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OSPF Implementations on Nortel.

OSPF Implementations on Nortel.

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  • Link state routing protokollerinin en onemlı farkı topology table a sahıp olmasıdır. Bu sayede dusen bır lınk ıcın, yedek linklerde bu tabloda tutuldugundan cok hızlı bır sekılde convergence saglanır.
  • 10 Metrics In OSPF, all interfaces have a cost value or routing metric used in the OSPF link-state calculation. A metric value is configured based on bandwidth to compare different paths through an AS. OSPF uses cost values to determine the best path to a particular destination: the lower the cost value, the more likely the interface will be used to forward data traffic. To calculate the cost of a link a reference bandwidth is set. The reference bandwidth is referenced in kilobits per second and provides a reference for the default costing of interfaces based on their underlying link speed. The default interface cost is calculated as follows: The default reference-bandwidth is 100 000 000 kb/s or 100 Gb/s, so the default auto-cost metrics for various link speeds are as as follows: 10-Mb/s link default cost of 10 000 100-Mb/s link default cost of 1000 1-Gb/s link default cost of 100 10-Gb/s link default cost of 10 The reference-bandwidth command assigns a default cost to the interface based on the interface speed. To override this default cost on a particular interface,
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  • 18 OSPF uses IP multicast addressing to communicate with routing peers. This reduces the overhead of other devices on the same segment that are not running OSPF. OSPF has two reserved multicast IP addresses. The first is 224.0.0.5 and is used to communicate with all OSPF speakers. The second is 224.0.0.6 and is used in multi-access broadcast topologies in which a DR/BDR is required for proper OSPF operations. When an OSPF update is sent on an Ethernet topology, the destination MAC address is modified to use the reserved multicast range. The range has the first 24 bits of the MAC address, normally reserved for the manufacturer code, set to 01-00-5E. The remaining 24 bits of the MAC address are the lower 24 bits of the IP multicast address. With OSPF, the relationship between the IP multicast address and the MAC address is as follows: 224.0.0.5 and 01-00-5E-00-00-05: Any OSPF speaker 224.0.0.6 and 01-00-5E-00-00-06: Any DR/BDR
  • 19 OSPF updates are sent using the IP header at the network layer. However, unlike RIP, OSPF does not use a transport-layer protocol. Instead, all OSPF updates are sent directly from the IP layer to the OSPF process. To accomplish this, reserved protocol number 89 in the IP header is allocated to identify OSPF traffic.
  • 20 The OSPF header breaks down into the following fields: Version number — Identifies the version of OSPF that this packet pertains to. Type — The type of packet that is being received. There are five different types of packet, described on the next page. Packet length — The overall size of the packet. This does not include the IP header but does include all bytes in the OSPF update. Router ID — The Router ID of the sending router. Area ID — The area the router is sending the packet. All routers connected to a network must agree on which area the network resides in. Checksum — The CRC (similar to FCS) for the OSPF header. Authentication type — All OSPF protocol exchanges can be authenticated. This means that only trusted routers can participate in autonomous system routing. Authentication — When packets are sent with authentication invoked, this field is used to convey the authentication information. MD5 allows one authentication key to be configured per network. Routers in the same routing domain must be configured with the same key. When the MD5 hashing algorithm is used for authentication, MD5 is used to verify data integrity by creating a 128-bit message digest from the data input. The message digest is unique to that data. Data — This field varies depending on the type of OSPF packet being sent.
  • 21 OSPF uses 5 different types of packets to establish and maintain router connectivity and network convergence. Hello packet — This packet is used to establish adjacencies with other routers that speak OSPF. It is also used to maintain neighbor connectivity by being propagated periodically, typically every 10 seconds. However, this value can be modified from 0 to 65 535 seconds. Database description — This packet conveys a summary of all networks in the router’s database. Typically this is the classless network, the router’s cost to access, and the sequence number associated with the network entry. Link-state request — When a neighbor router receives a database description packet, it compares the entry in its current link-state database with the information received. If a received network is not in the database or if the sequence number for a network is higher, the router generates a link-state request for more information about the network. Link-state update — When it receives a link-state request, the router responds with the complete link-state database entry. To accomplish this, the router generates a type 4 (link-state update) packet and forwards it back to the requesting router. Link-state ACK — Each newly received LSA must be acknowledged. This is usually done by sending link-state ACK packets. Many ACKs may be grouped together in a single link-state ACK packet.
  • 24 There are three types of authentication supported by OSPF. They are: No authentication — The default and least secure Simple authentication — The first level of secure communications between OSPF speakers, yet not very secure MD5 authentication — The most secure communications between OSPF speakers and highly recommended Information about how to configure security is provided in the OSPF configuration section.
  • 25 A router uses the OSPF hello protocol to discover neighbors. A neighbor is a router that is configured with an interface to a common network. The router sends hello packets to a multicast address and receives hello packets in return. In broadcast networks, a DR and a BDR are elected. The DR is responsible for sending LSAs that describe the network, which reduces the amount of network traffic. The routers attempt to form adjacencies. An adjacency is a relationship formed between a router and the DR or BDR. For point-to-point networks, no DR or BDR is elected. An adjacency must be formed with the neighbor. To significantly improve adjacency formation and network convergence, a network should be configured as point-to-point if only two routers are connected, even if the network is a broadcast media such as Ethernet. When the link-state databases of two neighbors are synchronized, the routers are considered to be fully adjacent. When adjacencies are established, pairs of adjacent routers synchronize their topological databases. Not every neighboring router forms an adjacency. Routing-protocol updates are only sent to and received from adjacencies. Routers that do not become fully adjacent remain in the 2-way neighbor state.
  • 26 The hello packet consists of the following fields: Header — The standard OSPF header is identical for all five types of packets. The only modification is that the type field has the value of “1” to signify that this is a hello packet. Network mask — The network mask field contains the network mask for the interface that the packet is being sent on. Hello interval — The hello interval must match for all neighbors on the segment. By default, 10-second hello interval. This can be modified to a value between 0 and 65 535. Options — The options field is usually left blank. RTR Pri — The router priority field denotes the priority value seeded on the router for use in electing a DR and BDR. A priority of 0 means that the router can never be a DR or BDR in the network connected to this interface. Router dead interval — The default value is 40 seconds, or four times the update interval. If a neighbor does not send a hello packet within this interval, the router assumes that the neighbor is not active and purges all information that the neighbor has conveyed. Designated router — This field denotes the elected DR. Backup designated router — This field denotes the elected BDR. Neighbor — This field varies depending on the number of neighbors the router has learned of on the interface. The neighbor’s RID is conveyed in this field. Routers on this interface look for their RID, to ensure that the router that is sending the hello sees them.
  • 27 In the figure above, the two routers have not formed an adjacency. The following steps describe how the adjacency is created and the actions that are required. Both routers are in a down state: neither router has sent any OSPF-related packets. The router on the left sends a hello packet with the standard header. In the hello information, the router inserts its RID and leaves the neighbor field blank because it does not know of any other router on the Ethernet segment. The right-side router responds with its own hello. However, this router’s hello contains not only its RID, but also the RID of the left router. When each router sees that the other router acknowledges its existence, the state changes from down to 2-way.
  • 28 The DBD packet advertises a summary of all networks that the advertising router knows about. Along with the networks, the router advertises the associated subnet mask and sequence number. The receiving router compares the network, subnet mask, and sequence number with its existing topology database entries. If the advertised network is unknown or if the network is known but the advertised sequence is higher, the receiving router requests more information about the network so that it can add the network to its database. If the network is already known and the sequence number is lower, the receiving router sends back an LSU with more up-to-date information. If the network is already in the database and the sequence numbers are identical, then the receiving router discards the information.
  • 29 In the figure above, the two routers have not formed an adjacency. The following steps describe how the adjacency is created and the actions that are required. The neighboring routers establish a master/slave relationship. During this step, the initial DBD sequence number is determined for the exchange state. The router with the highest RID becomes the master, and its initial sequence number is used. This is part of step 1. The right-side router sends its DBD packet, describing its link-state database. The sequence number negotiated in step 1 is used. The left-side router increments the sequence number and sends the DBD packet, describing its link-state database.
  • 30 When it receives a DBD (type 2) packet, the router determines which networks it needs to add to its database. The receiving router then generates an LSR for these networks. The LSR identifies the networks for which the router wants full information.
  • 31 When it receives an LSR (type 3) packet, the receiving router sends back the full topology database entry for the requested networks. The size of this packet varies depending on the interface MTU and administrator settings. The size of the packet is limited by the interface MTU.
  • 32 The adjacency continues to be created with the following steps: Each router is responsible for maintaining a bit of reliability. Each responds to the DBD with an ACK packet. This ensures that each knows the other has received the information without error. In the example, the right side router asks for explicit information with the use of an LSR. Both routers would actually be sending LSRs. When the LSR is sent, the exchange state changes to the loading state. Each router responds to the LSR with one or more LSU packets. These packets contain explicit details about the requested networks.
