Arrival in Canada


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BC Curriculum SS 9 Chapter 8 Crossroads textbook

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Arrival in Canada

  1. 1. Arrival in Canada Chapter 8
  2. 2. The French Explorers • 1524 – France sent Giovanni Verrazano to find the fabled NW Passage to Asia. He sailed between NFL and Florida discovering that NA was not an archipelago of islands, but a continent. • 1534 – New king sent Jacques Cartier to keep looking. Claimed GSL for France. He kidnapped Donnaconna’s sons and returned to France. • Next year, he explored the St. Lawrence River with the help of his 2 guides. They tell Cartier of a fabulous land – the kingdom of Saguenay.
  3. 3. Portrait of Giovanni de Verrazano
  4. 4. Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel (18171870) (Nos Racines)
  5. 5. First Voyage
  6. 6. • The small fleet arrives at the community of Stadacona (near Quebec City), but ignoring Donnaconna’s advice, Cartier sails further up the river to a much larger town – Hochelaga (Montreal today) • Cue video. • French king approved 3rd expedition for Sieur de Roberval to establish a French colony in NA. because it may lead to wealth and territory for France. • Tough winters – settlers died of scurvy, their effort to colonize failed for the time being.
  7. 7. Second Voyage
  8. 8. Beginning of the Fur Trade • The colony existed to raise money for the home country, not to open up new areas for settlement. • Europeans were making good fishing money, but more profits could be made from – wolf, fisher, marten, lynx, and other animals. • Huge profits from native people who desired cheaper items – knives, hatchets, pots, and beads.
  9. 9. The English & The Dutch • Both looked to colonize the north. • 1610 – Dutch settled on Hudson River, which Henry Hudson explored for the East India Co. years earlier. • English explored the Arctic and claimed territories, including NFL (in 1583) by Humphrey Gilbert, even though Portugese and Basque fishers lived there.
  10. 10. Henry Hudson Born around 1575, died around 1611 • credited as the European • • discoverer of Hudson Bay . He is also remembered for the sad end of his last voyage. Most of his crew mutinied against him, leaving Hudson, his son and several other crewmembers to die in the bay that is now named after him.
  11. 11. The Founding of New France • Samuel de Champlain was given a monopoly on • • • • the fur trade in return for esta a French colony. 1605 – esta a small post “Port Royal” (in NS) – not a great success. Few settlers stay on as long as they agreed not to work the fur trade. They became skilled farmers and formed the colony of Acadia. 1608 – esta a post, at what is now, Quebec City Champlain formed an alliance with the Huron people to use their trading connections and routes. What were other Huron economic
  12. 12. Champlain and the Port Royal settlement
  13. 13. A beaver pelt consists of two layers, an outer layer of coarse guard hair and an undercoat of soft, velvety fur called the duvet. When the guard hairs were removed, the woolly underfur, known as castor gras, was perfect for making felt hats. It was actually a felt hat, manufactured by removing the fur from its skin and mashing it together with adhesives and stiffeners. (One of these additives was mercury, the fumes from which affected the brains of hat-makers, giving rise to the expression "mad as a hatter".) The Wellington 1812 The Paris Beau 1815 The D’orsay 1820 The Regent 1825
  14. 14. Settlement & Colonization • By 1635 Euro countries were working to extend their • • • • • imperial interests around the world. Left - What is the Company of a Hundred Associates? The Jesuits, an order of Roman Catholic priests, were the partners of the CHA. Left - What did Cardinal Richelieu want them to do? Others had failed, but the Jesuits were prepared to go anywhere and make any sacrifice to spread ‘The Word’. Many joined because Hurons who converted to Christianity enjoyed privileges of the fur trade.
  15. 15. Mercantilism • Became popular in Europe in the 1500s and was the • • • • main reason to colonize new lands. The theory states that there is a certain amount of wealth in the world and that it is in a nation’s best interest to accumulate it. Through wealth, a nation can achieve power. A country achieves wealth by producing and exporting more goods than it imports – the goods must be sold at a profit for wealth to accumulate. Left - Why would NA be a good colony for France? (p.237)
  16. 16. The First Government • In 1663, the gov’t of France (Louis XIV) made • • • • • New France a royal colony. A governor was appointed to represent the king, supervise defense, and esta treaties with the Native peoples. A chief administrator (intendant) – govern the local people Soldiers – sent for protection. Catholic bishop – rel affairs Priests and nuns – convert Native peoples.
  17. 17. • The governor, intendant, and bishop made up the Sovereign Council – gov’t of New France. • Make a 3-column chart and find info from p.238-9. Talon • • • Frontenac Laval Talon knew NF needed settlers, a defense, and industries. Frontenac fought with the Church and French gov’t. Laval was a moral aristocrat.
  18. 18. Life in New France • Jig Saw