life, the goals that are not limited to him, but are related to the collection, nation, history and humanity. Human must feels responsibility over these goals. Nobody and no society would achieve the lofty peaks of happiness without sticking to such sense of responsibility. The sense of responsibility and commitment should be conscious. One should know what is he/she is seeking for and also should identify the obstacles in the way. It is the conscious sense of responsibility. Iranian youth is vigilant, sensitive, conscious and responsible and more than other youth of the world feels sense of responsibility. Of course I do not claim that I am informed about all parts of the world, but we receive a lot of news. We receive our information through so many outlets. Political understanding, political thought,
  • 158. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningpolitical demand, ideal demand, sensitivity to incidents andparticipation in scenes is exemplary in Iranian youth, eitherboys or girls. For these reason we have attained massivesuccesses” (Khamenei, 2001, p.120-123). The Supreme Leader expresses the risks posed by enemiesto the conscious sense of responsibility with the aim ofspoiling [our] youth, as follows: “There are risks which threaten us. Today, a commonpolicy is followed throughout the world by certain centers.The policy says youth should be indulged in lusts, sexualinstincts and moral corruption. It is a common policy in theworld and includes both east and west sides of the world;but each region pursues it with a certain goal. Those centerswhere plot such policies provide the necessary tools andequipment considerably to carry out them. The centersmainly are the Zionism economic centers and internationalauthoritarian systems who desperate with wealth springheadsin countries where are mostly undeveloped, poor and weak 159lands but have hefty wealth resources. The most importantobstacle for griping at such wealth resources is will of thenations which these resources are belonged them. So thebest was for freezing and paralyzing a nation is freezingits youth generation; because youth are the active forces ofany country. And in turn for paralyzing youth the best wayis corrupting them and crippling them with sexual dreams,debauchery, alcoholic drinks and drugs. The Westerncountries apply the policy in order to prevent [our] youthfrom disturbing Zionists” (Khamenei, 1994 , p.131-134). 6. Will power. The Supreme Leader rejects the viewsaying that the youth are flail around with sins and believesthat the youth have not only great physical power, but they
  • 159. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... enjoy stronger will power: “Your task is very easier than ours. You perceive the divine messages in a faster and more obvious manner [than us]. The Almighty God speaks to you and responds you and you feel the respond by your heart ….some thinks that the youth are flail around with sins; but the youth enjoys both great physical power and will power simultaneously” (Khamenei, 2004, p.92). 7. Divine nature: For the Supreme Leader, young people get acquainted with the Almighty God and spirituality through their heart and conscience rather via other people: “Nature of the youth is familiar with religion and spirituality. Before we take any action to get them familiar with the Almighty God, their heart and conscience get them familiar with the Almighty God. The whole thing we should do is be careful to keep them healthy” (Khamenei, 2002, p.71). 8. Reasoning and wisdom: The Supreme Leader’s viewpoint on religious studies conducted by the youth is160 righteous and acceptable when are based on reasoning, wisdom and true perspective: “The youth take advantage of stronger decision making, resistance and confrontation powers. It is an important and serious issue. The youth is interested in explanations of the religious concepts. Today, the youth generation intends to adopt its religion through reasoning, wisdom and lucidity. It is a deserved and right claim. The claim has been taught by the religion” (Khamenei, 1995, p.102). 9. Inclination to beauty and beautification: Beauty and inclination to beauty have always been stressed in the religious texts and Hadiths which indicates that beauty has been verified in our religion unlike sedition and corruption: “The human being, particularly the youth, likes beauty
  • 160. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand beautification and intends to be beautiful and its is notbad; it is a natural and coercive thing which has not beenforbidden by Islam, but what has been forbidden is seditionand corruption.” (Khamenei, 2002, p.77). 10. Coping with bullying: According to the SupremeLeader, all world movements accompanying with the youth,struggling with coercion and influence of foreigners isobserved: “The youth naturally cope with bullies. You maynot find any movement across the world, which is developedby youth to benefit foreigners. Always, the youth directedmovements have been against intervention of foreigners.”(Khamenei, 2001, p.111). In conclusion it can be inferred that the Supreme Leader’sperspective on the youth includes personal and socialconcerns of young generation: “Any young man or woman has his/her own concerns.We cannot prevent them from having such concerns. Inthe first place, the youth worry about their education, job, 161employment and future as a whole. Having a clear cleanand obvious future is critical for them. Enter into marriageis important for them as well. Attaining practical wisdomas far as possible is significant for them. They think abouthappiness and exhilaration. The issues related to beauty-seeking nature of human being are strong by the youth.The youth are filled with human feelings and emotions.However, youth concerns are not restricted to the above-mentioned ones. The youth is sensitive to the socialproblems of his/her society. He/she may suffer from anykind of discriminations across the society… the youth thinkidealistically. Lack of justice in the society may annoy theyouth as well. Increasing corruption across the society will
  • 161. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... annoy those youth who make effort to develop their country and observe its glory and dignity. Where national passion is involved, one can predict youth sensitivity.” (Khamenei, 2004, p.84-85). Impacts of the Iran’s Islamic Revolution and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts on roles played by the Muslim youth According to what has been said, some of the most important effects of the Islamic Revolution, particularly those which are promoted by the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, on the roles were played by the Muslim youth are as follows: Promotion of the Religious Democracy Culture: The Islamic revolution based on Imam Khomeini’s thoughts on protectorship of jurisprudence and also obvious stance and explanation of the Supreme Leader, Ayatollag Seyyed Ali Khamenei, for this issue could162 illuminate compatibility between Islam and democracy, mutual action between religion and politics for the young Muslim generation. While answering simultaneously to two fundamental questions, which may rise to minds of all young people living in the Muslim World, i.e. “who should rule?” and “how should rule?” the revolution developed a kind of political system which is based either on the ruling spiritual and political specifications or on the connection between the Islamic values and democratic structure/ procedure. Such government, which was based on the match between Islam and the time requirements as well as the religious resurrection using reviving Islamic perspectives on governance, emphasized the republic style, as a good style to govern the country, and participation of people in making
  • 162. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninggovernmental decisions and observance of Islamism patternand constant Islamic values including justice, divinity, andspirituality. The Islamic republic system indicates the linkagebetween religion and politics, combination of structure andperformance and also demonstrated that religiousness alongwith modernization is not impossible. The political systemsimultaneously has negated the retrogressive and sectionalistIslam and secularism and laicism, so brought about a systemwhich is legitimized by divine domination, righteousnessof the religious values and popular will and the right todetermine destinations of nations. Proposition of the religiousdemocracy doctrine by the Islamic revolution developedthe interactive culture, based on government’s ambition tomeet will of the Muslim people to develop a humane societyproper with the human nature. It also revived the role maybe played by people with the aim of emphasizing the linkageand connection between people and their governments. As thesame time Iran’s revolution strengthened tendency to Islam as 163a popular governance style among all nations and encouragedestablishment of governments which insist on application ofShariah principles and realization of the social justice. Whilechallenging the extremist nationality ideologies includingpan-Arabism, the system succeeded to challenge puppyregimes too and started to cope with imperialism and socialimperialism at the same time (Parsania, 1997, p. 221-237). Promotion of Independency and Anti-Imperialism The independent and anti-imperialist nature of the Islamicrevolution and its efforts to develop a system independentfrom domination of the imperialist powers, based on thoughtsof Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader, disrupted the
  • 163. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... balance between the global powers and challenged the international system developed by East and West blocs. Outlining “No East, No West” theory helped the Islamic revolution to foster a collective super-discipline based on equity of governments, rules and realization of both divine and human rights of nations in the international system. Reviving the forgotten capacities and facilities belonged to the non-committed countries and negating passivity and fear against imperialism helped Iran to embark on cutting roots of dependency of the nations to the hegemonistic powers. The Islamic revolution to negate the myth that the arrogant powers are invincible via divulging dominant nature and unilateral policies adopted by the global powers and planted seeds of hope in the hearts of all liberalists and world’s poor. The Islamic revolution paved the way for the independent and liberal movements stimulated by self-reliance developed in the needy through denoting the164 needy and imperialism. It started to struggle in two fronts, anti-colonialism and anti-imperialism, and also negated dependency which caused infiltration of independence- seeking and liberality culture among various classes of the societies, governments and liberal movements. Since Islamic revolution tackled with European common patterns of liberalism and socialism and challenged principles of secularism, humanism and materialism, the attractiveness of Marxism and Nationalism ideologies, as the ideologies used by militants and liberal nations, was faded out. Hence, the Islamic revolution opened a third front in the international system by which the materialist system of the world was confronted and a rich culture of independence- seeking and anti-imperialism among the third world states
  • 164. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwas developed (Shafifar, 1997, p. 98-109). Strengthening reformism culture among new socialmovements: The Islamic revolution revived new social middle-classeswho have started to restore thoughts of Imam Khomeini,Alame Tabatabaie and Morteza Mottahari with the aim ofinfluencing the social and cultural strata and structures ofthe undeveloped countries, specially their youth population.With regard to the peaceful and nonviolent nature of theIslamic revolution of Iran which has been staged throughreconciliatory and unarmed demonstrations, a religiousintellectuality was formed which resorted to promotionalstyles and intellectual enlightenment instead of partisanand armed struggles. It paved the way for the youth tostart continuous and reconciliatory struggles and to resortto reformist ways and moves relying on restoring andrenovating religious thinking. The Islamic youth startedto promote Islamic resurrection through intellectual and 165religious activities; on the other hand, with the aim ofdeveloping a doctrine and offering a coherent discourse ofthe religious modernism embarked on cultural activity torealize the religious democracy paradigm. Such religiousreformist movements were manifested in Pakistan, Turkey,Bahrain, Algeria and Morocco. Islamic civil organizationof the Muslim countries emphasized the necessity ofcontinuous modernism, fostered a new method of thinkingand pondering rooted in the combination of republicanismand Islamism, which was based on their own localparadigms and social norms. In accelerated the gradualknowledge and placed the cover, alive and active in theroute of Islamic modernism. Emergence of young thinkers
  • 165. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... and intellectual in the Islamic countries brought about a new middle-class that announced proudly its independent Islamic and national identity and started to materialize the Islamic ruling based on the religious criteria. At the same time, the class involved with reshaping its role in the political activities; for instance, answer of Saudi Arabia’s intellectuals to letter of 70 American intellectuals after 9/11 incidents, who prescribed bellicosity of the White House under the framework of international policy and their opposite letter against educational system of Saudi Arabia in the current year can be pointed. (Lee, 1994, p. 54-56). Strengthening the intellectual and cultural activity Islamic revolution, relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s teachings, stressed the software power of culture and thinking and supremacy of thinking over instrumenting with the aim of creating a type of intellectual and cultural activity which was based on intellectual and166 cultural independent of the Muslim nations. Such revolution which promoted self-sufficiency and scientific self-reliance without dependency to the foreign powers fostered a software movement which caused science production in the Muslim World that focused on protecting the local culture while taking advantage of technological achievements, particularly the communicative technologies. Hence, a number of sciences such as Islamic Insurance, Islamic Stock Market and Islamic Politics were welcomed by scientific and academic entities which mainly cover the youth and persuaded universities and seminaries to make interaction and cooperation. Therefore, when inclination of young pundits to understand and perceive the reality and nature of the Islamic revolution was enhanced, the Islamic
  • 166. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningseminaries found a new importance in the intellectualdevelopments of the globe a great deal of African studentstraveled Iran in order to enroll in its Islamic seminaries.Likewise, our universities become an important scenefor scientific activities and political moves of the Islamicgroups who stress the necessity to take advantage of timeand speed and enhancing dynamicity and adopting withthe global developments. Similarly, in order to strengthenthe intellectual independence and thoughts of the Muslimnations and their Islamic identity as well as tacking withthe western cultural invasion, more stress was placedon Islamization of Iranian schools and universities asuniversities and scientific and religious centers emphasizedthe intellectual and political growth. Scientific and culturalcenters of the Muslim countries not only consideredmetaphysical principles of science and normalization ofopinions on human being and life, but also made necessaryefforts to strengthen scientific and logical perspectives with 167the aim of converting the Muslim World to an intellectualand civil hub in the world. Therefore, taking advantage ofthe Western technology along with being loyal to religiousvalues and local findings created an intense relationshipbetween science and religion, which was relied on west-searching approach instead of anti-west or westernizationapproaches, in universities and Islamic seminaries of theIslamic countries. Hence, the intellectual reconstructionbased on combination of tradition and modernity was takenplace, however, it tried to retain its reliance on localizationand strengthening the cultural identity, concise adopting thenovel technologies among the youth of the Muslim societiesand their scientific centers (Akbari, 1999, p.95-98).
  • 167. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... Increasing cultural interaction and exchange The Islamic revolution based on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, introduced itself at the forefront of the new interactive and exchange-based discourses in science, technology and thinking spheres through revealing the capacity of the Islamic civilization as a comprehensive and multi-dimensional civilization in religious, political, economic, social, cultural and scientific fields as well as reconstructing the civilization based on west-searching and localization themes. At the same time, more efforts were conducted for reconstructing and enhancing the capacity necessary for changing religious thinking of the Muslim youth in order to increase scientific and cultural interactions, exchanges and cooperation. Pay attention to increasing cultural interaction and exchanges, based on the new communicative technologies through convergence the traditional communicative methods differentiated168 the identity of the Muslim World from the Western countries. In fact, occurrence the Islamic revolution during revolution of communications and along with the growth of transnational networks caused intellectual reconstruction of the Islamic civilization which was based on certain features such as comprehensiveness, multi-centrality, continuance and dynamicity. Likewise, the emphasis of the Islamic revolution on increasing both importance and role of the youth and the interaction among young generations of different nations enhanced self-conscious of nations and the conversation culture and accountability regarding promotion of criticism of ideas and organizations among Muslim youth. Respecting freedom of thought along with increased political importance of religion in
  • 168. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe international relations increases scientific interactionsand interchanges among Islamic seminaries on the onehand and among professors and clergies on the other hand.Furthermore, increasing revolutionary spirit in universitiesof the Islamic countries and enhancing importance and roleof students and student centers increases intellectual andcultural interactions between Muslim students. Distributionof religious cassettes, recorded speeches of the religiousleaders and well-known Islamic sermons in universities ofthe Muslim countries as well as ever-increasing numberof mosques and their promotional role as traditionalcommunicative bases between students and intellectuals hasfacilitated the interaction between mosques and universitiesas monotheism worldview and Islamism and wisdom-basedcampaign ideology for Islamic movements of the Islamiccountries were developed. Resurgence of Islam in the social life spheres 169 Taking advantage of thoughts of Imam Khomeini andthe Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, theIslamic revolution of Iran, as a revolution based on spiritualand moral values and as the symbol of Islam domination onthe immoral symbols, helped manifestation of ethics andreligious norms in the social behavior. The manifestationcould be considered in different fields such as Hijab asthe Islamic and national coverage and clothing, complaintof the Muslim youth against the western pornographicmovies, applying principles of and rules of Shariah,reviving mourning ceremonies. They led to formation ofthe collective spirit through broad and active participationof the youth in political and social scenes. It converted the
  • 169. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... Islamic traditional bases and centers including mosques to the powerful centers in the Islamic countries and helped them accelerating the social and political developments procedures, because generalization of Islamic ideology either is religious and political duty. This makes popular the Islamic movements. Therefore, mosques, tribunes and Friday prayers were treated as the communication bases or traditional tools to conveying messages and interchanging modern perspectives, which were based on religious beliefs and social traditions. Mosques became the symbol of the social cohesion and collective moves; thus, it revived influence of the religious leaders, particularly Shiite clergies. Inter alia regarding the increasing importance of family to shape social behaviors, an interaction between private and public sectors of the social societies was realized which led to returning to the Islamic teachings and strengthening the culture of “return to roots” based on Islam170 rule in all levels including family, social and political across the Muslim World from Morocco to Indonesia. Conversion of the Islamism into a dynamic power and critique of imperialism and colonialism has led to emergence of a new global resurrection and enhancement of self-esteem of the humiliated and oppressed Muslims based on epiphany of religion in all aspects of the social life. Growth of spirituality, increased popular inclination and tendency to ethics and development of the religious culture across the Islamic countries have brought about ethical, spiritual and epistemological identity for Muslim societies, as the religious intellectuals used “return to roots” movements to train religious human beings and started promote message of Iran’s Islamic revolution through promulgating journals,
  • 170. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand developing radio and TV networks. As a result,Islamic moves in the social spheres used a combination ofmonotheism, moralization, spirituality, and right-seeking toresurrect and replay (Taa’t 1996, p. 59-66). Hoisting culture on civilized unity of the Muslim World: Iran’s Islamic revolution focusing on the unity betweenShiites and Sunnis, proximity of Islamic religions andnegation of religious sectionalism based on thoughts ofImam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader, has started tounify Muslim nations and to realize project of Ummahformation. On the one hand the project was based on apositive struggle, i.e. relying on original Islamic beliefsand religious traditional customs and ceremonies, whichestablished the foundation of political, economic, social andcultural organization of the Islamic Ummah on the originalIslamic beliefs as well as common Islamic cultures andceremonies including Hajj and on the other hand it insisted 171on a negative struggle against the common enemy includingclearance from pagans, anti-imperialism and preventingthe global arrogant from exploiting Islamic countries’resources and wealth. They showed sensitivity of Muslimsto developments of the Muslim World and the necessity ofstrengthening their collective spirit through opposing withdomination of foreigners, fighting with Zionism etc. in thesame view, reviving Islamic Ummah and civilization basedon Qur’an, Hadith, Sunnah and Islamic rhetoric or Islamicworldview and formation of the Islamic unified society basedon the worldwide Islamic order as well as the relation amonggovernments and nations, unity among intellectual, culturaland political pundits on the one hand and development of
  • 171. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... the Islamic unified front against East and West blocs through intensifying the doctrine deals with fighting with Zionism and the Zionist regime, reconstruction of Palestine ideal and bucking Muslim youth up to developments of the Muslim World on the other hand has led to attraction of interests to convergence of the Muslim World based on the regional economic, political and cultural unions which are necessary to affect the international decision making system. It not only revived the Muslim World’s geopolitics, but also enforced the religion’s role as a fundamental principle in managing the global developments. Hence, the Islamic civilization started to achieve a novel position in the global discipline and after enhancing the level of international policy analysis from governmental players to civilization players provided a new opportunity to publish message of Abrahamic religions which may not be limited to certain time or places; so they can emphasize the intertwined172 destinations of human beings and regarding this fact that human is a general sample of divinity, it can be promoted that faith , as a factor, is critically important to extend humane values. In fact, world-spread effect of religions as a comprehensive system for human beings and linking universalism to religious civilization led to development of a macro approach to humane global subjects such as security, peace, justice, education development which are interlinked issues. Therefore, by using a type of universalism culture and by posing Islam as the sole way of human happiness and by relying on universalism, as the original, logic, political and divine discourse and by emphasizing the integrity among various aspects of the human life, Iran’s Islamic revolution succeeded to reveal the political importance of the religion
  • 172. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin the international relations for the youth of the Muslimcountries, so provided the Muslim World with a kind of self-awareness and self-esteem necessary for unifying Islamiccivilizations and playing some more important roles in bothinternational culture and politics (Jalali, 1998, p. 38-44). Reviving role of liberal movements: Relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’sthoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution succeeded to emphasizethe significance of liberal movements, either Islamism oranti-colonialism, as the new players of the internationaldiscipline through enhancing self-awareness, self-esteem,self-reliance and Islamic awakening among Muslim nations.As a result the balance of power was headed to a third frontwhich was based on freedom, social justice, negation ofintervention of foreign states and necessity of a dynamicand flexible management of sociopolitical developments. Itfound more importance in the Islamic liberal movements, 173because they demolished facial and virtual borders throughorganizing Islamic awakening movement and stressing therole played by the youth and accepting the accountabilitybased on youth-oriented paradigms. The above mentionedIslamic movements appeared in two spheres: one,intellectual sphere called moderate, reconciliatory andculture-based movements, and another, the martyrdom-seeking operation and Jihadi activities like Intifada 4which was taken place through copying Iran’s Islamicrevolution, as a peaceful revolution with empty hands andtaking advantage of mosques as the communicative bases. 4. uprising of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in protestof Israeli occupation and political policies
  • 173. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... However, the common aspects of moderate and extremist Islamic movements are Islamic fundamentalism, school- based and idealistic identity of the Muslim World, reviving religious thinking, releasing from materialistic thoughts, spirituality without taking advantage of the importing ideologies, political dynamism of Islam and presence of religion in general and governmental fields, negation of secularism and materialism, idealism and value-orientation based on divine positions (Akbari, 1999, p.89-94). Political-Cultural Discourse: Relying on Imam Khomeini and the Supreme Leader’s thoughts, Iran’s Islamic revolution created a discourse space, relied on spirituality and “return to roots”, which organized its audiences and lovers around a unite and comprehensive discourse. According to the theory “majority based unity”, i.e. unity in beliefs and value structures and numerous174 methods and applications invented by the human being, the revolution developed an umbrella-like discourse which was able to cover other micro-discourses. Such political- cultural discourse succeeded to hold relation and similarity between affairs which were apparently contradicted; here some of them are pointed: Explanation of rationality as the criterion of acceptability and religiousness as the criterion of legitimacy foe the young generations of the Islamic countries. In other words, Islam approach should be combined with the republic-based method so that it becomes able to link moral rationality and idealist rationality to the modernity applied rationality. Therefore, Islamic revolution offered a pervasive interpretation of rationality in order to define it
  • 174. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningas the protector of its ideals and aspirations, so the unitybetween theory and practice became possible, becauseaspirations are followed by facts and the realistic idealismwas a bridge between ideals and facts. Solving the conflict between divine ruling right and publicviews and general satisfaction or the conflict betweenrepublicanism and Islamism or between appointmentand election, which are raised in minds of Muslim younggenerations. Solving the relationship between religion and nationalitythrough posing religious Ummah for negating nationalismand radical nationalism. Solving the relationship between fundamentalismand pluralism means consideration of the limited,standard and conditional pluralism in the frameworkof the religious fundamentalism along with negationof fanatics, sectionalism, and petrified, dogmatic andfanatic fundamentalism; in other words fundamentalism 175in differences and pluralism in similarities which it led toprotection and maintenance of beliefs. Proposing an idealistic-practical paradigm for the Muslimyouth means sticking on rationality while protecting idealswith the aim of enhancing productivity though saving valueswhich are indebted to certain principles including Ashuraculture, supporting oppressed people and Mahdaviat5philosophy (Gharibi, 1992, p. 168-179). Resurrection of the religious identity: One of the most important cultural influences of theIslamic revolution of Iran is reviving religious thought 5. Is a religious term in Twelver Shiite Islam meaning "belief in and effortsto prepare for the Mahdi.
