Performance Management (Sigit)

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Performance Management (Sigit)

  1. 1. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT & APPRISAL (MANAJEMEN & PENILAIAN KERJA)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–1
  2. 2. Comparing Performance Appraisal and Performance Management (Membandingkan Penilaian Kinerja dan Manajemen Kinerja) Performance appraisal (Penilaian Kinerja) – Evaluating an employee’s current and/or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. (Mengevaluasi kinerja saat ini dan / atau masa lalu karyawan relatif terhadap-Nya atau standar kinerja.) Performance management (Manajemen Kinerja) – The process employers use to make sure employees are working toward organizational goals. (Para pengusaha menggunakan proses untuk membuat karyawan yakin adalah bekerja menuju tujuan organisasi.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–2
  3. 3. Why Performance Management? (Mengapa Manajemen Kinerja) Increasing use by employers of performance management reflects:Meningkatnya penggunaan oleh majikan manajemen kinerja mencerminkan: – The popularity of the total quality management (TQM) concepts. (Popularitas dari manajemen kualitas total (TQM) konsep.) – The belief that traditional performance appraisals are often not just useless but counterproductive. (Keyakinan bahwa penilaian kinerja tradisional sering tidak hanya berguna tapi kontraproduktif.) – The necessity in today’s globally competitive industrial environment for every employee’s efforts to focus on helping the company to achieve its strategic goals. (Kebutuhan di lingkungan industri global yang kompetitif saat ini bagi upaya setiap karyawan untuk fokus pada membantu perusahaan untuk mencapai tujuan strategis.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–3
  4. 4. An Introduction to Appraising Performance (Sebuah Pengantar Menilai Kinerja) Why appraise performance? – Appraisals play an integral role in the employer’s performance management process. (Penilaian memainkan peran integral dalam proses manajemen kinerja majikan.) – Appraisals help in planning for correcting deficiencies and reinforce things done correctly. (Penilaian membantu dalam perencanaan untuk memperbaiki kekurangan dan memperkuat hal-hal yang dilakukan dengan benar.) – Appraisals, in identifying employee strengths and weaknesses, are useful for career planning (Penilaian, dalam mengidentifikasi kekuatan dan kelemahan karyawan, yang berguna untuk perencanaan karir) – Appraisals affect the employer’s salary raise decisions. (Penilaian mempengaruhi gaji majikan keputusan menaikkan.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–4
  5. 5. Classroom Teaching Appraisal By Students Source: Richard I. Miller, Evaluating Faculty for Promotional and Tenure (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1987), pp. 164–165. Copyright © 1987, Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission. Figure 9–1© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–5
  6. 6. Realistic Appraisals (Realistis Penilaian) Motivations for soft (less-than-candid) appraisals (Motivasi untuk soft (kurang-dari-ikhlas) penilaian) – The fear of having to hire and train someone new (Rasa takut harus menyewa dan melatih orang baru) – The unpleasant reaction of the appraisee (Reaksi yang tidak menyenangkan dari appraisee yang) – A company appraisal process that’s not conducive to candor (Sebuah penilaian perusahaan proses itu tidak kondusif untuk keterusterangan) Hazards of giving soft appraisals (Bahaya memberikan penilaian lunak) – Employee loses the chance to improve before being forced to change jobs. (Karyawan kehilangan kesempatan untuk memperbaiki sebelum dipaksa untuk mengganti pekerjaan.) – Lawsuits arising from dismissals involving inaccurate performance appraisals. (Tuntutan hukum yang timbul dari pemecatan yang melibatkan penilaian kinerja tidak akurat.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–6
  7. 7. Continuous improvement (perbaikan terus menerus) A management philosophy that requires employers to continuously set and relentlessly meet ever-higher quality, cost, delivery, and availability goals by:Sebuah filosofi manajemen yang mensyaratkan majikan untuk terus menerusmemenuhi mengatur dan semakin tinggi kualitas, biaya, pengiriman, dan tujuanketersediaan dengan – Eradicating the seven wastes: (Pemberantasan tujuh limbah) • overproduction, defective products, and unnecessary downtime, transportation, processing costs, motion, and inventory. (overproduksi, produk cacat, dan tidak perlu downtime, transportasi, biaya pengolahan, gerak, dan persediaan.) – Requiring each employee to continuously improve his or her own personal performance, from one appraisal period to the next. (Mewajibkan setiap karyawan untuk terus meningkatkan kinerja pribadinya sendiri, dari satu periode penilaian ke yang berikutnya.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–7
