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Developing final
 

Developing final

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    Developing final Developing final Presentation Transcript

    • DISEASE PATTERN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY
      BY : MBA (HM)
      1st semester
    • INTRODUCTION
      Developing country”
      • nation with a low level of material well-being.
      Developing countries are in general countrieswhich have not
      achieved a degree of industrializationrelative to their population.
      • LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      INDIA CHINA
      BANGLADESH SOUTHAFRICA
      ARGENTINA BRAZIL
      INDONESIA MALAYSIA
      GHANA PAKISTAN
      TURKEY THIALAND
    • IN A TYPICAL DEVELOPING COUNTRY ABOUT 40%OF DEATH ARE FROM INFECTIOUS ,PARASITE,AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES COMPARED WITH ABOUT 8%IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIESIN INDIA ,AS IN OTHER DEVEOPING COUNTRIES ,MOST DEATH RESULT FROM INFECTIOUS AND PARASITE DISEASE,ABETTED BY MALNUTRITION.-> DIARRHOEAL DISEASES ARE WIDESPREAD.-> CHOLERA HAS SHOWN DECLINE TREND.Non communicable diseases (NCD) are the major health burden in the industrialized countries, and are increasing rapidly in the developing countries owing to demographic transitions and changing lifestyles among the people.
    • Top Deadly Diseases of the Developing World
      • ON THE OTHER HAND ,AN INCREASE IN FREQUENCY OF NEW HEALTH PROBLEMS SUCH AS CORONARY HEART DISEASE ,HYPERTENSION ,CANCER,DIABETES,AND ACCIDENT HAVE BEEN NOTED.ALONG WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES ,VARIOUS OCCUPATION D/S EG.PNEUMOCONIOSIS IS ON INCREASE.THE EMERGING PICTURE IS A MIXTURE OF THE OLD AND MODERN DISEASE.
    • MEANING OF DISEASE PATTERN
      • Factors determining and influencing frequency and distribution of disease.
      • Cause , distribution and control of diseases in a population.
    • Reason for shift
      Sudden and stark increase in population growth rate.
      Medical innovation in diseases.
      Development in healthcare system.
      Reduced infant mortality and fertility rate.
      Growing industrialisation, gobalisation, and urbanization.
      Social and lifestyle changes.
    • DISEASES FOUND IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
      COMMUNICABLE / INFECTIOUS DISEASE S
      NON COMMUNICABLE/CHRONIC DISEASES
    • NON-COMMUNICABLEDISEASES
      Medical condition or disease which is in non-infectious
      Disease that is not transmissible from infected host to another
      Disease of long duration and slow progression
      Include many environmental diseases ,covering avoidable & unavoidable human health conditions caused by external factors such as :
      • Sunlight
      • Food
      • Pollution
      • Life style choices
    • Examples:
      Cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
      Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
      Cancer
      Stroke
      Diabetes mellitus
      Genetic disorders
      Chronic kidney diseases
      Allergies
    • COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
      Infectious disease.
      Transmissible disease.
      Disease that is contagious.
      Agent of disease is transmitted from infected host to another.
      Comprise clinically evident illness resulting from infection, presence & growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.
      Transmitted through :
      • Fluid exchange (e.g. blood) or
      • Vector (e.g. mosquitoes)
    • Examples:
      HIV/AIDS
      Tuberculosis
      Malaria
      meningitis
      Hepatitis
      Anthrax
      Chicken pox
      Cholera
      Dengue fever
      Gonorrhea
      Leprosy
      Measles
      Tetanus
    • DISEASE PATTERN
      The rapidity of the changes in developing countries is such that a double burden of disease may often exist.
      Hunger and malnutrition
      It includes death, disability, stunted mental and physical growth, and as a result, retarded national socioeconomic development.
      Some 60% of the 10.9 million deaths each year among children aged under five years in the developing world are associated with malnutrition.
      Traditional diets and lifestyles are changing, thus food insecurity and undernutrition persist along with chronic diseases.
      The epidemic of obesity exists along with heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes.
      Increasing prevalence of obesity indicates that physical inactivity is an increasing problem .
    • On a global basis, 60 % of the burden of chronic diseases will occur in developing countries, and by 2020, 70% of deaths will occur due to diabetes.
      Cardiovascular diseases are even now more numerous in India and China than in all the economically developed countries in the world put together.
      As for obesity, current prevalence has reached unprecedented levels, and is increasing at a substantial rate annually.
      The public health implications of this phenomenon are staggering, and already becoming apparent.
    • DOUBLE BURDEN OF DISEASE
      The rapidity of the changes in developing countries is such that a double burden of disease may often exist.
      Hunger and malnutrition
      It includes death, disability, stunted mental and physical growth, and as a result, retarded national socioeconomic development.
      Some 60% of the 10.9 million deaths each year among children aged under five years in the developing world are associated with malnutrition.
      Traditional diets and lifestyles are changing, thus food insecurity and undernutrition persist along with chronic diseases.