  • 175. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... and identity in the world, particularly for the youth of the Islamic countries. Imam Khomeini’s movement during the era in which religious principles was being forgotten under increasing struggles and efforts of laic and arrogant governments and materialist and pagan schools treated religion as “opium of mass” which has not enough capability to move mass and hence stimulate any kind of revolution and religious identity and religiousness were being faded out gradually, as in some societies faithful people felt reserved for their religious beliefs, even commitment and loyalty to religious principles was sentenced or mocked brought about a great development across the world. He converted the laic nature to the Islamic and religious nature relying on divine force, trust in god, and Islamic ideology. Muhammad al-Asi, Friday prayers leader of Washington Mosque, believes that Iran’s Islamic revolution not only made many developments within Iran, but exerted many176 international effects with the aim of reviving the religious thought. He said, “Our dear Imam, destructed the pagan and laic world, and today unlike years before Iran’s Islamic revolution, we see fundamentalist Christians, Jews etc. who are dealt with the press and other media (Ashrafzadeh, 1995, p. 111). Thanks to the great revolution, Muslim youth of Iran and other Islamic countries found that the solution of all problems of Muslims is returning to Islam and resorting at Qur’an. Sheikh Abd Al Aziz Awda, one of the founders of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, believes that the most important cultural effect of Iran’s Islamic revolution is awakening of Muslims in many countries. While relying on the fact that Iran’s Islamic revolution led by Imam Khomeini inserted
  • 176. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningfaith into hearts of the youth and made them familiar withthe resuscitative thoughts of Islam, he says: “Iran’s Islamic revolution led by Imam Khomeini andAyatollah Khamenei, revived the lost hopes in heartsof Muslims. After victory of revolution in Iran, World’sMuslims are not orphan anymore and great power wasemerged which supports them. Iran’s Islamic revolution revived the hope in hearts thatMuslims can be winner one more time and they can recollecttheir ancient dignity and glory and can defeat their enemies”(Akbari, 1999, p.88). In fact, the revolution damaged social,economic and cultural foundations of West and trampledcultural domination of Imperialism which humiliate highervalues of the needy and it proved that Muslims couldrelease from domination and influence of west and east andlive freely and independently. Imam Khomeini succeededto revive what has been forgotten and introduced Islam asa new player of the international relations. After victory of 177Islamic revolution, imperialists, dominators, authoritarians,seditionists, domestic and foreign enemies spared no effortand conspiracy against Iran and launched various types ofmilitary, advertisement and psychological wars in orderto seclude and prevent it from development. But as Godprotects the revolution, it enjoys supports of people andcontinues its way. All failures of enemies as a result ofsuch sabotages, oppositions and conspiracies are the bestevidence to demonstrate spiritual and positive influence ofIran’s Islamic revolution across the world. 11 - The idea of Islamic government: Many scientists and experts from the Islamic world and
  • 177. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... non-Muslim scholars reconsidered their opinions and views after victory of the Islamic revolution because they considered impossible establishment of an Islamic regime somehow a semi-impossible occurrence. Some of them described struggling with the arrogant powers as playing with lion’s tail. Hence, victory of Islamic revolution disturbed all international and regional consideration and balances and paved the way for establishment of Islamic governments in other countries (Fayyazi, 1991, p.61-66). Ahmed J. Versi, editor in chief of Muslim News of London, emphasizing the worldwide nature of Islamic revolution’s goals and says, “Islamic Revolution’s victory changed Muslims’ thought with an unarmed revolution and demonstrated that such movement is possible in the Muslim World and Islamic Ummah could manage the government.” 12. Defending sacred ideal of Palestine178 Islamic revolution of Iran took place after signing the disgraceful Camp David Accord and western countries plundered that they will be able to influence other Islamic countries very in the near future. All equations of the Islamic revolution took over and guided them, enlightened and assertive stance of Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Khamenei, was another form of fighting with Israel. According to the command of Imam Khomeini (RA), last Friday of Ramadan, was named as “Qods Day” and the Israeli embassy in Tehran was closed and converted to the Embassy of Palestine and Jerusalem as a holy place for Muslims and other religions. Islamic Republic of Iran gave confidence to Palestinian militants and supported the Palestinian intifada and the sacred cause of his agenda, and
  • 178. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe world, especially young Muslims to help and assist thepolitical, financial and spiritual people. The confrontationwith the Israeli occupation of Palestinian militant leadersencouraged and gave a new spirit (Parsania, 1376, pp. 78-75). Shahid Dr. Fathi Shaghagi, former leader of PalestinianIslamic Jihad, about the Palestinian Islamic Revolution says: “The revolution showed that our success depends onfollowing the path of Imam Khomeini (RA), hence doors andwalls of mosques of the occupied territories, especially Aqsamosques were decorated with pictures of the Imam Khomeini.Today we are witnessing the same policy that AyatollahKhamenei continues and the issue of Palestine among themain issues of Muslims “(Akbari, 1378, p. 91). He called intifada, the Palestinian national uprising, oneof important blessings of the Islamic Revolution of Iran andsays: (Akbari, 1378, p. 92) “Intifada is one of the fruits of Islamic awakening whichImam Khomeini (RA) brought about in the region and 179especially in Palestine.” Iran’s Islamic Revolution, the fact the youth of the Islamicnation specifically and humanity in general clear andproved to the world that Islam is the ideology of Islam andMuslims and who can fight for the oppressed of the world’ssuperpower and expensive, with the domination and restoretheir lost rights. After years of struggle of the oppressedpeople of Palestine, inspired by displacement and migrationof the Islamic revolution, today the Zionist occupation forceshave been fighting. Their way to victory and liberation, andthe only way to save the positions of their adherence to theteachings of the Koran and the faith to know God, and inmarches and protests and the campaign slogans of the Iranian
  • 179. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... nation against the Israeli usurper Today they shout and blessing of the Islamic Revolution, the Islamic world and the free world on their side. 13 create unity and Islamic solidarity: One of the positive cultural effects of the Islamic revolution was making Islamic brotherhood and solidarity among followers of Islam. As word of the unity of the Muslim nation of Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood under the leadership of the Ummah, the Islamic Republic was founded, its foreign policy based on the unity of the Islamic Ummah and the Muslim world, especially young people of all Asia to Africa and the Arab Middle East to Europe and America to the principles of monotheism, prophecy, resurrection, the Qu’ran, the Muslim pilgrimage and prayer, because they believed and were paid for Islamic unity in defense of Islam called Kian. Before the revolution, despite180 its potential unity of leadership and power in the world of Islam from the appearance and form isolation in his hand, and the ignorant and unaware of the transcendent values of Islamic societies and divisive and factious enemies of the Islamic Ummah on the other hand, the Muslims had taken the initiative. The most important of the Islamic Revolution in such a situation was that Islamic unity in the Muslim world, strong leadership and focus all his attention to the importance of unity. Islamic Revolution, the young Muslim nation in the world despite the shade of sectarian divisions of the anti-imperialists and Zionists in the flag (No god except Allah) will call to unity and consequences of injury the divisions among the Muslims to give them a warning. One of the encouraging measures in this regard is the
  • 180. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningestablishment of “The World Forum for Proximity ofIslamic Schools of Thought” at the behest of the SupremeLeader which was done with the aim of retaining unityamong Muslims. 14 Effective role of discourse in the world: Freedom of discussion and dialogue and debate isa feature of the mission of the Prophet (PBUH) wascommon in his era, he has done. Conversation, the Prophet(PBUH) with the elders of Quraysh, Imam Zain al Abedindialogue as a good visual, debates, Imam Sadeq (AS)with scholars and followers of religions, dialogue, ImamReza (AS) with Christian scientists ... Evidence is clear onthis. Islamic Revolution in Iran since the beginning of thediscussion and dialogue with religious scholars, especiallythe great Christian thinkers has been established. Thiskind of dialogue with the goal of peaceful coexistence,understanding the true religions, cultures and civilizations, 181religions owners of mutual respect, justice and world peace,spiritual development and religious and moral valuesthroughout the world are be a positive role and the role ofmany young Muslims in the Islamic awakening, has beenlasting. (Parsania, 1376, pp. 201-200) Discussion and Conclusion: If most of the youth of the Islamic countries took a passiveposition facing with various aspects of the new life and eye-catching civilization of the West and were doubtful abouteffectiveness of the religious instructions to reasonablymanagement of the Islamic societies, the all-embracingdevelopment of the Islamic revolution led by Imam
  • 181. Impact of Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Iranian ... Khomeini and after him by the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei, fostered the authenticated belief among the youth of the Islamic countries that Islam, as an eternal school, can bring about the most important developments throughout the world and propose a healing prescription for questions of the current era and management of societies. This point was the most important effect of political and religious thoughts of Imam Khomeini and his successor which established the current movements theoretically on the one hand and proposed the religious beliefs as a dynamic element in destination of the human societies on the other hand. For this issue, the Supreme Leader says, “Outcomes and blessings of Iran’s Islamic revolution on liberal movements and global Islamic uprisings can be seen through Islamism surge and extension of the revolutionary extensions against the ruling tyrant system from the Middle East to Northern Africa, and from the Central Asia to center182 of Europe. Resurrection of the Islamic identity among Muslims, awakening of nations and building exhilaration and hope in struggling and revolutionary forces are evident and undeniable fruits and results of Iran’s Islamic revolution (Khamenei, 2008, p. 188). For practical and objective aspects, the victorious leadership of Imam Khomeini and his successful and growing strategy to take advantage of the great popular capacity provided valuable and rich experiences for the Muslim youth. The objective experiences and struggling strategy of Imam Khomeini left the greatest objective and successful achievements gained from leading a religious movement; because new political movements seeking for bringing a new life for their people failed to attain their
  • 182. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninggoals and Iran’s Islamic revolution was the first successfuland victorious religious movement which succeeded for thefirst time to realize goals and inspirations behind Islamicuprisings and religious movements in the Islamic Iran(Seddighi, 1996, p. 108). It provided the Muslim youth withthe invaluable set of political and religious experienceson the one hand, and created the hope of victory andachievement on the other hand. As a result, it can be claimed that during the contemporaryhistory of Islam, it is the first time that an Islamic movementcould launch a revolution and manage it through a popularmethod. Therefore, it can be said that Islam has beenmaterialized, both theoretically and practically, by theIslamic move of Iranians. Social dimensions of Islam areseen through all stages of Iran’s Islamic revolution. Iraniansstood up against economic sanctions which were plottedaiming at weakening the revolution. Thus, among otherIslamic movements, Iran’s political and social revolution 183enjoys a great and brilliant stance in terms of resistanceagainst trespass of foreigners (Al-Ghonoshi, 1993, p. 92). It is necessary to note that the link between the revolutionand religion in Iran’s Islamic revolution guarantees ourevolution’s survival through the upcoming centuries aswell as its promotion to various points of the world as aparadigm for the young generation of the Islamic countriesfor playing further role in the Islamic awakening current(Mizabani, 2008, P.65).
  • 183. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni...
  • 184. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni(Harbinger of Islamic awakening in the ٢٠thcentury) Ali Salimi, Faruq Nemati 1. Introduction and background of the research The Islamic awakening means the manifestation ofgenuine and pure Islam in humans and the society andresurrection in light of the genuine Islam. In other words,the Islamic awakening is used in the sense of the revivalof the Islamic life under which independence, justice andthe whole raft of lofty teachings and values come to life.(Shiroudi, 5:1388). The Islamic revival, based on religionand religious methodology, tries to return religion to thescene of social life and dust off its genuine and human 185teachings with a revision and trimming of its components.The message of the Islamic awakening is to return to thegenuine Islam and redeem our dignity and honor and makeup for what we have compromised on the path toward thedivine elevation. The goal behind this return is to build anew Islamic civilization by applying pure Islamic values.Hence, the aim of the Islamic awakening is to establisha global Muhammadan civilization in which rationalityaligns with spirituality, power with morals, science withvalues and knowledge with action. (Islamic PropagationOffice, 359:1385). The Islamic awakening movement has proliferated dueto a variety of reasons including the colonization of theIslamic society and its subjection to aggression by the West.
  • 185. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... (Shiroudi, 6: 1388). A renowned British historian, Arnold Twinbee, believes that the resurrection of the spirit of the Islamic government will force the Western imperialism to retreat again from Islamic territories. He says, "Pan- Islamism is dormant. But if the worlds oppressed rise up against western imperialism and mobilize under a united leadership, it will wake up. The cries of this uprising may resurrect the Islamic establishment and Islam rise up again to take over its historic role." (Velayati, 217: 1384). Late in the 19th century, many religious thinkers and reformers in the Islamic countries concluded after an in-depth analysis of the current situation that the reason behind the backwardness and hibernation of the Islamic world was their alienation from genuine Islamic thoughts and teachings. Among them, luminaries such as Seyed Jamaladdin Assad Abadi, Mohammad Abduh, Seyyed Qotb, Hassan al-Bana and others made enormous efforts to keep the spark of186 awakening among Muslims alive and explain to them the causes of their failures and backwardness and what they had to do about it. Meanwhile, sections of the contemporary Arab poetry which is after finding solutions and explaining the challenges which the human society is faced with entered the realm of the Islamic awakening and dedicated its literary resources to enlightening the people, especially the youth. This type of poetry does not pay much attention to rhetorical arrangements, rather it finds beauty in meaning especially lofty human concepts. Simplicity, fluence, clarity and deep influence are among the most important features of this poetry, making it a subsidiary of the committed literature. Mustafa Ghalayeeni is one of the prominent figures of this
  • 186. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningliterary leaning who has dedicated his poems to the Islamicrevolution, fighting colonialism as well as to lofty humanvalues and nationalist ideals. Through his poems, he istrying to drive his compatriots especially the youths out ofnegligence and ignorance and return past dignity and honorto them. In this paper, we will examine the most importantcomponents of the Islamic awakening in Ghalayeenispoems and dissect it from his perspective and with ananalytical-descriptive method, we will attempt to answerthe following questions: 1 - In what themes, the Islamic awakening has crystallizedin Ghalayenis poetry? 2 - Regarding political awakening of the youths, whatmatters have been emphasized by Ghalayeeni? According to reviews, no independent research has beenmade about the political and social ideas of Ghalayeeniin his poems. Many of the books and articles about this 187contemporary character have often investigated his religiousaspects. One can refer to "El-Sheikh Mustafa Al-GhalayyeeniFi Mafahim Al-Islahiyah" which has been written by "ManiHussein Dasvaqi" who has done a comparative study of theviews and opinions of Ghalayeeni vis-a-vis those of SeyyedJamaladdin Afghani and Mohammad Abdoh. 2. A look at the life and works of Mustafa Ghalayeeni Mustafa bin Muhammad Salim Ghalayeeni, (Al-Zarkly,2007: 7 / 244) a Lebanese poet, writer and orator, was bornin Beirut in 1885. He completed his primary education inhis hometown and then went to Egypt in 1902 and to Al-Azhar University where he became an apprentice of giants
  • 187. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... like Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) and Sayyid Morsafi (AD 1931), and beside strengthening the spirit of faith and piety, he could make many achievements in learning various Arabic sciences. After finishing his studies at Al- Azhar and the death of his teacher, Muhammad Abduh, he returned to Beirut where influenced by the corrective and disciplinary perspectives of Abduh and others, he dedicated his scientific achievements to the education and training of the youth in his hometown. (See: Al-Dasvaqi, 1999: 33 onwards). For 20 years, Ghalayeeni was engaged in education and training in many schools in Beirut and beside teaching Arab sciences such as grammar, Arooz (poetic meters), vocabulary and others, he rubbed shoulders with Lebanese political figures and analyzed the countrys political issues. As a religious nationalist and freedom-seeker, he began his struggle against Ottoman political tyranny during the rule188 of Sultan Abdul Hamid. Following the approval of the 1908 Act to strengthen the ruling base of the Ottoman Empire, Ghalayeeni joined the "Unity and Development" party and participated in street protests against Ottoman tyranny and addressing the Ottoman caliph in an ode called "Al-Fowz Al-Mobin", so he wrote: Translation: 1 - You shed the blood of the innocent with your betrayal to fortify a government whose pillars are destroyed. 2 - Where is the oath that you took in allegiance with the people? Did you materialize the aspirations of the nation which rested on your shoulders? (Journal Al-Nebras, 1909: 232) The release of "Al-Nebras" in 1909 was among
  • 188. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningGhalayeenis political activities which reflected his viewsand those of others on political and social issues. The issueof unity and solidarity among all Arab and Islamic nationswas among Ghalayeenis emphatic demands. He regardedunity as the basis of prosperity and motivation for real lifeof the nations and considered discord and partisanship as thesource of destruction and annihilation of the nations. (See:Al-Dasvaqi, 1999: 39; Quoted from Al-Nebras journal,1909: Introduction) Following the collapse of the Ottoman rule and theoccupation of Lebanon by the French, Ghalayeeni this timestood up against the French colonialists and and warnedthem of eastern anger, calling on them to leave Islamicterritories. His nationalistic addresses in Beirut led him seekrefuge in Damascus. After the fall of Damascus, he returnedto Beirut and then went to Oman. He then returned to Beirutin 1922, but was arrested and imprisoned for seven months.Ghalayeenis imprisonment and his suffering and ordeals 189never made him abandon his lofty ideals; rather with hispersistence, he regarded patience as the way to dignity andhonor. Translation: The prison is a house that despite thebitterness of its hardship and suffering through which I willachieve dignity and honor. After the end of his jail term, he was expelled from Beirutand went back to Oman. Several months later, he returnedto Beirut in 1924 and was arrested by French forces uponarrival and imprisoned for 15 days. (Al-Dadsvaqi, 1999:44). He was then exiled to Palestine and was settled in Haifa.There, he collected and sorted out his book of poems andhis other literary works. (Ibid.: 44) Then, in 1925, he was
  • 189. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... allowed to return to his homeland of Lebanon. Ghalayeeni never backed off in the face of the French and stood against colonialism with courage. In 1932, a ceremony was held in Beirut with his participation to pay tribute to 30 years of his scientific, literary and national efforts. Finally in 1944, Ghalayeeni died of a heart attack and was buried at the Al- Bashourah cemetery of Beirut during a grand funeral. Ghalayeeni is regarded as one of the personalities of the literary movement in the first half of the twentieth century. (Daghr, 1956: 2/619) He left behind many works in several different fields, most of which were published in his lifetime. Ghalayeenis writings can be divided into the works of prose and poetry. A) Works of prose In the field of grammar, the book "Jamey Al-Dorows Al- Arabiya" is among Ghalayeenis most important writings190 which is still used in academic and scientific centers. The book "Nadharat Fi Al-Loghah va Al-Adab" examines some verbal and linguistic issues. He also has several works in the field of social and religious issues which one can refer "Arij Al-Zahr", "Ezzat Al-Nanashayyin", "Al-Islam Rouh Al-Madinah", "Nadharat Fi Al-Sofur va Al-Hijab», "Al- Tavon al-Ijtemayi", "Nokhbat Min Al-Kalam Al-Nabavy" and "Labab al-Khiyar Fi Sayrat al-Mukhtar". B) Works of poetry Ghalayeenis only work of poetry is his book of poems which according to his own declaration in the preface of the book, he compiled, arranged and published it in Haifa in 1924 when he was in exile. (Ghalayeeni, 1993:5) He has
  • 190. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdedicated the book to all the Mujahedin who sacrifice theirlives for their homeland and for achieving Arab dignity andgreatness. Translation: 1 - To every young and old fighter whoseentire existence is in greatness and glory, those who becamethe martyrs of dignity and glory. 2 - To everyone who takesa step in the way of Arab movement of greatness, I dedicatethis work of poems which is a celebration of my loyalty tomy oath. Ghalayeeni begins his book with a long introduction,touching on topics such as poetry, vocabulary, derivation,diction and decorum. He goes on then to explain therelationship between poetry and love as well as politics.Finally, he recounts his relationship with poetry and hispassion for composing poems. 3 - Reflection of Islamic awakening in Ghalayeenis poems In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, somesort of a confrontation broke out between Islam and 191modernity among the intellectuals of the Arab world.Some individuals, with a static and passive stance, madetraditionalism their target, adopting a reactionary approach.From a traditionalists perspective, the past, prior to thefuture, was the golden age which had to be resurrectedsome day. (Sharabi, 1369: 13) Some others instead wereinclined to the modernist and prospective ideology. Theysaw the progress of the society in absolute compliance withthe western civilization and culture and dispensing withnoble traditions and the values of the past eras. On the opposite side of the conservative traditionalism andthe avent garde modernism, there was a middle line whichone can choose to call religious reformism. This line of
  • 191. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... thinking, beside persevering Islam and respecting traditional structures and sublime human values, embraced new sciences and civilizations and with a realistic understanding of the situation and needs of the society laid the ground for the formation of a religious intellectual revolution. This blessed movement was "the liberal movement of young scholars who are aware that Islam, in order to be properly defended, had to overcome its weaknesses and be given a new lease of life. (Ibid.: 14) Mustafa Ghalayeeni must be regarded as one of the real representatives of this line of thinking. As a conservative intellectual, in addition to standing for Islamic values, he was after the development and progress of his country, using all the necessary means. His anti- despotism thoughts and his aversion to colonialism and his efforts to spread knowledge and science among the youth, and create a free and unified Lebanon against foreign192 enemies, made his intellectual movement a follower of such reformers as Sayyid Jamaladdin Asadabadi, Muhammad Abduh, Rahman Kavakibi and others. On the other hand, it should be noted that the colonial invasion of the Arabic and Islamic countries prompted a variety of reactions in the contemporary Arab literature. Two trends are prominent in these reactions: (1) Dependence on the European looters 2 – Commitment and devotion to authenticity. (Azarshab, 1381: 24) Dependence in the first orientation meant accepting the occupation and believing in it in all political and cultural contexts and embracing occupiers as a model for escape from backwardness in Arab countries. Commitment in the second trend meant attention to the western civilization along with a conscious attitude
  • 192. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningtoward the Islamic civilization where one could distinguishbetween the desirable and undesirable elements andrecognize factors behind the metamorphosis of a nation andthe ways to strengthen it and try to eliminate shortcomings.Mustafa Ghalayeeni is one of the representatives of thesecond trend in the Arab world. He tried to bring his poemsand literature to the service of this community and nationand make the Islamic awakening message resonate notonly in Lebanon but the entire Arab world. As a poet anda historian and commentator on the contemporary cultureand the harbinger of freedom and independence in hishomeland, he never kept his social and literary life apartfrom each other. 3-1: Scientific and Cultural Awakening In the distant past, Muslims were pioneers in knowledgeand various techniques and their culture and civilizationhad a precedence over others. What we see as the westerncivilization today is nothing other than the Islamic 193civilization whose various aspects have been explored andenriched and become advanced in its current shape, thanksto the diligent efforts of the Europeans. (Baghchehvan,1383: 228) Therefore, Ghalayeeni like other great reformersof the Islamic awakening revolution, laid great emphasis onthe role of science in intellectual growth of Muslims andtheir liberation from tyranny and colonialism. Insisting onlearning and encouraging it is among the most fundamentalissues which Ghalayeen is raising in his poems and invitingthe youth to a scientific movement. Translation: 1 – Oh the youth! The blooms of the hills!Dedicate all your determination and will to learningknowledge 2 – Bring back the memory of the past which
  • 193. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... was bright and radiant. From Ghalayeeni’s point of view, girls should be involved in the scientific movement and find their path with the light of science and knowledge and experience the best life with its radiations. (Ibid.: 264) Translation: 1 – Oh the Arab girl, oh the daughter of greatness! Remember that the beauty of great deeds is the real beauty. 2 – And the best deed is acquisition of knowledge because at a time when deviation is prevalent in the society it is the best guide and director. 3 - Join the garden of knowledge and pick its fruits because a scholarly life is the best. 4 – Like a girl who seeks to reach higher levels of perfection, commit to acquiring the right knowledge. In another poem, Ezzat Al-Nashe’at, composed for her niece, Ghalayeeni stresses the value of science and194 knowledge for girls and describes it as the ladder of prosperity and the light in the darkness of ignorance. The poet believes ignorance is like a dark night which can only be illuminated with the light of knowledge and science. (Ibid.: 202) Translation: 1 – A girl with knowledge and not outward apparel will reach the summits of perfection and elevation. 2 – Knowledge is the ladder of felicity and aspirations and is the light for those who are lost in darkness. 3 - And ignorance is like the night which nothing can displace except the lights of knowledge when they radiate. 4 – There is no treatment for the disease of ignorance except acquiring knowledge since knowledge is the best cure. 5 – Acquiring knowledge
  • 194. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin this world is a blessing among many blessings of God forboys and girls. Convinced that a nation’s progress depends on havingdecent and accomplished girls, (Ibid: 205) Ghalayeenistresses the equality of boys and girls in learning knowledge. (Ibid.: 202) Translation: 1 – If the girls lag far behind the boys interms of cultural and scientific status, this will be the mostdangerous disease. 2 – What benefits will our knowledgebring us when our women with their ignorance destroyevery building? According to the poet, science will benefit the societyonly when the ignorance of women is wiped out (Ibid.: 265) Translation: Science and knowledge will not satisfyour needs a bit if our women and girls live in dreams of 195ignorance. However, sublime religious values and moral principlesof Islam play an important role in Ghalayeeni’s awakeningmovement. He believes that learning knowledge and scienceper se cannot improve the status of the young girls; ratherthey must also possess decent morals, chastity and virtue. (Al-Ghalayeeni, 1993: 203) Translation: 1 - If the ethics and behavior is not properand right, science and knowledge will not benefit the boysand girls. 2 – The dress of virtue and good morals is theornament of a girl even if she wears old and cheap clothes.3 - If a girl does not cover herself with the dress of dignityand modesty, no outward apparel will raise its status and
  • 195. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... value. 4 – A beautiful dress is good only if dignified manners and chastity decorate it. 2-3.Political Awakening Ghalayeeni must be regarded among the first group of reformists who blew the spirit of the fight against tyranny and colonialism and made his name eternal as the flag- bearer of the Lebanese awakening movement. He centered much of his political struggles around two fundamental axes: first an all-out fight against despotism at home and colonization of the people by the ruling regime and second, fighting the imperial influence. In his struggle, Ghalayeeni tried to awaken the masses, especially the youth, and bring the country’s elite who had the benefit of political awareness and national conscience to his side. Given that one of the main reasons behind the emergence of the Islamic awakening was the colonial invasion of the Islamic countries by the West and the weakness and inability196 of Muslim governments to confront them (Mir-Aghayei, 59: 1383), the issue of the political awakening must be regarded as among the most important subject matters of Ghalayeeni’s poetry. This awakening has been manifested in various forms in his poems which we will touch upon some of the most important among them: - Love of the homeland and trying to liberate it Love of the homeland is one of the main components Ghalayeeni’s political poetry. While in prison, he composed a series of passionate and epical odes on loyalty to his homeland. One of them was a poem called “Ela Jazirat Al-Arvad” written at a prison in Beirut and addressed to his mother in which he offers his life as a sacrifice for his
  • 196. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninghomeland. (Al-Ghalayeeni, 1993: 122) Translation: 1 – Oh my mother! I May my life be asacrifice for the country! So I welcome the death that wouldtake my life. 2 - If I die, may my country live long after me!And may it rise to prominence and its sublime glory. And in another poem, he says any exile or imprisonmenton charge of love for the country is easy, which he says, hewould bear with patience and fortitude. (Ibid.: 122) Translation: 1 – If I am imprisoned or exiled for the loveand affection of my country; 2 – In both cases, I will remainpatient and will enjoy the hard and strenuous life. - Avoiding negligence vis-à-vis the enemy. By sounding the alarm over the threat of colonialism,Ghalayeeni urges his compatriots to wake up from the sleepof ignorance and negligence so that the enemy cannot treat 197them like a cattle and subject them to any sort of injusticeand tyranny. (Ibid: 67-68) Translation: 1 - We are being tormented with humiliationand despise while we are asleep in our deep ignorance andthere is no vessel throbbing in us 2- As if we were a herdwhose herdsmen tend it as they wish and the cattle has nochoice of its own. The poet, observing the suffering and captivity of hiscountry under the clutches of the aliens, resumes hisawakening cries and chides the weakness and laxity of hiscountrymen.
  • 197. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... (Ibid 259) Translation: Wake up; the laxity and ignorance has become long! Beware and look after your captive and suffering country. Ghalayeeni warns all Arabs of the enemies’ plots, urging them to confront the onslaught and beak up the chains of captivity and servitude. (Ibid: 118) Translation: How is that a variety of disasters have assaulted the Arabs, but the events do not wake up weak- willed and feeble people. 2. The aliens attacked them in their beds but alas not a single dignified soul was found and no swords were drawn from their sheaths. 3. Will you push forward and confront the enemy to bring honor to yourselves or you will retreat which will bring about the ignominy of regret? 4. Wake up and shatter the chains of198 captivity which have been around you for long because you were the advocates of dignity and glory. Unity and Coherence Unity and solidarity among different people is one of the most important ideas and goals followed by the Muslims since the beginning of the Islam. The Muslims have pursued the unity based on religious teachings, presenting it as a theory, strategy, and plan. Such a thing has always been expressed by Ghalayeeni. In his view, the unity issue is self-consciousness into common interests which brings superiority and dignity. In the introduction of one of his books, "Areej-al-Zahr", he believes that Turk and Arab are brothers in an Islamic society, and he says such a unity
  • 198. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwill progress the country, increase the countrys esteem andmake the God and his prophet happy: Translation: "1-Turk and Arab are brothers and the IslamicUnitarian society will embrace them both. 2-Therefore,anyone who stretches his hand to create division, his handwill be cut and he will be lost from the guidance path!O sons of the homeland! Your unity will heighten ourcountrys esteem and help the homeland reach its goals. 4-The solidarity by you who seek the countrys improvement,will make the God and his Prophet happy. (al- Ghalayeeni, 15: 1911) With such a thought, Ghalayeeni managed to challengethe effects of ethnic and sexual division, restoring the spiritof Islamic unity. He could also fight the plan "Create divisionand rule" which has been one of the plots employed bycolonists to dominate Islamic lands. Ghalayeeni called allLebanese groups, including Muslim, Christian, Arab, and 199Turk in a united front to confront the occupiers. Of coursesuch a trend by Ghalayeeni was the reflection of SayedJamaledin Assadabadis thoughts. Since "among SayedJamaledins key thoughts; the Islamic unity and socialsolidarity can remove division among Muslims". (Tavana,1385: 103) On the other hand, historic documents show that wheneverthe Muslims kept their unity, they gained victory andeasily overcame the problems." (see Ramezani, 1383:66).Ghalayeeni understood such a reality, reiterating the unityonce more through his verses. He calls on his countrymennot to leave their hope of brotherhood, and step in the pathof perfection:
  • 199. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... Translation: "1- O sons of my country! You have always been brothers through the time, so do not leave the rope of brotherhood! 2- Forget disagreements, and all of you do step in the path of guidance and dignity so that you reach your goals through solidarity and unity." (al- Ghalayeeni, 1993:63-64) In his speech to the Palestinian nation, he urges them to forget divisions and disagreements; as such an issue will upset the friends and make the enemies happy. It will also weaken them, disturb their dignity and awe. The poet says loss of unity among a nation will encourage their foes to use all their power to destroy this nation: Translation: "After that unity, you came to be divided; and because of that the friend got upset, while the enemy enjoyed. 2- If you are riding the horse of division, your200 spiteful foe will definitely will never change. 3- Your enemy has sharpened his sword, and prepared the spears to throw, varnished the swords and he will prepare horses to fight with you. He will use everything to destroy you. 4- Division and disagreement weakened your power and faded your dignity." (same: 105) The last couplets of this poem refer to this Quranic verse: and fall into no disputes, lest ye lose heart and your power depart; and be patient and persevering: For Allah is with those who patiently persevere (Anfal_ 46) Like other Muslim reformists, Ghalayeeni has made practical efforts through history to prevent divisions among Muslims by preventing blind zeal and destructive ethno- sectarian hostility lest they should have rich materialistic
  • 200. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand spiritual resources plundered by colonialists. Thisconvergence-oriented approach by Ghalayeeni eveninvolved Lebanese Christians. It’s said that people tookto the streets in Beirut in 1930 in protest against theJews’ actions in Palestine. The Lebanese protesters wereholding two flags in this rally: one bearing a cross held byChristians and the other bearing the slogan “There is noGod but Allah” held by Muslims. At this time, Ghalayeenirequested a Christian and a Muslim to approach him withtheir flags. Then, he grasped the corner of both flags as asign of national unity and solidarity and to show the needfor leaving aside religious and sectarian differences, whichwould only serve the colonialists. (al-Dosoufi 1999, p.45, quoting Ghalayeeni’s daughter, seyyedeh Fatemeh).Ghalaini says: Colonialists do not want see the nation to beunited and under a single flag. They want the nation to bedivided. (same p.45) 201 Martyrdom-seeking The desire for getting martyred in the cause of Allah isa topic for political poetry of Ghalayeeni. He calls on allpeople including the youths to make sacrifices for theircountry’s independence and freedom. H speaks of men whoare full of desire for martyrdom like love of life and areanxious for martyrdom. Translation: 1-Amongst us, there are men who areanxious for death, just as you love living and staying in acomfortable life. 2-then by reaching a real life, so rights arerestored to their true owners: 3-and with death, until ourland is irrigated and colored with the rain of our martyrs’blood . (al- Ghalayeeni, 1993, pp.69-70)
  • 201. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... -Self-esteem and roc-hard will Ghalayeeni believes that people should not back down from their position in the face of colonialist enemies and they should choose to lead a life of dignity and honor. He says honor and greatness can only be achieved through iron will and high ambition. Translation: 1-Tell the Europeans and their mercenaries; no matter how much you try, you won’t be able to undermine our rock-hard honor, 2-No matter how much you burn us with the fire of your tyranny, we only prefer living on top of the mountains, 3-Honor and greatness is build only on a pillar of dignity and willpower and a solid column. The poet once more reminds his countrymen the fact that the only way to reach glory passes through dignity: Translation: If you reflect on this piece of advice you realize that greatness lies in dignity.202 Ghalayeeni addresses the youth in a piece of poem titled “Oh the Arab Youth” and calls on them to not to pull out the sword of dignity and get on the vehicle of hazard and write the book of honor with their blood: Translation: Oh the youth of Arab, stand up for greatness, take your swords out for splendor. Take the vehicle of dangers and difficulties; take out the spears and write down the book of greatness with your blood. He also invites everybody to join a massive uprising and breaking the chains of slavery and hoisting the flags of honor and national pride and says: Translation: Move towards the uprising, towards breaking up chains, hoisting flags, towards what seeks dignity In another ode entitled “Towards the Movement”,
  • 202. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningGhalayeeni considers life in humiliation as very ugly andpainful and says death is preferable and much better than it: Translation: 1-There are two diseases for men who shouldchoose the easiest: death or living in humiliation, 2-Death orfulfilling one’s dreams is better and the worst life is livingin humiliation, 3-What is the value of human if he livesin humiliation; curse be to that life rough with waves ofhumiliation (same p.55) In the poet’s view, any human being who has the leastinterest in dignity and honor will never remain silent towardsoppression and tyranny. Translation: Except for the one who has nothing to dowith greatness and honor, no one can tolerate tyranny andoppression. (same p. 56) Ghalayeeni once again addresses the youths and urges themto wake up and save their homeland from the humiliationcaused by tyranny and oppression from the foreigners and light 203a torch of guidance by learning knowledge and the sciences. Translation: 1-O’ Arab youths! Wake up; because sleep willcause humiliation and misery in your lands. 2-Make genuineand serious efforts to acquire knowledge because knowledgeis a light of guidance for the nation. 3-And light the torch ofyour perseverance and will among Arabs so all people in nearand far lands enjoy it. (same p.222) In an ode he composed in a prison in Beirut, Ghalayeenisays he would by no means compromise his self-esteem andhonor in the face of enemies. Translation: If my crime is self-esteem and honor, I will notrepent.
