Uploaded on

 

More in: News & Politics
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,075
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. New IdeasNew Ideas
  • 2. ►The “philosophes” helped to start the revolutionThe “philosophes” helped to start the revolution in France.in France. ►They were women and men who met to discussThey were women and men who met to discuss society and politics, and solutions to socialsociety and politics, and solutions to social problems.problems. ►They rejected absolute monarchy and favouredThey rejected absolute monarchy and favoured democracy, established in England and USdemocracy, established in England and US (after 1776).(after 1776). ►Several women were heavily involved in thisSeveral women were heavily involved in this movement; Madame de Pompadour & Englishmovement; Madame de Pompadour & English writers, Mary Astell and Mary Wollstonecraftwriters, Mary Astell and Mary Wollstonecraft
  • 3. Madame de Pompadour (1721-64)Madame de Pompadour (1721-64) • unofficial wife of Louis XV •Held many salons •Protected free thinkers •http://www.madamedepompadour.com/_en g_pomp/home.htm
  • 4. English Women PhilosophesEnglish Women Philosophes ► Mary AstellMary Astell was awas a proto-feminist writerproto-feminist writer whose advocacy ofwhose advocacy of equal educationalequal educational opportunities foropportunities for women earned her thewomen earned her the title "the first Englishtitle "the first English feminist."feminist." ► MaryMary WollstonecraftWollstonecraft ► she is celebrated forshe is celebrated for her early advocacy ofher early advocacy of women's equality andwomen's equality and rationality, and forrationality, and for arguing against thearguing against the degradation anddegradation and subjugation of womensubjugation of women justified by "thejustified by "the arbitrary power ofarbitrary power of beauty"beauty"
  • 5. The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment ►The philosophes were against any religion thatThe philosophes were against any religion that they viewed as old-fashioned or superstitious.they viewed as old-fashioned or superstitious. ►What did ‘enlightened’ meanWhat did ‘enlightened’ mean?? ►It meant that science and human intelligenceIt meant that science and human intelligence were of the highest importance. If a belief couldwere of the highest importance. If a belief could not stand up to reason then it had to benot stand up to reason then it had to be discarded.discarded. ►What influenced the philosophesWhat influenced the philosophes?? ►Isaac Newton – law of gravityIsaac Newton – law of gravity ►John Locke – empiricismJohn Locke – empiricism
  • 6. ►Empiricism – knwledge was possible onlyEmpiricism – knwledge was possible only through experience of the world with yourthrough experience of the world with your senses.senses. ►What did philosophes clash with religionWhat did philosophes clash with religion?? ►Religious beliefs could not be proven withReligious beliefs could not be proven with senses.senses. ►Direct conflict with Church and its teachings.Direct conflict with Church and its teachings. ►Church supported monarchs.Church supported monarchs. ►Church and monarchs were holding upChurch and monarchs were holding up progressprogress ►They must change or they had to go.They must change or they had to go.
  • 7. The BIG ThreeThe BIG Three RousseauRousseau VoltaireVoltaire MontesquieuMontesquieu
  • 8. ►VoltaireVoltaire – Against the church, for freedom– Against the church, for freedom of speech, absolute monarchy is good forof speech, absolute monarchy is good for society, hated injustice, disliked Rousseausociety, hated injustice, disliked Rousseau ►MontesquieuMontesquieu – Ruler must work with– Ruler must work with elected parliamentelected parliament ►RousseauRousseau – Social contract, ‘natural’ law– Social contract, ‘natural’ law – people are naturally good and destroyed– people are naturally good and destroyed be govt and society, feelings more importantbe govt and society, feelings more important than thinking – romanticthan thinking – romantic
  • 9. Jean Jacques RousseauJean Jacques Rousseau •Swiss political philosopher of the Enlightenment and purported father of the French Revolution •Important works; Discourse on Inequality (1754), Discourse on Political Economy, (1755) Social Contract (1762).
  • 10. VoltaireVoltaire •Francois Marie Arouet •Voltaire's intelligence, wit and style made him one of France's greatest writers and philosophers • “Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.”
  • 11. MontesquieuMontesquieu •Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu •Montesquieu's most radical work divided French society into three classes (or trias politica, a term he coined): the monarchy, the aristocracy, and the commons.
  • 12. The Political ClubsThe Political Clubs GirondistsGirondists JacobinsJacobins Sans-culottesSans-culottes
  • 13. Radical Leaders of theRadical Leaders of the RevolutionRevolution MaratMarat DantonDanton RobespierreRobespierre
  • 14. The Revolutionary WarsThe Revolutionary Wars ►European countries were on the brink ofEuropean countries were on the brink of invading France to restore the king’s powerinvading France to restore the king’s power ►Marat, Danton, and Robespierre gaveMarat, Danton, and Robespierre gave speeches telling the people that foreignspeeches telling the people that foreign troops would destroy the country and alltroops would destroy the country and all their hard-earned rights.their hard-earned rights. ►The people’s faith never stoppedThe people’s faith never stopped ►French armies won a victory against AustriaFrench armies won a victory against Austria
  • 15. The End of the MonarchyThe End of the Monarchy ►The war made people even more suspiciousThe war made people even more suspicious of the royal familyof the royal family ►The National Convention decided that theThe National Convention decided that the king should be tried for his crimes againstking should be tried for his crimes against the country and executedthe country and executed ►““Citizen Louis Capet” was found guilty andCitizen Louis Capet” was found guilty and guillotined Jan 21, 1793. M.A. wasguillotined Jan 21, 1793. M.A. was guillotined in October.guillotined in October.