Storytime for Children with Disabilities
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Storytime for Children with Disabilities

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Looking for ways to modify your storytimes to better serve children with disabilities? This presentation can help you by giving ideas about setting the scene, organizing your storytimes, and giving ...

Looking for ways to modify your storytimes to better serve children with disabilities? This presentation can help you by giving ideas about setting the scene, organizing your storytimes, and giving positive reinforcement.

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  • Go slowly through this slide talking about the changes since the late 90’s. <br />
  • The likelihood of SOMEONE having a disability and being in your story time is high. <br />
  • The likelihood of SOMEONE having a disability and being in your story time is high. <br />
  • Directly from the Surgeon General’s 1999 report on mental health. <br /> In other words, all children will act out eventually, and it will probably occur in your storytime sooner or later. So remember, all kids are kids. Disabilities or not. <br />
  • Directly from the Surgeon General’s 1999 report on mental health. <br /> In other words, all children will act out eventually, and it will probably occur in your storytime sooner or later. So remember, all kids are kids. Disabilities or not. <br />
  • In my research regarding modification of storytime, this one area that clearly presents difficulties. Most libraries that do programming for deaf, do so with an interpreter during a deaf storytime. Because of the communication barrier, it makes modification difficult. However, with a child who is hard of hearing, here are a few ideas that may be helpful in dealing with their needs. <br />
  • When a blind or visually impaired child attends your storytimes, here are a few things to remember: <br /> Don’t change your topics. Children who are blind need the same pre-reading skills as other children. They need to know about rhyming, shapes, relationships and more. <br /> Make sure that you add books that are very descriptive to your lineup of stories <br /> When doing fingerplays, talk the children through the motions while you are demonstrating for the sighted children. <br /> When you expect a behavior, i.e. holding up a hand to answer a question, let the children know that is what you want. <br /> Crafts in storytime can serve many functions: a bridge between the storytime and home for narrative skills or to gain fine motor skills. Blind children need these as much as any other child. If you do crafts, continue on with them. <br /> Use big books so that children with low vision may be able to see the pictures in a book or try to provide them with a second copy of the book so that they may hold it in a way where they can view the pictures <br /> Provide tactile objects relative to the story. Make sure that these are varied. <br />
  • In my research regarding modification of storytime, this one area that clearly presents difficulties. Most libraries that do programming for deaf, do so with an interpreter during a deaf storytime. Because of the communication barrier, it makes modification difficult. However, with a child who is hard of hearing, here are a few ideas that may be helpful in dealing with their needs. <br />
  • Actually, this storytime is very similar than your regular one. With a sensory storytime you both have songs, stories, visuals and it is a similar format. <br />
  • This is the flannel of Tricia Twargowski who has been doing an autistic storytime since 2008 and been a great help for me. I have one of my own but just not a picture. I put the schedule of what we are doing on the board and when we complete an activity I put it in a folder that says “done.” Many autistic children use schedules in their daily lives to indicate what they should be doing from the morning to the evening. Not all autistic children use these and I get a different response from some kids than others. Board Maker is a program you have to buy, I got my images from a special ed teacher who printed them off for me and I laminated them and put velcro on the back. (Bring examples and show them the ears, eyes, and mouth that helps them be quiet) <br />
  • Favorite authors: Pat Hutchins, Emma Dodd These authors are great for their sing/song books: Raffi, Jane Cabrera, Iza Trapani <br /> Also try wordless picture books like Tuesday by David Wiesner. These can be great to promote higher order thinking and lets the parents be more involved. <br />
  • It is hard for autistic children to just focus on you reading a book. Double visuals are great for this, so they can focus on more than one thing. Storytime boxes have been a great help for me with this, I have also ordered a number of flannels from etsy.com and had volunteers help me make some. <br />
  • Autistic children will understand “your” space vs. “their” space if there are visual clues. Suggestions: masking tape, seat cushions, be on a stage. This does not always work but can help. Autistic children often have proprioception issues and cannot sit still for long periods of time. They need to move and explore their surroundings. A suggestion would be to have the parents come early so they can explore the space before storytime starts. Many autistic children get scared of new spaces and very large or cramped rooms. <br />