  • 203. Lebanese poet and writer Mustafa Ghalayeeni... Conclusion Mustafa Ghalayeeni, as a contemporary freedom-seeking and political Arab thinker, played a positive role in the course of the Islamic awakening in Lebanon and the Arab world. With his weapon of oration and his enlightenment of the society, especially the youth, he managed to fire up the torch of freedom-seeking and fighting tyranny in their bodies and souls and challenge the domestic despotism and foreign colonialism with his sublime ideals and thoughts. As a religious and nationalist thinker and a political and social reformer, with his proper understanding of his countrys developments, he applied his poetry into advancing his sublime ideals and those of the society and unleashed a wave of awakening in Lebanon in spite of all the problems and the ordeals of imprisonment and exile which he was faced with. The conclusions of this paper can be summed up in the following:204 1. Attention to the acquisition of knowledge and science, unity and integration among the masses, fighting colonialism and confronting the plots of the imperialists are among the most important components of the Islamic awakening, especially among the youth, on which Mustafa Ghalayeeni has laid emphasis in his poems. 2. Ghalayeeni is interested in the presence of a political and combatant Islam in the society. From his perspective, the Islamic awakening is the political-social reconstruction of the Islamic communities and reliance on scientific movement of the youth in order to guarantee the real freedom and independence of their countries and rid their countries from the yoke of tyrants and colonialists. 3. He looked at the popular force of the masses, especially
  • 204. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe youth, as determinants of their nations future andregarded popular movements as the foundations of allhistorical developments. In his humanistic ideology,Ghalayeeni believed that the Islamic awakening movementneeds powerful and committed human resources in order tostand up against any tyranny and despotism with braveryand valor. In Ghalayeenis eyes, the true value of humans iswhen they stand beside their nations and feel the pains andsufferings of their people in their flesh and bones: And whatis the value of a human being who does not feel the pains ofhis nation? (Al-Ghalayeeni, 65:1993) 205
  • 205. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ...
  • 206. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence onthe Islamic Awakening Process Introduction Although the phenomenon of Islamic Awakening hasincreasingly engulfed many countries sine one year agoand attracted the sharp lenses of media, it is not a subjectspecific to the last year. The investigation of the IslamicAwakening from all its aspects could not be conducted byonly studying a very short period in the past year. Rather, adeep investigation into this phenomenon requires us to studyits infrastructures founded by the prominent leaders since atleast two centuries ago in the world of Islam. To reviewthis subject in detail, first we have to study the progressof the Islamic movements and the prominent personalitieswho participated in creating this phenomenon and thenmeasure its influences and traces on the Islamic societies 207during the past decades while analyzing its backgroundsand infrastructures. It is the Investigation of the roles played by the Islamicpinioning figures in the contemporary world which is of themost importance. Although such leaders as Sayyid JamalAldin, Rashid Reza, Muhamad Abduh, Sayyid Qutb and theothers made a considerable contribution to the developmentof the Islamic thougth, none could exert a profound influenceand none delivered any operational executive outputs tomaterialize the mottos of the Awakening Movement. On thecontrary, such figures as Imam Khomeini (May God grantHim peace) were able to lead his movement to victory asa pinioning man in the Islamic movement. In other words,he could realize the political Fiqh; what the leaders of the
  • 207. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... Awakening movement raised only in theory. On the other hand, Imam Khomeini (May God spread His shade), as the successor of the founder of the only system based on the Awakening thougth, accomplishing perfectly the progress started by his master and leader. He was able to develop this movement both in theory and action as a model for other societies with probably different political Fiqh compared to the Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace)’s Shiite thought, and proposed a new form of the political Fiqh for the whole of the Islamic world (both Sunni and Shiite). Different Stages in advancement of the Islamic Awakening. Although the Islamic Awakening possess has passed different and multiple stages, the progress of this movement can be generally divided into two periods: before the Islamic Revolution (in Iran) and after the Islamic Revolution .208 The First Period of the Islamic Awakening This period began by the civil and awakening activities performed by the great reformer of the Islamic world Sayyid Jamal Aldin Islami. The reason behind this coincidence is the fact that after a long period of decaying of Islamic civilization and dominating of the Western industry over the scientific process of Islam that caused the Islamic community and their rulers to surrender to the West, he became a pinioning man for fighting against the colonization by adopting the motto of returning to religious teachings and fighting the cultural alienation. For this reason, he is known as the founder of the Islamic Awakening Sayyid Jamal Aldin’s attempts to return the Muslims
  • 208. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningto the religious teachings as well as his travelling to theIslamic countries triggered streams of thougth that led to thefoundation of such structured parties as Ekhvan Almusleminwhose goal was the Islamization of the Islamic world. Thisperiod triggered by Sayyid Jmal Al-din was continued byothers. His reforming and awakening thougth took newforms later that caused systematic attempts at achievingpolitical structures in Islamic countries in particular in theArab countries. The role played by Muhamad Abduh whowas at the same time the chancellor of Alazhar Univercity,was extremely important in forming the activists’ thougthof awakening in Arab countries and also his students’,including Rashid Reza. After these two, such personalitiesas Sayyid Qutb and Hsan Albana made considerable effortsin the advancement of the Islamic Awakening. Althoughthe pinioning figure of the Islamic Awakening was a non-Arabian thinker, it attracted supporters and possessed aposition among the theoreticians and thinkers of Islamic 209Arab countries even more significantly than in non-Arabcountries. After moving through the stages that everyprocess must pass in order to reach its maturity, it led tothe formation of the political trends which were based onscientific and social movements. However, there were alsosome peoples among the non-Arabian scholars who playeda central role in the progress of the Islamic Awakening,including Allameh Eqbal Lahuri. However, Lahury hadthe same thougth and fundamentals as the awakeningprocess had and was influenced by that same process,attempting actively in the subcontinent of India. TheEkhvanulmuslemin party in Egypt, as a party that emanatedfrom this movement, exerted a profound influence on the
  • 209. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... Islamic world and determined the future direction of the awakening movements. After this experience that was the output of the activities performed by such intellectuals as Hasan Albana under the auspicious of Sayyid Jamal and his successor’s teachings and awakening activities, it stopped suddenly in Arab countries and became a passive process then after. This stop, regardless of its reasons and significance, is important because some peoples regard it as the defeating point of the Islamic and religious awakening thougth that was caused by the apparently modern inclination towards the Liberalist thougth prevailing in the West. Many people believe that the stopping of the Awakening process in Arab countries that mainly happened in the middle of the 20th century, originated from the conspiracies organized by the West in particular by England. The growing of the secular parties in Arab countries and even in Turkey, as a country influenced by Sayyid Jamal’s thougth, indicated the210 fact that the process of the Islamic awakening was unable to compete, in the same form as Ekhvan Almuslemin had predicted, with Westernized intellectuals. However, the colonizer countries made serious attempts to establish this idea (the inability of the Awakening process). It is an undeniable fact that the colonizer played a crucial role in obstructing the progress of the Islamic Awakening at that time. Answering many of the questions raised about the above-mentioned issues depends on the determination of the means by which the West could block the progressing movement of the Islamic awakening process. The writer of this essay believes that although the conspiracies and plots organized at the time played a major role in slowing down the progress of the Islamic Awakening, the basic problems
  • 210. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthat isolated the process have root in the ideological andtheoretical infrastructures of the process in question. Thecolonizers could finally impede the process by takingadvantage of these weaknesses. In other words, for findingthe realistic “whyness’ of the stopping of the IslamicAwakening in the middle of the twentieth century in theArab countries, we need to take the serious weaknesses ofthe theoretical discussions into account beside the externalfactors and the conspiracies organized by the colonizersconcerned. These weaknesses were exactly those that weretackled in the second period of the Islamic Awakening thatreached its climax in non-Arab countries. In this period,problems were covered logically and this resulted in theultimate victory of the process and the establishing of agovernance structure based on an Islamic and religiousbasic principles as well as on the Islamic Awakening. Thisstructure and practical model used for administrating thesociety, was exactly the same structure that long ago was 211perused by Sayyid jaml and his disciples who could notachieve it unfortunately. The Second Period of The Islamic Awakening In the second period a process of Islamic Awakeningbegan among the non-Arab scholars that managed totheoretically solve the two major problems of the first-period movement: 1-the lack of a governance modelexecutable in the Arab countries and 2- designing somedirectional indicators in order to prevent any deviation.During the second period of the Islamic Awakening twogroups of active personalities took action in the form of asystemic organization in Afghanistan in order to contribute
  • 211. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... to the progress of the Islamic Awakening. Shaheed Sayyid Esmail Balkhi, Shaheed Niazi, sarvar Juya, Sho’a’ and some others founded a party for the purpose of establishing an Islamic ruling in Afghanistan. The thougth of members of the party was a combination of two different and separated processes: Ekhvan in Egypt and the Shiite political Fiqh. However, they were able to gain experiences in solidarity and a common function; also they managed to form a relative structure for establishing a ruling. However, this experience was defeated when the plot of the throwing up the royal monarchy was disclosed; Allameh Shaheed Sayyid Esmaiil Balkhi and his friends were put in jail and then martyred in different ways. Therefore, the second period of the Islamic Awakening that began in Afghanistan defeated partly. However, at the same time another movement was being organized in such bordering countries as Iran. Ayatollah Sayyid Mahmood Taleghani, first described the212 basics for the establishment of an Islamic community and the plagues of a movement in his explanatory book entitled “Partoyi az Qurn” (A ray of The Holy Qur’an) that was written probably at the same time when another book : Fi zalale Qur’an (In the shade of The Holy Qur’an) was written by Sayyid Qutb. On the other hand, Allameh Tabataba’i whose Tafsir Almizan (The Scale Interpretation )is a precious combination of philosophy, Fiqh, Hadith and policy, wisely criticized his contemporary main social thougths; those upon which most of the contemporary ruling systems had been established. His deep insight into policy and society revealed the major faults in the social and political thought common at the time. These efforts made by such scholars ultimately led to the theoretical discussions of the Islamic
  • 212. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningAwakening; in the holy city of Najaf it was wisely assessedfrom the point of view of Figh as the “Islamic Ruling”beyond Imam Khomeini’s (May God grant Him peace) Fiqhand Osul (fundementals). Therefore, the faults in questionwere corrected and an operational structure of a religiousruling was proposed. On the other hand, the directionalindicators were finalized to prevent any probable deviation.The role played by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Himpeace) is a unique one in comparison with the past fourteencenturies, as a personality who elaborated the basics formeasuring the legitimacy of a religious government so thatit could meet the requirements of the administration of areligious society and could operationalize the designedmodels, endeavoring to establish a religious ruling basedon the pure Islamic thougth with the motto of waking andreturning to Islam. Under the auspicious of what the ShiiteFaqih after the Big Absence of Imam Zaman( may Godprecipitate His appearance!) discussed under the name of 213political Fiqh, Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace)succeeded in realizing what all the previous leaders of theIslamic Awakening had pursued. He set up the religiousand anti-colonization system for the first time after theInnocent Imams; a system whose leader on the top is theInnocent Imam and its legitimacy is dependent on thisinnocent Imam. What Imam Khomeini(May God grantHim peace) presented to the Islamic community under thename of “Velayat Faqih” theory, though structured andsystematized by this prominent Faqih himself, had beenpartly incorporated under different names in the bookswritten by some other leaders and Faqihs . When Faqihs discussed such items as land tax, obligation,
  • 213. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... jihad, congregation prayer and hodud, the instructions for executing these Fiqhian mandates were implicitly discussed too. Such Faqihs as Sayyid Ebne Tavus and Allameh Hely discussed this issue in detail and debated the opportunities that must be provided for developing the Faqih’s executive legitimacy at the top of the executing team to execute canonical mandates. In the tenth century A.H, the researcher Karaky (dead in 940A.H) posited the theory of “representative of Imam Ali(may God grant peace on Him ) as a basic principle in political theory of Islam. In an essay on prayer he wrote about this as follows: “Our friends (peace be upon Them) are in agreement over the fact that the just Faqih as an qualified person for issuing a Fitwah (decree), known as a Mujtahed in canonical mandates, is delegated to do all the things that can be delegated to him by Imam, on behalf of the absent A’emehHuda (peace be upon Him)”. (Karaky, V.1, p.142214 available in Ayatulah Mar’ashy library, in Rasa’el (essays) section). Karaky didn’t focused only on the exposition of this theory, but he also in practice undertook the responsibility of ruling the Islamic government. Shah Tahmasb Safavi admitted his sovereignty and entrusted him with the authority to govern his country as follows: “You are the representative of Imam Zaman(God may hasten His appearance) and I am only one of your agents who would execute your mandates and commands” (A’yan Alshi’eh, V.8,p.209). By the authorities invested to him, Karaky could preserve Shah’s position so that Shah could administrate the country under the supervision of this religious authority.
  • 214. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningConsequently, the political theory of the Ahlebeit School(peace be upon Them) gradually was put into operationwithin a perfect and authentic framework because thistheory was proposed in an environment in which the rulerobeyed the Faqih not the reverse that was privilege in thefour cults of the Sunni religion. The revolution staged in the political Fiqh by Karaky inthe tenth century A.H was accomplished in the thirteenthcentury. Sheykh Ja’far Kashef Alghuta(dead in 1227 A.H)emphasized the theory of representative of Imam Ali(mayGod grant peace on Him ) and permitted Fathali Shah tocommand the war for the liberation of the North of Iranoccupied by the Russians at the time. On the other hand,another important revolution happened in domain of theory;that was the book written by Ahmad Naraghi (dead in 1245A.h) entitled as Ava’ed Al ayam (The achievements of thedays). One of the topics covered in this book was Fi TahdidVelayat Al-ahkam(Delimitation of the rulers’ Velayat). 215Under this topic he states that the Faqih is invested withcompetencies and authorities without mentioning thereasons. Therefore, he discussed the violation, approval andthe rationale behind the existence of Velayat Faqih and endedthe discussion with proving the “Velayat Ameh Faqih”.Since then the title of Velayat Faghih as a political theoryin Imamieh Fiqh has increasingly attracted the Fahihs’sattention and has been debated, argued and reviewed assomething beyond the “representative of Imam Ali(mayGod grant peace on Him ) ”. The Tobacco Movement in1308 A.H and the Constitutional Revolution 1324 in Iranchanged this brief and obscure theory into an explainedand explicit one. The new theory intends to improve the
  • 215. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... political status of the community on the basis of its plan and to undertake the responsibility of administrating the Islamic society. Just before the end of the century, the Iranian Islamic Revolution led by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace), ended in victory in 1399 A.H. In his book The Islamic Government, he offered all the basics, the Holy Qur’anic, traditional and rational reasons in order to approve the Velayat and ruling of Faqih. Then, he paved the way for the just Faqih to undertake the administration of the Islamic society in accordance with the wishes and attitudes of the peoples. As a consequence, he overthrew the old and tyrannical regimes in Iran. He set up the first religious regime after the earliest centuries of Islam. This regime was the output of a two-century attempt made by the great leaders of the Islamic world and Shiite Faqihs on the way to the Islamic awakening.216 The common Aspects of the Two Periods Although the two periods discussed above have totally different distinctive features, they have also some features in common that originates from the nature of the process of the Islamic awakening. The most common element of the leaders in the two periods of the Islamic Awakening was their insistence on returning to the Holy Qur’anic teachings and Islamic mandates as the only way to the salvage. All those who played a central role during this relatively long period or in theorizing this subject, emphasized on returning the Islamic society to the Holy Qur’anic and religious teachings. According to them, the reason for underdevelopment of the Islamic societies is their distance from the enlivening teachings of Islam. Sayyid Jamal Al-
  • 216. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdin who is known as the pinioning figure of the first periodof the Islamic Awakening, could not express his views inthe form of a system of thougth because he was continuallytravelling to different countries to wake people. However,his motto of returning to the Holy Qur’an along with hisimpressive orations in different Islamic countries wasundoubtedly important in creating this system of thougth.He described the Holy Qur’an as follows: The humane utopia and the straight path is the HolyQur’an; an honored and holy mandate which is the resultof the honor brought by all the religions to the universe anda strong argument for the continuation of religion until theend of the world. It is a guarantee for prosperity in bothworlds and for a salvage with two joys. According to him, the only way to rescue the Islamicsocieties from the yoke of colonization is to wake them toreturn to religious teachings of Islam in the way the HolyProphet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) 217charged us. He regarded the lack of solidarity among theIslamic community as a sign of the Muslims’ ignorance ofreligious teachings as follows: The sharpest pain the Eastern nations are suffering is theirdiscrepancy over solidarity with each other. They are inagreement over their discrepancy and have made a covenantnot to be in solidarity, consistency and union. Sayyid Jamal Al-din regarded the governing tyranny, theirignorance of the Muslims, their distance from science andcivilization, their superstitious thougth, their distance fromthe authentic Islam, their discrepancy over the religious ornon-religious issues, the domination of Western colonizationover the Islamic nations as the most important problems
  • 217. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... facing the Islamic world. He made his best to pave the way for returning the scientific society to Islamic and the Holy Qur’anic orders. Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) also regarded the distance from the Holy Qur’an as the pain the Islamic world is suffering. He believed that trusting the Holy Qur’anic values is the only way to rescue the Islamic society. In his political and divine testament, Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) mentions the obedience to the Holy Qur’anic mandates as the only way to achieve victory in the movement and to bring people honor. He puts it as follows: We are honored of being the believers of a religion whose founder is the Holy Apostle in accordance with God’s order. The commander of the faithful Ali (peace be upon him), as a servant who was free from any shackle, had the mission to unshackle and release human from slavery. We are honored of the fact that Nahjulbalagheh was written by our innocent218 Imam (Ali), the second great book containing mandates for spiritual and material life and also a great book for releasing human, its spiritual orders being the best way to rescue human. We have the honor of implementing the intentions of the Holy Qur’an and tradition. Different sections of our nation have been very ardent on this seminal way, scarifying their life and property in the way of God. We are honored of having such old or young women who individually or massively and even better than men attempt to elevate the Islam and the intentions of the Holy Qur’an, in cultural, military and economical areas. (Imam Khomeini’s divine and political testament). Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) was able to remedy what Sayyid Jamal had diagnosed as the existing
  • 218. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdiseases in the Islamic societies and then he prescribedpractical treatments for curing them. Imam Khomeini (MayGod grant Him peace) regarded tyrant rulers obeying tothe West, lack of the solidarity among Muslims and theirdistance from technology and science as the main problemsfacing them. Not only did he theorize these faults, but healso took practical measures concerning them. The Distinctive Features of Each Period The most important question remained unanswered forevery person is why the process of Islamic Awakening didn’tachieve any result and couldn’t rescue the Islamic societiesdespite the efforts made by its leaders while the secondperiod led by Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace)resulted in victory? The answer to this question is significantbecause the Islamic Awakening triumphed in an environmentwhose basics of thougth were different from those in theArab countries in the first period. This difference raise this 219question whether despite this fundamental difference themodel of the Islamic Awakening in Iran can be comparedwith other Islamic societies? To answer this question wemust first review the differences between the two periods.Investigating each periods mentioned above we come totwo differences between the first and second periods. Thefist difference is the fact that the Awakening movement ledby Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace) was basedon a Shiite Fiqh that assessed and criticized the issues ofruling and holding governance as well as the conditionsof executing God’s mandates along with its limits. Inthese discussions, Faqih’s attitude and the legitimacy ofthe government were of the most important subjects. The
  • 219. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... establishment of a government and its legitimacy were regarded as equal to the continuation of the Holy Apostle’s Velayat. For this reason, the head of the government must obtain his legitimacy from his God, as did his apostle. The subject of Imamat and Visayat (Succession) as ways to provide succession and governance for the Islamic society, is a thougth that is regarded as the main pillar of Shiite. For this reason, it has been discussed by Faqihs under the title of “political Faqih” as an important subject. The origin of this subject can be traced back to the early centuries of Islam. It evolved in following centuries by the prominent Shiite Faqihs and finally became a system of thougth and policy by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace). On the contrary, the first period had been influenced by the Sunni religions. It was a Fiqh in which the domain of ijtihad was limited and consisted of no item concerning government and policy. The main difference between these220 two approaches is that in Shiite Fiqh rulers must obtain their legitimacy from Faqihs , hence the possibility of Faqihs’s control over the rulers. On the contrary, in Sunni Fiqh, the ruler doesn’t obtain his legitimacy from the Faqih; instead, there are other ways for gaining legitimacy that give no authority to the Faqih. Therefore, here it is the Faqih who is controlled by the ruler. This big difference between the two approaches has caused the prominent figures and scholars to be blissfully unaware of such an important factor: establishing a government whose leadership and governance is held by those who lead the religious areas. The colonizers advocated this approach and attempted to oust the clergies from the political scene. The theory of separating religion from policy as one of the post-renascence
  • 220. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningevents in Europe was promoted by the colonizers among theIslamic societies too. Under such conditions of ignorance,the leaders of the Islamic Awakening were concerned onlyabout reforming the administrating the Islamic society bythe ruler. Sayyid Jamal Aldin and his advocates’ speechesgiven in front of the rulers from different countries as wellas his attempts to infiltrate into ruling systems of differentnations not intending to topple the tyrant rulers, confirm thisignorance. On the contrary, the scholars in the second periodconsidered the existing governors as inherently lacking thenecessary legitimacy because they had not been appointedwithin a legal and religious framework. Therefore, theirlegitimacy was questioned. For this reason they had todesign a religious and legitimate regime to substitute thecorrupt one. This regime was organized with the assistanceof a political Shiite Faqih and finally implemented by ImamKhomeini (May God grant Him peace). The second difference between the two periods is 221concerned with the directional indicators whose goal wasto prevent any deviation from the movement. What ImamKhomeini (May God grant Him peace) and his advocatesproposed as the main guiding indicators was adherence tothe Holy Prophet’s household (may God grant peace onHim and His household), apart from returning to The HolyQur’an. The Holy Prophet himself put it as follows: I leave behind two precious things as memorials for youto look after: God’s book and my household. They wouldn’tseparate until they come to me in Kawthar pod. So long asyou adhere to these two you wouldn’t go astray. On the basis of this, the innocent Imams are regardedas the innocent successors of the Prophet (may God grant
  • 221. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... peace on Him and His household) . Therefore, obedience to them is obligatory as obedience to the Holy Prophet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) was. On the other hand, his words, writings and actions are strong arguments as the Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household) were. This authority is given to him on the basis of some verses from the Holy Qur’an which regard some peoples after the Prophet (may God grant peace on Him and His household) as deserving the position of Velayat. In the Holy Qur’an these people have been titled as “Olol Amr” a title that is lacking in Sunii fiqh. In Shiite Fiqh the ruler must be either innocent or representative of an innocent person. Therefore, when the innocent Imam is absent, the just Faqihs who are qualified are introduced as His followers and successors. This person’s decree (fitwa) is of the same validity as Imams and the Holy Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household). Therefore,222 the just and pious Faqih whose bravery and awareness of the conditions of the time is obvious and has the absolute ability to administrate the Islamic society, gain the same position as the Prophet’s (may God grant peace on Him and His household). This Faqih’s fitvah gain religious validity for Muslims. Thus, such a Faqih can be regarded as the legitimate directional indicator for the Islamic community. Such an indicator that bears all the qualifications and gains his legitimacy from religion was lacking in the first period of the Islamic Awakening. Accordingly, in such a period, the movement may go in any direction when there is no directional indicator. These two features enabled the Iranian Islamic movement led by Imam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) to introduce a new mechanism into the domain
  • 222. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof Islamic and international issues as an awakening process.It intended to introduce a ruling system into the world which,from the Islamic point of view, has an obvious systemand ability to religiously administrate the Islamic society,on the contrary to the West that regards the religion as aphenomenon distant from policy and as something lackingthe needed competency to administrate the society. Fromthe international point of view, it intended to make radicalchanges in polarization of the world. At the same time whenthe West attempted to introduce its Liberalist and materialistthougth as the only system with ruling systematicity for thepurpose of overthrowing Communist pole of the world, thisprocess of Islamic Awakening introduced a new structureto the world that was based on religion and spirituality, inparticular Islamic spirituality. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei, who is a perceptive faqihlike his predecessor, realized his master’s visions in thesociety and enriched them considerably. The great religious 223movement of Imam Khomeini(May God grant Him peace)has been able to resist the oppressors all over the world dueto his perceptions as a faqih who is courageously and wiselyfollowing his master’s visions and also deepening them. Ayatollah Imam Khamenei (May God spread His shade)was able to complete all the discussions of the great faqihsand teachings of Imam Khomeini(May God grant Himpeace) and also set the scene for flow of the successfulexperience into other Islamic nations. The Moslem young across the world has begun the thirdwave of Islamic Awakening thank to the model developed byImam Khomeini (May God grant Him peace) and decisiveleadership of the supreme Leader Imam Khamenei (May
  • 223. The Political Fiqh in Islam and its influence on the ... God spread His shade). The Islamic community has come to believe that religious teachings can manage society and have appropriate structure. The whole Islamic community with its various thoughts and approaches can model the system Velayat Faqih so that religious and just scholars would be the main supervising and governing factor. The second wave of the Islamic Awakening flowing into the Arab nations A considerable feature of the second wave of the Islamic Awakening is the flow of its thoughts into the other Islamic streams of the worlds and the development of an Islamic government model. The Islamic Awakening against the will of the west, succeeded in Iran and a religious republic was established there. The Islamic republic appreciated all the common concerns of the two waves of the Islamic Awakening and as the first step, expelled the colonization224 from the country then made great strides toward the scientific achievement, despite the West’s will, for the Islamic world. On the other hand, it carried out the economic, political and social teachings of such intellectuals as Shaheed Motahhari and Shaheed Beheshti and made operational the social contributions of Islam for humanity. Of course the pioneer of the second wave of Islamic Awakening passed away before his visions become operational and his successor, The supreme Leader Ayatollah Imam Khamenei (May God spread His shade) kept on the effort. Though Islamic and Arab nations still follow the previous thought system, it seems that the Islamic state of Iran and its thinking pillars have been established among the youngsters of the Islamic communities and the men of thought in those communities
  • 224. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningare to take advantage from the new condition in developingthe Islamic Awakening. The third wave of IslamicAwakening has begun for one year: the one that emerges inthe original cradles of the Islamic Awakening along with theexperiences of Shiite political fiqh. Certainly the Islamicwave will embrace all over the world and the weak willbe the heirs of the earth as the holy Quran has promised.Regarding the gap between the successful second wave andthe third wave of Islamic Awakening, however, one shouldbeware that the Islamic and Arab nations would not fall intothe tramp of the colonization as the first wave of the IslamicAwakening did. 225
  • 226. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI INAWAKENING THE MUSLIM YOUTH Introduction: Prominent scholar Iqbal Lahori, the Muslim poet-philosopher from the Indian peninsula, was born in thecity of Sialkot, Pakistan in 1873. Lahori attended school inSialkot and Lahore and continued his education in Englandand Munich, returning to India in 1905. He obtained hisPhD on philology with his thesis titled “The EvolutionOf Philosophy In Iran”. In 1926, Lahori was elected as amember of the legislative council of Punjab province. Tensions among Muslims and Hindus and his love forfreedom encouraged him to participate in political activities.In 1930, he proposed the formation of the Pakistani statein the annual congress of the Muslim League Party in thecity of Ahmadabad. The wish came true, however, 17 years 227later. Pakistan was, in fact, the first country at the time to beestablished based on an Islamic ideology. It was thereforea new independent state on which true Muslims relied,one which enjoyed all the Islamic features that Lahori hadaspired for. A Hindu who had converted to Islam, Lahoriput emphasis on and was a proponent of a state based onIslam more than anyone else. Lahori is one of the most prominent figures from the cultureand civilization of the Indian peninsula who represented thetrue essence of the Islamic culture in the modern times. Heis nowadays viewed as one of the most valuable ideologuesof the Muslim world. His role in the major political andcultural currents of the Muslim nations and especially theIndian peninsula is of particular importance.