  8. 8. The Components of an Effective Performance Management Process Komponen dari Proses Manajemen Kinerja Efektif Direction sharing (arah berbagi) Role clarification (peran klarifikasi) Goal alignment (tujuan keselarasan) Developmental goal setting (Pembangunan penetapan tujuan) Ongoing performance monitoring (Berkelanjutan pemantauan kinerja) Ongoing feedback (umpan balik yang sedang berlangsung) Coaching and support (Pelatihan dan dukungan) Performance assessment (appraisal) (Penilaian kinerja (penilaian)) Rewards, recognition, and compensation (Hadiah, pengakuan, dan kompensasi) Workflow and process control and return (Alur kerja dan kontrol proses dan kembali) Figure 9–2© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–8
  9. 9. Defining Goals and Work Efforts Guidelines for effective goals (Pedoman untuk tujuan yang efektif) – Assign specific goals (Tetapkan tujuan spesifik) – Assign measurable goals (Tetapkan target yang terukur) – Assign challenging but doable goals (Menetapkan tujuan yang menantang tapi bisa dilakukan) – Encourage participation (mendorong partisipasi) SMART goals are: (Tujuan SMART) – Specific, and clearly state the desired results. (Spesifik, dan jelas menyatakan hasil yang diinginkan.) – Measurable in answering ―how much.‖ (Terukur dalam menjawab "berapa banyak.―) – Attainable, and not too tough or too easy. (Dicapai, dan tidak terlalu sulit atau terlalu mudah.) – Relevant to what’s to be achieved. (Relevan dengan apa yang ingin dicapai.) – Timely in reflecting deadlines and milestones. (Tepat waktu dalam tenggat waktu dan tonggak mencerminkan)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–9
  10. 10. Performance Appraisal Roles (Peran Penilaian Kinerja) Supervisors (pengawas) – Usually do the actual appraising. (Biasanya melakukan penilaian yang sebenarnya.) – Must be familiar with basic appraisal techniques. (Harus akrab dengan teknik penilaian dasar.) – Must understand and avoid problems that can cripple appraisals. (Harus memahami dan menghindari masalah yang dapat melumpuhkan penilaian.) – Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly. (Harus tahu bagaimana melakukan penilaian yang cukup.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–10
  11. 11. Performance Appraisal Roles (cont’d) (Peran Penilaian Kinerja (Lanjutan) HR department (HR Departement) – Serves a policy-making and advisory role. (Melayani pembuatan kebijakan dan peran penasihat.) – Provides advice and assistance regarding the appraisal tool to use. (Menyediakan saran dan bantuan mengenai alat penilaian untuk digunakan.) – Prepares forms and procedures and insists that all departments use them. (Menyiapkan formulir dan prosedur dan menegaskan bahwa semua departemen menggunakannya.) – Responsible for training supervisors to improve their appraisal skills. (Bertanggung jawab untuk supervisor pelatihan untuk meningkatkan keterampilan penilaian mereka.) – Responsible for monitoring the system to ensure that appraisal formats and criteria comply with EEO laws and are up to date. (Bertanggung jawab untuk sistem pemantauan untuk memastikan bahwa penilaian format dan kriteria sesuai dengan undang- undang EEO dan yang up to date.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–11
  12. 12. Steps in Appraising Performance (Langkah-langkah dalam Menilai Kinerja) Defining the job (Mendefinisikan pekerjaan) – Making sure that you and your subordinate agree on his or her duties and job standards. (Pastikan bahwa Anda dan bawahan Anda setuju pada tugasnya dan standar kerja.) Appraising performance (penilaian kinerja) – Comparing your subordinate’s actual performance to the standards that have been set; this usually involves some type of rating form. (Membandingkan kinerja aktual bawahan Anda untuk standar yang telah ditetapkan; ini biasanya melibatkan beberapa tipe form penilaian.) Providing feedback (memberikan umpan balik) – Discussing the subordinate’s performance and progress, and making plans for any development required. (Membahas kinerja bawahan dan kemajuan, dan membuat rencana untuk setiap pembangunan yang dibutuhkan.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–12