  • 33 The final steps for creating the adjacency are described below: The LSUs are sent and acknowledged by each router. After all LSUs have been received and ACKs sent, each router now has an identical link-state database. The state changes from loading to full. This means that each router is fully converged with the other’s database. To maintain the adjacency, the routers send periodic hellos to each other. The default interval is 10 seconds. If something changes, then only that change in the database is sent to the neighbor.
  • 36 When the connection between two OSPF routers is a point-to-point link, there is no need for a DR or BDR. All packets are sent using the 224.0.0.5 IP multicast address. This implementation is typically used on serial interfaces; however, it can also be configured on point-to-point Ethernet segments, in which only two routers are connected.
  • 37 A router uses the OSPF hello protocol to discover neighbors. A neighbor is a router that is configured with an interface to a common network. The router sends hello packets to a multicast address and receives hello packets in return. In broadcast networks, a DR and a BDR are elected. The DR is responsible for sending LSAs that describe the network, which reduces the amount of network traffic. The routers attempt to form adjacencies. An adjacency is a relationship that is formed between a router and the DR or BDR. For point-to-point networks, no DR or BDR is elected. An adjacency must be formed with the neighbor. To significantly improve adjacency formation and network convergence, a network should be configured as point-to-point if only two routers are connected, even if the network is a broadcast media such as Ethernet. In the example above, RTR-A is the DR and RTR-B is the BDR. Routers C, D, and E will only form adjacencies with RTR-A and RTR-B, not with each other. Not every neighboring router forms an adjacency. Routing protocol updates are only sent to and received from adjacencies. Routers that do not become fully adjacent remain in the 2-way neighbor state.
  • 38 In the example above, RTR-C has a topology change that needs to be conveyed. The following steps occur: RTR-C sends its update to the DRs using IP multicast address 224.0.0.6. Both DRs receive the update. The BDR monitors to see if the DR sends out updates to all other routers, including the BDR. The DR takes the update from RTR-C and floods the change to all other routers on the segment, using IP multicast address 224.0.0.5. Note: DR and BDR election is not required in point-to-point networks.
  • 39 When a new router becomes active in a multi-access broadcast topology, it generates a hello (type 1) packet. The multicast address used is 224.0.0.5, which is the “all OSPF devices” address. The new router’s hello does not contain any neighbor RIDs because it has not yet seen any neighbors on the link.
  • 40 One of the already active routers generates a periodic hello. This hello also uses the IP multicast address 224.0.0.5. The new router not only sees its RID in the hello, but it also learns of the other devices on the segment based on their RIDs. In addition, the hello packet identifies the active DR and BDR for the link.
  • 41 Because a DR and BDR already exist, the new router now advertises its networks to the DRs by using the IP multicast address 224.0.0.6 (all DRs). The routers, that are not DRs, ignore this update because they are only listening for the 224.0.0.5 IP multicast address.
  • 42 When the DR receives the update and determines that the advertised network is a new entry in its topological database, it generates a message about the change to all devices on the segment. To send this update, the DR uses the IP multicast address 224.0.0.5 (all OSPF devices). The BDR does not send an update because the DR has performed its job by sending the update already. All routers, except the DR, send a type 5 (ACK) packet back to the DR to acknowledge receipt of the topology change; this includes the BDR and the new router that generated the update to start with.
  • 43 A step-by-step example of a failing network is shown above. As soon as the router detects the failure of a link (a link-state change), it immediately sends an update to the DRs using the IP multicast address of 224.0.0.6. The DR compares the update received with its topology database and sees that there is a change. It generates an LSU and sends it to all OSPF speakers on the segment, using the IP multicast address of 224.0.0.5. All devices, including the BDR and the originating router, acknowledge the LSU. Any router that is connected to other networks forward the LSU packet to its downstream neighbors on those networks.
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  • 49 In the example above, rtr5 is reset. When it comes up, it sends an OSPF hello packet. The RID is set to 5.5.5.5. There are no neighbors in this hello packet because it does not yet know of any neighbors on the segment.
  • 50 The next packet is an OSPF hello packet sent by rtr4. The RID is set to 4.4.4.4, and because rtr4 has seen a hello packet from rtr5, it populates the neighbor with RID 5.5.5.5. rtr5 does the same when it receives the hello from rtr4. When both routers have sent a hello packet with the neighbor address populated, the adjacency state is changed to 2-way.
  • 51 Both router priorities are the same. In this case, the router with the highest RID will be the DR. In the example above, rtr4 sends a hello packet with both the DR and BDR set to 10.10.0.1. The hello packet sent from rtr5 has the DR set to 10.10.0.1 and the BDR set to 10.10.0.2.
  • 52 The router with the higher RID becomes the master, and its sequence number (i.e., 77793 in this example) will be used.
  • 53 rtr4 sends its DBD with the sequence number set by rtr5, including the DB summary.
  • 54 rtr5 sends its DBD; the sequence number is incremented and the DB summary is included.
  • 55 rtr5 sends an LSR to rtr4 for any LSA that it does not have. rtr4 does the same.
  • 56 rtr4 responds with an LSU for the requested LSAs. At the same time, rtr5 responds to rtr4’s request.
  • 57 rtr5 responds with an LS ACK. rtr4 acknowledges the LSU received from rtr5. The adjacency state is now full. rtr4 and rtr5 continue to exchange hellos to maintain the adjacency.
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  • 62 The OSPF environment is organized using two primary elements: Area — A grouping of contiguous OSPF networks and hosts. OSPF areas are logical subdivisions of OSPF autonomous systems. The topology of each area is invisible to entities in other areas, and each area maintains its own topological database. Autonomous System — A group of networks and network equipment under a common administration. Backbone area The OSPF backbone area, area 0.0.0.0, must be contiguous and all other areas must be connected to it. The backbone distributes routing information among areas. If it is not practical to connect an area to the backbone, the ABRs must be connected via a virtual link. Stub area A stub area is a designated area that does not allow external route advertisements. Routers in a stub area do not maintain external routes. A single default route to an ABR replaces all external routes. This OSPF implementation supports the optional summary route (type 3) advertisement suppression from other areas into a stub area. This feature further reduces topological database sizes as well as OSPF protocol traffic, memory usage, and CPU route-calculation time. NSSA Another OSPF area type is called an NSSA. NSSAs are similar to stub areas in that no external routes are imported into the area from other OSPF areas . External routes learned by OSPF routers in the NSSA are advertised as type 7 LSAs within the NSSA area and are translated by ABRs into type 5 external route advertisements for distribution into other areas of the OSPF domain. An NSSA cannot be designated as the transit area of a virtual link.
  • 63 There are several terms used to define the function of the routers in an OSPF topology. The following functions are based on where the router is placed and not on the size or model of the router: Backbone router — A router that resides in Area 0 (backbone area) and only communicates with routers in the backbone area. This can include other backbone routers and ABRs. Area border router — Any router that has interfaces configured to support more than one area. Typically, this is between the backbone area and one more area; however, it is not uncommon that an ABR supports access between the backbone area and several other areas. When this type of configuration exists, care must be taken to ensure that the memory and CPU are not over-taxed. Intra-area router — A router that resides in an area other than the backbone area and only communicates with other routers in that area. This can include other intra-area routers or ABRs. Autonomous system boundary router — A router that connects the OSPF routing domain with other network protocols, static routes, or interfaces that are not participating in the OSPF process.
  • 64 LSAs describe the state of a router or network, including router interfaces and adjacency states. Each LSA is flooded throughout an area. The collection of LSAs from all routers and networks form the protocol's topological database. The distribution of topology database updates takes place along adjacencies. A router sends LSAs when its state changes and according to the configured interval. The packets include information about the router's adjacencies, which allows the routers to construct their topological databases. When a router discovers a routing table change or detects a change in the network link state, information is advertised to other routers to maintain identical routing tables. Router adjacencies are reflected in the contents of LSAs. The relationship between adjacencies and the link states allows the protocol to detect non-operating routers. LSAs flood the area. The flooding mechanism ensures that all routers in an area have the same topological database. The database consists of the collection of LSAs received from each router that belongs to the area. OSPF sends LSAs for only the links that have changed and only when a change has taken place. From the topological database, each router constructs a tree of shortest paths, with itself as root. From this tree, OSPF can determine the best route to every destination in the network. The SPF tree is used to construct the routing table.
  • 65 Type 1 (router) LSAs are generated by each router, no matter what area they reside in. Type 1 updates are not forwarded between areas by ABRs. The link-state ID is the advertising router’s RID.