  • 227. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... As a matter of fact, Lahori is a reformist hero in the Muslim world, a figure whose thinking went beyond the borders of his own country. He put all his qualifications and spiritual merits to the service of Islam, with his very love for Islam and Islamic teachings making him an outstanding and timeless figure. Lahori’s literary and ideological stances played a pivotal role in the awakening and the morale of the oriental youth and their liberation from the 20th century colonial powers, particularly in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the whole Indian peninsula. He lived in a Muslim orient suffering from foreign intervention and domestic unrest and went through a lot of pain as an intellectual and a reformist who knew Islam and the west in their entirety. Lahori made huge efforts to awaken Muslims of the orient, the unawareness of whom made him suffer. He constantly criticized the passivity and inaction of Muslim communities. His youth coincided with political activities and the228 freedom-seeking struggles of Indians against the British colonialism. He joined the movements of the day and became one of the proponents of the Indian independence from colonialism. Lahori was a member of the committee which sought legal action against British colonialism. He continued his fight against the British also as a the head of the Muslim League in Punjab province, doing his best for the establishment of an independent Islamic state consisting of the three provinces of Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan. The wish, however came true in 1948, ten years after his death. In the First World War era, Lahori joined a movement known a Khalifa, an Islamic current dedicated to the anti-colonial struggle. He also had close cooperation with Mohammad Ali Jinah and Mowlana Mohammad Ali.
  • 228. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In 1920, he was elected as a lawmaker in the IndianNational Assembly. However, six years later as he sawthe assembly filled by Hindu representatives, he left it andjoined the Punjab Legislative Council which was an Islamicone based in the city of Lahore. As a member, he defended adraft constitution written by Moahammad Ali Jinah, whichsought to restore the rights of the Muslim minority. In 1930,Lahori was elected as the head of the Muslim union of AllahAbad and two years later of Lahore. Lahori’s activities in awakening the youth Lahori focused on a series of strategies to awaken theyouth as briefly follows: • The Ashura movement and the freedom-seeking lessonof Imam Hossein • A love for Prophet Mohammad and his household andtaking lessons from him • Relying on the orient as an alternative for the westernculture 229 • Urging the unity of the Muslim world • Special focus on and interest in the Iranian youth • Call for a return to the self • Relying on domestic potentials • Using poetry as a means to deliver thoughts through 1-Ashura and Imam Hossein The first and most important factor which Lahori focusedon was the Ashura movement and lessons from the path ofImam Hossein: Lahori is one of the most brilliant and outstanding Sunnipoets who admired Imam Hossein and his struggle in hispoetry. The Ashura movement is indeed one of the main
  • 229. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... themes of his literary works. Lahori’s poetry, in fact, makes use of the main qualities of the Persian literature to reflect the uprising of Imam Hossein more than any other Sunni poet. From Lahori’s point of view Imam Hossein is a perfect model for awakening the Muslim youth and motivating them for sacrifice and martyrdom, as a poem in his collection known as “Mysteries of Selflessness” says: “Whoever maketh compact with the One That is, hath been delivered from the yoke Of that great leader of all men who love Truly the Lord, that upright cypress-tree Of the Apostles garden, Ali’s son, Whose father led the sacrificial feast And for that prince of the best race of men The Last of the Apostles gave his back And when the Caliphate first snapped its thread230 Fron the Koran, in Freedom’s throat was poured A fatal poison, like a rain-charged cloud The effulgence of the best of peoples rose Out of the West, to spill on Kerbela, And in that soil, that desert was before, Sowed, as he died, a field of tulip-blood. There, till the Resurrection, tyranny Was evermore cut off; a garden fair Immortalizes where his lifeblood surged. For Truth alone his blood dripped to the dust, Wherefore he has become the edifice Of faith in God’s pure Unity. Indeed Had his ambition been for earthly rule, Not so provisioned would he have set forth
  • 230. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening On his last journey, having enemies Innumerable as the desert sands, Equal his friends in number to God’s Name. The mystery that was epitomized In Abraham and Ishmael through his life And death stood forth at last in full revealed. Firm as a mountain-chain was his resolve, Impetuous, unwavering to its goal The Sword is for the glory of the Faith And is unsheathed but to defend the Law. The Muslim, servant unto God alone Before no Pharaoh casteth down his head. His blood interpreted these mysteries, And waked our slumbering community. He drew the sword There is none other God And shed the blood of them that served the lie; Inscribing in the wilderness save God He wrote for all to read the exordium 231 Of our salvation. From Husain we learned The riddle of the Book, and at his flame Kindled our torches. Vanished now from ken Damascus Might, the splendour of Baghdad, Granada’s majesty, all lost to mind; Yet still the springs he smote within our soul Vibrate, still ever new our faith abides In his Allahu Akbar, Gentle breeze, Thou messenger of them that are afar, Bear these my tears to leave his holy dust.” In the above lines, Lahori tries to focus upon a verity ofissues. He believes that when Khilafat was disconnected
  • 231. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... from Quran, free-thinking individuals went through massive pain. Then he points to the uprising by Imam Hossein as a revolution that overthrew dictatorship. He argues that the blood of Imam Hossein served as an awakening element for nations who were living in ignorance. Then he goes on by advising mothers of his age to try to raise children like Imam Hossein. According to Lahori, Imam Hossein is a central figure and the leader of “the caravan of love” in the history of mankind. In what follows, he draws a comparison between Mary and Fatima, Imam Hossein’s mother in his collection of poems titled “The Mysteries of Selflessness”: Mary is hallowed in one line alone, That she bore Jesus; Fatima in three. Who came a mercy to all living things, Leader of former as of latter saints, Who breathed new spirit into this dead world232 And brought to birth the age of a New Law. The chosen one, resolver of all knots And hard perplexities, the Lion of God, And she his mother, upon whom revoles Love’s compasses, the leader of Love’s train, That single candle in the corridor Of sanctity resplendent, guardian Of war and hatred might extinguished be, Trod underfoot the crown and royal ring. His mother too, the lord of all earth’s saints And strong right arm of every freeborn man, Husain. the passion in the song of life, Teacher of freedom to God’s chosen few. Of self-surrender, to all mothers she
  • 232. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening The perfect pattern, Fatima the chaste Her heart so grieved, because one came in need, She stripped her cloak and sold it to a Jew; 2- Love for Prophet Mohammed and his household Lahori has repeatedly expressed his love for the prophetand his household in a variety of his poems as earliermentioned in one example. His inattentiveness to the western culture is mainly dueto his deep love and spiritual affinity to the prophet and hisfamily. Lahori insisted that “the brilliance of the westernsciences never astonished me. It failed to blind me, becausemy eyes had been washed and cleaned by the waters ofMedina.” 3- Focus on the orient and avoiding the western culture Lahori who had a deep insight into the western culture andits corruption used to lash out at those from the orient who 233felt no confidence in the face of the west and had lost theiroriental consciousness and identity. Those people, Lahoriinsisted, were fascinated by the surface of the western culturewithout knowing the consequences of such an approach. Inthe early years after his return from Europe to India, Lahorireleased his collection of poems dubbed “The Secrets ofthe Self” and “The Mysteries of Selflessness”. Before beingpublished in India, the poems were translated by Lahori’sBritish professor Reinhold Nicholson who translated theminto English. Therefore, Lahori was already a famous poetin England before becoming well-known in his motherland. Lahori questioned strict Indian style religious practicesand attacked the loftiness of mystic poets of his time. While
  • 233. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... he questioned the western culture, Lahori also urged the Muslim community to discover its qualities and capabilities and find ways of its own progress. He invited Muslims to think and understand the notion of man’s leadership role on earth and act based on God’s laws. He argued that people from every walk of life should unite to lead the society toward perfection. He staunchly believed that the following were needed for the Muslim societies to become a whole unified community: • All Muslim states be ruled by one unified leadership • Muslim countries form a federation • Muslim states sign different cultural, economic, and military treaties and agree on various fields of cooperation He also insisted that the third world countries base their political entities on religion and do not rely on developed nations. They should also, he argued, have close trade interactions and utilize all their facilities for progress.234 In case of any tensions and conflicts, Lahori said, the Muslim states should resolve their differences through dialogue rather than wars and military confrontations. He supported the idea of unity among Muslims as the only way out of western colonialism. For the capital of this united community, he proposed Tehran due to its ideal geographic location. In his poetry, Lahori has praised the oriental culture and questioned the west as a destructive element in the modern world. He urged Muslims not to trust the west even when it supported nationalistic sentiments in the orient, calling this just a ploy and a scheme. In the same era, there were scholars and intellectuals who believed that fighting the west will lead nowhere. Lahori, however, never got disappointed
  • 234. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand continued to call for unity among Muslims. He had adecisive anti-west stance pointing toward Islamic teachingsas the only savior of the Muslim world; this, because hetruly believed in the essence of Islam as a savior religion.He had realized the fact that the western dominance overIslamic countries was only due to the lack of unity amongMuslims. In a collection of his poems dubbed Javidnamehhe says: “The lord of the west playfully, Tried to propagate nationalism among believers But he wants dominance, You should let go of thinking of your nationality If you can judge between good and evil, You should not rely on what is made of soil And religion is nothing but departing from the soil And purifying the soul with awareness” 235 On Lahori’s anti-west stance, Iranian scholar MortezaMotahhari says “one of the qualities that Lahori enjoyedwas his deep knowledge of the western culture, philosophyand society. Even in the west, he was acknowledged as aprominent thinker. Lahori believed that the west lacked acomprehensive human ideology, while Muslims enjoyedone. Therefore, despite calling on Muslims to learn thesciences developed by the west, he warns them of adheringto western philosophical schools.” Lahori had a very firsthand experience of the western life.He never viewed warden sciences as destructive rather veryhelpful for third world countries. Instead he insisted thatthe life style in Europe was a dangerous one and therefore
  • 235. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... continued to beware Muslims of imitating that culture. As he said once “how could this half-dead European culture revive Iran and the Arab world” or elsewhere “the main flaw with the European culture is its extraordinary emphasis on reason as the only savior of humanity without making any connections with conscience and faith.” Lahori is viewed as one of the greatest figures in the Muslim world who rose up against the destructive culture which the west was propagating. This anti-west attitude is a commonplace feature of his poetry. In fact, nearly two thirds of all his literary works focuses on the theme of struggling against the west. The main collection of his poems, in which the theme is so open and widely dealt with is titled “what should we do, O people of the orient?” Unlike many other reformists, he criticizes not only the contemporary west, but the ancient one even from the time of Plato and Aristotle. One should bear in mind that the Europe Lahori lived236 in was a capitalist one seeking dominance over Muslim nations. This, indeed served as an inspiration for Lahori’s cause and his literary works. In the same era, he witnesses the occupation of Afghanistan by British troops. Algeria and Syria were under French boots. The Dutch had entered Indonesia. Northern Iran was under Russian influence, while the south was controlled by the British. Iraq was apparently ruled by the Ottoman Empire but was in reality under British power and many other Muslim states were run by colonial forces. Lahori believed that the misery of Muslim nations was due to the colonial thinking current in Europe, something which he was determined to fight. Lahori’s frequent visits to Europe had given him a clear vision of the west and a full knowledge of its culture. In his opinion,
  • 236. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe west had separated the spiritual life from the materialone, keeping a blind eye on the former and indulging inthe latter. As he knew Islam and the Islamic way of life,Lahori found humanity’s happiness and perfection only insubliming the spiritual life. He also insisted that the westernadvances in technology not only have not been able to leadman toward perfection, but they have also brought him tothe verge of moral social and political collapse. In his Javidnameh, he further warns of oriental tendenciestoward the western culture, noting that the westernimperialism may destroy the oriental culture. Lahori argues that the corruption rampant in westernsocieties has done away with the spiritual aspects of life. Asan intellectual, he is saddened by the brutalities of westernpowers against Muslim nations. The demolition of mosquesand houses, massacres, banning education, robbing Muslimsof their natural resources and sacrilege of Muslim beliefsare among the cases which made Lahori suffer. He was in 237surprise as he saw many among Muslims still fascinated bythe west, despite all atrocities the westerners had committedin Muslim countries. His views regarding the west were not based on his studies,rather they were a firsthand experience he had acquired byliving in the west. Sir Thomas Arnold, one of his professorsat the University of Lahore, encouraged Lahori to continuehis studies in Britain. He followed the advice and traveledto Europe in 1905, a year which became a turning point forhis knowledge regarding the west. He indeed entered a newrealm and new prospects were opened to him. He stayedthere for three years and was admitted as a top philosophystudent to Cambridge University. Lahori worked on his
  • 237. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... proposal titled “The Evolution of Philosophy in Iran” and then left Cambridge for the University Of Munich in Germany, where he took his PhD degree. Lahori’s views regarding the misery of Muslims Lahori believed that Muslim nations have lost their Islamic identities, something which he insisted should be restored. He argued that Muslim societies could be compared to individuals, both can lose their identities and both can collapse. According to Lahori, Muslims were suffering from an identity crisis due to the western influence. He blamed this on a lack of unity among Muslim nations and launched a harsh criticism against Muslim states for failing to unite. He believed that Muslims needed a central point to circulate around when they face modernism, which they have no idea about. Lahori insists that what Muslims have in common should be highlighted to promote unity among them and blow a new spirit into their lives. Therefore, a238 blind imitation of the western culture would destroy the Muslim identity and replace it with evil and anti-human values. He rethinks the true Islamic culture, seeking to adapt Muslim societies to the new world. This, in fact, led him to come up with the idea of Islamic democracy. He argued that such a structure would be ideal, one which is not separated from the Islamic beliefs and ethics. The Muslim world as a result would be a multi-national one void of any national tribal and sectarian prejudices. Such a community, Lahori argued, would be a homogenous one based on unity of all sects in the Muslim world. He compares Islamic societies to honey bees, each of which contribute a different taste to the formation of honey with the output being a purified valuable product. For the creation of such a community
  • 238. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninghe believes a central point is what he calls the leadershipof love, something that he says will bring economic andhuman equality as well as peace and security. He insists that his proposed utopia should not be influencedby the culture of secular states instead, such a communitymust have its roots in spiritualism. Lahori believes thatcolonialism has fuelled sectarian and tribal divisions andsown discord among Muslims. 4-Urging unity of Muslims Lahori was strongly influenced by the theories of unityamong Muslims, including those proposed by the Iranianscholar Sayyed Jamaleddin Assadabadi. Along with hisgreat love for his own nation, Lahori put great emphasis onMuslim unity and called for brotherhood among all Islamicnations. He encouraged Muslims to acquire the scientificadvances of the west but at the same time warned them notto be affected by its corrupt culture. He viewed Islam as 239a comprehensive purified and practical set of beliefs. Hebravely did his best to save Muslims from the colonial ruleand the domination of the west’s corrupt culture. In hispoetry, he invites Muslims to shun from temptations of thesoul and servitude of the evil, urging them to unite aroundone common faith. All his poems share the theme of Islamicunity and dignity. One of his famous poems in the collection dubbed “TheMessage of the Orient” demonstrates the way he looks atsocial issues as well as boundaries of color and race. He repeatedly expresses his anger at western policiesaimed at sowing discord among Muslims, a feeling whichhe cannot help conceal in his literary works. He was a
  • 239. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... follower of Sayyed Jamaleddin Assadabadi who supported the idea of unity among Muslims throughout the globe. During Lahori’s times, tendencies toward patriotism and nationalistic sentiments were on the rise in Muslim nations, an atmosphere which had its roots in the political and social developments in Europe. Western colonial powers, therefore, expanded those sentiments in Muslim nations as well, in an effort to create divisor among them. But Lahori found that unity among Muslims was the only solution, an idea for which he was inspired by Assadabadi. In Lahori’s ideology, it is Islam and Quran that sever the basis of unity for Muslims not patriotism or nationalistic sentiments. Thus he offered a proposal based on a love for God and Prophet Mohammad, obedience of Quran and Muslim brotherhood at an intentional Islamic conference in al-Quds in 1943. The proposal aimed to resolve all differences among Muslims240 and unite them together. Having scrutinized the history of Muslim nations, Lahori came to the conclusion that mysticism has just produced a literature of passiveness and jurisprudence had led to nothing but mere imitation. If Muslims continue the same path, he argues, they will have the same fate they have been suffering from during the last three centuries. According to Lahori, this fate has been but division, fanaticism, sectarianism and infighting among Muslims. Therefore, he says, if the status quo is maintained, there is no chance for Muslims to improve their lives. To prevent such a fate, he has a proposal, indeed three pillars which he suggests for the unity of Muslim nations:
  • 240. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 1: belief in the unity of God The unity of God, according to Lahori is the basis ofspiritualism for human societies. It is this belief that canhelp with the unity of Muslims, a pillar that strengthensbrotherhood among Muslims and gives homogeneity toa world which is full of plurality on the surface. It alsohelps Muslims unite in their approaches and attitudes. Thebelief in the unity of God also injects a fresh spirit amongMuslims and leads them toward one unified goal. A truefaith in the unity of God clears all the defections of a nationand purifies it of immoralities and vices. Such a nation isenergetic, strong, and purposeful. A belief in the unity ofGod is a basis of perfect societies and a blessing that leads anation toward dignity, homogeneity and cohesion. 2: Belief in Mohammad’s Prophethood Belief in prophethood is second to belief in the unityof God in Islamic faith. It indicates a centralization of 241leadership based on divine revelations. Prophethood is theunifying factor that connects individuals and makes themone whole community. Such a unification is the strongestone, because it gathers people who share the same beliefs.One crucial tradition of God for Muslims is the principlewhich defines Prophet Mohammad as the last messengerof God. This indicates the everlastingness of the Muslimcommunity and that no other community would have thepower to isolate it. Considering the two concepts mentioned,the Muslim community cannot be limited to a confinedgeographic location or historical period. In Lahori’s opinion, the love of Prophet Mohammad is asource of unity for followers of Islam since the main goal of
  • 241. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... Mohammad’s prophethood is nothing but liberating humans from tyranny and establishing equality and brotherhood. 3: Quran The third pillar which Lahori relies on for unity among Muslims is Quran as the collection of God’s rules and revelations which all Muslims from every sects and tribes believe in, a reference based on which the rules of Muslim societies should be set up. In fact, he believes that all human have the potential of sharing the spiritual experiences which the prophet had. This is nothing but speaking to their God. The main goal of Quran is nurturing understanding of man in his communications with God. As an individual, Lahori gave special priority to Quran, a book which he relied on till his last moments of life. Each time, Quran brought him a fresh outlook and insight to the world and intensified his faith in God. Lahori continued to invite Muslims to use Quran as242 their model and think of its words as the only solution to their worldly problems. 4: Ka’ba as a pivotal pillar Another element which Lahori views as a major factor contributing to the unity of Muslims is Ka’ba and its role as a central entity. It is in fact a point of commonness and a symbol of faith which connects souls and hearts together. This characteristic of Ka’ba is therefore central to unity and equality among Muslims. The theme is an obvious one throughout Lahori’s poetry. When it came to his homeland and the Muslims living on the Indian peninsula, Lahori found out that the main problems that his fellow countrymen were suffering from included:
  • 242. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening 1- Ignorance and lagging behind the modern sciences 2-lack of a true belief and dominance of deviated currents3- surrender to the colonial powers 4- lack of confidenceand blind imitation in the face of the superficially attractiveculture of the west Considering the deeply-rooted tensions between Muslimsand Hindus and the massacres that occur in Bengal, Lahoriconcluded that the only solution to save both Muslims andHindus was independence and separation of the two sides.Therefore, he managed to rally support among Muslimswho were a large minority in India toward an independentcountry named Pakistan. This is indeed one of his greatesthistoric achievements, helping establish a Muslim state. Lahori always moved to enlighten people and liberatethem from colonial dominance. He also enjoyed massivepopularity not only among his own countrymen but alsobeyond borders. As he dedicated special importance andattention to people in Afghanistan and Iran in particular 243Iranian youth, he was a great acceptable figure in those twocountries as well. 5-Special Interest in Iranian Youth Lahori viewed Iranian youth as a symbol of Muslimdignity and power. Such a belief even led him to considerand propose Tehran as the revolutionary capital of theMuslim world. Although he never managed to visit Iran, Lahori was veryfond of Iranians and used to address them in a variety ofhis poems. This, he demonstrates in one of his poems titled“Departure to the Palaces of the Oriental Sultans” in hiscollection of poems “Javidnameh”:
  • 243. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... “We are your intimate friends; tell us your secret, Reveal what you know of Iran” Despite having lived in Europe and gaining fluency in English, he preferred to write his poems in Persian to show his fondness of the language. His major collections of poetry have been written in Persian, among them the most famous ones are “The Secrets of The Self”, “The Mysteries Of Selflessness”, “The Message Of The Orient”, “Bang-E- Dara”, “Zabour-E-Eajam”, “Javidnameh”, “What Should We Do, O People Of The Orient”. In addition to Persian and Urdu, Lahori knew English. Among his English works are “The Reconstruction of the Religious Thought In Islam” and “The Evolution of Philosophy in Iran” Lahori’s fondness of Iran Iran, as a country which has intruded great scholars and244 poets to the Islamic world has gravely attracted Lahori. Lahori has in many cases expressed his love for Iran and in particular Iranian poets including Mowlana, Hafez and Jaami. Meanwhile, the articulateness and smooth nature were elements that Lahori found fascinating about Persian language. 6-A Return to The Self In 1915, Lahori released two of major collections of Persian poetry titled “The Secrets of the Self” and “The Mysteries of Selflessness”. The central theme of the two collections is the phenomenon of the self, which he also tries to develop and further demonstrate in his later poems. He insisted that a society was like an individual having
  • 244. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninga soul and a personality. As with an individual, a societytoo may suffer from an identity crisis. Each society, heargues, that loses its consciousness and identity is doomedto collapse. Lahori believed that Muslim nations had losttheir identity in the face of a cultural invasion by the west.The remedy he offers is that reformists should restore thefaith and beliefs of the Muslim community to its true “self”,which were nothing but the Islamic culture and spirituality. Lahori’s reformist thinking was not limited to the bordersof his motherland rather was spread across the Muslimworld. As the Iranian scholar Morteza Motahhari putsit “in his poems, Lahori tries to remind Muslims of theirdignity, glories, culture, capabilities and qualities and tomake them believe in themselves. That Lahori goes deepinto the history of Islam to dig out great figures and putthem before Muslims of his day is an effort by him tofamiliarize Muslims with their true self. Therefore, Lahorihas undoubtedly done a great service to the Muslim world. 245To some extent like Sayyed Jamaldeein Assadabadi, Lahorihas managed to export his ideology beyond the borders ofhis country.” 7-Relying on domestic capabilities In his poems, Lahori has done his best to urge Muslims torely on their own powers and do not depend on the west. Thisattitude has also been pursued in Iran in the form of whatis called the self-sufficiency struggle, which has greatlyhelped Iranian youth toward considerable achievements. “What grows on your own soil Have it, wear it and sell it. Those who gained prominence
  • 245. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... Have woven their own carpets Rise up and find a solution, Foil the plots by the west” 8-Implementing poetry as a means of conveying ideas When Lahori studied at the University Of Lahore, Urdu had already replaced Persian as the educational language. Lahori joined an Urdu literary group and read out one of his poems in a session attended by great literary figures. His poem on Himalaya was then published in a famous magazine known as Makhzan. This in fact made Lahori a well-known poet among the literary groups of his time. What distinguishes Lahori’s poems is his special religious and political thinking. To Lahori, poetry is not the goal but a means through which he conveyed his messages of awakening to the Muslim nations. He invokes a spirit of movement, activity and liveliness,246 themes which he repeatedly depicts in his poems. When he calls for movement among Muslims, Lahori’s poems have an energetic color, a special music and filled with excitement and vigor. Therefore, his poetry is not merely a reflection of literary figures but rather a message of knowledge, mysticism, religion, ethics as well as Quranic and historical allusions. In the early period of his works, Lahori’s pomes were mostly in the form of sonnets. However, as the struggle for independence and freedom-seeking movements spread and tensions between Hindus and Muslims flared, his poems gradually dealt with political and social themes. Such poems as “the picture of pain” and “the sorrow of an orphan” demonstrate the plight of Muslims in India.