  • Autistic children love to explore and will play with anything they can get their hands on. They will climb on chairs, play with blinds or anything available. First time I had a kid grab the flagpole off the staff and walk away with it. While autistic children are visual and having big pictures projected on the screen can be great, special ed teachers have recommended not to do it because they will be distracted by the device and wires. <br />
  • Some autistic children work better in dim lighting, for others it does not bother them. Some have suggested to me to keep the music quieter and less jarring. I have not found that loud music upsets my autistic kids but everyone is different. I always provide ear plugs for sound-sensitive children. <br />
  • Parents know how to discipline their children best. Each child is disciplined differently at home and your type of discipline will most likely be ineffective. What works with a non-special needs child, will probably not work with these children and may make it worse. Sitting with parents also calms and controls the child. <br />
  • 8 positive attentions/corrections to 2 negative ones <br /> When working with a “sensory seeking” ASD they often seek attention any way they can, pulling off flannels, making noise. If attention is what they seek, do not give it to them…no eye contact, no words, no reaction and no emotion. <br /> Show picture symbol cards which visually illustrate what you want them to do <br /> Peer pressure is important…one sensory seeking child was “wild” at first but now he sometimes corrects the other children when they get up. <br />
  • I include lots of songs in this storytime. Some of my favorite CDs are: Georgina Stewart, Super Simple Songs (1, 2 & 3) , Laurie Berkner, Jim Gill, Baby Toddler CDs like Baloney, Margie La Bella, Raffi, Johnette Downing, and Eric Litwin. <br />
  • I have a rest area in the corner of my auditorium where I put a rug (to visually demarcate the space), stuffed animals and non-fiction books related to the theme. The rest area has been a great addition. Some of the lower-functioning children prefer to just sit there and play and completely ignore me. But since they are happy there I do not make an issue of it. As mentioned before, it is difficult to have these kids sit for any length of time. <br />
  • After the storytime leave time for socializing. I put out my crafts here, leave flannels or other toys for them to play with and sometimes we do chalk on the porch. I always have music playing and some of the kids like to dance to it. For some of them, their favorite part are the bubbles. I always use Gymboree bubbles which are nontoxic (they can eat them) and last forever. Some of the kids like to blow the bubbles but others just play around with them. You can also get a bubble blower and just leave it on afterwards. This is a great time for parents to socialize. I’ve had a number of preschool and special ed teachers come out and talk with the parents afterwards. <br />
  • Emotional disorders cover a broad range of ailments. Those listed that are starred are ones that are often seen in other categories, but may not be considered a primary emotional disorder. In simpler terms, for example, a child that has a communication disorder my develop a secondary emotional disorder as a result of the communication disorder. <br />
  • From the CDC: Intellectual disability is characterized both by a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence and by limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities. Intellectual disability is sometimes referred to as a cognitive disability or mental retardation. <br /> Children with intellectual disability can and do learn new skills, but they develop more slowly than children with average intelligence and adaptive skills. There are different degrees of Intellectual disability, ranging from mild to profound. A person&apos;s level of Intellectual disability can be defined by their intelligence quotient (IQ), or by the types and amount of support they need. <br />
  • From the National Center for Learning Disorders: A learning disability (LD) is a neurological disorder that affects the brain&apos;s ability to receive, process, store and respond to information. The term learning disability is used to describe the seeming unexplained difficulty a person of at least average intelligence has in acquiring basic academic skills. These skills are essential for success at school and work, and for coping with life in general. LD is not a single disorder. It is a term that refers to a group of disorders. <br /> Generally we don’t think of LD as a category for young children not yet in school, however 8% of children ages 3-5 are in early learning programs for specific learning disabilities. These programs are usually done through local school systems in the form of a developmental preschool or by therapists. <br />
  • You’ll notice that all of these tips are ones that you’d probably already use for selecting your materials for storytime. One thing to remember about working with children with disabilities is that while the may need some modifications, their learning needs are the same. If you use the Every Child Ready to Read Program at your Library, those six early literacy skills are still significant and useful for this group. <br />