  13. 13. Designing the Appraisal Tool (Merancang Perangkat Penilaian) What to measure? (Apa untuk mengukur?) – Work output (quality and quantity) (Kerja output (kualitas dan kuantitas)) – Personal competencies (pribadi kompetensi) – Goal (objective) achievement (Sasaran (tujuan) prestasi) How to measure? (Bagaimana mengukur?) – Graphic rating scales (Grafis Peringkat skala) – Alternation ranking method (Alternasi peringkat metode) – Management by Objectives (MBO) (Tujuan Dari Management) (MBO))© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–13
  14. 14. Performance Appraisal Methods (Metode Penilaian Kinerja) Graphic rating scale (Grafis Peringkat skala) – A scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each that is used to identify the score that best describes an employee’s level of performance for each trait. (Sebuah skala yang berisi daftar sejumlah ciri-ciri dan berbagai kinerja untuk masing-masing yang digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi skor yang paling menggambarkan tingkat seorang karyawan kinerja untuk masing-masing sifat.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–14
  15. 15. Graphic Rating Scale with Space for Comments (Penilaian Skala Grafis dengan Ruang untuk Komentar) Figure 9–3© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–15
  16. 16. Portion of an Administrative Secretary’s Sample Performance Appraisal Form (Bagian Kinerja Contoh Formulir seorang Sekretaris Administrasi yang Appraisal)Source: James Buford Jr., Bettye Burkhalter, and Grover Jacobs, “Link Job Descriptionto Performance Appraisals,” Personnel Journal, June 1988, pp. 135–136. Figure 9–4© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–16
  17. 17. Performance Management Outline (Outline Manajemen Kinerja)Source: www.cwru.edu. Figure 9–5a© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–17
  18. 18. Performance Management Outline (cont’d) (Outline Manajemen Kinerja (Lanjutan) Figure 9–5bSource: www.cwru.edu.© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–18
  19. 19. Performance Management Outline (cont’d) (Outline Manajemen Kinerja (Lanjutan) Figure 9–5cSource: www.cwru.edu.© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–19
  20. 20. Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d) (Metode Penilaian Kinerja (Lanjutan)) Alternation ranking method (Alternasi peringkat metode) – Ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait, choosing highest, then lowest, until all are ranked. (Karyawan peringkat dari terbaik ke terburuk pada sifat tertentu, memilih tertinggi, maka terendah, sampai semua peringkat.) Paired comparison method (Metode perbandingan berpasangan) – Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of the employees for each trait and indicating which is the better employee of the pair. (Peringkat karyawan dengan membuat grafik dari semua pasangan yang mungkin dari karyawan untuk masing- masing dan menunjukkan sifat yang merupakan karyawan yang lebih baik dari pasangan.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–20
  21. 21. Alternation Ranking Scale (Alternasi Peringkat Skala) Figure 9–6© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–21
  22. 22. Ranking Employees by the Paired Comparison Method (Peringkat Karyawan dengan Metode Perbandingan Pasangan) Note: + means “better than.” − means “worse than.” For each chart, add up the number of 1’s in each column to get the highest-ranked employee. (Catatan: + berarti "lebih baik daripada." - Berarti Untuk bagan masing-masing, menambah jumlah 1 dalam setiap kolom untuk mendapatkan karyawan peringkat tertinggi "lebih buruk dari.".) Figure 9–7© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–22
  23. 23. Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d) (Metode Penilaian Kinerja (Lanjutan)) Forced distribution method (Metode distribusi Paksa) – Similar to grading on a curve; predetermined percentages of ratees are placed in various performance categories. (Mirip dengan grading pada kurva; persentase yang telah ditetapkan ratees ditempatkan dalam berbagai kategori kinerja.) – Example: (Contoh) • 15% high performers (15% berkinerja tinggi) • 20% high-average performers (20% berkinerja tinggi rata-rata) • 30% average performers (30% rata-rata pemain) • 20% low-average performers (20% berkinerja rata-rata rendah) • 15% low performers (15% berkinerja rendah) Narrative Forms (Bentuk narasi)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–23
