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The law, social media and investigations roy mura - i-sight ii

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Roy Mura, Esq, walks us through the law, social media and investigations. The presentation covers the vast amount of valuable information available to investigators through social networks, how to …

Roy Mura, Esq, walks us through the law, social media and investigations. The presentation covers the vast amount of valuable information available to investigators through social networks, how to search social networks without revealing your identity,
how to validate the information you find in social networks, what is and is not legal when using social media information in investigations, how to determine whether the information found in social networks can be used in court.

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  • 1. The Law, Social Media and Investigations 930 Rand Building 14 Lafayette Square Buffalo, New York 14203 716.855.2800 (V) 716.855.2816 (F) roy.mura@muralaw.com nycoveragecounsel.blogspot.com linkedin.com/in/royamura twitter.com/royamura twitter.com/CoverageCounselRoy A. Mura, Esq.MURA & STORM, PLLC
  • 2. Click to edit Master title styleIntroduction• Roy Mura Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Roy Mura is the founder and managing member of law firm Mura & Storm, PLLC. He has successfully litigated and tried insurance fraud and coverage cases for insurers through trial and appeal in New York and writes and speaks regularly for insurers, adjusters and investigators on various issues relating to insurance coverage, fraud, “bad faith” and the defense of first- and third-party claims. He also serves as General Counsel to the New York State Chapter of the International Association of Special Investigation Units.  Joe Gerard Joe Gerard is the VP of Sales & Marketing at i-Sight, a leading provider of web-based case management software for corporate investigations. He’s worked with companies like Dell, Coke, Allstate, BP and more than 100 others to implement improved investigative processes that leverage best practices and case management.
  • 3. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsEpisode 52 Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 4. Click to edit Master title styleSocial media’s role in Steubenville case, NBCNightly News 03.17.13• Click to edit Master text styles “I really wonder had it - fdsfds not been for social media would we be sitting here tonight talking about convictions in this case.” Lisa Green, Legal Analyst Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 5. Click to edit Master title styleNathalie Blanchard v. Manulife• Click to edit Master text styles Fall 2009 – Long-term disability benefits for diagnosed major  - fdsfds depression discontinued after Manulife obtained photos from Blanchard’s protected Facebook account  She claimed she was trying to have fun on the advice of her treating doctor.  Friends-only Facebook pages Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 6. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 7. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsPoll Question #1 Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 8. Click to edit Master title styleThe objective of SM research is…• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds F S U Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 9. Click to edit Master title styleThe process of…• Click to edit Master text styles  Finding - fdsfds  Securing  Utilizing Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 10. Click to edit Master title styleFSUing…• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds T I M Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 11. Click to edit Master title styleWhich are…• Click to edit Master text styles Text - fdsfds Images Metadata Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 12. Click to edit Master title styleTIM that…• Click to edit Master text styles …tend to confirm or - fdsfds refute insurance policy application representations. …tend to confirm or refute the reported facts of an incident, loss or claim. …reflect positively or negatively on the employee’s, insured’s or claimant’s credibility. …provide leads for further investigation or items for further conversation with the person under investigation. …are admissible in court or arbitration. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 13. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds“The problem with quoteson the Internet is that younever know if they’rereal.”~~ Abraham Lincoln Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 14. Click to edit Master title styleSo really, the process is…• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds F S (V) U Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 15. Click to edit Master title styleMost Popular SN Sites by Hits• Click to edit Master text styles May 2010 October 2012 February 2013 - fdsfds1. Facebook Facebook Facebook2. MySpace Twitter Twitter3. Twitter LinkedIn LinkedIn4. LinkedIn MySpace Pinterest5. Ning Google+ MySpace6. Tagged deviantArt Google+7. Classmates LiveJournal deviantArt8. hi5 Tagged LiveJournal9. myYearbook Orkut Tagged10. Meetup Pinterest Orkut Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 16. Click to edit Master title style7 Up-and-Coming SNs• Click to edit Master text styles 1. -Pheed fdsfds 2. Thumb 3. Medium 4. Hootsuite’s Conversations 5. Chirpify 6. Flayvr 7. Chirp Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 17. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 18. Click to edit Master title styleTweeted Photos in 2011• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 19. Click to edit Master title styleYouTube Demographics Click to edit Master text styles uploaded every minute. 72 hours of video are• -3 fdsfds of video is uploaded per minute from mobile hours devices. Traffic from mobile devices tripled in 2011. In 2011, YouTube had more than 1 trillion views or around 140 views for every person on Earth. 500 years of YouTube video are watched every day on Facebook, and over 700 YouTube videos are shared on Twitter each minute Over 4 billion hours of video are watched each month. Considered to be the second most used search engine in the world. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 20. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 21. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles 2.8 - fdsfds What is the average number of social networking accounts most persons have. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 22. Why Are SocialMaster title style to Click to edit Network Sites UsefulInvestigators?• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Private Public Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 23. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles A - fdsfds fully filled-out Facebook profile contains about 40 pieces of recognizably personal information, including name, birthday, political and religious views, online and offline contact information, gender, sexual preference and relationship status, favorite books, movies, etc., educational and employment history, and, of course, the user’s picture. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 24. Click to edit Master title styleTop 3 Legal Areas in Which Social MediaContent is Used• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Matrimonial/Family Law Employment Law Personal Injury/Insurance Law Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 25. Click to edit Master title styleMost people interact with the Internet to…•Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds …buy or sell things …review or comment on things …publish themselves …socialize Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 26. Click to edit Master title styleSources of Useful SM Content• Socialedit Master text styles Click to networking sites - fdsfds Photo sharing sites Buying/selling sites Bulletin boards Consumer review sites Comment strings Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 27. Click to edit Master title styleSearching SNS Anonymously• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds for anonymity Need depends on the kind of site Methods for anonymizing SNS visits:  Proxy anonymizing software or hardware  Alternate, unidentifiable account profiles Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 28. Click to edit Master title styleWho’s Looking at Me?Canfdsfds Master text styles ’s been looking at their• users see who Click to edit -profiles?Friendster YESZiggs YESFacebook MAYBEMySpace NOTwitter NOLinkedIn DEPENDS Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 29. Click to edit Master title styleLinkedIn• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 30. Click to edit Master title styleLinkedIn Profile Viewing• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 31. Click to edit Master title styleAnonymous Web Surfing Click to edit Master text styles URL:• Web-based per - fdsfds  Anonymouse  Ninja Proxy  HideMyAss Software-based browser add-ons:  Tor Hardware:  IronKey® Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 32. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsPoll Question #2 Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 33. Click to edit Master title styleUsefulness of SM Content• Click to edit Master text styles The usefulness of SM content will depend - fdsfds on its: 1.verification to the purported creator or source. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 34. Click to edit Master title styleVerification of SM Content or Data• Three edit Master text styles Click to ways: - fdsfds 1.An acknowledgement by its creator that its his or hers. 2.Forensic computer evidence linking the material to the purported author. 3.Circumstantial evidence establishing that the material was in fact created by the person whose name or image the material relates to. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 35. Click to edit Master title styleAdmissibility of SM Content• Click to edit Master text stylesThe admissibility of SM content will depend - fdsfdson its:1.authenticity or reliability; and2.relevance. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 36. Click to edit Master title styleAuthentication of SM Content• Click to edit Master text styles How the content is secured - fdsfds will affect the authenticity/reliability prong of the admissibility test. SM content thought to be relevant can be secured in either of two forms: 1. electronic 2. paper Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 37. Click to edit Master title styleSecuring Content from SN Sites• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds Unprotected Content Protected Content Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 38. Click to edit Master title styleSecuring Unprotected Content• Click to edit Master text styles Printing to paper - fdsfds  Printing to PDF or another electronic file format  Downloading images  Screen shot & video captures  Digital evidence recorders, e.g., Camtasia Studio & Screenr  Website copiers, e.g., HTTrack Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 39. Click to edit Master title styleSecuring Protected Content• Click to edit Master text styles - Voluntary production by insured/claimant fdsfds Authorization