  • Use simple fingerplays with limited actions. For example, counting fingerplays are easily found <br /> Songs with repetition are useful. Use songs that have the same refrain or tune from week to week <br /> Promote movement activities that can be done from a seated position: arms up or down, clapping, body part identification… <br />
  • Priming, an intervention that introduces children to information or activities prior to their use, is a low-cost, time-efficient strategy that helps children who need structure and predictability. Priming familiarizes a child with material before its use; introduces predictability into the information or activity, thereby, reducing stress and anxiety; and increases the child’s success. Priming typically involves showing students the materials that will be used in a lesson the day or the morning before the activity.  <br /> Priming has generally been used in helping autistic children, however, it can be very useful for all children in that the process allows them to become familiarized with the library and how your programs are run. This can ease anxiety about what’s going to happen next. <br /> If you have pre-registration for programs, you may ask that parents alert you to any disabilities. Remember, they may or may not tell you, but when you ask or advertise, you might state something like “We ask that you tell us about any conditions your child may have so that we can make our storytimes as safe, educational and fun for them as possible.” This will help cover anything from a peanut allergy to a communication disorder. Also, if you do registration, you can invite the parent or caregiver to tour the library with the child beforehand so that they can become familiar with the facility. For example, if a child who is sensitive to the noise of fluorescent bulbs (they hum), you’ll be able to find out if the library’s lighting is an issue. <br /> In doing thematic storytimes, it is helpful to publish your topics so that parents can help prepare their children for the session. For example, if a child is scared of dogs and your storytime is about dogs that week, the parent may choose to not attend that week. <br /> Familiarizing the child with the storytime room can help alleviate stress. Allowing that child in the room first may help in positioning the child for better viewing or hearing. <br /> Once you are ready to start your storytime, talk about what activities you’ll be doing that day. For example, you would say “Welcome to storytime! Today we’re going to be reading about penguins. First I’ll be reading…, then we’ll sing a song and ….” This priming also helps cut down on the interruptions of children asking “when are we going to do this or that.” <br />
  • Just like any other storytime you want to encourage participation. You may have to modify the situation, though. <br /> If you are using flannel board stories where the children put pieces on the board, you may want to add sticky back to the pieces so that a child who cannot grasp well can still “hold on” to the piece. Use a portable flannel board so that a child with limited mobility can still participate by you going to them. <br /> Having a prop available for the children to hold during the story allows them to connect to the story in a physical way. This can be as simple as a paper die-cut shape or something like a play piece of food. <br /> Encourage the children to listen for certain phrases or words in a story to help keep them engaged. For example, you might ask the children to say “Woof” every time you say the word dog. This may encourage some rowdiness, but be concrete in your directions about when the can and can’t say “woof.” Set clear guidelines. <br />
  • Peer support, or modeling, has been found to be very helpful for autistic children. As many autistic children have difficulty in understanding social cues, you want to encourage them to copy those behaviors from children that are appropriate. <br /> This use of modeling is also helpful for the “regular” child that may be a bit inattentive during a storytime. You may use the phrase “ I like how so-and-so is sitting quietly” to point out the behaviors you are expecting. <br />
  • I know that talking to parents about their children’s behavior can often be very intimidating, however, it is your responsibility to your patrons as a group to do that is needed. Please remember that these do not need to be negative interactions even if there is a problem. You should try to get in the habit of speaking to the parents regularly so that when problems do occur, there is already a relationship there. <br />
  • Behavior management can often be addressed before particular behaviors are observed. Here are some strategies for you to try before issues occur. <br /> Encouraging friendships: include activities where children are partnered or grouped together to promote inclusion. This can be as simple as doing “ring around the rosie” or a matching game where children are have to find each other with colored shapes. You should also make sure that all children get to “take a turn.” This activity could be calling names to put up carpet squares or putting a shape on a flannel board. <br /> Praise good behavior and do it immediately when you see it. For example, if you want the children to sit quietly while reading a story, and you see a child modeling the behavior, immediately let him or her know that you are pleased. However, doing this in the middle of a story can be disruptive, so do the praising immediately after the story. <br /> Be clear with your expectations. Describe what behaviors are acceptable and encouraged. If you are singing a song and expect all the children to join in, let them know. While you are doing this, be enthusiastic. For example: Now we are going to sing a song about spiders. First, we are going to listen to the song and not sing. Then, we are all going to sing it together. I know that you can do it and I want to hear each of you! <br />
