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Napoleon Napoleon Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 4 The Napoleonic Era
  • Napoleon I Emperor of the French 1769 - 1821 “Ambition is never content even on the summit of greatness.” Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Introduction • Napoleon was one of the greatest military commanders in history. • He has also been portrayed as a power hungry conqueror. • Napoleon denied being such a conqueror. He argued that he was building a federation of free peoples in a Europe united under a liberal government. • But if this was his goal, he intended to achieve it by taking power in his own hands. • However, in the states he created, Napoleon granted constitutions, introduced law codes, abolished feudalism, created efficient governments and fostered education, science, literature and the arts.
  • Law Codes Emperor Napoleon proved to be an excellent civil administrator: • One of his greatest achievements was his supervision of the revision and collection of French law into codes. • The new law codes—seven in number—incorporated some of the freedoms gained by the people of France during the French revolution, including religious toleration and the abolition of serfdom. • The most famous of the codes, the Code Napoleon or Code Civil, still forms the basis of French civil law. • Napoleon also centralized France's government by appointing prefects to administer regions called departments, into which France was divided.
  • His Rule • While Napoleon believed in government "for" the people, he rejected government "by" the people. • His France was a police state with a vast network of secret police and spies. • The police shut down plays containing any hint of disagreement or criticism of the government. • The press was controlled by the state. • It was impossible to express an opinion without Napoleon's approval.
  • Napoleon's own opinion of his career is best stated in the following quotation: “I closed the gulf of anarchy and brought order out of chaos. I rewarded merit regardless of birth or wealth, wherever I found it. I abolished feudalism and restored equality to all regardless of religion and before the law. I fought the decrepit monarchies of the Old Regime because the alternative was the destruction of all this. I purified the Revolution.”
  • Making France Strong • 1799, Napoleon helped to overthrow the Directory (French Gov’t) because it was inefficient and corrupt. • He was named First Consul after seizing power. • He set about to improve French life: 1. bring new laws together with old laws – Civil Code – what did it guarantee? 2. started public works – How? • Economy was still not strong – the industries
  • Napoleon the Emperor • He tried to destroy democracy in France • Became more of a tyrant than any of the rulers of the ancient regime • Ancient views about women • 1804, crowned himself Emperor of France • Complete control of the country • Secret police force • Controlled media, law, and education system censorship
  • Napoleon & Europe • Napoleon waged war with most of Europe trying to expand his empire in the 1800s. • Take notes on Britain versus Napoleon – first paragraph on p. 104.
  • Napoleon’s Continental System • Activity 4-4: Advantages Disadvantages
  • Conquering Europe • Napoleon knew that his power came from his military victories. • He believed he could defeat any army, and did, beating the armies of Austria, Russia, and Prussia. • Used speed and surprise to win major battles at Ulm, Austerlitz, and Jena. • His enemies signed the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), giving Napoleon control of Europe.
  • Europe in 1789
  • The New Map of Europe (1810)
  • • Napoleon insisted that all parts of his empire base their gov’ts and legal systems on those of France. • He abolished serfdom, the privileges of aristocrats, replaced old laws with the Napoleonic Code, and encouraged religious tolerance. • From his efforts, many features of the old feudal system was gone.
  • The Rise of Nationalism
  • Questions 1. Explain the meaning of “nationalism”. 2. Why did it appeal to many people in Europe? 3. Explain why you think nationalism is a positive or negative force, or both.
  • Loss in Spain
  • The Russian Campaign • Man of Destiny video?