  • 246. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening In April, 21, 1938, the 61-year-old intellectual passedaway and was buried in Lahore’s ancient cemetery. In oneof his last poems before his death he noted: “The poem said can never be retold No breeze from Hijaz is coming The days of this poor man are numbered No omniscient man will replace him” Conclusion: 1- Through his poetry Lahori has managed to encouragethe young generation of his age and promote Islamicawakening among them. 2- Lahori should not be merely viewed as a simplephilosopher who tries to reason phenomena, rather a thinkingmessenger and knowledgeable poet whose ideology wasbased on promoting the role of the individual in Muslimcountries and the whole world. 3-Lahori was an ideologue whose main purpose was 247establishing a large Muslim state which he tried to depict inhis poems. His literary works were indeed a means throughwhich he lived up to his responsibility of awakeningMuslims. He urged Muslims to make use of westernadvances but at the same time called on them to beware thenon-Islamic features of the western culture. To gain sucha goal, Lahori investigated different ideologies both in thewest and the orient to come up with lively and effectivestrategies. References:-Iqbal Lahori, “Collection of Persian Poems”, Ahmad Soroush,Sanaee Publication, Tehran, 1964.
  • 247. THE ROLE OF IQBAL LAHOURI IN AWAKENING ... -Iqbal Lahori, Mohammad, “The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam”, translated by Ahmad Aram. Resalat Ghalam Publications, Tehran, 1967. -Iqbal Lahori, “The Voice Of The Poet Of Tomorrow Or The Secrets Of The Self”, Institute For Cultural Studies, Tehran, 1991. -Anvar, Eshrat Hasan, “The Supernatural In Iqbal’s Thinking”, translated by Mohammad Baghaee, Hekmat Publications, Tehran, 1991. -Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Iqbal “The High Star of the Orient”, Tehran University Press, 1982. -Radfar Abolghassem, “Iqbal Lahori’s Selected Poems”, Amirkabir Publications, 1990. -Rafighi, Aborraouf Khan, “The Evolution of Studies On Iqbal In Afghanistan”, 40 essays, Kabul, 1922. -Saeedi, Gholamreza, Hadi Khosro Shahi, Islamic Culture Publications, 1991. -Shadravan, Hassan, “Studies On Iqbal”, with a preface by Mohit Tabatabaee, Islaimc Teachings Organization. Tehran, 1992.248 -Knowing Iqbal, A Collection Of Essays In The Intentional Conference Commemorating Iqbal Lahori, 1986, Faculty Of Arts and Literature, Tehran University. -Ghaemi, Parvin, Iqbal Lahori, Farlin Publications, 2003. -M, Darvish, Iqbal Lahori’s Persian Poems, 1980. -Motahhari Morteza, “The Revival Of Islamic Thinking”, Ghom, Sadra Publications, 2004 (21st publication)
  • 248. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran...
  • 249. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran as a Model for the Youth in the Islamic Awakening Seyyed Mahdi Faghihi Va’ezi1 ,Mahdi Ajam2 ,Hassan Honarvar3 Introduction One of the greatest and the most important events in the last century was the Islamic Revolution of Iran. This Revolution which was led by Great Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - changed many of the equations and orientations of the great powers of the world. It also managed to create wide-spread changes and reformations in the international system. The Islamic Revolution of Iran took place during the Cold War and the bipolar system of the250 world. Due to its religious and sacred nature, the Revolution of Iran could make great changes in the world, especially in the world of Islam. Therefore, this Revolution is considered one of the great events of 20th century. The victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, on the one hand, influenced and renewed the revolution theories. On the other hand, it paved the way for many changes, transformations and awakening of people. This article is an attempt to analyze the impact of 1. Ma’aref Eslami University – Doctorate Student of Islamic Feqh – Qom – 36 Years of Age 2. Olum Pezeshki Baqiat ol-Allah University – Health Department – MA Student of Management – Tehran – 32 Years of Age – 09125027074 – The Committed Author – 3. Olum Pezeshki Baqiat ol-Allah University – Deputy of Culture and Student – MA Student of Cultural Management – Tehran – 35 Years of Age
  • 250. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe Islamic Revolution of Iran on the spiritual evolution ofnations and liberal movements from different viewpoints. Italso seeks to define concepts such as Islamic Awakening andto examine the influence of the Islamic Revolution of Iranon the global community and the revolutions of the region.Finally it analyzes the role of the youth first in the IslamicRevolution of Iran and then in the Islamic Awakening ofnations. Defining Concepts Islamic Awakening Islamic Awakening refers to Muslims’ efforts to overcometheir own problems and vicissitudes. Nowadays thereare different terms referring to the same concept, such asPolitical Islam, Islamic Revivalism, Islamic Resurrection,Islamic Awakening Movement, Islamic Reformism, andRetrieval of Islamic Identity. One of the most known andcomprehensive terms and concepts is Islamic Radicalism4 251which is referred to as Islamic Fundamentalism by westerns. Islamic Fundamentalism Fundamentalism5 is one of the terms prevalent in westernworld for centuries and refers to dogmatism, religiousbigotry and the return to the principles of ProtestantChristianity. This term which has a negative connotationhas gradually extended its use throughout the world andnow the west is struggling to adopt it as a reference to allIslamic Movements and Waves, which want Islam to be thebasis of their societies. ‫4. ﺍﺻﻮﻟﮕﺮﺍﻳﯽ‬ ‫5. ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﮔﺮﺍﻳﯽ‬
  • 251. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... The term Fundamentalism refers to the return to the main principals, values, and rules of Islam in the language and literature of Middle East and Northern Africa. Therefore, it can be considered equivalent to Radicalism. Since the term Radicalism is free from the negative connotations of Fundamentalism, we could use the term Islamic Radicalism instead. The Concept of Islamic Awakening Islamic Awakening is a movement which began two centuries ago. Having identified the facts and realities of the Islamic Community, it has continuously made scientific and practical progress and now plays a major role in political and social scenes of the Islamic and global world. The Main Impacts of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Islamic Awakening The Islamic Revolution of Iran took place in a time when252 the west and specially America lacked any realistic and rational understanding of the Iranians’ strife against the dictatorship of Pahlavi’s regime. Moreover, the special situation in the region and the role of Iran in the stability and security of Israel and in the progress of western colonialism was to such a high extent that Pahlavi’s regime had become a nightmare for the Arabic countries in the region. Regarding the situation, the emergence and victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran with the leadership of Great Imam Khomeini (May Allah Grant him peace) exerted a profound influence on various areas in the region and in the world. Some of those areas are as the following: A) Thought and Reflection The term Islamic Awakening has close ties with the concept
  • 252. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof Islamic Revolution of Iran. Terminologically, revolution[=Inqilab] is a Latin word which refers to “evolution,transition, and change”. Politically, revolution means “anoverthrow or repudiation and the thorough replacementof an established government or political system by thepeople governed”. Authors and theorists have different andsometimes conflicting ideas regarding the nature, causesand effects of revolution on other phenomena. Any theoristhas attempted to understand and define revolution basedon different theoretical frameworks and methodologies.Chalmers Johnson, a noble theorist, defines revolution as aviolent act which is intended to overthrow the governmentand leadership of the society, to change the regime andmethod of governance, or to change different structuressuch as social structures, the system of ownership, classdominance, and the dominant values of the society. [4] Jack Goldstone examines the efforts of social sciencescholars to define the nature and the roots of the three 253generations of revolution. The scholars in 1920s and 1940sfocused on the natural history of the first generation ofrevolutions. The main aim of such scholars was to describethe major revolutions specially the French Revolution.Edwards, Petty, Sore, Canon, and specially Crane Brintonare some of the scholars of the first generation who identifiedmodels and characterized all revolutions based on thosemodels. The scholars who were active in the 1950s and 1960sstudied the second generation of revolutions. Theyattempted to define and explain the why and when of therevolutions. These scholars adopted different psychologicaltheories such as the theory of insufficiency and relative
  • 253. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... deprivation, social theories and modernization theories to define revolutions. Thus they attempted to use certain theories to describe the why and when of revolutions. James Davis, Tredegar, Charles Tally, and Nil Smellser are some of those scholars to be mentioned. The third generation of theories includes structural theories which focus on the analysis of explanatory aspects such as the structure of international pressure, rustic community, armed forces, and the behavior of elites. Theorists such as Teda Scotchpole believed that political and international pressures could cause certain gaps and force the governments to confront the pressure. This could pave the way for a revolution in the society. Generally, until the victory of Islamic Revolution, the major scientific theories of revolution defined revolution as a phenomenon related to modernity which reduced the role of religion in society, i.e. secularization, increased254 the economic expectations and lacked the political modernization. However, the victory of Islamic Revolution brought about great changes in the revolution theories. Now key concepts which were previously ignored were incorporated into the theories of revolution. The victory of Islamic Revolution paved the way for great evolutions in the area of thought and theorization. It also made the available theories of revolution testable and caused many transformations and changes in the theories of revolution. Thus the Islamic Revolution managed to bring about the idea of religious democracy and the belief in the possibility of reform and revival of religious, spiritual and even liberal values. This accomplished idea became the basis and foundation of a model for the whole Islamic World.
  • 254. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening B) Activism and Religious Behavior At first, the western colonialism assumed that it couldovercome the obstacle and problem of religion and activismin the east as it had done in the west. However, graduallythe contrary was proven. Therefore, the westerns decidedto use religion as a means to overcome this obstacle. Thereligion of the west had gone through a metamorphosisand was aligned with the liberal democratic goals. The firststep was the dispatch missionaries of the Catholic Churchto the targeted communities to pave the way for religionreplacement. Although the policy was successful in someparts of the world, it could not succeed in the Islamiccountries. Therefore, the west changed its strategy and decidedto exploit the religion of Islamic countries to make itssupremacy possible through three ways: Founding new religious cults, such as Baha’ism in Iranand Vahabism in Arabic countries. 255 Reviving decadent and weak religious cults. Intensifying divisions and conflicts among religious cultsand ethnic groups. This policy has been exercised in eastern world fora while, and has yielded positive accomplishments forwesterners. The inflamed atmosphere in such communitieswhich was a result of ethnic and religious conflicts set thescene for westerners to propagate their highbrowed ideas.The foundation of freemasonic organizations in targetedcountries, such as the Faramoush-khane of Malkom Khanor Adamiyyat community in Iran, and also establishment ofmodern educational systems were all intended to serve thewesterners’ objectives.
  • 255. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... More than a hundred years ago, the first generation of pseudo-intellectuals of Iran which consisted of a group of selected youngsters were dispatched to the west in order to complete their education. Besides acquiring modern sciences, the young men were also fascinated by the dazzle of the western life and influenced by liberal democratic school. They assumed that the new accomplishments of the western world were a result of secularism, and the reason for the backwardness of the eastern communities was the compliance with religious customs. Therefore, they returned to their countries to play their pseudo-intellectual roles in irreligious activities and to pave the way for the supposed development of the country. However, the propagation of pseudo-intellectual and secularist ideas was unsuccessful. The western colonialism against failed to implement its agenda. Open opposition to Islam and insults to Prophets, to the Great Prophet of256 Islam – peace be upon Him – and to the pure Imams by the pseudo-intellectuals caused the vehement reaction of faithful people. Such behaviors made the people detached of intellectuals. So the westerners plotted new strategy which is interpreted as Islamic Protestantism or “Reformed Islam”. Thus “religious intellectualism” was established to metamorphose the religion which was an obstacle for westerners. A new form of religion was intended to replace the current one and align with the westerners’ colonialist objectives. Thus the ones who “considered the ruination of world caused by Prophets”, openly insulted the Great Prophet of Islam – peace be upon him – and assumed the Divine Verses
  • 256. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof Qur’an the words produced by the Prophet, became thefollowers of the new strategy of the west and interpretersof Islam based on the modern principles. Mirza MalkomKhan Nazem ol-Dole is quoted to say: “I devised a plan tocombine the political wisdom of the west with the religiousmind of the east. I realized that changing Iran to become likeEurope is a fruitless attempt. Therefore, I offered the idea ofmaterialistic progress under the veil of religion so that mypeople can better understand it. I invited reputable peopleand friends. In private [freemasonic] gatherings I talkedof the need to reform Islam. I resorted to the [humanistic]spiritual essence of human.” Mirza Fath-Ali Akhundzadeh is also quoted as condemning1280-year-old mistake of Iranians in complying with Islam,saying: “One thing that may be comforting is to admit thatour past 1280 years were a mistake.” Despite his insults to the Great Prophet – peace be uponhim – and the Prophet Ibrahim Khalil al-Rahman – peace 257be upon him – and his denial of Namaz, Roozeh, andHaj, he suddenly talked of reformed Islam and IslamicProtestantism: “There is no need to withdraw from ourfathers’ religion. It seems we have to move beside ourreligion brotherly, but inwardly we should be the followersof the true path!” His plan to implement the Protestant reformation was asfollows: “Protestantism is a religion in which the rights ofAllah and the duties of His worshipers are tumbled. Theonly thing which remains is the rights of people.” Thus reform Islam or Islamic Protestantism means theomission of Divine and Godly aspects of religion and thedenial of Shari’ah and Godly origins of right. On the other
  • 257. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... hand, placing the social conventions at the center of religion is among its objectives. He also believed that reformed Islam is a religion which does not take part in politics. He believed that until religion is not free from social and political orders [Ahkam] and is still taking part in manly issues, it would not be possible to reform it and pave the way for the society to be like western societies. He also maintained that reformed Islam should be free from orders which were issued by the Prophet Mohammed – peace be upon him – and other orders similar to those of western world should deployed. Thus “religious intellectualism” was established in order to metamorphose religion and form a new religion which is not an obstacle for westerners and is well aligned with their colonialist objectives. As we mentioned earlier, contemporary pseudo-intellectuals are still translating the theories and works of the westerners which are to oppose258 Catholic Christianity, and use them against Islam to support reformed Islam. Discussing the issues related to their activities needs another comprehensive article and should not be mentioned here. Regarding such a history, we should mention that Islamic Revolution of Iran in the areas of activism and behavior has led to the failure of colonial plots in the form of dependent intellectualism. Thus behaviors based on Islamic values proliferated among Iranians and other Muslim nations. Religious mourning, ceremonies and rituals proliferated among Muslim nations especially among those of Lebanon, Iraq and Pakistan. At the same time, with the revival of the specific role of Shiisim, anti-imperialism and anti-American behaviors in the region and among various communities
  • 258. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningsuch as Arabia, Bahrain, or even Egypt and Lebanonemerged. This fact shows that Islamic Revolution whichwas dependent on Islamic values, denied the influence ofwestern intellectualism, and strived against the barbarousZionism and global imperialism offered a major model ofbehavior for other countries. This model was influential tosuch an high extent that we could witness the martyrishoperations by our Muslim young soldiers against Zionistsin the Occupied Lands of Palestine. Regarding the protests and demonstrations against tyrantgovernments, for example in Algeria, and the shoutsof Takbir and Allah-u Akbar from the roofs and housesindicate that the Islamic Revolution of Iran has managedto influence the areas of activism and behavior of Islamicand even non-Islamic movements in the region, such asthe Islamic Salvage Front led by Abbas Madani. This greataccomplishment is one of the successes of the IslamicAwakening and every day it becomes greater. 259 The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution Basically, in different countries, the youth are consideredactive and airily forces. Indeed, the role of aware andeducated youth in the development, progress, and prosperityof communities is profound. In the reign of Pahlavi’s regime, the youth formed a greatpart of the Iranian population. However, due to destructivepolicies of the regime, the youth lacked the necessarysoul and proficiency. The tyrant system, on the one hand,established a dictatorial regime which barred the freepolitical, social, and cultural activities which were againstthe viewpoints of the regime. On the other hand, the Shah’sregime sought to avert the thought and talent of the youth
  • 259. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... so that they would not reflect on the future of the country. Thus, the regime tried to set the scene for immorality and promiscuity of the youth, and amuse them with trivial and cheap matters. The founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – sagely understood the threat and warned of that. He stated that: “They intended to corrupt our youth so that they became indifferent… Such youth could not think of the future of the country”. However, the regimes propagandist and planners of his corruptive and destructive programs were not aware of the religious morale and spirit of the Iranian youth. Although a group of the youth was deceived by the propaganda system of the regime, many of them were vigilant and remained intact. For the youth, the Shah’s strategy to cause divergence among the youth was indicative of the regime’s corruption. This led to increasing hatred of260 the youth against the regime. Here, the enlightenment of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - and other pioneering and revolutionary figures played a key role and the awakening of the youth. The young generation of Iran saw in the Revolutionary slogans their ideals such as the Islamic identity, a will for justice and independence, and denial of tyranny and dictatorship. Thus, the Revolutionary youth, which was a great and proficient force, entered the scene. In the Revolutionary movement of Iranians in 1978, the youth were the forerunner and precursor force. They played a pivotal role in thrilling the people and leading the Revolution to its victory. The demonstrations usually were organized by the youth, and they had various responsibilities. In the course of Revolution, the youth regained it national
  • 260. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand religious identity and took the responsibility for thefuture of the country. After the victory of Revolution, ImamKhomeini’s - May Allah Grant him peace - confidence inthe youth, and their reciprocal faith in the great leader, madeit possible for them to self-reliantly take part in differentareas and occupations. Since the victory of Revolution,many of the managers in the country were the faithful andrevolutionary young men who later bravely defended theircountry against the aggression of Saddam Hussein’s forces. Obviously, a part of the youth is comprised of studentswho are educated and promising people. In some countries,due to their interest in political and social issues, and theircontacts with educated and broadminded people, studentsare more knowledgeable than other people. Therefore, theyare seldom indifferent to tyranny and inequality. This is alsotrue for Iranian students. Before the Islamic Revolution,Shah’s regime had witnessed the role students played inevents like the nationalization of oil industry. So he tried 261to gain control over the universities. On the other hand, theregime was trying to disseminate corruption in the societyand propagate westernization among students. However,the students who witnessed the tyranny, poverty andinequality in the society, protested against Shah’s regime.Moreover, when they noticed the regime’s dependence onwest specially America, their objection intensified. Leftists and Marxists, who were not thinking and actingin the right way, opportunistically were trying to attractprotestors to their parties. Nonetheless, the presenceof Muslim students in universities, and the efforts ofinfluential figures such as Shaheed Ayyat-ollah Motahari,Shaheed Mofatteh, and Doctor Shari’ati in educational
  • 261. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... settings, paved the way for religious students to act in a proper atmosphere in universities. With Iranian uprising, students readily joined the people and universities became important centers for gatherings and protests against Shah’s regime. It should be noted that students and clergymen, who both were educated and pioneering in the course of Revolution, had very close ties with each other. Regarding the role of the students and youth Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - states that: “In the course of history, the committed youth and especially the Muslim students of the current and future generations are promising resources for Islam and Islamic countries. The students with their commitment, arms, persistence and endurance can lead the salvage ship of Islamic countries and communities to the shore of independence, freedom, progression and sublimity of nations.” Nowadays the presence of the youth in all areas and scenes262 of the Islamic Republic is indicative of its permanence and continuity, and is promising of a prosperous Iran. To have confidence in the youth and to let them accept responsibilities would make them self-confident and self- reliant which in turn would guarantee the full development and progression of the country. The youth who were influence by the Islamic Revolution and illuminating thoughts of the late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace-, showed an epic bravery in the time of Revolution and especially in the years of Holy Defense to such an high extent that a 13-year-old young Shaheed named Hussein Fahmideh received a medal of honor and leadership from the late Basiji Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace. Imam Khomeini were always
  • 262. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninginterested in the youth, had confidence in their potentials.He regarded the youth valuable and promising assets ofthe country and hence he entrusted the Revolution to theyouth who had played a key role in its victory. He statedthat: “You fertile young men; you dear students; you aremy hope and promise. In what part of the country you are,you should be vigilant; you should watchfully defend yourrights.” He then mentions the importance of Islamic trainingof the youth and adolescent and states that: “We need totrain our youth; we need to teach them Islamic values ofhumanity. They should be properly trained to protect thecountry and manage it.” The late Imam Khomeini - MayAllah Grant him peace - emphasized the importance oftraining and edification in the time of youth, and addressesthe youth as saying: “For Islam the edification of the youthand adolescent is of highest importance. Now that you areyoung and able, you should struggle to free yourselves ofbodily [sinful] matters and fancies”. Regarding the great 263evolution among the youth as a result of Islamic Revolution,Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - states that:“The evolution that emerged among our youth, among ourcommitted people, is more important than the evolutionthat emerged in the country.” The Youth and the Previous Regime The youth were discredited in the previous regime; theirtalents and abilities were ignored. Creativity and innovationwere not important for that regime. The regime’s main issuewas disseminating the western culture in the society. Theywere highly dependent on the west under the disguise ofdevelopment and progression. So the religious and national
  • 263. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... culture was ignored and the regime opposed the religious values and beliefs. Shah’s regime was disseminating corruption and immorality among the youth with the hope that they would become indifferent to the culture and future of the country. The aim was to make the youth unable to think, to kill their creativity, and to make them harmless and ineffective. Regarding such matters, the late Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - stated: “The main plan was to corrupt the youth so that no one would protest against the regime… They intended to eliminate any thought that they assumed contrary to theirs… The corruption centers disseminated throughout the country entertained the youth with lustful matters and deprived them of their thinking ability.” [18] He also states that: “They [the regime] intended to corrupt our youth so they would become indifferent to their matters and issues and whatever happens to them… Such youth could not react264 against what happened to their country.” [19] However, the Islamic Movement and Imam Khomeini’s sublime ideals caused the youth to become vigilant and cognizant. Now they could regain their lost identity and individuality due to the Movement and Imam’s efforts. They youth witnessed that the ample resources of the country are despoiled by foreigners, and the authorities are just obsessed with their own pleasures and ignore the interests of the nation. So they sought prosperity and freedom from tyranny and inequality in the sublime ideals of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace. They became devoted followers of Imam’s Islam- and equality-seeking Movement. According to Shaheed Motahhari, “Imam Khomeini’s call was reverberated in the deepness of history and culture and in the hearts and souls
  • 264. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningof the people. The people, who were ingrained by and awareof the epical bravery of Mohammed, Ali, Zahra, Hussein,Zeynab, Salman, Aboozar and many others for fourteencentury, could hear the same epical bravery in the call ofthis man [Imam Khomeini]; they could see Ali and Husseinin his face. For them, he was a mirror reflecting their culturewhich was for a long time humiliated. What did Imam do?He brought them back their personality; he brought themtheir real selves, their lost Islamic identities. He helpedthem out of alienation. That was the greatest gift the nationreceived from the great leader. He could give them backtheir lost faith and confidence in themselves.” [20] The Key Gathering Centers for the RevolutionaryYouth There were three main centers which were influential in theprocess of Islamic Revolution. They were the key centersof gathering for the revolutionary combatants, and were 265influential in the dissemination of the ideals and slogans ofIslamic Revolution and the progress of the Movement. Thepresence of the youth in such centers was so productive forthe progress and victory of the Islamic Revolution. Usuallythose centers brought to mind the intense and excitedpresence and activity of the youth. Those three centers werethe Mosques, Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh, and the Universities. Inthe following part of the article, we will briefly discussthe role of the youth in those centers for the progress andvictory of the Islamic Revolution. A) The Mosques The Mosques were key centers for the victory of Islamic
  • 265. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... Revolution. Different activities of the combatants especially the youth in the Mosques such as collective prayers, public speeches, guidance and promotions, equipping the Revolutionary combatants and disseminating information made the holy institution a key station for the Movement, and the Mosque regained its historical role which it played in the early years of Islam. [21] In the fortification of Islam [the Mosques], the combatant clergymen explained the political Islamic thought and disseminated the objectives of the Movement. They revealed the corruption and the disasters cause by the Shah’s regime and unmasked the fateful influences of foreign dominance and imperialism. By reciting the statements, declarations, and announcements by the Great Leader, they made the people especially the youth vigilant and aware of the Islamic ideals and regime-caused disasters. The presence of the youth in the Mosques and their close ties with the clergymen266 made the Mosque an important scene of the people’s strife against Shah. Nikkei Arcady, American author and scholar, believes that “a large group of educated people, students belonging to a new political class, and urban indigents were organized by the Mosques to form a pillar of the modern civilian politics.” [22] The presence of the youth in the Mosques and their combatant activities in various fields, in addition to the key role the Mosques played in the progress of the Islamic Movement, disturbed the Shah’s regime. They resorted to different tactics to confront the Mosques, such as establishing parallel gathers centers like cinemas and so- called social hubs, disseminating corruption, arresting the clergymen and mullahs, controlling the programs of the Mosques and supervising over them, insulting the Mosques
  • 266. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand closing them, etc. By doing so, they intended to interferewith the role of the Mosques and to prevent the youth fromactivity in them. [23] However, none of the tactics exercisedby the regime was successful. The Mosques remained intactand continued to be the key station for the combatants.The clergymen and mullahs organized and directed thecampaign from inside the Mosques. They also disseminatedinformation and made the people and youth aware. Havingdivided the city to different areas, the clergymen coordinatedthe Movement. In Tehran, the Qoba Mosque was at thecenter of the Movement. It was managed and organized byShaheed Doctor Mofatteh. The Jalili Mosque which wasled by Ayat-ollah Mahdavi Kani; the Amir-almo’meninMosque led by Ayat-ollah Musavi Ardabili; the LorzadehMosque led by Hojjat-ol-Eslam Amid Zanjani; the Rostam-Abad Mosque led by Hojjat-ol-Eslam Shah-Abadi, theArk Mosque, Javid Mosque, and Mahdiyeh Tehran wereall active centers for gathering and organization of the 267forces, and for printing and publishing the revolutionaryannouncements, declarations, and cassettes. The presenceof the youth at these religious and political centers madethem active and lively places. For example, in 1350 [1971],the Rostam Abad Mosque at Shemiran district was thecenter of strife against Shah, and also of training the youth.They also organized and directed the group Hezbollah atthis Mosque. [24] Similarly, in other cities, Mosques werea key center for gatherings and campaign; organization ofcombatant groups and other activities took place in thesecenters. [25] B) Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and Other Religious ScienceSchools
  • 267. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and religious science schools were other scenes for the youth active in Islamic Movement. There the committed and cognizant youth were trained and guided by great scholars and scientist to campaign and strive against the regime. All the members of Hozeh including the Maraje’eh Taqlid, teachers and scholars, and students became the followers of the Great Leader of the Movement and devotedly supported it. Tollab [the students of Hozeh] formed a wide network of connections with different layers and groups of the society, and disseminated the message of the Movement and its leader among people. They played a key role in the progression of the Movement. [26] The main stations for the young tollab at Qom were the Feiziyeh, Hojjatiyeh, Khan, Haqqani Schools and the Imam Hassan Asgari – peace be upon him – Mosque. These places were regularly intruded by Savak [regime’s intelligent officers]. Among the schools mentioned, Feiziyeh was regarded as268 the main center, which was usually invaded by Savak, until it was completely closed in 1354 [1975]. Similarly, in other cities, the religious schools were the key centers for the campaign against Shah. What follows are just examples of the efforts by young tollab for the sake of Islamic Revolution. 1) Confronting the regime’s so-called “White Revolution” and referendum, the tollab of Hoze-yeh Elmiyeh and other religious schools were active to such a high extent that the police invaded the Feiziyeh School. In the yard of the school, they fired and injured some of the tollab. They also encircled the school and prevented the tollab and clergymen to leave there. [28] Similarly in Tehran, many of tollab, clergymen and students were arrested and assaulted. Also
  • 268. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin Mashhad, the regime encircled religious schools, thehouses of the scholars and the Goharshad Mosque. [29] 2) In 2 Farvardin 1342 [1963], the regime invaded theFeiziyeh School and Talebiyeh School of Tabriz. [30]The bloody assault on the young mullahs and tollab wasindicative of the profound role of them in the progressionof the Islamic Movement, and also of the regime’s hatredtowards them. The regime was struggling to prevent themullahs and tollab from continuation of the campaignby frightening them. However, their infertile deeds hada reverse outcome. Following the deadly attack on theschools, a wave of protests and demonstrations broke outin the country. 3) Dispatching young tollab to the military service wasanother plot by the regime intended to eliminate them fromthe scene of campaign. It was indicative of the influentialrole of the tollab in the Movement, and also of the fear ofthe regime. However, the statements of Imam Khomeini 269- May Allah Grant him peace - took the initiative out ofregime’s hands. Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant himpeace - stated: “Do not be worried. Do not be uncertain.Show a full bravery, pride and spirit. No matter where youare, you would be the soldiers of Imam Zaman. You shoulddo your military service. Your responsibility now is to makethe soldiers aware and informed. So make your souls andbodies strong and powerful.” [31] Imam Khomeini - MayAllah Grant him peace - guidelines extended the domainof the Movement to include military bases. Despite therestrictions on clergymen and tullab in the military context,they continued their task to inform and guide people. 4) The arrest of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him
  • 269. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... peace - and the uprising of the 15 Khordad intensified the people’s Movement. It was a scene for the youth and religious tollab who continued their strife against the regime. After the uprising of 15 Khordad, the campaign of the Iranian Muslim community became more systematic and organized. In Tehran and many other cities, groups of young people and followers of Imam’s school were formed. They played profound and influential roles in the progression of the Great Leader’s ideals, and in the continuation of the Islamic Movement. Jam’iyyat-eh Motalefeh Eslami, Majma’eh Ruhaniyun-e Mojahed and Jebhe-yeh Mosalmanan-e Azad are among those groups. In Isfahan, a number of active Revolutionary young men formed organized groups and systematically strived against the regime. The continuous publishing and disseminating declarations, announcements and publications of Hozeyeh Elmiyeh of Qom, such as Be’sat and Faryad, by these active270 groups had troubled the regime. [32] 5) The young clergymen usually revealed and unmasked the crimes and plots of the regime in various gatherings and ceremonies held by influential and noble authorities of Hozeh. Young mullahs took part in such gatherings, and at the end chanted slogans, uttered Salavat, and disseminated announcements and statements of Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace. Doing so, they spread excitement among people. [30] 6) Publications such as “Faryad”, “Be’sat” and “Enteqam” were other influential measures done by the young clergymen. These publications played vital roles in enlightenment of people, revelation of regime’s crimes, and progression of Imam Khomeini’s holy ideals.