      The epidemic of obesity exists along with heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes.
      Increasing prevalence of obesity indicates that physical inactivity is an increasing problem .
    • DISEASE TRENDS IN INDIA
      Initial burden -> infectious diseases, maternal and child mortality.
      Present status -> non communicable diseases, injuries and geriatric problems.
    • Communicable diseases pattern in India :
      Small pox and guinea worm are eradicated.
      Yaws and plague are under control.
      Cholera : 1,76,307 with 86,997 death in 1950
      now total cases are 5,000 and mortality is also low.
      Tuberculosis is not controled because of poor management, unavailability of drugs and incomplete treatment.
      AIDS /HIV increases from the past one and half decade.
    • Non communicable disease pattern in India :
      As a result of industrilization , socio economic development, urbanization and changing life styles, India is facing growing burden of Non communicable diseases.
      32% of deaths are due to NCDs.
      13% due to cardiovascular diseases.
      8.7% injuries.
      6.7% chronic respiratory diseases
      3.4% cancer
      0.2% diabetes
      10 – 15% hypertension
    • DISEASE PATTERN IN BANGLADESH
      • Communicable diseases were the major health hazards
      • Poor nutrition and sanitation
      • Infectious diseases--cholera, dysentery, diarrhea, measles, diphtheria, helminthiasis-- were responsible for widespread illness and numerous deaths
      • Noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, respiratory disease, and urogenital diseases were increasing in frequency in the 1980s.
    • COMMUNICABLE DISEASE IMPACT
    • Causes of Death 1998 (WHO)
    • Communicable Disease Control, Global and Local: Methods
      Immunization (measles and many more)
      Chemotherapy (STD’s, TB)
      Water, sanitation & washing (many)
      Vector control (malaria, yellow fever etc.)
      Education/behaviour change (HIV etc. etc.)
      Regulatory measures (pasteurization, quarantine etc.)
      **Socioeconomic development
    • Objectives
      • A global perspective on the frequency and impact of communicable diseases
      • Appreciation of the distribution of various representative communicable diseases
      • An introduction to the principles and practice of communicable disease control
      • An introduction to the idea that International Health can be fascinating and rewarding
      • NOTE: To teach the pathophysiology or life cycle of various tropical and communicable diseases
    • DISEASE PATTERN IN THAILAND
      • In Thailand dramatic change in the disease pattern have occurred as non-communicable diseases were on the rise but burden from HIV/AIDS resulting from the epidemic in the 1990s remains high and injuries show negligent change.
      • Total disease burden in 2004 amounts to 5.7 million DALYs in men and 4.2 million DALYs in women were a little higher than those in 1999.
      • The proportion of burden from premature deaths in 2004 decreased among men, from 75% to 69% and from 65% to 62% among women, indicating increasing proportion of non fatality conditions for which people lived in disabilities.
      • HIV/AIDS burden considerably reduced from 32.3 to 21.1 DALYS per 1,000 population in men but moderately reduced in women (12.2 to 9.3). This indicates second wave of epidemic spread by sexual relation with long-term female partners.
      • Apart from non-fatal diseases, DM, COPD, and Asthma had lower share of burden from premature deaths ranging from 49 to 68 per cent.
    • Leading causes of DALY’S(000’s) in thailand, 1999 and 2004
      Source: Bandhamacharoen et al BMC Public Health 2011 doi 10.1186/1471-2458-11-53
    • Disease trend in china
      The ageing of the population is the major force driving the epidemic of chronic diseases is estimated 80% of total deaths.
    • COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
      HIV/ AIDS epidemic in china. Due to high prevalence of homosexuality, unsafe sex ,infected blood donation.
      According to WHO avian influenza is a challenge for a country in recent years.
      WHO global targets for detecting and treating TB cases. But still TB is common in china.
    • Non-Communicable diseases
      It is expected that there will 200% increase in cardio vascular diseases by 2040 due to increase in ageing population.
      Due changing lifestyle obesity, hypertension and diabetes are fast emerging major non communicable diseases.
      Due to ageing Alzheimer is emerging as prominent chronic diseases.
      Due to excess use of tobacco chronic respiratory disease and cancer are emerging as a major problem in china.
    • DISEASE PATTERN IN SOUTH AFRICA
    • Ranking of Communicable Diseases By DALYs
      Disease ConditionDisease Burden
      HIV-AIDS 84.5 million
      Neglected Tropical Diseases 56.6 million
      Malaria 46.5 million
      Tuberculosis 34.7 million
      Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, Ottesen E, Ehrlich Sachs S, Sachs JD
      PLoS Medicine 2006; 3: e102
    • The Neglected Tropical Diseases: Humanity’s Ancient Diseases of Stigma and Poverty
      13 Parasitic and Bacterial Infections
      Rural Areas of Low-Income Countries
      Poverty-Promoting Conditions
      Child Development & Education
      Pregnancy
      Worker Productivity
      Burdened humanity for centuries
      “The Biblical Diseases”
      Disabling and deforming
      Associated with intense stigma
      Leprosy
      Lymphatic Filariasis
      Guinea Worm
      River Blindness