  • 77 Type 2 (network) LSAs are generated by DRs in multi-access networks, such as Ethernet or NBMA topologies. Type 2 LSAs are not forwarded by ABRs. The DR for the network originates the LSA. The DR originates the LSA only if it is fully adjacent to at least one other router in the network. The network LSA is flooded throughout the area that contains the transit network, and no further. The network LSA lists those routers that are fully adjacent to the DR; each fully adjacent router is identified by its OSPF RID. The DR includes itself in this list. The link-state ID for a network LSA is the IP interface address of the DR. This value, masked by the network's address mask (which is also contained in the network LSA) yields the network's IP address.
  • 80 Type 3 (summary) LSAs are generated by ABRs to advertise networks in one area to another area. By design, the summary LSA should be a true summary network advertisement not just for the individual networks that it knows about. This requires manual summarization configuration on the router by the network administrator.
  • 87 Stub areas must conform to the following attributes: The area must be a dead end. In the example above, the only reason to enter Area 2 is to access networks within Area 2. Traffic would not pass through Area 2 to get to any other location. Virtual links are not supported. Type 5 LSAs are blocked by the ABR, and a default route is advertised instead into the area. However, type 3 and 4 LSAs are still advertised. Stub area, no summary must conform to the following attributes: All attributes of a stub area are the same. By adding “no summary”, the ABR blocks type 3, 4 and 5 LSAs; instead it advertises a default route. The ABR originates a type 3 LSA into the stub area. The link-state ID is 0.0.0.0, and the network mask is set to 0.0.0.0. The industry term is “totally stubby”.
  • 96 The sequence number field is a 32-bit integer referenced hex notation. It is used to detect old and duplicate LSAs. The larger the sequence number, the more recent the LSA. The sequence number starts at 0x80000000; however, this value is reserved and unused. This leaves 0x80000001 as the smallest value possible. This sequence number is referred to as the constant InitialSequenceNumber. A router uses InitialSequenceNumber the first time it originates an LSA. Afterward, the LSA's sequence number is incremented each time the router originates a new instance of the LSA. When an attempt is made to increment the sequence number past the maximum value of 0x7fffffff (also referred to as MaxSequenceNumber), the current instance of the LSA must first be flushed from the routing domain. This is done by prematurely aging the LSA and re-flooding it. As soon as this flood has been acknowledged by all adjacent neighbors, a new instance can be originated with the sequence number InitialSequenceNumber. Sequence numbers increment any time that an LSA is sent around about a specific network. This can be due to a change in the state of the network or because the 30-minute timer has expired and a refresh is necessary.
  • 97 It is common for a router to receive self originated LSAs via the flooding procedure. A self-originated LSA is detected when either: The LSA's advertising router is equal to the router's own RID The LSA is a network LSA and its link-state ID is equal to one of the router's own IP interface addresses If the received self-originated LSA is newer than the last instance that the router actually originated, the router must take special action. The reception of such an LSA indicates that there are LSAs in the routing domain that were originated by the router before the last time it was restarted. In most cases, the router must then advance the LSA's LS sequence number one past the received LS sequence number and originate a new instance of the LSA.
  • 98 The backbone area in an OSPF AS must be contiguous, and all other areas must be connected to the backbone area. Sometimes this is not practical or is unreasonably expensive to implement. Virtual links can be used to connect to the backbone through a non-backbone area. The figure above shows routers A and B as the start and endpoints of the virtual link and Area 0.0.0.1 as the transit area. To configure virtual links, the router must be an ABR. Virtual links are identified by the RID of the other endpoint, another ABR. These two endpoint routers must be attached to a common area, called the transit area. The area through which the virtual link is configured must have full routing information. Transit areas pass traffic from an area adjacent to the backbone or to another area. The traffic does not originate in, nor is it destined for, the transit area. The transit area cannot be a stub area or an NSSA. Virtual links are part of the backbone and behave as if they were unnumbered point-to-point networks between the two routers. A virtual link uses the intra-area routing of its transit area to forward packets.
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  • IGMP Snoopıng ile birlikte 'Unknown Multicast Filter' enabled ozelligi bilinmeyen gereksiz multicast trafigini router uzerinden gecisini engellemek icin kullanılır. Ludovico Solution for Belgian Police Customer problem .
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Ospf Ospf Presentation Transcript

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    • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
    • Alp IŞIK
    • Netas NTS Engineer
    • [email_address]
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 1 — OSPF Overview
    • Overview
    • In an OSPF network, each router maintains a link state database that
    • describes the topology of the autonomous system (AS). The database
    • contains the local state for each router in the AS, including the router’s
    • usable interfaces and reachable neighbors. Each router periodically checks
    • for changes in its local state and shares any changes detected by flooding
    • link state advertisements (LSA) throughout the AS. Routers synchronize
    • their topological databases based on the sharing of information from LSAs.
    • From the topological database, each router constructs a shortest-path tree ,
    • with itself as the root. The shortest-path tree gives the optimal route to each
    • destination in the AS. Routing information from outside the AS appears
    • on the tree as leaves.
    • OSPF routes IP traffic based solely on the destination IP address and
    • subnet mask, and IP TOS contained in the IP packet header.
    • Autonomous system
    • The autonomous system (AS) can be subdivided into areas that group
    • together contiguous networks, routers connected to these networks, and
    • attached hosts. Each area has its own topological database, which is
    • invisible from outside the area. Routers within an area know nothing of the
    • detailed topology of other areas. Subdividing the AS into areas significantly
    • reduces the amount of routing protocol traffic as compared to treating the
    • entire AS as a single link state domain.
  • Feature Updates Update type Transport Authentication Metric Metric type Topology size Convergence RIPv2 Periodic Broadcast/Multicast UDP Simple and MD5 Hops Distance vector IS-IS Incremental L2 Multicast Layer 2 Simple and MD5 Cost Link-state OSPF Incremental L3 Multicast IP Simple and MD5 Cost Link-state Small/Medium Slow Fast Large Fast Large
  • OSPF — Path Determination
      • OSPF uses SPF for path determination.
      • SPF uses cost values to determine the best path to a destination.
    RTR-A RTR-C RTR-B Cost 0 Cost 10 Cost 125 Cost 125 Cost 135 RTR-A 10.0.0.0 – Cost 260 via RTR C *10.0.0.0 – Cost 135 via RTR B * = Best path 10.0.0.0
  • Calculating Link Cost
      • Cost = reference-bandwidth ÷ bandwidth
      • The default reference-bandwidth is 100 000 000 kb/s or 100 Gb/s.
      • The default auto-cost metrics for various link speeds are as follows:
          • 10-Mb/s link default cost of 10 000
          • 100-Mb/s link default cost of 1000
          • 1-Gb/s link default cost of 100
          • 10-Gb/s link default cost of 10
      • The cost is configurable.
  • Configuration Basics
      • Interfaces must be configured in an OSPF area.
      • Verify that adjacencies are formed with neighbors.
      • Verify that routes are in the routing table.
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 2 — OSPF Packet Types
  • Section Objectives
      • This section describes the operation of OSPF:
        • OSPF packet types
        • Communication with other routers
        • Forming adjacencies
        • Election and purpose of the designated router
        • Topology changes
  • OSPF — Multicast Addressing
      • Specially reserved addresses for OSPF:
        • 224.0.0.5: All routers that speak OSPF on the segment
        • 224.0.0.6: All DR/BDRs on the segment
      • IP multicast addresses use the lower 23 bits of the IP address as the low-order bits of the MAC multicast address 01-005E-XX-XX-XX.
        • 224.0.0.5 = MAC 01-00-5E-00-00-05
        • 224.0.0.6 = MAC 01-00-5E-00-00-06
  • OSPF — Generic Packet
      • OSPF packets use protocol number 89 in the IP header.
      • OSPF is its own transport layer.
    Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability IP header protocol ID 89 = OSPF Link header IP header OSPF packet types Link trailer
  • OSPF — Packet Header
      • The OSPF packet is divided into the following fields.
      • Each field is always present in any OSPF packet sent.
    Version number Type Packet length Router ID Area ID Check- sum Authen-tication type Authen-tication Data
  • OPSF — Packet Types
      • OSPF hello
      • OSPF database descriptor
      • OSPF link-state request
      • OSPF link-state update
      • OSPF link-state ACK
    Alcatel-Lucent Interior Routing Protocols and High Availability
  • OSPF — Authentication
      • OSPF supports three types of authentication:
        • No authentication (default)
        • Simple authentication
        • MD5 authentication
  • OSPF — Hello Packet Overview Hello * These aspects of the hello packet must match for all neighbor routers on the segment.
      • The hello packet aids in establishing adjacencies.