  24. 24. Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d) (Metode Penilaian Kinerja (Lanjutan)) Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) (Perilaku berlabuh Peringkat skala (BAR)) – An appraisal method that uses quantified scale with specific narrative examples of good and poor performance. (Sebuah metode yang menggunakan skala penilaian dihitung dengan contoh-contoh naratif spesifik dari kinerja yang baik dan yang buruk.) Developing a BARS: (Mengembangkan BAR) – Generate critical incidents (Menghasilkan insiden kritis) – Develop performance dimensions (Mengembangkan dimensi kinerja) – Reallocate incidents (mengalokasikan insiden) – Scale the incidents (Skala insiden) – Develop a final instrument (Mengembangkan instrumen akhir)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–24
  25. 25. Performance Appraisal Methods (cont’d) (Metode Penilaian Kinerja (Lanjutan)) Advantages of using a BARS (Keuntungan menggunakan BAR) – A more accurate gauge (Sebuah mengukur lebih akurat) – Clearer standards (standar yang lebih jelas) – Feedback (Tanggapan) – Independent dimensions (independen dimensi) – Consistency (konsistensi)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–25
  26. 26. Appraisal- Coaching Worksheet (Pelatih Penilaian Lembar Kerja) Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com; copyright HRnext.com, 2003. Figure 9–8© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–26
  27. 27. Examples of Critical Incidents for an Assistant Plant Manager (Contoh Insiden Kritis untuk Asisten Manajer Pabrik) Table 9–1© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–27
  28. 28. Example of a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale for the Dimension Salesmanship Skill (Contoh Skala Penilaian Secara perilaku dicantolkan untuk Skill Salesmanship Dimensi) Source:Walter C. Borman, “Behavior Based Rating,” in Ronald A. Berk (ed.), Performance Assessment: Methods and Applications (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), p. 103. Figure 9–9© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–28
  29. 29. Management by Objectives (MBO) (Tujuan Dari Management) (MBO)) Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and then periodically reviewing the progress made. (Melibatkan pengaturan tujuan yang terukur tertentu dengan setiap karyawan dan kemudian secara berkala meninjau kemajuan yang dibuat.) 1. Set the organization’s goals. (Tetapkan tujuan organisasi.) 2. Set departmental goals. (Tetapkan tujuan departemen.) 3. Discuss departmental goals. (Diskusikan tujuan departemen.) 4. Define expected results (set individual goals). (Tentukan hasil yang diharapkan (menetapkan tujuan individu).) 5. Performance reviews. (Kinerja review.) 6. Provide feedback. (Memberikan umpan balik.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–29
  30. 30. Computerized and Web-Based Performance Appraisal (Komputerisasi dan Web Berbasis Penilaian Kinerja) Performance appraisal software programs (Perangkat lunak program penilaian kinerja) – Keep notes on subordinates during the year. (Menyimpan catatan pada bawahan selama tahun tersebut.) – Electronically rate employees on a series of performance traits. (Elektronik tingkat karyawan pada serangkaian sifat kinerja.) – Generate written text to support each part of the appraisal. (Menghasilkan teks tertulis untuk mendukung setiap bagian dari penilaian.) Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) (Pemantauan kinerja elektronik (EPM)) – Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day, and thereby his or her performance. (Setelah pengawas elektronik memantau jumlah data komputerisasi karyawan adalah pengolahan per hari, dan dengan demikian kinerja nya)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–30
  31. 31. Potential Rating Scale Appraisal Problems (Potensi Masalah Penilaian Skala Penilaian) Unclear standards (jelas standar) – An appraisal that is too open to interpretation. (Sebuah penilaian yang terlalu terbuka untuk interpretasi.) Halo effect (efek halo) – Occurs when a supervisor’s rating of a subordinate on one trait biases the rating of that person on other traits. (Terjadi bila atasan bawahan rating pada satu sifat bias rating dari orang pada sifat lainnya.) Central tendency (Kecenderungan Tengah) – A tendency to rate all employees the same way, such as rating them all average. (Suatu kecenderungan untuk menilai semua karyawan dengan cara yang sama, seperti penilaian mereka rata-rata semua.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–31
  32. 32. A Graphic Rating Scale with Unclear Standards (Sebuah Skala Penilaian Grafik dengan Standar tidak jelas) Note: For example, what exactly is meant by “good,” “quantity of work,” and so forth? (Catatan: Sebagai contoh, apa sebenarnya yang dimaksud dengan "baik," "kuantitas kerja," dan sebagainya?) Table 9–2© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–32
