Exploration of the West
SS 9 - Chapter 9
• The biggest contributions of the fur traders
was the exploration and mapping of Canada.
• Their intent was to find more furs and better
ways to get them to market.
• See the map on p. 272
• 1690 – Henry Kelsey sent on 2 year journey to
encourage the Native peoples to bring their
furs to York Factory. Reached The Pas
(Manitoba) & Saskatoon.
• 1769 – Samuel Hearne sent to find copper
mines believed to exist in northern Rupert’s
Land (Great Slave Lake). Found copper on
third expedition after 6000 km on foot.
• 1789 - Alexander Mackenzie ordered to find a
believed river that flowed from Lake Athabasca to
the Pacific. Found the Arctic Ocean instead
following a river now named after him.
• 1793 – another attempt at the Pacific Ocean.
Found Bella Coola by the Fraser River believing it
was the Columbia River farther south. First
European to cross the land mass of Canada by
• 1805-8 – Simon Fraser set up posts at Fort
McLeod, Fort Fraser, Fort St. James, and Fort
George in Central BC. He called the region
“New Caledonia” after the Scottish highlands.
• 1808 – He followed the Fraser River thinking it
was the Columbia, but the rapids did not allow
for a transportation route the NWC was
• 1797-1810 – David Thompson surveyed and
mapped Canada & esta trading posts for the
• In 1810 he was asked to find the mouth of the
Columbia River, but when he got to the Pacific
Ocean Americans had built a fort 2 months
Lewis & Clark
- Fort Clatsop
- Fort Astoria
The Pacific Ocean
• In the 1700s ships from Europe were mapping
the west coast of NA while the fur traders in
the East were exploring the interior.
• The powerful First Nations groups on the west
coast had large organized societies.
• Explorers had to be careful when dealing with
leaders like Maquinna, Nu-chal’-nath peoples
from Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island.
• 1592 – Juan de Fuca (Greek) found the Strait for
• 1741 – Vitus Bering (Denmark), sent by Russia to
make them a world power, landed on Alaskan coast
to trade with Aleut people.
• 1774 – Spain sent Juan Perez to extend their
territory. Traded with the people of Haida Gwaii.
• 1775 & 1779 – Bodega Y Quadra explored to
• 1768 – James Cook
circumnavigated the globe.
• 1772-5 – James Cook
• 1778 – James Cook Landed
at Nootka Sound.
• 1779 – James Cook killed in
James Cook’s 3 Voyages
1 – Red, 2 – Green, 3 - Blue
• 1792 – George Vancouver sailed into Burrard
• 1794 – Vancouver was the first to
circumnavigate Vancouver Island.