    Hello packet information Router ID Area ID* Authentication and Password* Hello and dead intervals * Stub area flag* Priority value DR IP address BDR IP address Neighbors
  • OSPF — Hello Packet Format Checksum Router ID Area ID AuType Version# 1 Packet length Authentication Authentication Network mask Hello interval Options Rtr Pri Router dead interval Designated router Backup designated router Neighbor 0 31
  • OSPF — Adjacencies
      • Establishing an adjacency:
    1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 (1) (2) (3)
    • Hello, RID=1.1.1.1
    • No neighbors known
    (2) Hello, RID= 1.1.1.2 I see neighbor 1.1.1.1 2-Way Hello (4) Hello, RID=1.1.1.1 I see neighbor 1.1.1.2
  • OSPF — Database Descriptor Packet Format Checksum Router ID Area ID AuType Version# 2 Packet length Authentication Authentication Interface MTU Options DD sequence number LSA header 0 0 0 0 0 M MS 0 31
  • OSPF — Adjacencies (continued)
      • Establishing an adjacency:
    1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 1/1 1/1 (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) DBD: RID = 1.1.1.1 (2) DBD: RID = 1.1.1.2 Exchange Exstart (3) DBD: Summary of all networks known (4) DBD: Summary of all networks known (Higher RID begins)
  • OSPF — Link-State Request Packet Format Checksum Router ID Area ID AuType Version# 3 Packet length Authentication Authentication LS type Advertising router Link-state ID 0 31
  • OSPF — Link-State Update Packet Format Checksum Router ID Area ID AuType Version# 4 Packet length Authentication Authentication No. of Advertisements List of LSAs 0 31
  • OSPF — LSR and LSU Exchange
      • Establishing an adjacency:
    1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 E0 E0 (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) LSR: Send information for the Following networks… (2) LSR: Send information for the following networks… (3) LSU: Here is what you requested (4) LSU: Here is what you requested
  • OSPF — Completing the Exchange of Information
      • Establishing an adjacency:
    1.1.1.1 1.1.1.2 E0 E0 (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) ACK: Thanks for the information (2) ACK: Thanks for the information (3) Hello (4) Hello Full adjacency
      • On point-to-point links, there is no need for a DR or BDR.
      • All packets are sent via IP multicast address 224.0.0.5.
      • Usually a leased-line (i.e., HDLC, PPP) segment
      • Can be configured on point-to-point Ethernets
    OSPF — Point-to-Point Segments RTR - A RTR - C RTR - B Network 2.2.2.0/24
  • OSPF — LAN Communication
      • Election of the DR and BDR in multi-access networks:
    C 1.1.1.1 D 1.1.1.2 E 1.1.1.3 A 1.1.1.5 B 1.1.1.4
      • Each router sends hellos.
      • The router with the highest priority is the DR.
      • If all priorities are the same, the DR is the router with the highest RID.
    RTR-A Has the highest RID, so it will be the DR RTR-B Has the second highest RID, so it will be the BDR
  • OSPF — Exchanging Updates in a LAN
      • Election of the DR and BDR in multi-access networks:
    RTR-C 1.1.1.1 D 1.1.1.2 E 1.1.1.3 RTR-A (DR) 1.1.1.5 RTR-B (BDR) 1.1.1.4
      • Routers use the 224.0.0.6 IP address to send updates to the DRs.
      • The BDR monitors the DR to ensure that it sends updates.
      • The DR uses 224.0.0.5 to send updates to all OSPF routers.
    RTR-C sends update to All DRs using IP address 224.0.0.6 RTR-A sends update to All OSPF routers using IP address 224.0.0.5
  • OSPF — Adding a Router to a LAN DR BDR New router * The new router uses IP address 224.0.0.5 to send a hello. All routers will see the hello. Hello, RID = 1.1.1.3 I see no others RID – 1.1.1.3 RID – 1.1.1.1 RID – 1.1.1.2
  • OSPF – Learning Which Is the DR/BDR in a LAN DR BDR New router * The new router waits to see if any other router speaks OSPF. If so, it checks to see if a DR and BDR are present. Hello, RID = 1.1.1.2 I see 1.1.1.1 and 1.1.1.3 RID – 1.1.1.3 RID – 1.1.1.1 RID – 1.1.1.2
  • OSPF — Advertising a New Network DR BDR New router * The new router sends LSAs about networks to the DR and BDR via the 224.0.0.6 (all DRs) multicast address. LSA 224.0.0.6 RID – 1.1.1.3 RID – 1.1.1.1 RID – 1.1.1.2
  • OSPF — Updating Peers about a Network Change DR BDR LSA 224.0.0.5 * The DR sends an update to all routers about the new network learned. It waits for an ACK from all routers. RID – 1.1.1.3 RID – 1.1.1.1 RID – 1.1.1.2 New router
  • OSPF — Network Change Flow DR BDR * The DR sends an update to all routers about the network change. It waits for an ACK from all routers. LSA 1 2 3 LSA 224.0.0.6 LSA 224.0.0.5
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 3 — Adjacency Case Study
  • Adjacency between rtr4 and rtr5 rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5
  • rtr5 Neighbor Discovery OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : f198 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : HELLO Packet Length : 44 Network Mask : 255.255.255.252 Hello Interval : 10 Options : 02 Rtr Priority : 1 Dead Interval : 40 Designated Router : 0.0.0.0 Backup Router : 0.0.0.0 " rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 1 1
  • Adjacency — 2-Way State rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : e98c Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : HELLO Packet Length : 48 Network Mask : 255.255.255.252 Hello Interval : 10 Options : 02 Rtr Priority : 1 Dead Interval : 40 Designated Router : 0.0.0.0 Backup Router : 0.0.0.0 Neighbor-1 : 4.4.4.4 " 3 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 4.4.4.4 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : e98c Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : HELLO Packet Length : 48 Network Mask : 255.255.255.252 Hello Interval : 10 Options : 02 Rtr Priority : 1 Dead Interval : 40 Designated Router : 0.0.0.0 Backup Router : 0.0.0.0 Neighbor-1 : 5.5.5.5 " 2 2 3
  • DR Election rtr5 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.0.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 1 2 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : d575 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : HELLO Packet Length : 48 Network Mask : 255.255.255.252 Hello Interval : 10 Options : 02 Rtr Priority : 1 Dead Interval : 40 Designated Router : 10.10.0.1 Backup Router : 10.10.0.2 Neighbor-1 : 4.4.4.4 " OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 4.4.4.4 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : d576 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : HELLO Packet Length : 48 Network Mask : 255.255.255.252 Hello Interval : 10 Options : 02 Rtr Priority : 1 Dead Interval : 40 Designated Router : 10.10.0.1 Backup Router : 10.10.0.1 Neighbor-1 : 5.5.5.5 " 1 2 rtr4
  • Adjacency — Exstart State rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 1 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 7c0e Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : DB_DESC Packet Length : 32 Interface MTU : 1500 Options : 000042 Flags : 7 Sequence Num : 77793 " OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 4.4.4.4 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 865e Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : DB_DESC Packet Length : 32 Interface MTU : 1500 Options : 000042 Flags : 7 Sequence Num : 75667 " 1 2 2
  • Adjacency — Exchange State rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 4.4.4.4 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : bfff Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : DB_DESC Packet Length : 192 Interface MTU : 1500 Options : 000042 Flags : 0 Sequence Num : 77793 Link ID : 4.4.4.4 LSA Type : RTR Area ID : 0.0.0.0 Router ID : 4.4.4.4 Seq. Num : 8000003f Age : 0 Length : 72 Checksum : 4c64 Option Bits Set: E 02 ...
  • Adjacency — Exchange State (continued) rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 93f9 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : DB_DESC Packet Length : 52 Interface MTU : 1500 Options : 000042 Flags : 1 Sequence Num : 77794 Link ID : 5.5.5.5 LSA Type : RTR Area ID : 0.0.0.0 Router ID : 5.5.5.5 Seq. Num : 80000003 Age : 8 Length : 48 Checksum : 51b5 Option Bits Set: E 02 ...