from user Disclosure by persons with access Honest friending Fake friending or other pretextual means Discovery in litigation Subpoena Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 40. Click to edit Master title styleFacebook Content Download• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsWhen you download your information your file will include:•Your profile (timeline) information (ex: your contact information, interests, groups)•Wall (timeline) posts and content that you and your friends have posted to your profile(timeline)•Photos and videos that you have uploaded to your account•Your friend list•Notes you have created•Events to which you have RSVP’d•Your sent and received messages•Any comments that you and your friends have made on your Wall (timeline) posts,photos, and other profile (timeline) content Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 41. Click to edit Master title stylePretexting• Click to edit Master text stylesThe use of impersonation or fraud to trick another - fdsfdsperson into releasing personal information. An effort or strategy intended to concealsomething. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 42. Click to edit Master title styleIs Pretexting Permitted?NO – The US Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act prohibits pretexting• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfds[defined in the Act as the use of false pretenses, includingfraudulent statements and impersonation] to obtain consumers’personal financial information.NO – Similarly, under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (15USC 1692e(10)) “the use of any false representation ordeceptive means to collect or attempt to collect any debt or toobtain information concerning a consumer” is violative of the Act.NO – One state explicitly prohibits investigative pretexting. Beaware of and follow your company’s policy on pretexting ininvestigations. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 43. Click to edit Master title styleIs Pretexting Permitted? (cont.)NO – Facebook’s Terms of Service prohibit Click to edit Master text styles• - fdsfdsproviding any false personal information, create anaccount for anyone other than yourself withoutpermission, or creating more than one personalprofile.NO – MySpace’s Terms of Service prohibitimpersonating or attempting to impersonate anyperson or entity. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 44. Click to edit Master title style“Pretext Interview”• Click to edit Master text stylesThe -NAIC Model Act defines a pretext interview as: fdsfds"an interview whereby a person, in an attempt to obtain informationabout a natural person, performs one or more of the following acts:1) pretends to be someone he or she is not;2) pretends to represent a person he or she is not in fact representing;3) misrepresents the true purpose of the interview; or4) refuses to identify himself or herself upon request.” Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 45. Click to edit Master title styleHacking & Anti-Impersonation StatutesThe FederalMaster text styles• Click to edit Computer Fraud and Abuse Act makes itcriminal to “intentionally access … a computer without - fdsfdsauthorization or exceed ... authorized access.”United States v. Lori Drew, 259 F.R.D. 449 (C.D. Cal.2008).Two states – California and Texas – prohibit impersonatingsomeone online without that person’s consent.Cal. Penal Code § 528.5 (“… actual person … for purposesof harming, intimidating, threatening, or defrauding anotherperson”)Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 33.07 (“… with the intent to harm,defraud, intimidate, or threaten any person) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 46. Click to edit Master title stylePretexting by Insurance Investigators• Click to edit Master text stylesThe National Association of Insurance Commissioners - fdsfdsInsurance Information and Privacy Protection Model Act(NAIC 670-1) states:No insurance institution, agent or insurance support organization shalluse or authorize the use of pretext interviews to obtain information inconnection with an insurance transaction; provided, however, a pretextinterview may be undertaken to obtain information from a person orinstitution that does not have a generally or statutorily recognizedprivileged relationship with the person about whom the informationrelates for the purpose of investigating a claim where, based uponspecific information available for review by the commissioner, there is areasonable basis for suspecting criminal activity, fraud, materialmisrepresentation or material non-disclosure in connection with theclaim. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 47. Legal in US for Master title style Content Click to edit Insurers to Gain SMby Pretextual Means?•Click to edit Master text stylesNo- statutes fdsfds regulations case lawsaying it is or is not legal.Yet… Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 48. Pretextto edit Master title US with FraudClick Interview Statutes in styleException•AZClick to edit Master text styles – Arizona Revised Statutes - Title 20 Insurance - Section 20-2103CA - fdsfds – California Insurance Code Section 791.03CT – Connecticut Statutes Sec. 38a-978GA – Georgia Code - Insurance - Title 33, Section 33-39-4IL – Illinois 215 ILCS 5 Illinois Insurance Code. Section 1004ME – Maine 24-A M.R.S. § 2205MA – Massachusetts ALM GL ch. 175I, § 3MT – Montana Code Anno., § 33-19-201NJ – New Jersey Statutes 17:23A-3NC – North Carolina General Statutes § 58-39-20OH – Ohio Revised Code - Title XXXIX Insurance - Section 3904.03OR – Oregon State Statutes, § 746.615VA – Code of Virginia - Title 38.2 Insurance - Section 38.2-603 Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 49. Click to edit Master title stylePretexting ProhibitedMinnesota Statutes Annotated 72A.493 - Obtaining• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsInformation by Improper MeansAn insurer, insurance agent, or insurance-supportorganization must not obtain information or authorizeanother person to obtain information in connection with aninsurance transaction by: 1) pretending to be someone else; 2) pretending to represent a person; 3) misrepresenting the true purpose of the interview; or 4) refusing to provide identification upon request. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 50. Click to edit Master title style• Click to edit Master text styles - fdsfdsPoll Question #3 Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 51. Click to edit Master title styleSubpoenas Click to edit Master text styles• Criminal - fdsfds Civil  In general  Facebook  MySpace In general, Facebook and other SN providers are no longer providing content of a person’s SN account pursuant to civil subpoenas. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 52. Click to edit Master title styleIs SNS Content Private?• Click to edit Master text styles“I agree that material posted - fdsfds on a ‘private’Facebook page, that is accessible to a selectedgroup of recipients but not available for viewing bythe general public, is generally not privileged, noris it protected by common law or civil law notionsof privacy.[1]”Tompkins v. Detroit Metropolitan Airport,Case No. 10-10413 (E.D.Mich. decided 1/18/2012)See, also, Davenport v. State Farm, Case No. 3:11-cv-632-J-JBT (M.D.FL decided 2/21/2012)(“Generally, SNS content is neither privilegednor protected by any right of privacy.”) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 53. Click to edit Master title styleIs SNS Content Private? (cont.)“If you post a tweet, just like if you scream it out Click to edit Master text styles• - fdsfdsthe window, there is no reasonable expectation ofprivacy. There is no proprietary interest in yourtweets, which you have now gifted to the world. * ** There is no reasonable expectation of privacy fortweets that the user has made public. It is the actof tweeting or disseminating communications tothe public that controls.”People v. Harris, 2012 NY Slip Op 22175 (NYC Crim. Ct., NY Co., June30, 2012) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 54. Click to edit Master title styleIs SNS Content Private? (cont.)• Click to edit Master text styles“When a person creates - fdsfds a Facebook account, heor she may be found to have consented to thepossibility that personal information might beshared with others, notwithstanding his or herprivacy settings, as there is no guarantee that thepictures and information posted thereon, whetherpersonal or not, will not be further broadcast andmade available to other members of the public.Loporcaro v. City of New York, 2012 Slip Op 30977(U) (Sup. Ct.,Richmond Co., April 9, 2012) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 55. Click to edit Master title styleDiscoverability of Private SN Info• Many USMaster text stylesCanadian courts have Click to edit and some permitted the discovery of protected SM content. - fdsfds To be enforceable, the discovery demand must be both: (1) narrowly tailored to produce relevant information; and (2) reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible evidence. Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 56. Click to edit Master title styleDiscoverability of Private SN Info (cont.)• Click to edit Master text styles Relevant information in the - fdsfds private section of a social media account is discoverable. Glazer v. Firemans Fund Insurance Company, 2012 WL 1197167, *3-*4 (S.D.N.Y. April 5, 2012). It is not privileged nor protected from production by a common law right of privacy. Tompkins v. Detroit Metropolitan Airport, 278 F.R.D. 387, 388 (E.D. Mich. 2012). But a litigant has no right to serve overbroad discovery requests that seek irrelevant information. Glazer, above; Tompkins, 278 F.R.D. at 389. Howell v. The Buckeye Ranch (S.D. Ohio 10/1/2012) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 57. Click to edit Master title styleDiscoverability of Private SN Info (cont.)“The Plaintiff has text styles Facebook privacy settings to• Click to edit Master set her - fdsfdsprivate and has restricted its content to 67 ‘friends.’ Shehas not created her profile for the purpose of sharing it withthe general public. Unless the Defendant establishes alegal entitlement to such information, the Plaintiff ’s privacyinterest in the information in her profile should berespected.”Schuster v. Royal & Sun Alliance Ins. Co. of Canada, 2009CanLII 58971 (ON SC)(October 29, 2010) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 58. Click to edit Master title styleSpoliation of ESI• SM data representsstyles Click to edit Master text electronically stored information(ESI). - fdsfds Parties in control of their own ESI are obligated to preserve it in the event civil disputes develop into lawsuits, especially if they are placed on notice of the obligation to do so. Plaintiff … has been on notice that defendants seek information in the private sections of her social media accounts since being served with defendants second set of interrogatories. She remains under an obligation to preserve all the information in those accounts. Howell v. The Buckeye Ranch (S.D. Ohio 10/1/2012) Mura & Storm, PLLC ▪ Buffalo, NY ▪ 716.855.2800
  • 59. Questions or Comments?Roy A. Mura, EsqMURA & STORM, PLLCroy.mura@muralaw.comJoe GerardVice-President, Marketing and Salesi-Sight Softwarej.gerard@i-sight.com