  • 270. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakening C) Universities Universities were other key centers for the presenceof the youth. They were the scene of people’s campaignagainst Shah. The history of the Revolution is indicativeof the active presence of the students in the IslamicMovement. Undoubtedly, university students wereamong the pioneering and key forces of the Revolution.They had made the universities centers and stations forRevolutionary campaign against Shah. [35] What followsare some examples of students’ role in the victory of IslamicRevolution. 1) Protests against “Local and Provincial Councils Bill”were the point where students joined the Islamic Movement.After the enactment of the bill, Tehran University studentspublished an announcement and criticized the bill. Theywarned the government as the following: “… We, theMuslim students of Tehran University, will support the HolyMovement against tyranny until our death. We will firmly 271stand until the revival of Qur’an and the Constitution; wewill stand until the victory and will sacrifice of blood for theestablishment of Qur’an and the Constitution.” [36] Forminghuge meetings, the students of Tehran University hastenedto Qom. At the Holy Shrine of Masumeh, A’zam Mosqueand the houses of the scholers, they held demonstrationsto show their support of the Islamic scholars. [37] We canunderstand the importance of this event when we considerthe fact that the so-called intellectuals and nationalist partieshad agreed with the above-mentioned bill. However, theprotest of the students who supported the Islamic scholarswas a failure for the regime. 2) The students joined the people in their protests and
  • 271. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... demonstrations against the regime’s so-called White Revolution and referendum. They gathered in the Mosque of the Tehran University. However, the regime’s officers invaded there and arrested some of the students. Also some thugs who had ties with Savak invaded the university, assaulted the students, and destructed the properties of the University. [38] “The Revolutionary stance of the University against the White Revolution of Shah was such a blow to the political reputation of him that no arrest and punishment of the students could make up for it.” [39] 3) The demonstrations of the students at the 40th day of mourning ceremony of Pahlavan Takhti led to the arrest and detention of tens of the students. Following the incident, waves of protests, demonstrations and violence broke out in universities and even in some high schools. Tehran University and some important schools were encircled by the police for three days. In other cities including Isfahan,272 Tabriz and Shiraz, university students held protests to support Tehran University. The most intense demonstration took place in Shiraz University where the students clashed with the special forces of the regime. Consequently, the Shah’s regime was forced to close the Shiraz University for a while. [40] 4) The students made efforts against the regime’s plan to abolish Islam and to disseminate corruption and prostitution. Obviously, the Shah’s regime struggled to exercise anti-Islamic, corruptive, and anti-cultural programs which were intended to make the students atheist and indifferent to important matters such as the future of the country, and to make the universities spiritless places. However, the broad-minded young men who were trained
  • 272. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningin the productive school of Islam devotedly strived againstthe regime’s anti-Islamic plots. For example, the studentsof Shiraz University contested against the regime’s “sexualfreedom” policy which intended to disseminate corruptionand prostitution. They sought asylum at the University andremained there for a week. At the end, the regime’s officersinvaded the university, assaulted the students, drove themout of the university and arrested some of them. [41]Similarly, student held protests and demonstrations againstthe 2500-year-old Festivals held by the regime. 5) Students also reacted against Imam’s arrest, and joinedthe uprising of 15 Khordad. The first reaction to the arrestof Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace - wasfrom Tehran University. Having heard of Imam’s arrest,the students cancelled their classes, held demonstrationsand informed people of their leader’s arrest. As a resultof the demonstrations, the regime’s officers encircled theuniversity. [42] Demonstrations and protests were also held 273in other universities throughout the country. 6) The students confronted the investment consortiumformed between America and Iran. After the revelation ofthe regime’s plan to form an investment consortium withAmerica, Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace- stated that “All the political and religious figures, allthe students of religious schools and universities, all thepeople are required to protest against this consortium andits deadly consequences.” [43] Following the statementof Imam Khomeini - May Allah Grant him peace -, thedeclaration of Hozeyeh Elmiyeh of Qom, and the revelationof Shah’s and America’s new plot against the economy ofIran, the committed students of universities reacted against
  • 273. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... the consortium. Although they had limited resources, the Muslim students actively published declarations, protested and demonstrated against the plot. 7) Despite the regimes schemes and plots to hinder the progress of students’ movement, it was day after day escalated. Finally, a new wave of students’ protests forced the opportunist regime to dismiss the supposed “adverse students” from universities in the summer. The wave of arresting, dismissing, and dispatching the combatant students to military service escalated throughout the country. A number of best students who were seeking freedom were deprived of education, and were sacrificed due to the tyranny of the Shah’s regime. [45] This reaction from the regime was indicative of the profound role of students in the people’s campaign against Shah, and the regime’s fear of them. 8) The peak of the religious activities by the students was274 from 1352 [1973] until 1356 [1977]. Despite the regime’s struggle to deprive the universities of religious and social motivation, the students were still disseminating religious thoughts by forming Islamic associations and libraries. Finally the students’ accomplishments forced the regime to close all the Islamic libraries in different universities in the Shahrivar of 1356 [1977]. [46] 9) The students protests on 13 Aban 1357 [1978] was a turning point for students’ movement. The massacre of the students was indicative of the regime’s weakness and its failure in repressing the campaign of the students, and also of the influential role of the students in the people’s movement. 10) Student’s organizations oversee were also important
  • 274. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningcenters for the campaign. In many stances, they had showedtheir support of the student’s and people’s movement,and condemned the policies and actions of the regime.The late Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace– was interested in those groups and guided them. Theassociations of Persian-speaking students at America andCanada were examples of such groups. The late ImamKhomeini - May Allah Grant him peace, in a letter, wrote tothem “You educated young people; wherever you are, youhave important responsibilities. Everybody is responsibleto defend Islam, to defend the nation and its independence,and is responsible to disseminate Islam among communities.Everybody is responsible to disseminate the Islamicgovernance method, to extend justice and equality, and tospread the Islamic behavior by rulers and governors towardsthe nation…” [47] A key factor for the progression of Islamic movement wasthe cooperation between the youth and the clergymen, and 275their adherence to the guidelines of Imam Khomeini - MayAllah Grant him peace. Despite the political differenceswhich prevailed among different groups in the society, theyouth were coherently following the clergymen withoutnoticing other groups and tendencies. They had set Islamtheir goals; it was a reason for their unity. There would nothave been such a unity and coherence if there were anyother tendency except Islam. The Role of the Youth in the Victory of the IslamicRevolution from the Viewpoint of Imam Khomeini - MayAllah Grant him peace According to the late Imam Khomeini - May AllahGrant him peace -, the victory of the Islamic Revolution
  • 275. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... was a result of self-sacrifices by the youth. Regarding this matter, he stated that “The youth belonging to universities, to schools, to bazaar, to tribes; they were the ones who upraised, overthrow the evil regime and drove imperialism out of the country”. [48] “You young people, with the strength of your faith, paved the way for the victory of the Movement. You shall preserve the strength of your faith.” [49] “God may bless you, the great nation of Iran, and the vigilant and watchful young people. Your magnificent efforts, o young men, in every layer and class of society, helped the movement to progress and develop. It was due to you magnificent efforts that we gained victory and the roots of corruption were desiccated to the highest extent. God willing, from now on, with your magnificent efforts, we will continue to uproot corruption from each and every part of this country.” [50]276 Undoubtedly, the youth had a pivotal role in the founding and victory of the revolution. Similarly, they play profound roles in the continuation of the Islamic Revolution. Their cooperation is reassuring for the future of the Islamic Revolution and helps the progression of its objectives in all the areas. After the Islamic Revolution, during the inflicted war, the presence of the youth and their self-sacrifices deactivated the plots of the foes and enemies. Similarly, after the victory in the Holy Defense, the presence of the youth in different areas and fields of science played an inimitable role in the construction of the country. Therefore, paying attention to the youth, and their development and progression in different areas and fields is essential for the progress of the Islamic Revolution and the fulfillment of
  • 276. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningits objectives and goals. Without the corporation by theyoung people, the fulfillment of such objectives and goalswould not be possible at all. So identifying the deficienciesharming the youth and resolving them should be a priorityfor the Islamic Republic and the authorities. C) Systemization and Modeling of the Revolution forOther Communities The victory of the Islamic Revolution and the establishmentof the Holy Islamic Republic of Iran which was due tothe votes of Iranian people in a decisive election becamean important model and pattern of modern governancein the global setting. The new model was based on theideas regarding the ties between Imam Khomeini and thecommunity, the role of religion in the governance and thepolitics, and the attention to the role of civilian institutionsin the political structure of the country. In the first monthsafter the victory of the Islamic Revolution, there was an 277escalation of hot debates over the principles compromisingthe theory of “Velayat-e Faqih” by different schools ofthought, different figures, and different political secularistgroups. They were struggling to identify Velayat-e Faqihwith dictatorship. They even tried to characterize theprinciple of Velayat-e Faqih as a system based on Islamicmonarchy which is similar to Marxism and reproduces anIdeological and Fascist system. However, the systemization of the model of the leadershipand the inimitable influences of Imam Khomeini – MayAllah Grant him peace – is very important. The impact of thecharacter and personality of Imam Khomeini – May AllahGrant him peace – on the Islamic Revolution is profound
  • 277. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... and is not comparable to other leaders. Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – was not only a great leader for the people but also an influential Marja’e Taqlid. Indeed, the people regarded him a great Marja’e Taqlid. In the course of the history of Iran, there were many great clergymen and Mojtaheds who ceaselessly struggled to inform and awaken the people. But Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – was an inimitable Mojtahed and Faqih who led a Revolution in the name of Allah and gained victory in a period of spiritual and religious eclipse. Many prominent scholars and theorists of the world regard the twentieth century, a century belonging to Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – whose success was based on two principles: the requirements of time and space. Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – presented the theory of Velayat-e Faqih in a time of intense debates and quarrels. He affirmed that “the Islamic government is a278 branch of the Velayat of Rasul ol-Allah – peace be upon him and his household.” According to Imam Khomeini – May Allah grant him peace – the principle of Velayat-e Faqih is among the “primary Ahkam [=orders] of Islam and is prior to the secondary orders”. According to Imam Khomeini’s Feqhi theories on the Islamic system of governance and the execution of Ahkam-e Shar’ [=religious orders], there is a mention of the establishment of Islamic government or Islamic state. He has also differentiated between the Islamic government and other forms of governance. According to Feqhi views of Imam – peace be upon him – the Islamic government is different from monarchy. The establishment of Islamic government invalidated the monarchy and overthrew the monarchies of Persian, Eastern Rom, Egypt,
  • 278. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand Yemen in the early years of Islam. The Islamic government is different from absolute orconstitutional monarchy. Indeed, it is the governance ofIslamic and Divine orders over the people. In the Islamic government, the governors are constrainedby a series of conditions and orders which are set by GreatQur’an and the tradition of the Great Prophet – peace beupon him and his household. The above-mentioned seriesof conditions are Islamic Ahkam and orders which shouldbe observed and exercised. In the time of the Hazrat-eQaem’s – God May hasten his presence – absence, thereligious Marja’ should intervene in governmental andpolitical issues, and should establish an Islamic government.Hazrat-e Imam Khomeini presented a series of reasoningand arguments based on Feqhi methodology. Moreover, hediscussed the practical ways for practicing Velayat-e Faqih;he presented certain and practical ways for establishing agovernment based on Velayat-e Faqih. 279 Now the Iranian nation has the highest capacity for religiousdemocracy. In each election, the nation demonstrates anew light of its greatness. Finally the systematization doneby Imam Khomeini led to the establishment of a nationaland independent government which is based on Islamicinstructions and the presence of people in the scene ofgovernance. However, the western countries and America could notgain the confidence of the Iranian nation. Consequently,they suffered great costs due to their inability to behaveproperly. It has been a long time that the region’s nations arewitnessing the misbehavior of Americans. It seems that thenations of the region have now decided to take measures.
  • 279. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... The continuation of this consensus among the nations depends on a proper and effective model. Of course, the local circumstances of the countries also play a pivotal role. On the other hand, the effective confrontation against imperialism by the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and its ability to deactivate the plots by colonialists is known by other nations. This great accomplishment and the self-confidence among the large communities have been fruitful. They have now united to achieve their sublime goals and ideals against the tyranny. The Islamic Awakening has now taken place. It has paved the way for different groups of people with various thoughts and ideologies to unit and move towards better conditions. D) The Political and Social Ties among the Nations The western politicians believe that the recent events in Arabic and Islamic countries in Middle East and northern280 Africa are social movements. These movements are due to the political and social matters which are temporary and the situation will finally calm down. The statements of the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Khamenei, at the International Conference for the Support of Palestinians Intifazah, and his perceptive and discerning analysis of the nature of the evolutions in the region especially the issue of Palestine, were the ultimatum for the opponents. His full explanations of the concepts were fruitful for different institutions and elites active in the wave of Islamic Awakening. There is certainly no doubt that the new wave in the region has an Islamic and religious nature and origin since the issue of Palestine is at the top of the list of the claims by the peoples’ movements, regional revolutions,
  • 280. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningand Islamic countries. No matter in what stage and phase of the revolution, theregion’s nations are chanting slogans supporting the freedomof Palestine. Struggling to reform their governments, thenations ask for the divorce from the occupier Zionist regime. The victory of Islamic Revolution of Iran influenced theperformance of the Islamic- and freedom-seeking groupsin the form. Now they can play a more active role in thesocial and political evolutions and transformations. Theties between the religious scholars and scientific elites havebecome closer. Also the close ties between the religiousschools and the universities, and reliance on traditional andreligious methodologies have been very fruitful. Conclusion The importance of religious rituals in scientificcommunities is indicative of the accomplishments by theIslamic Revolution. The Revolution has been successful in 281influencing the Islamic communities, the nations, and elites.It has helped them to play better roles in social and politicalprocesses. Now among the Islamic countries especiallyin the Middle East, there is no place for the dominance ofthe world’s powers. Knowledge and discernment are keyfactors for the salvage and freedom of the nations from thetyrants and colonial powers. Realist nationalism is useless ifit lacks spiritual and religious strength. Any country whichbecomes free from the dominance of tyrants, will adopta religious and national approach to bigger and deeperevolutions. Now the nations have gained the belief that thedominance and misbehavior of America, would never leadto a secure and stable Middle East and World.
  • 281. The Role of the Youth in the Islamic Revolution of Iran... Now in the Middle East and the Islamic world, there are waves of movement and uprising. The Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution has called it “Islamic Awakening”. The western powers and their allies inside and outside the region are struggling to characterize the waves of uprising as social movements which have no Islamic origin. They are emphasizing that the uprising in the region is not influenced by the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and that it has not been a ground and a model for the regions revolutions. That is why they call the movements in the region “Arabic Spring”. Now the unity and solidarity of nations, and their close social and political ties will be influential for the future of evolutions. Indeed, Imam Khomeini – May Allah Grant him peace – has always indicated the importance of unity as a key for victory against the super-powers. There is a noticeable fact regarding the Islamic Awaking: The Islamic Republic of Iran is a model for these movements. The282 Islamic Revolution is a great model for the Muslims. We should be very watchful since the youth plays a major and key role in the Islamic Awakening of the countries of the region. It should be noted that the old parties and political groups are not playing a major role in the movement. Indeed, the youth who has been influenced by the model of Islamic Revolution of Iran is playing the major role in the Islamic Awakening. It is very important that the youth of our holy system and country make wide contacts with the revolutionary youth of the Muslim nations in the region. They should provide the revolutionary youth with their fruitful experiences regarding revolution. They should also make them aware of the possible threats and harms in the
  • 282. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningcourse of revolution. Recommendations: Holding international congresses for the revolutionaryelites and youth in the Islamic countries Translating and publishing important works and literaturesof Islamic Revolution of Iran, and delivering them to theMuslim nations Establishing non-governmental and civilian organizationsand institutions with the cooperation of the youth on aninternational level Making use of the capacities of the cyber-space and virtualworld for sharing the experiences of the revolutionary youthof Iran 283
  • 283. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental...
  • 284. Theoretical and intellectual discussions andfundamental framework of the Islamic awakeningand the youth:Explanation of the factors of authenticity,preservation and survival of the IslamicAwakening Seyyed Mohammad Mir TabaarProfessor and the researcher of Hawze ye elmiye of Qom Introduction Islamic awakening (al sahwat al islamiya) is a commonbelief among Muslims all over the world. This awakeningwhich has non-state nature is the cause of the Islamicmovement that is observed beyond religion, nation, raceand country everywhere. Undoubtedly, nowadays, thereis no experience more amazing than the rise and return of 285Muslims to Islam in Islamic countries of the Middle East;because new determinative chapter has opened in the historyof Islamic nation. This great awakening is the beginningof vivacious, revolutionary progress, the motivations,experiences, awareness and wisdom are the fundamentalfactors of this great rise. One of the best ways in recognitionof nature and the root of phenomena are the explorationof concepts, factors and its specific characteristics of thatphenomenon. The exploration of these characteristics willhelp us to recognize distinctions and similarities with otherphenomena. The essence of nature of this awakening is the fightwith injustice, discrimination, political corruption, social
  • 285. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... decadence and religious heresy. Returning to authentic self is the message of this great Islamic wave. This wave has pointed at deeper layers of western thoughts and civilization and is effective to the extent of their civilization and cultural evolution. Such an odd time! The time has challenged the whole governments all over the world in the same way. Those who are familiar with political history of the world would certainly know about the term “the revolutionary waves”. After the collapse of Soviet Union, many scholars like Francis Fukuyama claim that the age of revolutionary changes has come to its end and the Western liberal- democracy is the ultimate form of governing. It is a form which will not change. 20 years has passed but the wave of revolution has affected not only the Middle East but also the West. The Western liberal front try to theorize the dependent286 opinion and characters of Islamic countries, to suppress the revolutionaries and Islamic scholars especially those who are active in religious fields, to state fictitious matters, to charge Islamic Republic with interference in other countries internal affairs and to debauch popular and Islamic Revolution of region. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) as the most prominent leader of Islamic Awakening and thought in the meeting on Islamic Awakening offered the manifest of the Islamic Awakening in the form of his great personal experiences gained in the Islamic Revolution as a leader stepping a head of other leaders and pioneering pure Islamic thought. This manifest of the Islamic Awakening was welcome by Islamic leaders and Islamic worlds and
  • 286. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningmany of them have accepted his leadership in the recentmovement in the Islamic world. This paper intends to explain the concepts and factorsused in the Islamic Awakening; regarding the strategicpoints of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace)and the Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) someanalysis have been carried out concerning their opinions.We strongly recommend that respected and honorablereaders send us their ideas and reviews. Parameters of authenticity of the Islamic Awakening Cultural components Exalting Kalama tayyeba and hoisting the flag of Islam The commander of Muslims in his seminal speech inIslamic Awakening meeting referring to principles ofcurrent revolutions of the region says “hoisting the flag ofIslam which is deep belief and lifelong devotion of peopleand enjoyment of mental security, justice, progress and 287prosperity can only be achieved under the shade of IslamicShariat.” At the end of cold war, new age of culturalization ofthis political matter formed. Subsequently those non-Western countries freed from coalition of communism andliberalism were allowed to manifest their own cultures andsubcultures. These countries until recently were under thecategories of inactive political forces and global culture. Professor Foran is a sociologist at the University ofCalifornia in the Santa Barbara who has valuable booksin cultural studies in the Middle East. He studies socialchanges of revolutions in the cultural context. Accordingto him, culture has important and complicated role in
  • 287. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... revolution and its consequences. Culture can provide the context of distribution of common belief of people and historical memorials of fights. This beliefs and memorials include common emotional structures which are popular in the public experiences context. As we know cultures refers to various symbols and boundaries, but historically religious links are those determinants of culture and identity. This effective element in the Northern Africa and the Middle East are called “Islam”. He power which according to many western researchers like Huntington has the ability to make new order in the secular world. Islam always in the form of moral, political and social guidance have some instruction about integration of religious and policy, the role of women, the youth teaching, penalty determination, deviation and definitions of strangers and etc. The culture of Islam moves expeditiously in the political288 discourse. The relative decadence of West, the explode of population in the Islamic world and the results of globalization had great role in causing imbalance in power relations between Islam and the West so that it would have been able to give glad tidings of new order in the revival of Islam in the international system. In such condition, the formation of new cultural changes, the rise of identity in the Northern Africa and the Middle East and taking position of the global power in forming culture in these countries, place a new chapter of cultural partitioning in front of the contemporary humans. On the one hand, there was Islam as a divine religion which claimed a new way of eternal living for Adam’s sons and on the other hand there was the product of thoughts of
  • 288. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwestern human being meaning liberal-democracy. History shows that the Muslims living in the age of theHoly Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) with lack ofmilitary equipment and without worldly properties butwith fidelity to divine values become the best community,because of that they gained cultural hegemony and as a resultthey were honored by others and their majesty ingratiateditself with them. It was the Muslims who made the ultimatedecision. In the commander of the faithful’s words, “youexchanged God’s affairs and then returned to you”. But this magnificence was gradually missed due toindifference to divine covenants and leaving the heavenlyteachings and also moving toward materialistic values aswell as racial and political prejudices and the outsidersbecame superior to the Muslims in their countries beginninginternal deIslamization. And again we have in the Imam Ali (peace be upon him)that “you have allowed the oppressor to rest at your own 289house, gave the restraint to them and placed the divineaffairs under their control.” Thus what has the main importance in the rise andawakening, and as a result can provide the field of freedomof Islamic countries, is return to the illuminating teachingand freedom of the Islam. About the importance of thisissue Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) says “If Islamic governments and Muslim nations trusted inIslam instead of relying on East and West bloc, and followedthe redemptive and illuminating teaching of holy Quran,today they wouldn’t be captive in the hand of Zionism andwouldn’t be afraid of the phantom of America and weren’tsubjugated to evil deception of them.”