  • Behavior management can often be addressed before particular behaviors are observed. Here are some strategies for you to try before issues occur. <br /> Encouraging friendships: include activities where children are partnered or grouped together to promote inclusion. This can be as simple as doing “ring around the rosie” or a matching game where children are have to find each other with colored shapes. You should also make sure that all children get to “take a turn.” This activity could be calling names to put up carpet squares or putting a shape on a flannel board. <br /> Praise good behavior and do it immediately when you see it. For example, if you want the children to sit quietly while reading a story, and you see a child modeling the behavior, immediately let him or her know that you are pleased. However, doing this in the middle of a story can be disruptive, so do the praising immediately after the story. <br /> Be clear with your expectations. Describe what behaviors are acceptable and encouraged. If you are singing a song and expect all the children to join in, let them know. While you are doing this, be enthusiastic. For example: Now we are going to sing a song about spiders. First, we are going to listen to the song and not sing. Then, we are all going to sing it together. I know that you can do it and I want to hear each of you! <br />
  • Of course we all know that we can’t plan away all behavior issues and we have to deal with them when the happen. Here are a few suggestions for those trying times: <br /> When a behavior occurs, immediately diffuse and redirect: give the child choices that are natural. For example, a child might be throwing crayons during craft time, ask them to stop throwing the crayons and give them a choice of what to do next “you can be finished with your craft or you can sit and I’ll give you another crayon.” These choices need to be concrete and they have to be ones that can truly be done. No “idle threats” are allowed! <br /> Be specific about the behavior that you want to change. Telling a child to stop doing “that” is often confusing because they may not fully realize what it is they are doing. If they are making noises, ask them to stop making the noise. Be prepared to immediately reinforce the positive when they do it. <br /> If the behavior is a mild one, planned ignoring or differential attention can be very useful. For example, if a child is messing with their nametag, but not disturbing another child, ignore the behavior, but try to praise them once they stop. The child then becomes aware that you were aware of the behavior, but the situation does not become a negative one. Using this technique must be reserved for behaviors that are not truly disruptive for the group. <br /> When addressing a behavior, don’t make it personal. State the action that has been bothersome and then tell them how you are going to deal with it. “Michael, you have interrupted me three times in this story. I will answer your question when I finish reading it.” and go on. Don’t be angry or annoyed when addressing the child as this can escalate the situation. <br /> “Prudent reprimands that are immediate, unemotional, brief, and consistently backed up with consequences are clearly preferred to lengthy reprimands that are delayed, loud, emotional, and not matched to consequences” (A study of effectively reprimanding children – Abramowitz and O’Leary, 1988) <br /> We all have had (or will have) children that we simply find annoying or that we expect to act up in storytime. Knowing this, remember to choose your battles. If a behavior truly isn’t hurting the child or another child and can be ignored, then do it. Nitpicking at a child will lead to more negative behaviors and a bad association with books and reading. Take a deep breath and let it go. However, you must be CONSISTENT and fair! If you ignore a behavior in the non-problem child, don’t address the same issue with the special needs child. <br /> Remember, not everything works with every child. Sometimes you just have to stop what you are doing and move on to something else. If you are finding that the children are not attentive to a story, be prepared to move on to a movement activity. Sometimes changing the activity can change the atmosphere. <br />