  • Adjacency — Exchange State (continued) OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 7af8 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : LS_REQ Packet Length : 120 LS Type : 1 Link State Id : 4.4.4.4 Advt Router : 4.4.4.4 ... rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5
  • Adjacency — Exchange State (continued) rtr5 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 4.4.4.4 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 1e65 Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : LS_UPD Packet Length : 100 Num of LSAs : 1 Link ID : 4.4.4.4 LSA Type : RTR Area ID : 0.0.0.0 Router ID : 4.4.4.4 Seq. Num : 80000040 Age : 1 Length : 72 Checksum : f99c Option Bits Set: E 02 # Links : 4 Flags: 1 Link Type : P2P Link Nbr Rtr ID : 2.2.2.2 I/F Addr : 10.10.1.1 Metric-0 : 1000 2 Link Type : Stub Net Network : 10.10.1.0 Mask : 255.255.255.252 Metric-0 : 1000 3 Link Type : Stub Net Network : 4.4.4.4 Mask : 255.255.255.255 Metric-0 : 0 4 Link Type : Transit DR IP Addr : 10.10.0.1 I/F Addr : 10.10.0.2 Metric-0 : 1000
  • Adjacency — Full Adjacency State rtr5 rtr4 5.5.5.5 4.4.4.4 10.10.1.0/30 .1 .2 10.10.1.4/30 .5 OSPF Version : 2 Router Id : 5.5.5.5 Area Id : 0.0.0.0 Checksum : 678d Authentication : Null Authentication Key: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Packet Type : LS_ACK Packet Length : 44 Link ID : 4.4.4.4 LSA Type : RTR Area ID : 0.0.0.0 Router ID : 4.4.4.4 Seq. Num : 80000040 Age : 1 Length : 72 Checksum : f99c Option Bits Set: E 02 ...
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 4 — OSPF Areas, Networks, and LSAs
    • Why Areas?
    • In a large enterprise with many routers and networks, the LSDB and
    • routing tables become large. This is not advantageous because:
    • · Large routing tables consume memory and result in more CPU cycles
    • being needed to make a forwarding decision.
    • · Large LSDBs consume memory.
    • · The processing of LSAs is CPU-intensive.
    • Dividing the network into OSPF areas can reduce these undesirable side
    • effects.
    • Advantages
    • Some advantages of implementing OSPF areas are as follows:
    • · Routers internal to the area incur less overhead.
    • · The impact of a topology change is localized to the area in which it
    • occurs. Although the change is advertised outside the area, the
    • processing of LSA, and consequent modification of the SPF tree,
    • requires less CPU overhead.
    • · With careful network address planning, networks within an area can be
    • advertised in the form of a summary. This reduces the amount of
    • processing on all routers external to the area, as well as reducing the
    • size of the routing table.
  • OSPF — Area Overview Area 0 Area 1 Area 2 Autonomous System
      • Areas allow for summarization
      • Reduced flooding of topology changes
      • Hierarchal topology design
    RTR-A RTR-B RTR-C RTR-D RTR-E
  • OSPF — Types of Routers Area 0 Area 1 Area 2 Autonomous System
      • RTR-A is a backbone router.
      • RTR-B and RTR-C are ABRs.
      • RTR-D and RTR-E are intra-area routers .
    RTR-A RTR-B RTR-C RTR-D RTR-E
  • OSPF — Link-State Advertisement Types Link-state type 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9, 10, 11 OSPF function Router link states Network link states Summary link states ASBR link state External link advertisement NSSA external link state External attributes for BGP Opaque LSA
  • OSPF — Type 1 (Router) LSA
        • Each router in an area generates a router LSA for each area it belongs to.
          • — Lists directly attached links
          • — Advertised with the IP prefix and mask assigned to link
        • Sourced by the RID of the originating router
        • Flooded within the area only; does not leave the area
        • Advertised by all OSPF routers
  • OSPF – Type 2 (Network) LSA
      • One LSA for each broadcast or NBMA network in an area
        • Lists the subnet mask of the link and all attached routers
      • Advertised by the DR
      • Flooded within the area only; becomes a type 3 LSA on exit
    DR
        • Floods summary network information to other areas
        • States the network number and mask
        • Advertised by the originating area ABR
        • Goes to all areas within the autonomous system
    OSPF – Type 3 (Summary) LSA Area 1 Area 0
    • Stub area
    • A stub area is configured at the edge of the OSPF routing domain and has
    • only one ABR. A stub area does not receive LSAs for routes outside its
    • area, reducing the size of its link state database. A packet destined outside
    • the stub area is routed to the ABR, which examines it before forwarding
    • the packet to its destination. The network behind a passive interface is
    • treated as a stub area, and does not form adjacencies. It is advertised into
    • the OSPF area as an internal route.
    • Not so stubby area (NSSA)
    • A not so stubby area prevents the flooding of external LSAs into the area
    • by replacing them with a default route. An NSSA can import small stub
    • (non-OSPF) routing domains into OSPF. Like stub areas, NSSAs are at the
    • edge of an OSPF routing domain. Non-OSPF routing domains are attached
    • to the NSSAs, forming NSSA transit areas. Accessing the addressing
    • scheme of small stub domains permits the NSSA border router to also
    • perform manual aggregation.
  • OSPF – Stub and Stub, No Summary
    • Stub area (a single area that is a dead end):
      • The ABR blocks all type 5 LSAs and sends the default route.
      • RFC-based implementation
    • Stub area, no summary;
      • The common industry term is “totally stubby”.
      • The ABR blocks all type 3, 4, and 5 LSAs and sends the default route.
    Area 0 Area 2 Stub No type 3, 4, or 5 LSA; default route instead No type 5 LSA5; default route instead Area 1 Stub, no summaries
  • OSPF — LSA Sequence Numbers
      • Each sequence number is a 32-bit value represented as a hex number.
      • The sequence number -N (0x80000000) is reserved (and unused). This leaves — N + 1 (0x80000001) as the smallest number (oldest information).
      • Sequence numbers increment each time an LSA is flooded for that specific network.
      • The higher the sequence number, the more trusted the information.
      • The counters roll over when the maximum value is reached.
  • OSPF — Packet Processing
      • Dealing with topology changes in a router:
    Is entry in LSDB? Sequence No. same? End No No No Yes Yes Yes LSU/LSA Ignore Add to LSDB Send ACK Flood LSA Run SPF Is sequence number higher than in LSDB? Send LSU back with newer information
      • Virtual links and OSPF:
        • Designed for non-contiguous areas
        • Overcomes the requirement that all areas directly connect to Area 0
        • Not a good permanent fix to a problem
    OSPF — Defining Virtual Links Area 1 Area 0 Area 4 RID 1.1.1.1 RID 2.2.2.2 Virtual link
    • Passive interface
    • The objective of the passive interface is to enable an interface to advertise
    • into an OSPF domain while limiting its adjacencies.
    • When changing the interface type value to passive, it is advertised into the
    • OSPF domain as an internal stub network with the following behaviors:
    • • does not send hello packets into the OSPF domain
    • • does not receive hello packets from the OSPF domain
    • • does not form adjacencies in the OSPF domain
    • Circuitless IP
    • Circuitless IP (CLIP) is a virtual (or loopback) interface that is not associated with any physical port. You can use the CLIP interface to provide uninterrupted connectivity to your switch as long as there is an actual path to reach the device .
