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  • 1. THE SCIENCE OF CULTURE Chapter 3On the Use of Tools By Primates Hande Işık METU ID 501 Literature Review
  • 2. Definition of Primates• Any of various omnivorous mammals of the order Primates, comprising the three suborders Anthropoidea (humans,great a pes, gibbons, Old World monkeys, and New Worldmonkeys), Prosimii (lemurs, loris, and their allies),and Tarsioidea (tarsiers) especially distinguished by the hands, varied locomotion, and by complex flexible behavior,involving a high level of social interaction and cultural adaptability.• Closest relatives of men.
  • 3. Tool-Using of Men and ApesHistorically:• Men  The only tool user animals • Men  The only tool maker animals (Duke of Argyll, Edward Clodd) • Both men and apes are able to use and make tools. (Wolfgang Köhler, Schnierla)
  • 4. Tool-Using of Men and Apes• Apes demonstrate the ability to modify their environment. – The basis for tool-using process• But, they do not have a material culture.• WHY?
  • 5. Possible Reasons of Lacking Material Culture of Apes• Is it because – they have anatomical or sensory shortcomings? – they are inable to transmit tool knowledge via imitation? – they do not need the long term advantage of tool using? NO!• Lack of Intelligence – Possible but not sufficient
  • 6. Material Culture of MenMen Apes• Conceptual • Conceptual Thinking Thinking • Neuro-Sensory-• Neuro-Sensory- Muscular Structure Muscular Structure •Insights,• Symbolic behavior Understanding unique to men •Discrete Series of• Cumulative and episodes Progressive process of tool-using
  • 7. Q/A
  • 8. Thanks for listening...