  • Now, let’s take a step back from assuming that parents or caregivers are going to be upfront and forthcoming about their child’s disability. Often we see children in different setting and light than do their parents. We see them in group dynamics and we see them without the filter of parenthood. You may encounter parental denial about a condition or be suspicious that the child has a problem, but it hasn’t been diagnosed. In these cases there are a few things that you need to remember: 1. We are not doctors and we usually only encounter these children for an hour or so every week, if that. If you feel that there is a problem, you need to address the parent about the behavior, and not suggest that there is a physical or mental problem with the child. 2. You are already doing a lot of what a child needs without labeling their issues. Even if the child is autistic or has some other emotional disorder, that child needs early literacy skills and socialization. If the child is diagnosed, you may change some aspects of your program in ways that we talked about, but the purpose of your programming hasn’t changed. <br /> Again, while I know it is difficult, if you’ve tried different techniques and have been unsuccessful, you must speak to the parent or caregiver. It is your job to keep the programming focused and to bring a good program to all of the children. Approaching the parents may prove uncomfortable, but asking them how they deal with similar situations at home without mentioning the perceived disability is a good way to open the conversation. For example you might say, “I noticed during storytime that Mindy gets upset when we play music. Does she get upset at home like this? What do you do when this happens?” or make a suggestion like “I noticed that Brandon likes to be up and moving during storytimes. Does he do this with you at home? Would you mind if I gave him something to occupy his hands while I read the stories?” Bring a suggested solution with you to the conversation. <br />
  • Remember, you probably already have children in your programs that have disabilities and you just aren’t aware of it. Children with disabilities need the same things that other children need, so your storytime elements should remain the same. <br /> Get parent input whenever possible. Many of your adaptations should come from parent advice <br />
  • Remember, you probably already have children in your programs that have disabilities and you just aren’t aware of it. Children with disabilities need the same things that other children need, so your storytime elements should remain the same. <br /> Get parent input whenever possible. Many of your adaptations should come from parent advice <br />

Storytime for Children with Disabilities Storytime for Children with Disabilities Presentation Transcript

  • Storytime for Children with Disabilities Suzanne Walker Indiana State Library suwalker@library.in.gov
  • Who am I?
  • Who are you?
  • What we will cover Types of disabilities and some statistics Program modifications Behavior management
  • What we will not cover ADA laws and compliance Advocacy agencies
  • http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsdev_disabilities/index.html
  • http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsdev_disabilities/index.html http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html http://carlysvoice.com/
  • Take Note Communicate and learn from the parents of your Storytime Children Who in here is a doctor? No?
  • Expectations and Registration Parents don’t know that you can help. Know what your resources can support. Be clear about what modifications you can make and what modifications are unrealistic for you and your staff or space.
  • Types of Disabilities Physical Emotional Intellectual
  • Physical disabilities Lack of mobility Vision impairment Hearing loss
  • Lack of Mobility Children may be in a wheel cheer or other assisted mobility device Children may be in leg or arm braces or both Small children may have very little control of their bodies
  • Modifications for Lack of Mobility Make sure there is room for the child and their apparatus in your space Their device is an extension of their body. Make eye contact Assist giving that child a turn
  • Jackson Center for Conductive Education
  • Blind or Low Vision You might not know. Pay attention to whether or not your students wear glasses. Very dependent on whether or not the parent tells you Color issues
  • Modifications for the blind/low vision Use descriptive books or storytelling Talk through the motions Explain visual communications Crafts Second copies or big books Tactile objects
  • Macie and Katie – Blind Low Vision
  • Deaf or hard of hearing Again…dependent on communications from the parent. Are you seeing a pattern?
  • Teen council member - Gabby
  • Autism
  • Autism is a Sensory Processing Disorder “Self regulation is the nervous system’s ability to attain, maintain and change levels of arousal or alertness.” (Williams and Shellenberger, 1994)
  • Sensory Seeking vs. Sensory Aversion Under Responsive Over-responsive
  • General Impairments 1.Communication 2.Social Interactions 3.Socially irrelevant behaviors Autistic people create OUTPUT to prevent INPUT
  • Similarities Songs Stories Visuals Format Audience
  • But there are differences… Board Maker Autistic children are very visual and often use picture symbols to designate activities and abstract concepts.
  • Different types of books Simple, repetitive text As literal as possible Toddler books are great Always have a visual to go with your book or some kind of physical activity Try books that you sing instead of read Use BIG books
  • Autistic Children are visual learners Active visuals Let the children help tell the story.
  • Visual Learning: Space  Visually demarcate “your” space vs. “their” space - seating spots  Understand that many children cannot sit and will move. Do not restrict this Proprioception: sensing the orientation and motion of ones limb’s and body through spaceAre many of these children sitting?
  • Weighted blankets and fidget toys are a great way to calm sensory seeking behavior.