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 5 — OSPF Implementation
  • We can findout what is wrong from trace level 6 3 output : ers8600 :5/trace# level 6 3 ers8600 :5/trace# clear ers8600 :5/trace# info
    • Passport-8610:5/trace# info tail
    • os_dbp.c : 463 : SendDDPacket: nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1
    • os_lsd.c : 572 : ospfFindLsai: lsid=0.0.0.0 rtid=139.177.189.1 area=0.0.0.0 type=5
    • os_lsd.c : 572 : ospfFindLsai: lsid=10.0.0.0 rtid=47.163.245.97 area=0.0.0.0 type=3
    • os_lsd.c : 572 : ospfFindLsai: lsid=47.163.245.6 rtid=47.163.245.97 area=0.0.0.0 type=2
    • os_lsd.c : 572 : ospfFindLsai: lsid=47.163.245.97 rtid=47.163.245.97 area=0.0.0.0 type=1
    • os_lsd.c : 572 : ospfFindLsai: lsid=45.175.216.0 rtid=45.175.216.0 area=0.0.0.0 type=1
    • os_recv.c : 1765: ospfProcDDP: process_db_desc_packet_contents ipa=47.163.245.11
    • os_recv.c : 1524: ospfProcDDP: starting to process ddpacket nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_recv.c : 1314: ProcDDP: nbr=139.177.189.1 seq 2fa3f50c
    • os_recv.c : 1303: ospfProcDDP: state= EXCHANGE
    • os_dbp.c : 541 : SendDDPacket: sending ddpkt nbr_rtid=139.177.189.1 seq=2fa3f50b
    • os_dbp.c : 463 : SendDDPacket: nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1
    • os_recv.c : 1765: ospfProcDDP: process_db_desc_packet_contents ipa=47.163.245.11
    • os_recv.c : 1390: ospfProcDPP: starting to process ddpacket nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_neigh.c: 374 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 ipa= 47.163.245.1 EX_START->EXCHANGE
    • os_neigh.c: 289 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1 state= EXCHANGE
    • os_neigh.c: 1080: ospf_do_negotiation_done: nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_recv.c : 1374: ospfProcDDP: setting this end to slave mode ipa= 47.163.245.11
    • os_recv.c : 1314: ProcDDP: nbr=139.177.189.1 seq 2fa3f50b
    • os_recv.c : 1303: ospfProcDDP: state= EX_START
    • os_dbp.c : 541 : SendDDPacket: sending ddpkt nbr_rtid=47.163.245.97 seq=00012173
    • os_dbp.c : 463 : SendDDPacket: nbr_ipa=47.163.245.6
    • os_neigh.c: 374 : nbr_change_state: rtid=47.163.245.97 ipa= 47.163.245.6 2WAY->EX_START
    • os_neigh.c: 289 : nbr_change_state: rtid=47.163.245.97 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.6 state= EX_START
    • os_neigh.c: 1294: ospf_do_adj_ok: nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_intf.c : 590 : ospfElectDR: ipa=47.163.245.11 IfStateChange PTPT->DR_OTHER
    • os_recv.c : 1338: ospfProcDDP: nbrstate(2WAY) dropping ddpacket ipa= 47.163.245.11
    • os_recv.c : 1314: ProcDDP: nbr=139.177.189.1 seq 2fa3f50b
    • os_recv.c : 1303: ospfProcDDP: state=2WAY
    • os_neigh.c: 374 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 ipa= 47.163.245.1 INIT->2WAY
    • os_neigh.c: 289 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1 state= 2WAY
    • os_neigh.c: 1012: ospf_do_two_way: nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_neigh.c: 374 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 ipa= 47.163.245.1 DOWN->INIT
    • os_neigh.c: 289 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1 state= INIT
    • os_neigh.c: 954 : ospf_do_hello_received: nbr=47.163.245.1
    • os_hello.c: 577 : ospfSendHelloPacket: ipa=47.163.245.11 cnt=7571
    • os_neigh.c: 374 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 ipa= 0.0.0.0 NULL->DOWN
    • os_neigh.c: 289 : nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=0.0.0.0 state= DOWN
  • verify_ospf_packet: area mismatch other_areaid =0.0.0.1 my_areaid=0.0.0.0 ospf_recv: verify_ospf_packet returned error src=47.163.245.1 pkt type=1 ospfProcHello: received on ipa=47.163.245.11 src_ipa=47.163.245.1 ospfProcHello: hello-interval mismatch ipa=47.163.245.11 other_int=5, my_int=10 ospfProcHello: received on ipa=47.163.245.11 src_ipa=47.163.245.1 ospfProcHello: dead-router mismatch ipa=47.163.245.11 , other_int=30, my_int=40 verify_ospf_packet: authType mismatch ipa= 47.163.245.11 ospf_recv: verify_ospf_packet returned error src=47.163.245.1 pkt type=1 Configuration problems detected in the Log
    • Inactivity timer expired in the Log
    • NeighborInactivityFunc: processing the nbr inactivity timer for ipa=47.163.245.1
    • nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1 state=DOWN
    • nbr_change_state: rtid=139.177.189.1 nbr_ipa=47.163.245.1 FULL->DOWN
    • ospfElectDR: ipa=47.163.245.11 IfStateChange from DR_OTHER->DR
    • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf info
    • ================================================================================
    • Ospf General
    • ================================================================================
    • RouterId: 45.175.216.0
    • AdminStat: enabled
    • VersionNumber: 2
    • AreaBdrRtrStatus: true
    • ASBdrRtrStatus: true
    • ExternLsaCount: 11
    • ExternLsaCksumSum: 303255(0x4a097)
    • TOSSupport: 0
    • OriginateNewLsas: 58
    • RxNewLsas: 47
    • TrapEnable: false
    • AutoVirtLinkEnable: false
    • SpfHoldDownTime: 10
    • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf stat
    • ================================================================================
    • Ospf Statistics
    • ================================================================================
    • NumBufAlloc: 6878
    • NumBufFree: 6878
    • NumBufAllocFail: 0
    • NumBufFreeFail: 0
    • NumTxPkt: 6885
    • NumRxPkt: 897
    • NumTxDropPkt: 0
    • NumRxDropPkt: 0
    • NumRxBadPkt: 12092
    • NumSpfRun: 17
    • LastSpfRun: 0x6642e8
    • LsdbTblSize: 16
    • NumAllocBdDDP: 3
    • NumFreeBdDDP: 3
    • NumBadLsReq: 0
    • NumSeqMismatch: 0
  •  
    • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf inter
    • ================================================================================
    • Ospf Interface
    • ================================================================================
    • INTERFACE AREAID ADM IFST MET PRIO DR/BDR TYPE AUTHTYPE
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • 139.177.100.11 0.0.0.0 en DR 10 1 139.177.100.11 brdc none
    • 0.0.0.0
    • 47.163.245.11 0.0.0.0 en BDR 10 1 47.163.245.6 brdc none
    • 47.163.245.11
    • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf ifsta ts
    • ================================================================================
    • Ospf Interface Statistics
    • ================================================================================
    • ---HELLOS---- ---DBS--- -LS REQ-- --LS UPD--- --LS ACK---
    • INTERFACE RX TX RX TX RX TX RX TX RX Tx
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • 47.163.245.11 807 6466 8 10 2 3 35 14 33 1
    • 139.177.100.11 0 359 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  •  
  • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf nei ================================================================================ Ospf Neighbors ================================================================================ INTERFACE NBRROUTERID NBRIPADDR PRIO_STATE RTXQLEN PERMANENCE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47.163.245.11 139.177.189.1 47.163.245.1 1 Full 0 Dynamic 47.163.245.11 47.163.245.97 47.163.245.6 1 Full 0 Dynamic Done Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf area ================================================================================ Ospf Area ================================================================================ AREA_ID STUB_AREA NSSA IMPORT_SUM ACTIVE_IFCNT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.0.0.0 false false true 2 0.0.0.1 true false true 0 STUB_COST SPF_RUNS BDR_RTR_CNT ASBDR_RTR_CNT LSA_CNT LSACK_SUM -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 12 2 2 5 118184 1 8 0 0 0 0
  •  
    • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf lsdb
    • ================================================================================
    • Ospf Lsdb
    • ================================================================================
    • Router Lsas in Area 0.0.0.0
    • LSTYPE LINKSTATEID ADV_ROUTER AGE SEQ_NBR CSUM
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Router 45.175.216.0 45.175.216.0 970 0x80000008 0xbabb
    • Router 47.163.245.97 47.163.245.97 410 0x800000ff 0x68f8
    • Router 139.177.189.1 139.177.189.1 424 0x800004fe 0xcb2
    • Network Lsas in Area 0.0.0.0
    • LSTYPE LINKSTATEID ADV_ROUTER AGE SEQ_NBR CSUM
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Network 47.163.245.6 47.163.245.97 410 0x80000004 0x217c
    • Summary Lsas in Area 0.0.0.0
    • LSTYPE LINKSTATEID ADV_ROUTER AGE SEQ_NBR CSUM
    • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Summary 10.0.0.0 47.163.245.97 1310 0x800000e7 0x7bc7
  • Passport-8610:5# show ip ospf lsdb lsatype 1 detail Router Link LSA : Area : 0.0.0.0 (0x0) Age : 1011 Opt : true (External Routing Capability) Type : 1 LsId : 45.175.216.0 (0x2dafd800) Rtr : 45.175.216.0 Seq : -2147483640 (0x80000008) Csum : 47803 (0xbabb) Len : 48 ABR : true ASBR : true Vlnk : false (endpoint of active Vlink) #Lnks : 1 [1] Id : 139.177.100.0 (0x8bb16400) Data : 255.255.255.0 (0xffffff00) Type : (conn-to-stub-net)(Id=Subnet-Prefix, Data=Prefix-Len) #Tos : 0 Met : 10
    • Useful Commands
    • 1 To verify that OSPF is enabled on the local router and on the
    • neighbor router, enter the following CLI command:
    • show ip ospf info
    • OR
    • enter the following NNCLI command:
    • show ip ospf
    • Also, from the command output, verify that the router IDs are
    • different on the local router and the neighbor router.
    • 2 To verify that OSPF is enabled on the local router interface and
    • the neighbor router interface, enter the following command using
    • the CLI or NNCLI:
    • show ip ospf interface
    • Also, from the command output, verify that the OSPF interfaces
    • are not configured as passive interfaces.
    • 3 To verify the reachability of the neighbor, enter the following
    • command using the CLI or NNCLI:
    • ping <neighbor-ip>
    • 4 To verify the reachability of the neighbor through the
    • allSPFRouters address, enter the following CLI command (and
    • see whether the neighbor responds):
    • ping 224.0.0.5
    • 5 Verify that the following parameters are configured to the
    • same values on both interfaces: subnet, hello interval, and
    • dead interval. To display these parameters, enter the following
    • command using the CLI or NNCLI:
    • show ip ospf int-timers
    • 6 Verify that the following parameters are configured to the same
    • values on both interfaces: area ID, area type (for example, stub
    • or NSSA). To display these parameters, enter the following
    • command using the CLI or NNCLI:
    • show ip ospf area
    • 7 Verify that configured access lists are not affecting OSPF or IP
    • traffic between the neighbors. To display the ACL configuration,
    • enter the following command using the CLI or NNCLI:
    • show filter acl config
  • Diagnosing OSPF neighbor state problems
    • At initial startup, routers transmit hello packets in an attempt to find other OSPF routers with which form adjacencies. After the hello packets are received, the routers perform an initialization process, which causes the routers to transition through various states before the adjacency is e stablished .
