Exploration of the west 2014

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SS 9 BC Curriculum Crossroads Chapter 9

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Exploration of the west 2014

  1. 1. Exploration of the West SS 9 - Chapter 9 Part 2
  2. 2. The Interior • The biggest contributions of the fur traders was the exploration and mapping of Canada. • Their intent was to find more furs and better ways to get them to market. • See the map on p. 272
  3. 3. HBC vs NWC
  4. 4. HBC Explorers • 1690 – Henry Kelsey sent on 2 year journey to encourage the Native peoples to bring their furs to York Factory. Reached The Pas (Manitoba) & Saskatoon. • 1769 – Samuel Hearne sent to find copper mines believed to exist in northern Rupert’s Land (Great Slave Lake). Found copper on third expedition after 6000 km on foot.
  5. 5. NWC Explorers • 1789 - Alexander Mackenzie ordered to find a believed river that flowed from Lake Athabasca to the Pacific. Found the Arctic Ocean instead following a river now named after him. • 1793 – another attempt at the Pacific Ocean. Found Bella Coola by the Fraser River believing it was the Columbia River farther south. First European to cross the land mass of Canada by land.
  6. 6. • 1805-8 – Simon Fraser set up posts at Fort McLeod, Fort Fraser, Fort St. James, and Fort George in Central BC. He called the region “New Caledonia” after the Scottish highlands. • 1808 – He followed the Fraser River thinking it was the Columbia, but the rapids did not allow for a transportation route the NWC was looking for.
  7. 7. • 1797-1810 – David Thompson surveyed and mapped Canada & esta trading posts for the NWC. • In 1810 he was asked to find the mouth of the Columbia River, but when he got to the Pacific Ocean Americans had built a fort 2 months earlier.
  8. 8. Lewis & Clark Expedition – 1804-6: - Fort Clatsop John Jacob Astor’s Pacific Fur Company – 1811: - Fort Astoria
  9. 9. The Pacific Ocean • In the 1700s ships from Europe were mapping the west coast of NA while the fur traders in the East were exploring the interior. • The powerful First Nations groups on the west coast had large organized societies. • Explorers had to be careful when dealing with leaders like Maquinna, Nu-chal’-nath peoples from Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island.
  10. 10. Mariners • 1592 – Juan de Fuca (Greek) found the Strait for Spain. • 1741 – Vitus Bering (Denmark), sent by Russia to make them a world power, landed on Alaskan coast to trade with Aleut people. • 1774 – Spain sent Juan Perez to extend their territory. Traded with the people of Haida Gwaii. • 1775 & 1779 – Bodega Y Quadra explored to Alaska.
  11. 11. James Cook • 1768 – James Cook circumnavigated the globe. • 1772-5 – James Cook Found Antarctica. • 1778 – James Cook Landed at Nootka Sound. • 1779 – James Cook killed in Hawaii.
  12. 12. James Cook’s 3 Voyages 1 – Red, 2 – Green, 3 - Blue
  13. 13. George Vancouver • 1792 – George Vancouver sailed into Burrard Inlet. • 1794 – Vancouver was the first to circumnavigate Vancouver Island.

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