  33. 33. Potential Rating Scale Appraisal Problems (cont’d) (Potensi Masalah Penilaian Penilaian Skala (Lanjutan)) Strictness/leniency (Kekerasan / keringanan) – The problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all subordinates either high or low. (Masalah yang terjadi ketika seorang supervisor memiliki kecenderungan untuk menilai semua bawahan baik tinggi atau rendah.) Bias (prasangka) – The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race, and sex to affect the appraisal ratings employees receive. (Kecenderungan untuk memungkinkan perbedaan individu seperti usia, ras, dan seks untuk mempengaruhi peringkat penilaian karyawan menerima.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–33
  34. 34. How to Avoid Appraisal Problems (Cara Hindari Masalah Penilaian) Learn and understand the potential problems, and the solutions for each. (Belajar dan memahami potensi masalah, dan solusi untuk masing-masing.) Use the right appraisal tool. Each tool has its own pros and cons. (Gunakan alat penilaian yang tepat. Setiap alat memiliki pro dan kontra.) Train supervisors to reduce rating errors such as halo, leniency, and central tendency. (Supervisor melatih untuk mengurangi kesalahan penilaian seperti halo, keringanan, dan tendensi sentral.) Have raters compile positive and negative critical incidents as they occur. (Penilai telah mengkompilasi insiden kritis positif dan negatif karena mereka terjadi.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–34
  35. 35. Who Should Do the Appraising? (Siapa yang Harus Serta Menilai Apakah?) The immediate supervisor (Para atasan langsung) Peers (Rekan) Rating committees (Penilaian komite) Self-ratings (Penilaian Pribadi) Subordinates (Bawahan) 360-Degree feedback (360-Gelar umpan balik)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–35
  36. 36. Advantages and Disadvantages of Appraisal Tools (Keuntungan dan Kerugian dari Alat Penilaian) Table 9–3© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–36
  37. 37. The Appraisal Interview (Wawancara Penilaian) Types of appraisal interviews (Jenis wawancara penilaian) – Satisfactory—Promotable (Memuaskan-dipromosikan) – Satisfactory—Not promotable (Memuaskan-Tidak dipromosikan) – Unsatisfactory—Correctable (Memuaskan-diperbaiki) – Unsatisfactory—Uncorrectable (Memuaskan-Uncorrectable) How to conduct the appraisal interview (Bagaimana melakukan wawancara penilaian) – Talk in terms of objective work data. (Bicara dalam hal data kerja obyektif.) – Don’t get personal. (Jangan sampai pribadi.) – Encourage the person to talk. (Mendorong orang untuk berbicara.) – Don’t tiptoe around. (Jangan berjingkat sekitar.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–37
  38. 38. Performance Contract (Kontrak kinerja) Source: David Antonion, “Improving the Performance Management Process Before Discontinuing Performance Appraisals,” Compensation and Benefits Review May– June 1994, p. 33, 34. Figure 9–10© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–38
  39. 39. Checklist During the Appraisal Interview (Daftar Selama Wawancara Penilaian) Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, HRnext.com. Copyright HRnext.com, 2003. Figure 9–11© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–39
  40. 40. The Appraisal Interview (cont’d) (Wawancara Penilaian (Lanjutan)) How to handle a defensive subordinate (Bagaimana menangani bawahan defensif) – Recognize that defensive behavior is normal. (Mengakui bahwa perilaku defensif adalah normal.) – Never attack a person’s defenses. (Jangan pernah menyerang pertahanan seseorang.) – Postpone action. (Menunda tindakan.) – Recognize your own limitations. (Kenali keterbatasan Anda) sendiri.© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–40
  41. 41. The Appraisal Interview (cont’d) (Wawancara Penilaian (Lanjutan)) How to criticize a subordinate (Bagaimana mengkritik bawahan ) – Do it in a manner that lets the person maintain his or her dignity and sense of worth. (Lakukan dengan cara yang memungkinkan seseorang mempertahankan martabat nya dan rasa layak. ) – Criticize in private, and do it constructively. (Mengkritik secara pribadi, dan melakukannya secara konstruktif. ) – Avoid once-a-year ―critical broadsides‖ by giving feedback on a daily basis, so that the formal review contains no surprises. (Hindari sekali setahun "broadsides kritis" dengan memberikan umpan balik setiap hari, sehingga tinjauan formal tidak mengandung kejutan. ) – Never say the person is ―always‖ wrong (Tidak pernah mengatakan orang itu adalah "selalu" salah ) – Criticism should be objective and free of any personal biases on your part. (Kritik harus obyektif dan bebas dari bias personal pada bagian Anda. )© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–41