    • Neighbor states
    • Step State Description
    • 1 Down : Indicates that a neighbor was configured manually,
    • but the router did not received any information from
    • the other router. This state can occur only on NBMA
    • interfaces.
    • 2 Attempt : On an NBMA interface, this state occurs when the
    • router attempts to send unicast hellos to any configured
    • interfaces.
    • 3 Init : The router received a general hello packet (without its
    • Router ID) from another router.
    • 4 2-Way : The router received a Hello directed to it from another
    • router. (The hello contains its Router ID.)
    • 5 ExStart : Indicates the start of the Master/Slave election process.
    • 6 Exchange : Indicates the link state database (LSDB) is exchanged
    • 7 Loading : Indicates the processing state of the LSDB for input
    • into the routing table. The router can request LSA for
    • missing or corrupt routes.
    • 8 Full : Indicates the normal full adjacency state
    • Problems with OSPF occur most often during the initial startup, when the
    • router cannot form adjacencies with other routers and the state is stuck in
    • the Init or ExStart/Exchange state.
    • Init state problems
    • A router can be stuck in Init state and not form an adjacency. There are
    • several possible causes for this type of problem:
    • Authentication mismatch or configuration problem
    • There could be a mismatch in authentication keys or both sides are not
    • configured for authentication.
    • To determine if this is causing the problem, issue the trace Level 6 2
    • command, which allows you to see the OSPF packets that are received:
    • ERS-8606:5# trace level 6 2
    • ERS-8606:5# trace screen on
    • The following example shows the error received when there is an
    • authentication failure:
    • [03/24/03 15:55:07:216] tMainTask OSPF: os_recv.c : 710 :
    • verify_ospf_packet: authType mismatch ipa= 10.1.1.18
    • Access Lists implemented on routers
    • Ensure that the path is not reachable due to access lists implemented on routers:
    • Ensure the multicast address of 224.0.0.5 is able to traverse the link.
    • If multicast traffic is being blocked for some reason, you must to configure the Ethernet Routing Switch 8600 for OSPF nonbroadcast multiaccess area (NBMA), instead of Broadcast.
    • ExStart/Exchange problems
    • Although both routers can recognize each other and have moved beyond 2-way, the routers could be stuck in the ExStart/Exchange state. A mismatch in maximum transmission unites (MTU) sizes between the routers usually causes this type of problem. For example, one router could be set for a high MTU size and the other router’s default value is a smaller value. Depending on the size of the LSDB, the router with the smaller value may not be able to process the larger packets and thus be stuck in ExStart/Exchange state. To avoid this problem, ensure that the MTU size
    • value for both routers match. This problem is usually encountered during interoperations in networks with other vendor devices. Use the trace level 6 2 command to help troubleshoot this type of problem
    • Incoming OSPF database description (DBD) packets are dropped if their MTU size is greater than 1500 bytes. To allow the Ethernet Routing Switch 8600 to accept OSPF DBD packets with a different MTU size, enable mtu-ignore using the following command:
    • ERS-8606:5# config ip ospf interface <ipaddr> mtu-ignore
    • <enable|disable>
    • where
    • • ipaddr is the IP address of the OSPF interface.
    • • enable|disable enables or disables the feature.
    • 8600 Feature Matrix
    • Notes :
    • Router ID need to be different from any physical IP’s.
    • At the ERS 5510, a specific configuration need to be done :
    • en
    • con t
    • ip ospf op-mode 5510
    • ERS5500 series and ers 8300 need advanced license to configure OSPF.
    • ATTENTION
    • The Nortel Ethernet Routing Switch 5000 Series implementation of OSPF only
    • supports broadcast and passive interfaces. Point-to-point and NBMA interfaces
    • are not supported.
  • Important Points at OSPF
    • Interfaces which do not need to run the routing protocol, should be kept as externals. OSPF Announce Policies must then be applied to import RIP and local routes into the OSPF LSDB.
    • OSPF Passive interfaces are OSPF internal routes without forming adjacencies. No OSPF hellos are sent.
    • OSPF route summarization and black hole routes
    • When you create an OSPF area route summary on an area boundary router (ABR), be aware that the summary route can attract traffic to the ABR that it does not have a specific destination route for. If you have enabled ICMP unreachable message generation on the switch, this may result in a high CPU utilization rate.
    • To avoid such a scenario, Nortel recommends that you use a black hole static route configuration. The black hole static route is a route (equal to the OSPF summary route) with a next hop of 255.255.255.255. This ensures that all traffic that does not have a specific next hop destination route in the routing table is dropped by the hardware.
    • ERS5510 Known Limitations :
    • Q01839838 : Question / ERS5510 v5.1 / 512 route limitation - Failed route add
    • Layer 3 Scaling Limitations
    • - Up to 512 routes (local + static + dynamically learned). The 5510 can support up to 512 routes, although in some instances the 5510 may only be able to scale to 64 routes depending on address distribution/sequence. However, any 5510 configuration supports a minimum of 64 routes, and in most cases will support many more routes (that is, up to 512). Nortel always supports the default route. The 5520 and 5530 also support 512 routes, and testing indicates that more than 512 routes are possible in some configurations, although 512 is the officially supported limit.
    • 1) Regarding the statement &quot;The 5510 can support up to 512 routes, although in some instances the 5510 may only be able to scale to 64 routes depending on address distribution/sequence.&quot;, are there any other factors that may limit the number of learned routes to 64.
    • WorkAround : OSPF Route Summarization : Knova solution 8198646
    • In a situation like the above network, OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) routes can be summarized to reduce the routing table.
    •  
    • To distribute local attached interfaces into OSPF as a summary on the ERS (Ethernet Routing Switch) 8600 the following steps need to be performed. In this topology ERS 8600 will send the static routes to ERS 5510:
    • The below processes must be done : - Configuration of the ERS 8600 to be an ASBR (Autonomous System Border Router) - Creation of a policy that matches to the locally attached interfaces and distributes a summary - Configuration of the OSPF redistribution entry To summarize the routes, the local attached interfaces must not run OSPF.
    • In this example below the 3 local attached interfaces 192.168.4.0/24, 192.168.5.0/24 and 192.168.6.0/24 will be advertised as 192.168.0.0/16 into OSPF.
    •  
    • Configure the VLANs (Virtual LAN) 192.168.4.0,192.168.5.0 and 192.168.6.0 all with mask 24 vlan 4 create byport 1 vlan 4 ports add 2/4 member portmember vlan 4 ip create 192.168.4.173/255.255.255.0 vlan 5 create byport 1 vlan 5 ports add 2/5 member portmember vlan 5 ip create 192.168.5.173/255.255.255.0 vlan 6 create byport 1 vlan 6 ports add 2/6 member portmember vlan 6 ip create 192.168.6.173/255.255.255.0  
    • A prefix list for all 192.168.x.x networks with a mask of 24 Networks with a mask of e.g. 17 or 30 (such as 192.168.7.1/30) will not be covered with this prefix In this case the &quot;mask length from&quot; and &quot;mask length to&quot; would need to be adjusted Ip prefix-list &quot;192.168.0.0_16-24-24&quot; add-prefix 192.168.0.0/16  maskLenFrom 24 maskLenTo 24 This is the prefix to advertise 192.168.0.0/16 as a summary ip prefix-list &quot;192.168.0.0_16-16-16&quot; add-prefix 192.168.0.0/16  maskLenFrom 16 maskLenTo 16 Create a policy ip route-policy &quot;thePolicy&quot; seq 10 create ip route-policy &quot;thePolicy&quot; seq 10 enable ip route-policy &quot;thePolicy&quot; seq 10 match-network &quot;192.168.0.0_16-24-24&quot; ip route-policy &quot;thePolicy&quot; seq 10 set-injectlist &quot;192.168.0.0_16-16-16&quot; General OSPF Config ip ospf admin-state enable The router needs to be ASBR ip ospf as-boundary-router enable ip ospf enable The redistribution policy ip ospf ip ospf redistribute direct metric 10 ip ospf redistribute direct route-policy &quot;thePolicy&quot; ip ospf redistribute direct enable
  • Before the summarization ip routes for 192.168.4.0, 192.168.5.0, 192.168.6.0 are seen as separately as below: 5510-24T#show ip route =============================================================================== Ip Route =============================================================================== DST MASK NEXT COST VLAN PORT PROT TYPE PRF ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 47.168.65.1 10 1 T#1 S IB 5 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.53 1 10 ---- C DB 0 47.168.65.0 255.255.255.0 47.168.65.53 1 1 ---- C DB 0 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.173 20 10 10 O IB 20 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.173 20 10 10 O IB 20 192.168.6.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.173 20 10 10 O IB 20 Total Routes: 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYPE Legend: I=Indirect Route, D=Direct Route, A=Alternative Route, B=Best Route, E=Ecmp Rou te, U=Unresolved Route, N=Not in HW  
    • after route summarization routing table will be as below all the 192.168.4.0, 192.168.5.0, 192.168.6.0 routes will be seen in 192.168.0.0
    •  
    • 5510-24T#show ip route
    • ===============================================================================
    • Ip Route
    • ===============================================================================
    • DST MASK NEXT COST VLAN PORT PROT TYPE PRF
    • -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 47.168.65.1 10 1 T#1 S IB 5
    • 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 10.10.10.53 1 10 ---- C DB 0
    • 47.168.65.0 255.255.255.0 47.168.65.53 1 1 ---- C DB 0
    • 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.10.10.173 1 10 10 O IB 125
    • Total Routes: 4
    • -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    • TYPE Legend:
    • I=Indirect Route, D=Direct Route, A=Alternative Route, B=Best Route, E=Ecmp Rou
    • te, U=Unresolved Route, N=Not in HW
    • Q01828889 : ERS5500 - OSPF adjacencies fail when 'Unknown Multicast Filter' enabled
    • WorkAround : Configure ip igmp mrouter between the ospf vlan.