  • 289. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... A tangible example of seeking Islam and hoisting the flag of Islam was proved in recent election of Egypt, because 40% of votes were owned by those supporters of Islam. And in Libya, after victory, Mr. Mustafa Abd Al Jalil prostrated and thanked God in front of the eyes of people and proclaimed that the foundation of our Revolution is Islam. One of the requests of the people of Tunisia was to have freedom in performing religious rituals. In this Islamic country, the people were deprived of religious rituals and performing congregation prayers and men with beard and women with veil were under a lot of pressure and also in this country the fear of Shiite and becoming Shiite were gradually increased. These facts prove that this movement is awakening of Islamic nations. This public movement, from the point of view of the Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade), was290 described as a stable movement. Regarding this issue, the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) says “in public movement, the revolution may be delayed but it is away from instability and being sketchiness; it is the word of “TAYEBE”, a proof for the very word of Allah who says “don’t you see that how God brings example? Pure speech is like pure tree which its root is stable and its branch is in the sky? I.e. a healthy tree with stable timber and root and its fruitful branches are in the sky so that everybody can use its fruit. The culture of Jihad and self-sacrifice The Islamic movements happening after the Islamic Revolution of Iran has accepted Jihad, martyrdom and
  • 290. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningself-sacrifice as fundamental principles. In other words theprinciples like Jihad, martyrdom and self-sacrifice whichare the symbols of the movements of Shiite Revolutionand were the motto of Islamic Revolution are accepted asfundamental principles of struggle. Undoubtedly all the conspiracies planned to colludenations will be rendered null and voids by the culture ofself-sacrifice. Today people know this mystery of victoryvery well and use this against the conspiracies of enemies. On this subject, Hersh, the analyst of war between theoccupying regime and Lebanon says “in the past years, they(Israelis) believed that they can solve their problems withviolence but nowadays with the concept of self-sacrificeof Muslims all the things has changed and they need newanswers. How can they frighten those who love self-sacrificing? The belief in the existence of better life and prosperity ofmartyr (Shaheed) is one of the factors of stability and victory. 291This belief can be observed in all the recent movement of theregion. Because the martyr is alive and is the source of effectand awake and shine on the people of world. This mysteryof the prohibition of this illusion about the death of martyr isthat they have better life. For encouraging the people to theJihad, God, All purified, expresses the important spiritualfactors in victory of struggle. In Surah Baqara, the beliefof better life and prosperity of martyr is the main factor ofstability and victories. Shaheed Motahhari says “what doesa martyr do?... every single drop of martyr’s blood changesto hundreds of drops or even sometimes turns to the sea ofblood and enters to the body of society”. Martyr has epic effects, and the greatest characteristics
  • 291. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... of martyr are his heroic and epic characteristics. In those nations which the spirit of epic, especially divine epic, dies, the main characteristics of martyr is to revive this dead epic, thus Islam always needs martyr because it always needs epic characteristics: Brand new epic, brand new creation”. Self-sacrifice gains its purity from consciously sacrificing one’s existence before a sacred goal. Martyr has practical influences, it means as he tries to save others in his life, the effect and the bounties of his blood help more people to be guided so they would follow the way of martyr. Martyr’s blood is effective in any conditions. Perhaps this effectiveness would not be immediately, but it can never prevent the effectiveness of the martyr’s blood and realization of his objectives. This fact that martyrdom seeking was mentioned in the Holy Quran, shows that martyr after his martyrdom like before it was thinking about the prosperity of others and he is not disinterested about other292 people. Because martyr is altruist and he has passed away with this virtue. Martyr has two mandates: relative and absolute. Absolute mandates indicate that he is alive and take his aliment before God, and relative mandates indicate the creation of the culture of martyrdom, expanding them in Islamic nation and protection of Islamic of mandates. When the Palestinians record the new entry of “self- sacrifice” into their literature, Israeli high ranking experienced officials recently understood the exact meaning of the words of fear, panic and anxiety. Shaheed Yahya Ayyash is the father of martyrdom seeking in Palestine. He realized that the only way to freedom of Palestine was in self-sacrifice, he paved a new way for the adolescence and the youth which the end of the road, undoubtedly, will have
  • 292. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningfreedom and salvage for the people of Palestine. Egypt and Arabic countries will be freed from currentdesolation and inappropriate conditions unless they returnto integration religion and policy. Martyrdom in the struggle with tyrant, according toexact words of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), isnot only less valuable than martyrdom at the front but alsomore valuable because guarding the governance is the mainguarantee for protection of Islam and Muslims and is moreimportant than victory at the front. Social components The revival of national benevolence and magnificence Current Arabic Revolution from Egypt, Tunisia, and Libyato Bahrain and Yemen put an end to historical humiliating ofthe Arabs. It is not true to attribute these Arabic Revolutionsto the will of the US and the West. Some of them even seekthe roots of Egyptian Revolution in Barak Obama’s speech 293in Al- azhar two years ago and believe that this speech hasspread the seed of the Revolution. However Sayyed HassanNasr Allah’s speech during 33 day war of the Gaza whichblamed Hosni Mubarak affected public opinion in Egypt andprovoked their anti-despotism and anti-Zionism feelings.Certainly this awakening originated from people’s inside.The Islamic Revolution of Iran’s records not only turn Iranto a magnificent nation but also it was an absolute examplefor nations which has viewed the national authority of Iranagainst imperialism. The presence of people in the field of practice Last year nobody believed that the Flame of Revolution
  • 293. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... starts to kindle in the hot land of the Middle East and the Northern Africa and devour reactionary and suppressive systems. But the ghost of revolution, sometimes rapidly and sometimes slowly, travels in the countries of the region. By its travel trembles the palace of tyranny and familiarize the hopeless nations with the concepts of political human being, civilization and having roles in the process of self- determination. In the revolutionary thoughts of Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade), the commander of Muslims, the people are the pillar of legitimacy of religious ruling and frequently emphasized that the people are determinative and decision maker. The Supreme leader of Iran (May Allah spread His shade) says “in my opinion, the most important element in these revolutions is the real and public presence in the field of practice and the scene of fight and Jihad, not294 only with their heart, requests and their faith but also with their body. There is a distanced gap between such presence and the uprising done by military or armed forced in front of the indifferent eyes of people”. The first characteristic in the formation of this movement is the presence of people from various social groups. The profound role of women and the youth in the world of Arab was unprecedented. All were in the street without weapon but determined their requests were clear: the overthrown of the regime”; they were straitened. Everything begins from the public role of the people of Tunisia. It was the self-burning of the young and desolate peddler named Tariq Al Tayyib Mohammad Al-buazizi in the city of Ben Aroos which provoked the revolution.
  • 294. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningHe burned himself because of the insult and quarrel of themunicipality officials for not having the necessary licensefor peddling. His burning body can likened to Phoenixwho rises from his ashes and asks for his humane and freelife. The flame that he kindled continued in the body ofdictatorial governments of the region. After Mohammad Bu-azizi, some people imitate his action in Egypt, Mauritaniaand Algeria. But maybe it wasn’t necessary to do that,because after the movement of Tunisia and its victory, thismovement spreads to other countries of Northern Africaand the Middle East of Asia. They named this revolution with various names. The Westin continuation of colorful revolution named this revolution“jasmine Revolution”. Those who are more realistic namedthis revolution as “Sayyedi Bu Yazid Revolution”. This isthe name of city that the first demonstration happened. Butonly a Revolutionary who is in this context of revolutioncan feel correctly the real spirit and meaning of this public 295movement. The people of Tunisia gave the most meaningfulname to their revolution “magnificence revolution”. Yemen is not politically and economically developedcountry and what is more important is that in this countryeach person has three guns. Its population is almost twentymillions and there are 70 millions of guns. People havedemonstrated for seven months, they don’t fire their guns,but on the other hand the army of Ali Abdullah Salih killsthe people and this is unpredictable. Egyptians are culturallydeveloped; Tunisia is somehow developed economicallyand culturally. Yemen has a traditional society but it actslike a developed country. Ali Abdullah Salih was injuredin his palace, but nobody undertakes responsibilities and
  • 295. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... this is a great phenomenon. The movement of the people of Yemen, the non-violent movement of the people of Egypt and Bahrain, all are the consequences of these events. At first this movement doesn’t belong to a party or a military and there was no interference or support of political parties. In this movement, the poor and the public rose before the rich, clergymen and outstanding figures and then parties joined them and the demonstration formed. Setting goals and providing mottos by people Every revolution is a conscious, voluntary and purposeful phenomenon. The differences between the revolutions and chaotic rebellions are in these factors. Revolutions have ideology and planning, in revolutions there is a kind of labor division between people and leaders and finally after toppling the authority, the goal of each revolution is reconstructing with the new logic.296 The nation of the region began their struggle with the name and remembrance of God and the motto of “Allah o Akbar”, performing congregation and Friday prayers, and writing Quranic verses on their automobile’s windshield and emphasize on this way. Writing motto was in the way of the revolutionaries combatants of Iran. The various mottos of No East and No West, Allah o Akbar, Haihat men al zellah, down with America and the occupying regime, etc. and other religious mottos always were emphasized by demonstrators. We can still see the motto of Islamic republic and the pictures of the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) in the Shiite region. Americans, themselves, better than any other nations
  • 296. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningknows that the main core of this rise; the main role ofguidance of demonstrators was on the shoulders of EkhvanAl Moslemin in Egypt which one their great achievementwas choosing epic names for the days of resistance. AhmadShafiq, the prime minister of Mubarak’s government inthe last days of President Mubarak administration offeredfour positions to them so that he was able to control theirrevolutionary movement that was refused by leaders ofEkhvan. Two Shiite streams of “Haqq” and “Vefaq” have the mainrole of guidance of the demonstrators in Bahrain and thereturn of “Mashima” to Bahrain and his declaration on hisdependencies on Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Himpeace) and the coffin of martyrs which was inscribed withthe mottos of “Ali vali Allah” and “Labbaik ya Hossein”were glad tidings of great victories in this country. “Al-Nihza” movement has a great role in the revolution ofthe people of Tunisia. Broadcasting Azan after many years, 297reopening of mosques, the freedoms of hijab and enteringfemale students with hijab to the universities are the resultsof these struggles which by resigning of Mohammad AlGhanushi these concepts have gotten new meanings. “sanusi” stream in Libya and “Al Husi” streams in Yemeneach has great effect on this uprising and their role make thenature of Intifada more clear. One of the main purposes of people in this movement wasresistance of people to form the new democratic systemwhich is obtained directly from votes and opinions ofpeople. Today Tunisia and Egypt has set up their votingpolls for entering the process of structural changes in theirown countries and in the near future Yemen and Bahrain will
  • 297. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... enter this process by breaking the last resistance of tyrant of their countries. Certainly, in the future political system of the region, there is no place for kings and hereditary states and god in Quran says “when the kings enter a city, they destroy it and humiliate the squirearchy.” Justice seeking and fighting against tyranny This is an idea which contemporary society needs them and modern intellectuals seek them in their writings, struggles and decrees. Realization of justice depends on overlooking our own and family convenience and the acceptance of difficulties, torture, being killed, captivity and plunders. Another message of Islamic Awakening is fighting against tyranny. During the history this phenomenon is the place of meeting of justice and injustice which is the basis of movement of prophets against this evil feature.298 The culture of freedom Freedoms, fighting against tyranny, giving in to injustice, not being afraid of death and facing it are the main strength in this rise. The mottos of “hey at men al zeal” of the people of Bahrain and the mottos of people of Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen indicate fighting against tyranny and seeking glory, they shouted repeatedly “people are determined to topple the domineering system” Making strangers hopeless As mentioned in the words of the supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) “foreign power tried to preserve the corrupt and dependent leaders in these countries with the latest skills and abilities and they don’t support them
  • 298. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwhen the rise and determination left nothing for them. Theyare not shareholders at all. What has frightened the Westand made them hopeless was the theoretical dimension ofIslamic Awakening. This fact that after many centuries of profanities, attemptto marginalize the religion and theorizing secularismand secular values, today comprehensive and liberatingmovement centered on religion occurs in the region of theMiddle East and Northern Africa and it is not obvious thatto what extent it will extent. It is a dreadful nightmare whichits interpretation can be the decline of humanistic thoughtsand the fall of values of secularism and liberalism and thatthe deadlock of philosophy of materialistic school and basedon this, it seems that we have to select a place for liberalismnear communism in the museum of history. Certainly, whenthe founder of Islamic Awakening interprets the occurrenceof Islamic Revolution of Iran to light explosion he wasthinking of global mission of this revolution and believes 299the Islamic Awakening is the beginning of the Awakeningof human in the world. The youth and their intellectual and scientific capacitiesin Islamic awakening The Supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade)was hopeful of Islamic democracy and avoidance of laicdemocracy changes of the region in his speech at the meetingof Islamic Awakening, thus he says “trust your younggeneration, renew the spirit of self-confidence in them, andprovide those experiences of skilled and aged. The currentgeneration has the capacity to do such affairs. The oldgeneration is proud of the current young generation.”
  • 299. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... It is the first time that the youth of Tunisia and then the youth of Egypt have begun a movement which its product is a challenging process for achievement of this requisition and the foundation of Islamic democratic society basing on the voting of citizens. The roots of revolution in Egypt and Libya and Yemen and Bahrain are very similar to the roots of the revolution of Tunisia. Among the names given to the revolution of Egypt, I like to mention the youth revolution. The great young population of Egypt and Tunisia (30% of population) are the users of internet which is the cause of a great influence in public mobilization. The Egyptian youth has smartly used Facebook and Twitter and Tunisian users are about 35 percent of the population. Tunisia has the most internet users among the Arab countries. This great net-army could remove all the barriers. According to Google, more than 35% of Egyptians have300 access to internet. This is why Mubarak in 28 January 2011, just three days after the onset of the protest limited the access to internet. College students have always contributed a lot to social and political ties which is due not only to their passion and high education but also to their insight, pragmatism and their social concerns. The same thing can be viewed in all the history of high education. The European student uprising in the 60s, Iranian students protest against Shah in the 50s, popular rise of three decades later, the Middle East events and beyond that the “occupy Wall Street” movements are among some examples. But what makes students protest can be understood under the light of recent experiences. The Arab spring reached some
  • 300. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningEuropean countries in summer and fall and is going to reachall the Europe and U.S. as well as some Latin Americancountries. Kathy Mc clani, a political activist in the U.S. emphasizedthat “Occupy Wall Street movement is the beginning of U.Sspring. I think that the world will see that the Americansare awakening and I am so excited. Given the next year weneed a revolution”. Regarding the Islamic Awakening in Tunisia someimportant notions can be considered: A country whichallocated seven percent of its GDP to higher education witha population 98 percent of which literate. The revolutionexpanded in the Arab and northern African countries whichone out of five people, is between 14 and 25. Mohammad BuAzizi was one of these youth who set fire of revolution onhimself. The years of despotism, economic crises and classdifferences triggered the fire. But the wrath of people was inpart the gun powder accumulated in the cities: students and 301graduates without any future. “Employment, security and opportunity for the youth”were among what Ibrahim Salih calls it the missing factorof the youth life in the Arab countries. As a chancellor ofthe Qatari university he believes that students and graduateswere not optimistic about their employment so they servedin the Arab revolutions. His shocking statistics suggest a90 million Arab youth population who are graduated fromuniversities without any hope; however the Arab dictatorswere among the first victims of these students. What Mr. Salih Al-Na’imi meant by “the chance ofpracticing youth’ was not certainly irresponsibility, becausethis chance was already provided for the Western countries.
  • 301. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... Instead, he meant the influential presence of the Muslim and gallant youths in political, social and religious scenes. The scenes of Islamic Awakening in Arab and Islamic countries, broadcast by media showed youths whose motto were mostly Islamism, authority, autonomy and anti- tyranny. They regarded all these as the remedy for all their internal crises. Moreover, the subject of employment and security was important and couldn’t be ignored. According to Doctor Elizabeth King one of the directors of the human developing program of the world bank, the development of primary and secondary education in these countries along with their young population and also the lack of a better way for living exhorted the youths to take higher education. This education offers them a degree not a skill for entering the labor market. In an interview Mrs. King made it clear that “the higher education is in fact a political matter because the youngsters in the streets don’t demonstrate but302 the college students do”. The major problem with Mrs. King’s belief is her mono- dimensional judgment about the scientific, academic aspects and the vigilant youths in these countries. When the youths in Egypt, Labia and Tunes felt a mysterious force wanted to lead their victory toward accepting a secular regime, unanimously shouted “we want the Islam; we don’t allow the Western rulers to make decisions for our nation”. An important photo, published by media during the Tunisian Revolution, showed a group of youths standing in the street to perform their prayer. This photo became the symbol of the Islamic Awakening of the Arabian revolutions. It showed how the Tunisian youths imposed by religious restrictions, could regain the pleasure of piety after 23
  • 302. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningyears by a sudden uprising. By performing a congregationprayer, they proved that they still adhere to the Islamicteachings. Today this Arabian movement has changed intothe most important and influential revolution. Obviously, allthe rulers in the world and regional or local players attemptto demonstrate their participation in this revolution to theirinterests and wishes. The demands of the Arabian youthsare the common commands all over the human world. Theoccupied Wall Street, though it cannot be called a revolutionyet, has been inspired by the resistance and movementsof the Middle East and has shocked the foundation ofcapitalism. Although the occupation of the Wall Street,spreading very quickly throughout the United States andsoon in the Western countries, has involved some largegroups of countries concerned, it is the young students whohas gained control over a large part of the movement. Thenews from all over the United States shows the youths andstudents’ widespread participation in this public movement. 303 The lack of Elites One of the features of the recent movements is that unlikethe past revolutions, it has no leader; that is to say, it hasno charismatic leader. During the years before the Islamicrevolution, emphasis was put on the necessity of a guide ora leading person in order to prevent any deviation from thepath of the movement. Such intellectuals as Dr. Shari’atiwho had been educated in abroad, posited the thesis ofImam and community; they regarded any movementwithout Imam as vain. When there is no Imam, it is difficultfor the groups to gain wisdom. On the contrary, in therecent uprisings absence of a political leader is obvious.
  • 303. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... People in these countries know what they don’t want but they don’t know what they really should want. For instance, the clergies in Egypt who has been always lagging behind as spectators during this uprising announced that “our laws must be Islamic but we don’t want an Islamic government”. This is a worrisome problem; however, we are optimistic about the future of the Middle East because people have returned to their human nature and a widespread awakening has begun all over the Islamic world. The Supreme Leader of Islamic Republic (May Allah spread His shade) said: This Awakening must be guided in a correct way; the responsibility of this is incumbent upon the thinkers and clergies in the Islamic world. They must bring about a situation in which this Awakening ends to the Islamic governance. The political and economic constraints the ruling government has imposed upon the clergies, in particular304 those in the Al Azahar university, has reduced the effectiveness of this centre in the society and consequently most of their Fitwas are issued only to gain satisfaction of the dictatorial and tyrannical rulers. By imposing financial constraints upon the clergies in the Al Azhar University, the rulers attempt to exploit them only as a means of war or religious mottos. This has resulted in enfeebling the structure of the university and all its disciplines both the religious and non-religious ones. Since it was established, the Al Zahar University has been playing a central role in the history. It is sorrowful to see this university has lost its leading role and its guiding light has vanished. The shining of this educational center of Islamism has disappeared because of the corrupt policies dominating this center under
  • 304. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe pretext of Arabism. Because of the government intentional ignorance policyof this scientific center, it has changed into a centre fightingagainst intellectual and religious freedom, since it isreluctantly and financially dependent upon the government.Only some court and governmental scholars can enter thisuniversity under the government control; sometimes theyeven fight against their own religion. After the felicitous revolution in Egypt that boosted theyouth’s hope for returning to the golden age of scientificand political movement in Egypt, this university mustbe revived to lead the continuation of the movement as auniversity with a role in making history and civilization. . Political components Resistance against the U.S. and Zionist pressure The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade)believes that Palestinian Resistance has been modeled by 305resent revolution. “The great recent movement has modeledPalestine to proceed” he said. According to Imam Khomeini(May Allah grant Him peace) and Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread His shade) Palestine is the main focusof humanity and the Islamic world. They assume an all-outresistance as the only way to liberate Palestine and also areligious idea for the Muslims. Despite global and regional pressures in the Muslimcountries, today Islam seeking is a growing phenomenonwhich confronts great power’s policies. Thomas Freedmansuggests that opposing the U.S. in Europe is a hobby but aduty in Islamic world. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states
  • 305. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... that “what threatens the Zionist regime is not Iran’s missiles or the resistant groups but determination of men and women in Islamic nations who don’t want the U.S., Europe and there puppet regimes to offend them. As a liberal democrat state, the occupying regime has faced with the same crises as the West as well as environmental effects of the Islamic Awakening. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) during the Islamic Awakening meeting emphasized the fight against the occupying regime as the principle for the current revolution of the region. He also added that “nations under the influence of the East could liberate themselves after 80 years, so can Palestine”. The occupying regime knows that the previous order of Middle East is declining given the Egypt status. Ehud Barak has formally announced that after the Egyptian revolution, the Sinai Peninsula may change to be a safe haven for the Palestinian combatants. Attacks to the Israeli embassy306 in Cairo made the Israeli officials believe that there is an anti-Israeli move among the revolutionary governments especially when the border tension between the Egyptian and Israeli caused the bloodshed. Will Egyptian states go on its policy toward the occupying regime, or the new Egyptian officials remain a concern to the occupying regime? Besides, bombing the gas popes by the Egyptian saboteurs can be a threat to the occupying regime for it shows their hatred from the occupying regime and any dealing with it. A survey in this spring (2011) shows that half the people of the Egypt agree with cancellation of the Camp David Accords which was signed in 1979 during the Sadat administration with the U.S. and the occupying regime.
  • 306. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningThey want Egypt to return to its great national standingto resist against the occupying regime and its policiesregarding Jewish settlements. Islamist parties’ success in Tunisia and the growingposition in Libya and Egypt can threaten the occupyingregime’s environmental stability. The initial impetus inthe Arab movements was to reduce political pressure andcorruption of their respective states. However by now ithas been obvious that Islam can play a critical role in theirstates after the Arab Spring. What concerns the occupyingregime is a shift in the political discourse of the region. Islamic Revolution as a model As ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade)said “no doubt the Iranian nation is being observed by theawakened peoples of Egypt and Tunisia and even by peoplehaving imposed and evil systems. Our nation is recognizedin the world as a pioneer Muslim one having insight andawareness in different arenas.” 307 “Where is the modern Islam’s cradle?” asked the cultureand thought desk editor of the German newspaper Die Weltduring an interview with Juan Goytisolo, a famous Spanishintellectual. “Iran, certainly Iran at the first place.” repliedGoytisolo. Islamic Republic of Iran has emerged in an “ageof revolutions and movement”. The Western state and the US strived to prevent Iranfrom becoming a model; so attempted to inculcate thepeople of the region with the feeling that this course hasmany difficulties and leads to complete isolation. Theytried to impose economic pressures and sanctions, deprivalof knowledge and technology, etc. through psychologicalwarfare among the world’s people and introduce Iran as
  • 307. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... such. Visiting Iran, one would be surprised. These facts motivate the people of the region to pursue much seriously their own movements. The religious nature of the movement is the same as the strength of the revolution in the third decade of its existence. Removing the thought limits of the revolution theoreticians was among others, one of the achievements of the Islamic Revolution. For instance, Theda Skocpol who used to deny ideological roles in revolutions, in a paper under the title of “Shiite in the Islamic Revolution” writes “this revolution makes me expand my understanding about the potential roles of the belief systems and cultural issues in shaping political actions”. Among the influential contributions of the Islamic Revolution for the West and even the Islamic World, was the Islamic thoughts renewal all over the world, the political Islam being one of the main ones.308 Actual experience of the Islamic Revolution in various arenas especially during the holy defense years against the aggressive enemies revealed the role of spiritual issues in manpower as a global achievement. These experiences provide the revolutionaries and Islamic liberating movement of the world with the useful source that the revolution in the name of God and religion addressed more than one billion Islam seeking Muslims. The Iranian Revolution unlike other movements from the very unset encouraged the religious renaissance and resurrection. Its founder being aware of other Muslims needs and requests introduced the Muslims’ awakening and “return to Islam” as its manifesto. Most of its pioneers as such have emphasized the under development of the Islamic nations. Thus authorities of
  • 308. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthe Islamic movements during the recent three decadestried to motivate and awaken the Muslim population. Theincreasing Islam seeking trends of the world’s differentpeoples suggest a promising future for Islam. As AyatollahKhamenei (May Allah spread His shade) states, “theprospect of today’s world shows that the 21 century is thecentury of Islam.” Therefore, the Islamic system of Iran has been able tomake great strides both theoretically and practically towardsolidarity of the Islamic community under the flag of Islam. The illuminating ideas of the late Imam Khomeini (MayAllah grant Him peace) and his cause attacked the unjustties of international system, “Occupy Wall Street” againstcapitalism being a prominent example in the US and allover the world. If the late Imam (May Allah grant Himpeace) was among us, he might announce the collapse ofthe capital system as he had already announced the collapseof the socialist one. 309 The late Imam (May Allah grant Him peace) states that“now your movement and revolution has covered the worldand the light of Islam has reached the other parts of theglobe”. As the American Heritage Foundation admits, AyatollahKhomeini’s ideas are still alive in the region especiallyamong the Shiite groups of Iraq and the Lebanese Hezbollah.He taught his proponents how to gain popular support.The Islamic Revolution’s international influences cannotbe ignored. Even when some Muslims did not believe inpolitical aspect of Islam they became aware and came torealize that they are able to regain their economic, politicaland cultural independence and once again become the most
  • 309. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... powerful international force. The main concept i.e. what is named “Islamic renaissance” in international relations literature and the main concern of the West is but the link between the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Middle East’s waves. This is what the western media are to conceal. It is worth mentioning that while Iranian parties are engaged in the daily routines and many of the exalted teachings of the Revolution are being forgotten, the Revolution and Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) are among the most popular concepts abroad. The secular West and its leaders are inactively watching the broad influences of religious and spiritual messages of the late Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) and the Islamic Revolution on the western citizens. Renewal of the Church, increase in the missions, dramatic movements of the religious leaders and their engagement in politics, interests in religious audiovisual and written products, and310 increase in popular protest against profanities are among some cultural influences of the Islamic Revolution and its awakening outcomes in the West. It is fair to measure the capabilities of the movements by their “leader’s strategy”. The late Imam (May Allah grant Him peace) state that “our movement is for Islam and our Republic is an Islamic one; thus the movement cannot be limited to just one country and even to only Islamic countries. The Islamic movement is in line with the profits movement so it cannot be limited to just one place. The holy Prophet of Islam is from Arabia but his mission is a universal one”. He also says “the sacred movement of Iran is an Islamic one, thus all the Muslims are affected by it”. He also emphasized the “self-confidence and self-consciousness”
  • 310. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningto defeat Muslims’ ignorance. According to Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Himpeace) self-consciousness is motivating approach anda religious obligation as well as a rational issue for theMuslims. He utilized the logical Islam that any indifferenceto the outsider’s hegemony would be blamed. Dr. Tallal Atrisi, a Lebanese intellectual assumes theIslamic revolution and interpretation of Imam Khomeini(May Allah grant Him peace) as the cause of two revolutionsin the Islamic world, saying “an internal revolutionregarding fiqh and emphasis on the movement in the era…and a second external revolution creating a fiqh focusingon Islam’s ability to make changes and govern. This wasunlike the European views and Marxist theories whichassumed religion as a cause of underdevelopment, thusthe Islamic Revolution is a great shift in the 20th centurythat accelerated the Islamic Awakening among the Islamicfigures and movements. 311 Michel Foucault, the French philosopher and sociologist,believes that “discourse of Imam Khomeini (May Allahgrant Him peace) was situated not only among the mindsbut within the souls of the oppressed and was accepted inaccordance with love rather than logic.” Professor Herider Kernijian writes that “an Islam’srenewal and return to its values is apparent all over theWorld. We noticed Islam just after the Islamic Revolutionand its influences on the politics and international affairs.Fundamentalism became a frequent term in the westernpolitical literature”. Eqbal in his book insider philosophy predicts that Tehranwould be Muslim’s headquarters in the future. Carter, the
  • 311. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... then president of the U.S. said that “Iran is a safe island in one of the critical regions of the world”. Today Iran is the main target of the enemies. Some Zionist theoreticians such as Eban suggest that “Islamic Republic is a turning point in the ideas that are frequent in the Middle East and has become a model for the oppressed Muslims”. The Islamic Republic was actually a model for it was great in the eyes of Iranians as well as other peoples of the region. The Islamic Republic is characterized by its anti- despotism and anti-colonization because it is in line with human nature and the Islamic teachings. Thus the contemporary political theorists assume the Islamic Awakening the result of the Iranian religious movement. As Saeed Sha’ban, leader of Lebanese Islamic Oneness group said “jihad and self-sacrifice in Lebanon are inspired by Islamic Revolution in Iran”. Rashid Al Ghanushi, leader of the Tunisian Islamic party312 explicitly stated that “this is the first time in the contemporary world that an Islamic movement becomes so powerful that it can cause a revolution. So the Islamic movement of Iran has realized Islam both theoretically and practically”. Demonstrators in the Arab countries have chanted some slogans concerning truce with their armies (just like the very beginning of the Islamic Revolution in Iran) and have given flowers to the soldiers (again reminiscent of the Islamic Republic in Iran). This is indicative of awareness in those revolutions and its expansion of them to the Arab countries. Ayatollah Khamenei(May Allah spread His shade) explicitly supported the Arab protestors and encouraged them. An American expert in communication from Virginia that has chosen the name of Hajar Hosseini for herself says
  • 312. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningthat “I became interested in Islam just after the IslamicRevolution. I had studied different religions but had notnoticed Islam until Islamic Revolution happened and then Iconverted to Islam”. Parameters for preserving the Islamic Awakening Cultural component Ayatollah Khamenei (May Allah spread His shade)regarding the strategies for preserving victories mentionedsome spiritual notions such as trust in God, optimism aboutdivine promises, lack of ignorance, permanent combat,wisdom and determination, courage and unison as well asthe following: Permanent reinterpretation of the principles of therevolution The principles and causes of the revolution are consideredits roots without which it cannot advance. Causes are signsto lead the revolutionaries and touchstones to measure them. 313Any toppling in revolutions is due to leaving the principles.Thus it is necessary to reinterpret the principles. By the way the interpretation prevents the deviation inrevolutions. Deviant streams have a revolutionary guise butchange the principles of revolutions. The deviation in the words of the supreme leader (MayAllah spread His shade) begins with a deviation in the mottosand goals. The enemies of revolution initially try to changethe mottos and symbols of revolution then alter the goalsand causes. In the Islamic Revolution the slogans “Downwith the U.S.” and “Islamic Republic” were replaced bysome with “Down with Russia” and “Persian Republic” toecho the enemies’ will.