  42. 42. The Appraisal Interview (cont’d) (Wawancara Penilaian (Lanjutan)) How to ensure the interview leads to improved performance (Bagaimana untuk memastikan wawancara mengarah ke peningkatan kinerja) – Don’t make the subordinate feel threatened during the interview. (Jangan membuat bawahan merasa terancam selama wawancara.) – Give the subordinate the opportunity to present his or her ideas and feelings and to influence the course of the interview. (Berikan bawahan kesempatan untuk mempresentasikan ide- nya dan perasaan dan untuk mempengaruhi jalannya wawancara.) – Have a helpful and constructive supervisor conduct the interview. (Memiliki atasan membantu dan konstruktif melakukan wawancara.) – Offer the subordinate the necessary support for development and change. (Menawarkan dukungan bawahan yang diperlukan untuk pengembangan dan perubahan.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–42
  43. 43. The Appraisal Interview (cont’d) (Wawancara Penilaian (Lanjutan)) How to handle a formal written warning (Bagaimana menangani peringatan tertulis yang resmi) – Purposes of the written warning (Tujuan dari peringatan tertulis) • To shake your employee out of bad habits. (Untuk goyang karyawan Anda keluar dari kebiasaan buruk.) • Help you defend your rating, both to your own boss and (if needed) to the courts. (Membantu Anda mempertahankan rating Anda, baik untuk bos sendiri dan (jika diperlukan) ke pengadilan.) – Written warnings should: (Peringatan tertulis harus) • Identify standards by which employee is judged. (Mengidentifikasi standar yang karyawan dinilai.) • Make clear that employee was aware of the standard. (Membuat jelas bahwa karyawan menyadari standar.) • Specify deficiencies relative to the standard. (Tentukan kekurangan relatif terhadap standar.) • Indicates employee’s prior opportunity for correction. (Menunjukkan kesempatan sebelum karyawan untuk koreksi.)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–43
  44. 44. Creating the Total Performance Management Process (Menciptakan Proses Manajemen Kinerja Jumlah) “What is our strategy and what are our goals?” ("Apa strategi kita dan apa tujuan kita?“) “What does this mean for the goals we set for our employees, and for how we train, appraise, promote, and reward them?” ("Apa artinya ini bagi tujuan yang kita tetapkan untuk karyawan kami, dan untuk bagaimana kita melatih, menilai, mempromosikan, dan memberi mereka imbalan?“) What will be the technological support requirements? (Apa yang akan menjadi persyaratan dukungan teknologi?)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–44
  45. 45. Information Required for TRW’s Web-Based Performance Management System (Informasi yang Diperlukan untuk Web Berbasis Sistem Manajemen Kinerja)Source: D. Bradford Neary,“Creating a Company-Wide, Online, Performance Management System:A Case Study at TRW, Inc.,” Human Resource Management 41, no 4 (Winter 2002), p. 495. Figure 9–12© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–45
  46. 46. HR Scorecard for Hotel Paris International Corporation* (HR Scorecard untuk Hotel Paris International Corporation) Note: *(An abbreviated example showing selected HR practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the competitive strategy, “To use superior guest services to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus boost revenues and profitability”) Figure –13© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–46
  47. 47. Key Terms Persyaratan performance appraisal management by objectives (MBO) (penilaian kinerja) (manajemen berdasarkan sasaran) performance management (manajemen electronic performance monitoring kinerja) (EPM) graphic rating scale (pemantauan kinerja elektronik) (Peringkat skala grafis) unclear standards alternation ranking method (standar yang Jelas) (alternasi peringkat metode) halo effect paired comparison method (efek halo) (Metode perbandingan berpasangan) central tendency forced distribution method (pusat kecenderungan) (Metode distribusi paksa) strictness/leniency critical incident method (kekerasan / keringanan) (Insiden kritis metode) Bias behaviorally anchored rating (prasangka) scale (BARS) (perilaku berlabuh Peringkat skala (BAR)) appraisal interview (penilaian wawancara)© 2011 Sigit. All rights reserved. 9–47
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