    • 5.1 Load Known Limitations :
    • Q01832726 : In a SuperMezz R mode HA-CPU system configured with a dead interval of 3 seconds, when the Master is removed, OSPF neighborship is lost for interfaces configured with low timers (for example, 1 s Hello and 3 s Dead Interval). If failover is triggered by soft-resetting the Master CPU, or the dead interval is 10 s, this issue does not occur.
    • Workaround: Remove the Master CPU during a maintenance window or other low-traffic periods. Or, increase the dead-interval to 10 s.
    • Q01735063 : When the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) adds a new port to a link aggregation group (LAG), it brings all the ports of the LAG down, which brings the entire interface down. As a result, the multilink trunk is deleted and the VLAN interface is deleted. This causes OSPF to go down.
    • Q02008788 : In a square SMLT environment, if OSPF is disabled and re - enabled while the IST is down, the OSPF adjacency to one of the non-IST peer boxes may show ExStart state for 5 to 8 minutes. The condition does clear itself in that time frame, and will go to full adjacency.
    • HA Feature with OSPF
    • HA-CPU for Layer 3 redundancy avoids disruption of network traffic when a
    • master CPU that is running OSPF fails over. It maintains an exact copy of
    • the OSPF instance of the master CPU on the HA-CPU. When the HA-CPU
    • initializes, all OSPF information on the master CPU is Table Synchronized
    • and all OSPF events are Event Synchronized to the HA-CPU. When a
    • master CPU failover occurs, the OSPF instance on HA-CPU resumes
    • without affecting router traffic and OSPF neighbors.
    • During HA-CPU to master CPU transition, it can take up to 3 seconds for the
    • new master CPU to transmit OSPF packets. Therefore, Nortel recommends
    • router dead intervals of 5 seconds or higher. (this value is for 8692SF)
  • OSPF MTU Size Problem Network AB Down Two way received Init Down Init Hello received Two way received Hello received ExStart ExStart Negotioation done Negotioation done Exchange Exchange Router A Router B Neighbor State Neighbor State (Packet too large, dropped) Sequence number mismatch ExStart ExStart Sequence number mismatch (Timeout expired) Hello (DR = B, seen = 0) Hello(DR = 0, seen = 0) Hello (DR = B, seen = A) Hello(DR = B, seen = B) Database Descr. (Seq = Y , Init, Master) Database Descr. (Seq = X , Init, Master) DD (Seq = Y , More, Slave) DD (Seq = Y+1 , Master) Retransmitted DD (Seq = Y , More, Slave) Database Descr. (Seq = Z , Init , Master)
  • Global OSPF Parameters
    • TrapEnable - Indicates whether or not traps relating to the Spanning. Tree Protocol should be sent for this STG.
    • AutoVirtLinkEnable - Enables or disables automatic creation of virtual links.
    • SpfHoldDownTime - Allows the user to change the OSPF Hold Down timer value (3 to 60 seconds).
    • LastSpfRun - Indicates the time (SysUpTime) since the last SPF calculated by OSPF.
    • SPF Run - Allows you to initiate a new SPF run to update the routing table. This feature can be used when you need to immediately restore a deleted OSPF-learned route. It can also be used as a debug mechanism when the routing table’s entries and the link-state database are out of sync.
    • · Enable - Enables (true) or disables (false) OSPF on the port.
    • · HelloInterval - The length of time, in seconds, between the Hello
    • packets that the router sends on the interface. This value must be the
    • same for all routers attached to a common network.
    • · RtrDeadInterval - The number of seconds that a router’s Hello packets
    • have not been seen before its neighbors declare the router down. This
    • should be some multiple of the Hello interval. This value must be the
    • same for all routers attached to a common network.
    • · DesigRtrPriority - The priority of this interface. In multi-access
    • networks, this field is used in the designated router election algorithm.
    • The value 0 signifies that the router is not eligible to become the
    • designated router on this particular network. In the event of a tie in this
    • value, routers will use their router ID as a tiebreaker. The router with
    • the highest ID wins.
    • · Metric - The metric of using this type of service on this interface. The
    • default value of the TOS 0 Metric is 10^8 / ifSpeed. The value FFFF is
    • distinguished to mean “no route via this TOS.”
    • · AuthKey - The Authentication Key. If the area’s authorization type is
    • simplePassword, and the key length is shorter than 8 octets, the agent
    • will left-adjust and zero-fill to 8 octets. When read, ospfIfAuthKey
    • always returns an octet string of length zero. The key may be entered
    • as ASCII text.
    • · AreaID - The identification number for the area, typically formatted as
    • an IP address.
    • · IfType - When you enable an OSPF interface, you designate it as a
    • broadcast (active), non-broadcast multiaccess (NBMA) or passive
    • interface. When an OSPF interface is enabled, you cannot change its
    • interface type. You must first disable the interface. You can then
    • change its type and re-enable it. If it is an NMBA interface, you must
    • also first delete its manually configured neighbors.
    • · PollInterval - Length of time, in seconds, between hello packets sent to
    • an inactive OSPF router.
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Section 6 — OSPF Implementation Lab workout
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ospf domain Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 nssa Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations Vlan 192.168.4.x/24 Vlan 192.168.5.x/24 Vlan 192.168.6.x/24 ---------------------------Direct routes------------------------------ 10.10.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 Nssa impl. Summurized and injected to ospf
  • OSPF Implementation Nssa impl.
  • OSPF Implementation Nssa impl.
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ospf domain Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 İmport no external Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations Vlan 192.168.4.x/24 Vlan 192.168.5.x/24 Vlan 192.168.6.x/24 ---------------------------Direct routes------------------------------ 10.10.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 İmport no external impl. Summurized and injected to ospf
  • OSPF Implementations Import noexternal impl.
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ospf domain Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 İmport no external Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations Vlan 192.168.4.x/24 Vlan 192.168.5.x/24 Vlan 192.168.6.x/24 ---------------------------Direct routes------------------------------ 10.10.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 No area summary Import noexternal && no area summary impl. (Totally stubby area) Summurized and injected to ospf
  • OSPF Implementations Import noexternal && no area summary impl. (Totally stubby area)
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations Vlan 192.168.4.x/24 Vlan 192.168.5.x/24 Vlan 192.168.6.x/24 -------------------Direct routes--------------------- 10.100.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 nssa Not so stubby area 2. Impl. Summurized and injected to ospf
  •  
  •  
  • QUESTIONS & COMMENTS
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations 192.168.4.x/24 192.168.5.x/24 192.168.6.x/24 10.100.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 nssa Area aggregation
  •  
  • ERS8600 Mgmt 47.168.90.157 area0 area1 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.65.53 area2 Ers 5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.168 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.167 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.142 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.143 Ers5510 Mgmt 47.168.90.145 OSPF Implementations 192.168.4.x/24 192.168.5.x/24 192.168.6.x/24 10.100.10.x/24 10.11.13.x/24 10.12.19.x/24 nssa Area aggregation 10.10.19.x/24
  •  
    • Thanks
  • Sources
    • Juergen Arlt documents
    • Alcatel Lucent Documents
    • Nortel Networks Documents