  • Visual Learning: No Distractions  Hide program supplies in a basket next to you  Put away any wires for CD players or other electronic equipment  Hide craft supplies with tablecloth  Put away any other items, display cases, flags, decorations, pull blinds away  Digital projectors etc. not recommended
  • No Distractions (contd)  Dim the lights (optional)  Keep door closed to prevent escape artists  If possible put a volunteer near the back of the room near the door to control outbursts etc.  Provide earplugs to sound-sensitive children or if not, be aware of ambient noise
  • No Distractions (contd) Have parents sit with their children. Do not provide chairs unless necessary .
  • Managing Behavior Let parents be the ones who discipline, it is not your role Show children visually what you want them to do Praise good behavior Have other children model proper behavior, the other children will see it and follow
  • Songs Autistic children love songs! Include more songs than your regular storytime Make songs tactile through scarves, ribbons, beanbags, parachutes, shakers or anything else you can think of
  • Rest Area  Include a space in your storytime room/auditorium for the children to take a break  Put related books and stuffed animals in this area  A rest area can be great for upset children, do not call it “Time out”  Having a rest area lets the children and parents participate without having to leave the room
  • Playtime/ Social Hour Always leave time afterwards for the kids to run around and play. Parents also want a time to socialize and meet with other parents that have autistic children.
  • Emotional disabilities Anxiety disorders Depression Bi-polar disorders AD/HD Learning/communication disorders* Conduct disorders Eating disorders Schizophrenia
  • Intellectual Ranges from mild to profound Defined by IQ or level of support needed
  • Learning disabilities Dyslexia ADD-AD/HD
  • Choosing your stories Select shorter stories Use stories that feature repetitive language Encourage interaction by using wordless picture books Repeat stories that have been successful with your group
  • Other storytime elements Simple fingerplays Songs with repetition Movement activities that can be done from a seated position Regular open/closing songs
  • Priming Registration – invite parents/caregivers to bring the child to the library so they can be familiar with the facility If you do thematic storytimes, publish the topics before the program to assist in priming at home Allow the child to become familiar with the programming room before storytime List the segments of your program Encourage parents to stay during the program
  • Setting the scene Provide children with individual boundaries with carpet squares Make sure that all children can see you and your props Use big books with large illustrations so that all of children can see
  • Setting the scene Consider an outline of your storytime, in pictures…point to each element as you change Talk about time (we will be done with Story time with the big hand is on the 12) Other Visual cues as needed…these can also help with behavior
  • Encourage interaction Use flannel board stories Have props available for the children to hold Be patient with their responses…these kids take a little longer to process Alternate sitting with moving
  • Peer support Seat the target child next to a peer that models appropriate behavior If you ask questions about the story, call on a child that you know will model the appropriate type of response before calling on the target child
  • Parental involvement Ask for favorite topics or titles Let parents know about good behavior Ask what they do that works
  • Behavior management - before Give the expectation of good behavior.  Before the program starts, let parents know that they can certainly take their child out of the room if the child is unhappy, and return when the child is calmer.
  • Behavior management - before Encourage friendships Catch them being good and reinforce it Describe what you want Be enthusiastic Heard that having visual cues helps behavior issues a lot Backwards chaining
  • Behavior management – in the moment Diffuse and redirect Be specific Planned ignoring or differential attention Don’t make it personal Choose your battles Be fair and consistent Be flexible Keep things moving
  • Lack of communication Parental denial Undiagnosed conditions
  • In conclusion Don’t reinvent the wheel Get parent/caregiver input Be flexible
  • The ALSC Blog is a GREAT resource: http://www.alsc.ala.org/blog/category/special-ne
  • Resources to check out Tricia’s blog on her autistic storytime on ALSC: http://www.alsc.ala.org/blog/?p=536 1001 Great Ideas for Teaching and Raising Children with Autism for Asperger’s by Ellen Notbohm Utah Parent Center: http://www.utahparentcenter.org/ Autism Speaks: http://www.autismspeaks.org/ Boardmaker Share: Find great picture symbols for your storytime for free. http://www.boardmakershare.com/ Your local Special Ed teachers. Find some here: http://www.schools.utah.gov/sars/
  • Some of this information came from a presentation from: Carrie Rogers- Whitehead
  • Questions? Suzanne Walker Children’s Services Consultant suwalker@library.in.gov