The French Explorers
• 1524 – France sent Giovanni Verrazano to find
the fabled NW Passage to Asia. He sailed
between NFL and Florida discovering that NA
was not an archipelago of islands, but a
• 1534 – New king sent Jacques Cartier to keep
looking. Claimed GSL for France. He
kidnapped Donnaconna’s sons and returned to
• Next year, he explored the St. Lawrence River
with the help of his 2 guides. They tell Cartier of
a fabulous land – the kingdom of Saguenay.
• The small fleet arrives at the community of
Stadacona (near Quebec City), but ignoring
Donnaconna’s advice, Cartier sails further up
the river to a much larger town – Hochelaga
• Cue video.
• French king approved 3rd expedition for Sieur de
Roberval to establish a French colony in NA.
because it may lead to wealth and territory for
• Tough winters – settlers died of scurvy, their
effort to colonize failed for the time being.
Beginning of the Fur Trade
• The colony existed to raise money for the
home country, not to open up new areas
• Europeans were making good fishing
money, but more profits could be made
from – wolf, fisher, marten, lynx, and other
• Huge profits from native people who
desired cheaper items – knives, hatchets,
pots, and beads.
The English & The Dutch
• Both looked to colonize the north.
• 1610 – Dutch settled on Hudson River,
which Henry Hudson explored for the East
India Co. years earlier.
• English explored the Arctic and claimed
territories, including NFL (in 1583) by
Humphrey Gilbert, even though Portugese
and Basque fishers lived there.
Born around 1575, died around 1611
• credited as the European
discoverer of Hudson Bay .
He is also remembered for
the sad end of his last
Most of his crew mutinied
against him, leaving
Hudson, his son and several
other crewmembers to die in
the bay that is now named
The Founding of New France
• Samuel de Champlain was given a monopoly on
the fur trade in return for esta a French colony.
1605 – esta a small post “Port Royal” (in NS) –
not a great success.
Few settlers stay on as long as they agreed not
to work the fur trade. They became skilled
farmers and formed the colony of Acadia.
1608 – esta a post, at what is now, Quebec City
Champlain formed an alliance with the Huron
people to use their trading connections and
routes. What were other Huron economic
A beaver pelt consists of two layers,
an outer layer of coarse guard hair and
an undercoat of soft, velvety fur called
the duvet. When the guard hairs were
removed, the woolly underfur, known
as castor gras, was perfect for making
It was actually a felt hat, manufactured
by removing the fur from its skin and
mashing it together with adhesives
and stiffeners. (One of these additives
was mercury, the fumes from which
affected the brains of hat-makers,
giving rise to the expression "mad as a
The Wellington 1812
The Paris Beau 1815
The D’orsay 1820
The Regent 1825
Settlement & Colonization
• By 1635 Euro countries were working to extend their
imperial interests around the world.
Left - What is the Company of a Hundred Associates?
The Jesuits, an order of Roman Catholic priests, were
the partners of the CHA.
Left - What did Cardinal Richelieu want them to do?
Others had failed, but the Jesuits were prepared to go
anywhere and make any sacrifice to spread ‘The
Many joined because Hurons who converted to
Christianity enjoyed privileges of the fur trade.
• Became popular in Europe in the 1500s and was the
main reason to colonize new lands.
The theory states that there is a certain amount of
wealth in the world and that it is in a nation’s best
interest to accumulate it.
Through wealth, a nation can achieve power.
A country achieves wealth by producing and exporting
more goods than it imports – the goods must be sold
at a profit for wealth to accumulate.
Left - Why would NA be a good colony for France?
The First Government
• In 1663, the gov’t of France (Louis XIV) made
New France a royal colony.
A governor was appointed to represent the
king, supervise defense, and esta treaties with
the Native peoples.
A chief administrator (intendant) – govern the
Soldiers – sent for protection.
Catholic bishop – rel affairs
Priests and nuns – convert Native peoples.
• The governor, intendant, and bishop made up the Sovereign
Council – gov’t of New France.
• Make a 3-column chart and find info from p.238-9.
Talon knew NF needed settlers, a defense, and industries.
Frontenac fought with the Church and French gov’t.
Laval was a moral aristocrat.