  • 313. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... System developing Revolutions consist of two stages: destruction of the status quo and developing a new system, without the latter revolutions may turn to rebellions. The achievement of the revolutionary forces is due to this stage. What kind of system is now appropriate for the governance? Experiences of the Islamic Revolution and the Islamic world in the recent decades suggest that the West is trying to establish two kinds of state: the liberal state under the pretext of democracy, human rights and civil liberties (like secular Turkey) and some reactionary religious movements (like Taliban and Wahhabis) which both are dangerous for the Islamic Revolutions. In fact Islamic Revolutions are always faced with the modern and the reactionary forces, the former excludes religion from social affairs and the latter ignores all the scientific achievements. Both are plagues for any revolution.314 The Islamic Revolution has been faced with both forces during the recent three decades. Imam Khomeini (May Allah grant Him peace) warned against the liberals and reactionary force of Hojjatiye. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) refers to “religious democracy” to merge the divine teachings with the new age saying “one of the main causes of the revolutionary people is their desire to self-determination and contribution to their own governance. Since they are Muslim, they want a religious democracy that is officials are chosen by people and values and principles are based on Islam. This could be realized in different countries according to their conditions but care should be taken not confuse it with the western liberal- democracy. Secular democracy in the west has nothing to
  • 314. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningdo with the Islamic democracy committed to values andprinciples of Islam. Secondly, Islamism should not be confused with thereactionary and extremist forces. Religious extremismmakes with violence is the cause of underdevelopment anddefeat of revolutions. Social components Taking the dangers into account The supreme leader’s warnings about the danger facing therising people are so serious: “initially there are both dangersand ways to deal with them. Peoples should not be fearfulof dangers. Let enemies be fearful of you. Dangers shouldbe identified so that no doubt and hesitation regarding themwould happen”. Just after Mubarak’s fall in Egypt the U.S. officials werefrightened and O’bama against his state’s and the occupyingregime’s policy which are based on violence stated that “the 315moral and violence force has shifted the direction of historytoward justice”. Given the contemporary movements it is clear that theWest always tries to take advantage of the changes andrevolutions according to its interest in the Middle East andNorthern Africa; a warning Shaheed Ab Al-Aziz Rentisi,the then leader of the Islamic Resistance (Hamas) hadmentioned. It is noteworthy that during the conflict between theoppressed people and oppressor state, the superpowers andinternational colonialist that prefer the status quo to promotetheir own interests suddenly appear and try to indorse thestates through the military, political and security means
  • 315. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... in order to control the revolutions unless they are assured that the change is inevitable. Then they try to defend their favorite system though the new systems turned to be exactly the very systems just toppled. Today the U.S. and the West are apparently promoting different NGOs, preserving human rights and democracy but they actually spend a lot of money to expose their favorite figures to win the elections. There should be some parameters to measure the people as well as insight to deal with the enemies’ plots. But now we can see some aware and active forces who lead the Islamic movements and who are able to resist the terrorist attacks of colonialist in the region. The current collapse of western liberalism and the Muslim Front is the continuation of the Islamic Revolution. Political component316 The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) regarding the nascent revolutions stated that “peoples and elites are but the owner of the revolutions who can develop and promote them. Not to be faithful from enemies & interventionists The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) encourages the revolutionaries offering an example from the early Islamic period war “the fear from the U.S. and other interventionist powers should be avoided. The brave elites and the youth should avoid fear”. When the Egyptians were on the scene, the U.S. officials were eagerly supporting Mubarak and the Egyptian system to divide people. At the same time, the supreme leader (May
  • 316. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningAllah spread His shade) addressed the Egyptian people andmade them courageous. His speech without any politicalexpectation was delivered differently in comparison withthe other foreign officials’ since it entered the Egyptians’hearts. Today the peoples of the region are awakened and areto take revenge from the traitors such Saudi Arabia whichdeviated Egypt from its historical course and made it adependent state to defeat its rival. Now, the Egyptians know that Saudi Arabia is afraidof Mubarak’s trial because of its role in the Camp Davidprocess and financial support for him to sign an Egyptian-Saudi-Zionist treaty. For the same reason, a corrupt person (Walid ben Tallal)spent four billion dollars to prevent Mubarak from beingtried. He offered 100,000 acres of his land to the prosecutor,Abd Al Majid Mahmood as a bribe. The Egyptian peoplewill take revenge because it is greater than Sadat, Mubarak 317or Saudi State. Parameters for the survival of the Islamic Awakening Cultural component As the Islamic Revolution owes its emergence to anintellectual guidance, its survival will depend on a culturalbasis. Iranian Awakening began with religious leadership.The same leadership can guide the people abroad and this isexactly the “Export of Revolution”. Social component The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) presentsbooty seeking as a threat in revolutions saying “ignorance
  • 317. Theoretical and intellectual discussions and fundamental... due to the initial victory is dangerous especially when people go to seize booties”. This is because the revolutionaries think that everything is over. By the way some anti-revolutionary forces may enter the scene. Toppling of the three decades of the Islamic Revolution reveals the fact very clearly. Political components Identifying west-dependent figures One of the external threats for revolutions is the role of west-dependent figures. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) warns that “the first threat is persons committed to the U.S. and the West”. If the great powers cannot prevent a revolution from happening they will try to support the west-dependent figures to alienate it. The Constitutional Revolution was a typical example which started with the clergies and support of the people but the west-dependent persons and foreign embassies318 seized it and excluded the committed clergies. The same danger threatens our Islamic State and most of the recent revolution. The enemies try to create the deviant alternatives to be the models for the revolutions. They inculcate western models of socialist and liberalist systems as the only version of the governments. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states that “some deviant alternatives are made available in the movements. Media and financial support, civil wars, economic sanctions and account blockades among others are their tactics to defeat revolutions. The supreme leader (May Allah spread His shade) states that “they are two despair people from their support for revolutions”.
  • 318. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience...
  • 319. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory Abstract: Youth Islamic Awakening – Awaken the Inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory. By Hashim Okera – International Short Courses and Sabbatic Islamic Awakening is backed by the youth of the community. Youth Islamic Awakening has been successful and blessed by Almighty Allah s.w.t. and our Saviour Imam al Mahdi a.j.f. In this new wave after Islamic Revolution of Imam Khomeini in Islamic Republic of Iran. Muslim countries as well as in Western countries Youths are rejecting the arrogance, oppression and so called democracy of their government. Youth awakening is looking for change to have better safe,320 secured and just government. Power hungers see Islamic Awakening as big threat for losing their power and domination in this world. Now the power mongers are spending lots funds to divert the Islamic awakening in their interest. The major victim has been youth; different type of mechanism has been used to divert the attention of the youth. Youth should awaken their conscience and see from different side of the hypocrites. Youth should be united regardless of different faith of Islam. Youth should plan before any move. Youth should organize and follow the pious leadership. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience, Execute Fears, Unite, Plan and Organize to Achieve Victory In the words of the English historian Edward Gibbon: "In
  • 320. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeninga distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death ofHussein will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader." Youth Islamic Awakening is in Muslim nations beginningof revolutionary mayhem as well as the appearance ofIslamic awakening wave in recent decades especially lastyear in the region indicate the revival and backtrackingof Islamic nations to their forgotten civilization andidentification. The root of Islamic Awakening has been started whenProphet Mohammad s.a.w. rejected the rich society oftyrant and pagans communities when he was all alone inhis, he rejected without any fear of isolation, punishmentor death. The Prophet Mohammad s.a.w did not leave themaside but also invited them to one God and to live in peaceand harmony in Islam, mission. The important manifestation of a political system isvindicated through the establishment of a state and the wayof its governance. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) established 321a state at Madina, of a unique type, based on consultation,justice, equality and accountability. Youth are the backbone of the society; youth are thespring water of the healthy society. The impact of IslamicRevolution upon the Muslim youths all over the world,have developed in the period of time when the Islamicmovements have been resuscitated in the world level andit sparked by the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 thatafterwards has been reflected in the world. Youth have cometo conclusion that the late Imam Khomeini the Founder ofIslamic Revolution, the reverend Supreme Spiritual Leaderand the Founder of I.R of Iran used to follow precisely thesame methods of the Holy Prophet of Islam (PBUH).
  • 321. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... Youth awakening has been big threat to the power mongers of the west. West see that Islamic awakening is filling the gap of so called western democracy and so called western style human rights that created between nationals and governments. The propaganda machine has been established to create threat and doubts amongst the youth. It presents this common core of Islamic culture as a great burden, but one only needs to look at the unfortunate millions who are left on their own in the name of freedom, to ascertain the truth. Is it not true that if one were to draw a family-and-home- life-disaster map of the world, it will coincide with a map of the Western world? The distinctly safe area will be the Muslim world, with a gray area within it coinciding with the areas of westernization. The safeguards and the disaster are built into the underlying cultural values and one cannot do a wholesale exchange of cultural practices without buying322 into the underlying values and facing the consequences. Today youth do not accept blindly following the tyrant and aggressive leader or regime. Youth awakening has no more room for the so called power mongers democracy. Youth are looking forward for the fare and just regime. Youths are been bombarded with fake false information about their own homeland and are been attracted to the western countries. Youths are migrating to the western countries in mass. Spending thousands of dollars to get in the west and risking their life just to get in the western countries. The same amount would be fruitful opportunity if they might have invested in their own country. With the failure of Muslim regime and Muslim leaders youths today see water stream in the hot desert. This is not because of
  • 322. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningAllah s.w.t. Book the Holy Quran, The Sunnah and theTeachings of Ahlulbayt and Sahaba was incomplete butinstead the Holy Quran was left in precious cupboard andthe sunnah on the shelf. Some Muslim youth who are week in their iman, aretrapped in the western countries after failing to be acceptedin the society or job market again they attempt to changetheir names from Mohammed to Mo and from Khadija toKaty and so on. Muslim Youth forgetting their beautifulIslamic roots and they imprison themselves more and morein the western corrupt society. I call these group "voluntaryslaves". Finally when they wake up they find their culture,their religion and their out spring have gone far fromhumanity. Then they realize about Islamic teachings andgo after Muslim clerics to save their out springs that havegone far. Majority of Muslim Girls find that to live equallywithout Hijab in the western society is more acceptable.But gradually they find that they are left all alone without 323the Muslim culture and Islam. The arrogant enemies whose illegitimate interestsand avarice are threatened by the Islamic Awakeninguse psychological warfare - namely making people feeldisappointed, stigmatizing their identity, and flaunting theirown material power and wealth - as their most importantweapon in order to deal with this increasingly powerfulwave. There will be thousands of media facilities inthe future, as there is today, which will attempt to makeMuslims disappointed in the prospect of a bright future orentice them towards the future that is in harmony with theirown evil intentions. From the era of colonialism up to thepresent, this cultural invasion and psychological warfare
  • 323. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... have been the most effective means of the West in order to establish domination over Islamic countries. The modern propaganda with its international coverage is undoubtedly the most effective force used by the arrogant powers. Today, the number of media and press using multimedia equipment, which spend most of their efforts to oppose Islam, is very high and is constantly increasing. There are number of mercenary experts who are busy broadcasting news and interpretations in order to mislead the minds of their audience and wrongly paint an ugly picture of the Islamic movement and the great Islamic figures. From the pre-Revolution era up to the present, the Islamic Republic has constantly and increasingly been confronted with such belligerent propaganda, said the Supreme Leader Ayatullah Khameini. Since last century it is noticed that hundreds of theories were established in the name of democracy and human324 rights. The isms were the banner to take advantage of innocent civilians, from socialism, communism, capitalism, liberalism, nationalism and so on. But all witnessed to be under the power hunger rulers and less interest for the civilians. Threats have been sowed in mind of the civilians, so that they should not dare to talk against the adventurist regime. Civilians were bombarded with the fake theory of democracy and human rights. The civilians were forced to blindly follow the rulers. And others either with threat or with the fake policy they were trapped in the system. What was the result death of thousands of thinkers, professional people, hunger and civilians remained slaves within their own country. It is noticed that the western power hungers have gone
  • 324. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningfrom Africa to Asia to make people poorer by the bannerof development and so called democracy. Not only that tocreate cause and instability in the region they establishedarm sales in the name of so called defenses. Tons ofammunition has been sold to Africa and Asia and now ArabGulf states are in the process to buy heavy arms from theUS, Britain and Zion state. Recently Saudi Arabia and UAEhave signed deal of billions of dollars to acquire heavyarms. All these arms in Muslim country will be gathered forwhat? To save who? The illigimate Arab monarchies? Orto save the interest of Zion regime? To fight with whom?Where the Khadimul Haramain is how come Saudi Arabiaforgot the power of Muslims and gone to purchase suchweapons? Do not they realize that US, Britain and Zionhad control over the economy of African, Asian and MiddleEastern countries? In the return they have been grabbing allkind of resources with their own selected throwing prices ofthe products, and the innocent civilians will bear the burden 325of the huge debts. Has the queen of Britain realized that her whole pride thecrown filled with jewels, ruby and gems which she takesproudly on the important occasions, are either stolen fromIndia or made by the blood of innocent people in Africa,who live lives of slavery in their own country and everydaythey are been shot for small mistake in that gems mining.This is happening today in this era in Africa and Asia. Theglimmer of red and green of those jewels is the reflection ofthe cold and hot blood of innocent minors. Have the westerners or European and North Americanpeople realize that to start a day with a cup of coffee orwith the blood of the civilian farmers from Africa and
  • 325. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... Asia? Farmers live lives of the slaves who do not even know after harvesting the crops with which price they are going to sell. The best coffee are been taken from Ethiopia and still they claim that Ethiopia is the poorest claim. The whole remote is under the Zionist regime. Haile Sellassei the Lion of Judah in his Nazaret Gazette in 1960 said that the west is exaggerating the poverty of Ethiopia; their motive is to steal our coffee, gold and Ethiopias riches. Haile Sellassei was another fascist and the staunt Orthodox Christian whose motive was to erase Muslims from Horn of Africa. The so called Lion of Judah could not see Ethiopian Jews he would burn them alive. He was the severe enemy of Ethiopian Muslim who left them in ignorance. But so smartly the Haile Sellasei establish the first Islamic Sharia court in the Orthodox Christian Ethiopia. That was all to limit the rights of Ethiopian Muslims. In the Islamic Sharia court only Marriage was performed and not more.326 Till now the Ethiopian Muslims who are in majority living under systematic discrimination. Higher education is been neither granted nor higher post in the regime is given to the Muslims. During the time of Mangistu Haile Maryam, Ethiopian Muslims had very good chance to strengthen their institution. But Saudi and other Gulf regimes interference in every mosque created fitna. Thus Ethiopian Muslims Ummah who were proud of Sufi sect of Islam that spread in the Africa, remained divided and struggling for their rights in their own country. Thus Ethiopian Muslims live the life of oppression because of disunity in the Muslim Ummah and thanks to the petro money of Saudi Arabia. Ethiopian Muslim Youth rose together with Christian Ethiopians to raise their voice against the regime. But
  • 326. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningunfortunately the wahhabi and salafis have weakened theforce of Ethiopian Muslim Youths awakening. Surprisingly whenever the civilian stand up for theirrights they are branded as the either terrorist or thugs ormad mullah. Sayyīd Muhammad Abdullah Hassan`Abd Allāh al-Hasan was a Somali religious from Salihiyya Sufi sect andnationalist leader from Northern Somalia. Referred to asthe Mad Mullah by the British, he led an armed resistancein Somalia for a period of over 20 years against British,Italian, and Ethiopian forces. He was made utilizing anindependent air force unit; this war is not well known to theworld. And yet this is the story of one of the first examples ofthe utilization of modern arms against a powerful peoplesarmy, who had the nearly total control of an immense areawith strong-points which could not be overrun withoutextremely severe losses, and with utilization of the sanctuaryon the other side of international borders. The parallel with 327Vietnam is obvious. The Somali Leader Sayyid Mohamed Abdullah Hassanwas born in the 1860s in Kirrit in the Ogaden Desert. Asa young man he went to sea, and sailed to Egypt wherehe learned from the Mahadi (religious leader) - known forhis victory over Gordon in Kartoum in 1885 - made thetraditional pilgrimage to Mecca and joined the very fanaticalIslamic sect "Mohamed Salih". The British considered him a religious, fanatic rebel,although an opposition member of the Parliament in Londondescribed him as "a. brave man, striving to be free". It has been argued as to whether Sheikh Mohamed wasa tribalist or a nationalist. It might be a rather theoretical
  • 327. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... question in this environment, but the national pride can be seen in a letter he wrote to the English people in 1903: "If the country was cultivated or contained houses or property it would be worth your while to fight. The country is all jungle and that is no use to you. If you want wood or stone you can get them in plenty. There are also many ants heaps. The sun is very hot. All you can get from me is war, nothing else". In several of his poems and speeches, Sayyed Abdulla Hassan said that the British infidels "have destroyed our religion and made our children their children" and that the Christian Ethiopians in league with the British were bent upon plundering the political and religious freedom of the Somali nation. He soon emerged as "a champion of his countrys political and religious freedom, defending it against all Christian invaders." He issued a religious ordinance that any Somali national who did not accept328 the goal of unity of Somalia and would not fight under his leadership would be considered as kafir or gaal. After the First World War it was decided that the British should go into the offensive to annihilate the Mullah and his regime. It was decided to dispatch a self contained RAF unit "Force Z" to Berbera under the command of Group Captain R. Gordon in the last half of 1919. The group had 12 DH9 aeroplanes out of which one was an ambulance plane, 36 officers (incl. 4 medical officers) and 189 other ranks (incl. 25 medical personnel) and had rations, fuel, spare parts, ammunition etc. to operate independently for 6 months. In November 1919 Gordon arrived at Berbera together with his aerodrome engineer and his supply-officer as an
  • 328. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningadvance party. In order to keep the plans secret, they woreno RAF insignia, but came as the advance party for an oil-exploring company. They started up with preparing an aerodrome ("site fordrilling equipment") at Berbera. Next an aerodrome wasmade near Burao, 140 km. from Berbera and 150 km. fromEli Dur Elan fort, where the Mullah was suspected to be.During December more than 20 tons of supplies as well as2.000 camels were moved to the aerodrome at Burao - a6 days ride. On 30th December, the main force, with theaeroplanes, arrived by Royal Navy to Berbera. What we see happening in the lands of Somalia has beenpre-planned before 70 years when Zion regime in Falastinnamed Israel was violently established. Somalia has beendivided in pieces. Christian Missioners in the name of NGOdivided Somalia in tribes. The British major on establishingIsrael in Falastin said that I am not worried about neighboringArabs countries for the security of Israeli state. But he said 329I am afraid with Somalis, if they are settled in safety, theexistence of Israel will be in danger. Somalia is a strategicland, any ship passing for Israel can be monitored easily.In the cold war both USSR and USA were competing toacquire military base in Berbera, but Siad Barre who finallyunderstood the evil motive of so called super power wasagainst USA military base in the region. The attachment of the youths to their spiritual leadersbecame big threat to the power mongers. The leadership ofAyatullah Ruhullah Imam Khomeini and tens of Shia clericshave put the westerners in questioning who these peopleare? Living simple lives without arms and wealth theywin the heart of millions of people in the world. Not only
  • 329. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... that also Arab monarchies and puppet leaders of Muslim countries are worried and disturbed with Shia spiritual leaders. The strength of Marja-iyyat (spiritual leadership) made the westerners sleepless; the power of Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Sistani in his small room and the leadership of Ayatullah Khamanei today in the critical time of I.R.of Iran when all European regimes, USA have joined Zion regime to put an end to the Islamic Awakening. Youths are been informed to cut links from Mojtahids, Maraaji and Islamic Scholars. Heavy instrument in different ways has been used from the Universities, Media, Cyber programs and philosophical books. The Mujtahids, Maraaji and Islamic Scholars who showed the world that only Islam and Islamic teachings is the solution for any state, regime, family and home; have been target of the enemy. The strong faith and knowledge of Mujtahids, Maraajiand Islamic Scholars are been put in the doubts of Muslim youths mind.330 Some Youths only see what is programmed by the media and the internet information that west has been cheating their own people and the world. Today some youths who have been influenced by western media, still ask the question is there democracy in Islamic countries? Is Islamic Awakening without the help of west will work? Can we survive in western countries with our Muslims identity? Is not Islamic Republic of Iran life example which stands all alone without any western domination? Technology, Science, New kinds of Medicine, Literature and all kind of development that a civilian need is been developed without west. The Leader of Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei, has emphasized that Islamic awakening has
  • 330. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningundermined and shaken the Wests status in the internationalscene and even in the countries, dominated by the West.With the victory of Islamic Revolution, the process ofMuslim nations awakening started and following theconsecutive successes of the Islamic Republic of Iran inthe scientific, economic, military, cultural, and politicaldomains, Islamic awakening developed and expanded morethan ever. As the Leader of Islamic Revolution pointedout, this Islamic awakening shook the status of the Westthroughout international equations. Those inside the country engaging in mischief are inspiredby crooked illusions. We do not like the deceived youths,boys and girls to live with these devils and get inspirationfrom them. What have you girls and boys seen from yourcorrupt leaders except empty claims and perversion. Werethey not those who claimed that they were on the side ofpeople and against foreigners? You saw they acted contraryto their claim and took refuge in America, which backs 331them up. Why did you let others think for you? Why do notyou have the independence in your thinking? Why do notyou read about those leaders who are corrupting you whilethey themselves are either in the work, they will come andrule over you. Why do not you think? Why do not you payattention to your own interests? It is not clear what they willdo to you when they come and assume power….Wake up,be aware and put an end to all these evil mischiefs. – ImamKhomeyni Sahifey-ye Imam Volume 15 pp 247..0 Every person finds the glamour on the surface of theocean, unless one jumps in will never know what kind ofconsequences that person is going to face. Islamic Awakening is not to just overthrow regime. But
  • 331. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... Islamic Awakening is to awaken the inner conscience of a being both male and female. It starts from the every individual home and family to achieve real Islamic states. Otherwise it will be another regime change without the inner Islamic teachings. As Hojjatul Islam wal Muslimeen Grand Marja Ayatullah Mazaaheri in his speech when we met him in his resident in Isfahan said that amr bil maruf and nahiy anil munkar is Madhloom "oppressed". To be Good Sunni Muslim or to be good Shia Muslim without enjoining good and forbidding bad within the society is great disaster. Emotional and to blindly follow for the Islamic Awakening without going through the instructions of the Holy Quran, Sunnah and Ahlul Bayt a.s. and the right leadership, is just like putting salt the big ocean. Thousands books have been distributed by wahhabi, salafis, cia and mossad to confuse Muslim Ummah. They are after youths awakening to divert332 youth Islamic awakening to their old and wicked interest. Let us reflect upon the cause of the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (A.S.) (the 3rd Successor after the Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.) and the statement made by him. Before leaving Madinah Imam Hussain a.s. made a will and handed it over to his brother Muhammad Hanafiya. In this will Imam wrote:"My mission is to reform the Muslim community which I propose to do by Amr Bil Maruf and Nahiy anil Munkar, inviting them to the good and advising them against evil. It is not my intention to set myself as an insolent or arrogant tyrant or a mischief maker". The Prophet of Islam pbuh said that, "My followers will be in good condition as long as they bid each other towards the good, forbid each other from the evil, and co-operate
  • 332. International Conference on Youth and Islamic Awakeningwith each other in good deeds. If they do not do this, thenthe heavenly blessings will be lifted from them and someevil ones among them will be imposed over them as a ruler.In that state, they will have no helper, neither on the earthnor in the heaven." In the same line, Imam Ali ibn Abi Taliba.s. said: "Verily the people before you perished becausewhen they committed sins, the Rabbis and the Priests didnot forbid them from it. And when the people becamesubmerged into sins and the Rabbis and the Priests did notforbid them, then the chastisement came down upon them.Therefore, bid towards the good and forbid the evil: andknow that bidding towards the good and sustenance." Do not enslave yourself to another person, for Allah hasmade you a free person. Islam is the religion of Allah sentdown from the heavens to rescue mankind from all problemsand to bring about the people’s happiness in this world andthe next. It is obligatory to implement Islam in all areas oflife – politics, economics, education, society, war, peace, in 333the house, in the school, in the workplace, in the barracks,and in all other stages of life. Islam is a complete religion providing for all the needs ofhumanity in every place and at every time. Islam provides for every person: correct belief; freedomfor individuals and groups; happiness of life through beingsaved from poverty, illness, ignorance and crime; completepeace between countries, individuals, and nations. Everyperson has the right to free thought, free speech, freedom to work, freedom to traveland settle, freedom to write, all of this in a pure frameworkoffered by tolerant Islamic law. The Laws of Islam are all of the systems and laws
  • 333. Youth Islamic Awakening - Awaken the inner Conscience... which the Messenger of Allah brought from Almighty Allah such as the laws of buying and selling, mortgaging, renting, divorce, marriage, the judiciary, bearing witness, inheritance, retribution, compensations and the like. Islam has not neglected to make clear anything, so politics, economics, education, society, peace, war, agriculture, manufacturing, family life, government and all other affairs to do with mankind from his birth to his death are all clarified in Islam and have particular systems and just laws. If mankind implemented them they would find happiness in this world and the next. Maulana Maududi in his book Human Rights in Islam writes, "On the other hand it hurts ones feelings that Muslims are in possession of such a splendid and comprehensive system of law and yet they look forward for guidance to those leaders of the West who could not have dreamed of attaining those heights of truth and justice which was334 achieved a long time ago. Even more painful than this is the realization that throughout the world the rulers who claim to be Muslims have made disobedience to their God and the Prophet as the basis and foundation of their government. May God have mercy on them and give" Where is so called western democracy when million people stand against their regimes decision. We have witnessed Millions marched before American invaded Iraq from London to Toronto and from Washington to Hamburg. The similar people stood against G8 globalization policy. Where the millions civilians say was heard? Today democracy goes as the rhyme of Music of the regime. As far as regime is safe publics voice is ignored and neglected. Islamic Awakening should start long before world war
  • 334. International Conference on Youth and Islamic AwakeningOne when the colonial power shared the poor countries ofAfrica and Asia as their feast. Every colonial regime tookthe best part of their interest to rule and grab all kind ofresources the developing countries had. Walter Lippman considers it a weakness of democracythat it laid more emphasis on the origin of governmentrather than on what it should do. He says (Rossiter, 1982,p. 21) : The threats of impacting on the Muslim youths, all kindof fears and doubts are been created in the mind of youthworldwide through different type of sources. But iinsteadit turns to opposite, youth become more attached to theHoly Quran and Sunnah and their spiritual clergymen andleaders. Youth Islamic Awakening in Western countries isworrying the power mongers. For instance when the lateImam Khomeini the great founder of I-R of Iran issued theverdict of apostasy of Salman Rushdi, the presence anddemonstration in the west was considerable. 335 Sayyid Muhammad H.Fadlullah said when Israel wasthreatening Lebnani revolutionary youths with bombs"rebellion against fear." The great power inspired fearamong the oppressed, who had no more than "childrenstoys" to mount their opposition, but by conquering theirown fear, through acceptance of the virtue of martyrdom,the oppressed could evoke alarm and fear among theiroppressors." In a short span of time, the first adherents ofHizbullah had overcome fear. "The school of the IslamicRevolutionary Guard made the Muslim youths lovemartyrdom," said Abbas al-Musawi. In one of his speeches, Imam Hussein a.s. said thatthe authorities in Kufa had given him only two options -
  • 335. Youth Islamic Awa