Bahan kuliah kontek

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Bahan kuliah kontek

  1. 1. UNIVERSE
  2. 2. QS Al-Anbiyaa’ : 30 Dan apakah orang-orang yang kafir tidak mengetahui bahwasanya langit dan bumi itu keduanya dahulu adalah suatu yang padu, kemudian Kami pisahkan antara keduanya. Dan dari air Kami jadikan segala sesuatu yang hidup. Maka mengapakah mereka tiada juga beriman?
  3. 4. The Sombrero Galaxy , an example of an unbarred spiral galaxy. Credit: Hubble Space Telescope / NASA / ESA
  4. 5. NGC 1300 , an example of a barred spiral galaxy. Credit: Hubble Space Telescope / NASA / ESA
  5. 6. Hoag's Object , an example of a ring galaxy . Credit: Hubble Space Telescope / NASA / ESA
  6. 7. Multiwavelength X-ray , infrared , and optical compilation image of Kepler's Supernova Remnant , SN 1604 . ( Chandra X-ray Observatory )
  7. 8. " ketika langit pecah belah lalu menjadilah ia mawar merah, berkilat seperti minyak" (Ar-Rahman: 37) Supernovae : Chandara X-Ray Telescope
  8. 9. v   •   d   •   e Milky Way Galaxy Infrared image of the core of the Milky Way galaxy Observation data Type SBbc ( barred spiral galaxy ) Diameter 100,000 light years Thickness 1,000 light years Number of stars 200 to 400 billion Oldest star 13.2 billion years Mass 5.8×10 11   M ☉ Sun's distance to galactic center 26,000 ± 1400 light-years Sun's galactic rotation period 220 million years (negative rotation) Spiral pattern rotation period 50 million years [1] Bar pattern rotation period 15 to 18 million years [1] Speed relative to the universe 590 km/s [2]
  9. 11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Organization NASA , SAO , CXC Wavelength regime X-ray Orbit height 10 000 km (perigee), 140 161 km (apogee) Orbit period 3858 min, 64.3 h Launch date 23 July 1999 Launch vehicle Columbia STS-93 Deorbit date N/A Mass 4 800 kg, 10 600 lb Other names Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, AXAF COSPAR ID 1999-040B Webpage http://chandra.harvard.edu/ Physical characteristics Telescope style 4 nested pairs of grazing incidence paraboloid and hyperboloid mirrors Diameter 1.2 m, 3.9 ft Collecting area 0.04 m² at 1 keV, 0.4 ft² at 1 keV Focal length 10 m, 33 ft Instruments ACIS imaging spectrometer HRC camera HETGS high resolution spectrometer LETGS high resolution spectrometer
  10. 12. Hubble Space Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope, from the Space Shuttle Discovery during the second servicing mission, STS-82 General information NSSDC ID : 1990-037B Organization: NASA / ESA / STScI Launched: April 24 , 1990 Deorbited: Likely between 2013 and 2021 [1] Mass: 11,110  kg (24,250  lb ) Orbit height: 589  km , 366 mi. Orbit period: 96–97 min Orbit velocity: 7,500  m/s , 16,800 mph (27,000 km/h) Acceleration due to gravity: 8.169  m/s² Location: Low Earth orbit Type of orbit: Elliptical Telescope style: Ritchey-Chretien reflector Wavelength : Optical , ultraviolet , near-infrared Diameter: 2.4  m (94  in ) Collecting area : approx. 4.5  m² (46  ft² ) [2] Focal length : 57.6 m (189 ft) Instruments NICMOS : infrared camera/spectrometer ACS : optical survey camera (failed) WFPC2 : wide field optical camera STIS : optical spectrometer/camera (failed) FGS : three fine guidance sensors   Website: http://www.nasa.gov/hubble http://hubble.nasa.gov http://hubblesite.org http://www.spacetelescope.org
  11. 16. Richter Magnitudes Description Earthquake Effects Frequency of Occurrence Less than 2.0 Micro Microearthquakes, not felt. About 8,000 per day 2.0-2.9 Minor Generally not felt, but recorded. About 1,000 per day 3.0-3.9 Minor Often felt, but rarely causes damage. 49,000 per year (est.) 4.0-4.9 Light Noticeable shaking of indoor items, rattling noises. Significant damage unlikely. 6,200 per year (est.) 5.0-5.9 Moderate Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings over small regions. At most slight damage to well-designed buildings. 800 per year 6.0-6.9 Strong Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 miles across in populated areas. 120 per year 7.0-7.9 Major Can cause serious damage over larger areas. 18 per year 8.0-8.9 Great Can cause serious damage in areas several hundred miles across. 1 per year 9.0-9.9 Great Devastating in areas several thousand miles across. 1 per 20 years 10.0+ Great Never recorded; see below for equivalent seismic energy yield. Extremely rare (Unknown)
  12. 22. Orbital characteristics Epoch J2000 Aphelion 152,097,701 km 1.0167103335  AU Perihelion : 147,098,074 km 0.9832898912 AU Semi-major axis : 149,597,887.5 km 1.0000001124 AU Eccentricity : 0.016710219 Orbital period : 365.256366 days 1.0000175  yr Avg. orbital speed : 29.783 km/s 107,218 km/h Inclination : Reference (0) 7.25° to Sun 's equator Longitude of ascending node : 348.73936° Argument of perihelion : 114.20783° Satellites : 1 (the  Moon ) Atmosphere Surface pressure : 101.3  kPa ( MSL ) Composition: 78.08%  Nitrogen (N 2 ) 20.95%  Oxygen (O 2 ) 0.93%  Argon 0.038%  Carbon dioxide Trace water vapor (varies with climate )
  13. 23. Physical characteristics Mean radius: 6,371.0 km [1] Equatorial radius: 6,378.1 km [2] Polar radius: 6,356.8 km [2] Flattening : 0.0033528 [2] Circumference: 40,075.02 km ( equatorial ) 40,007.86 km ( meridional ) 40,041.47 km (mean) Surface area : 510,072,000 km² [3] 148,940,000 km² land  (29.2 %) 361,132,000 km² water (70.8 %) Volume : 1.0832073 × 10 12  km³ Mass : 5.9736 × 10 24  kg Mean density : 5,515.3 kg/m³ Equatorial surface gravity : 9.780327 m/s² [4] 0.99732  g Escape velocity : 11.186 km/s  40,270 km/h Sidereal rotation period : 0.997258 d 23 h  56 m  04.09054 s [4] Rotation velocity at equator: 465.11 m/s

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