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  • The ability approach has many advantages in the assessment of emotional intelligence. However, how do we score an emotional ability test? Are there actually right and wrong answers? Indeed, there are! However, there are some abilities, and some questions, which do not have correct answers.
  • When we score the MEIS using all 3 criteria, we generally find that the scoring methods agree with each other. That means that there are better and worse answers for these test items. However, we also only use those test items that do have clear answers. Lastly, we have found that a combination of consensus and expert scores yield the best results. This is how the MEIS is scored.
  • Could you please add some text highlighting the differences in EQ-I in regards to age. This also can be done on another slide.

Eq presentation Eq presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Is There Multiple Intelligence? EQ vs. IQ
  • Definition of Intelligence
    • The ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations : the skilled use of reason
    • The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living.
  • "Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment” - Wechsler What is Intelligence?
  • What is Intelligence? Although experts differ on an exact definition of intelligence most agree that intelligent behavior has at least two components: 1. The ability to learn from experience. 2. The ability to adapt to the surrounding environment.
  • Factors of General Intelligence Tests 1. Verbal Comprehension - vocabulary, verbal analogies 2. Number -- mathematical operations 3. Space - visual-spatial and mental transformation 4. Associative Memory -- rote memory 5. Perceptual Speed -- quickness in noticing similarities and differences 6. Reasoning - skill in inductive, deductive , and math problems
  • What Do We Know About IQ?
    • Predicts school grades relatively well
    • Does not predict success in life
    • Predicts 6% of job success
    • Peaks in late teens
    • Culture-bound, Gender Bias, SES
    • Racial controversies
    • Gets you in the door
      • Professional schools (medicine, dentistry, law)
      • Can help you get hired (Harvard MBA)
    • Static
  • Non-Ability Factors’ Role: "…individuals with identical IQ's may differ very markedly in regard to their effective ability to cope with their environment…It is not possible to account for more than 50% to 70% of the intertest correlational variance after all recognizable intellectual factors are eliminated. This leaves any where from 30% to 50% of the total factorial variance unaccounted for. It is suggested that this residual variance is largely contributed by such factors as drive, energy, impulsiveness , etc." - Wechsler What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
  • Where Did the Concept of Emotional Intelligence Come From?
    • In 1983, Gardner first published his theory, derived from extensive brain research, on Multiple Intelligence including intrapersonal (self awareness/self management) and interpersonal (relationship awareness/management)
    • Reuven Bar-On (1988) has placed EI in the context of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being
    • Peter Salovey and John Mayer first proposed their theory of emotional intelligence (EI) in 1990 and defined it
    • Goleman (1995-2003) has popularized the concept of emotional intelligence and formulated EI in terms of a theory of job and work performance
  • Gardner’s Seven Intelligences
  • Gardner’s Seven Intelligences
  • Is There Multiple Intelligence?
    • Social Intelligence
      • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully
    • Emotional Intelligence
      • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
  • What is Emotionally Intelligent Behaviour?
    • Intelligence Does Not = Behaviour
    • “ I look upon intelligence as an effect rather than a cause, that is, as a resultant of interacting abilities - nonintellective included. The problem confronting psychologists today is how these abilities interact to give the resultant effect we call intelligence."
    • - Wechsler
    • Mayer-Salovey Model
    • MSCEIT
    • Performance or ability measure
    • Bar-On Model
    • EQ-I
    • Self-report measure
    • Goleman Model
    • ECI - Self Report Measure
    • 360 measure
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
    • Emotional intelligence involves the “abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth”
    • - Mayer & Salovey (1997)
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
    • Social communications requires accurate perception of content, as well as tone and non-verbal signals such as posture and facial expression
    • Emotions are complex, and people can experience a combination of different emotions
    • Many theorists agree that basic emotions have universal meaning - universal across cultures and even across certain species.
    Mayer - Salovey Model
  • Testing Emotional Intelligence
    • How should you measure an intelligence ?
    • With an ability test
      • Ask person to solve problems
      • Gauge their ability to do so accurately and/or quickly
  • Recommendation for Ability Testing
    • Components [of emotional intelligence]…are best tested by sampling a person’s actual ability at the task – for example, by having them read a person’s feelings from a video of their facial expressions.” (Goleman, 1995).
      • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)
    • MSCEIT is an ability based measure designed to assess Emotional Intelligence.
    • It is a performance based scale, meaning it measures how well an individual performs tasks and solves emotional problems - instead of simply just asking individuals for their subjective assessment of their emotional skills.
    • It was developed from an intelligence testing perspective.
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
      • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Model (MSCEIT)
    • Scales
    • Identifying Emotions: identify emotions in faces
    • Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought: use emotions to solve problems
    • Understanding Emotions: figure out what makes people “tick”
    • Managing Emotions: make optimal decisions
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  • IDENTIFY FACILITATE UNDERSTAND MANAGE EXPERIENTIAL STRATEGIC Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test FACES PICTURES SENSATIONS FACILITATE CHANGES BLENDS EMOT. RELAT. EMOT. MAN.
  • MSCEIT Structure
    • Identify Emotions
    • - Faces: 3 faces (4 5-part Q’s)
    • - Pictures: 6 designs (6 5-part Q’s)
    • Facilitating Thought (Use Emotions)
    • - Sensations: 5 situations (5 3-part Q’s)
    • - Facilitation: 5 problems (5 3-part Q’s)
    • Understand Emotions
    • - Changes: 20 item (20 Q’s)
    • - Blends: 12 items (12 Q’s)
    • Manage Emotions
    • - Emotion Management: 5 situations (5 4-part)
    • - Emotional Relationships : 3 situations (3 3-part)
    • Ability
    • Accurately identify emotions in people and objects
    • Question Types
    • Identify emotions in faces, landscapes, and designs.
    • How the Ability May Be Used
    • "Read" people's moods for feedback.
    Identify Emotions
    • MSCEIT
    What Is Emotional Intelligence? 1 2 3 4 5 1. No Happiness 1 2 3 4 5 2. No Fear Extreme Happiness Extreme Fear How much is each feeling below expressed by this face?
  • INSTRUCTIONS : How much is each feeling expressed by this picture? 1. Happiness 1 2 3 4 5 2. Sadness Ability Accurately identify emotions in people and objects How the Ability May Be Used "Read" people's moods for feedback.
    • Ability
    • Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion
    • Question Types
    • How moods impact thinking; relating feelings to thoughts
    • How the Ability May Be Used
    • Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
    Facilitate Thought
  • 1. What mood(s) might be helpful to feel when meeting in-laws for the very first time? a. tension 1 2 3 4 5 b. surprise 1 2 3 4 5 c. joy 1 2 3 4 5 Not Useful Useful Ability Generate an emotion and solve problems with that emotion How the Ability May Be Used Creating the right feeling to assist in problem solving, communicating a vision, leading people.
    • Ability
    • Understand the causes of emotions
    • Question Types
    • Multiple choice emotion vocabulary questions.
    • How the Ability May Be Used
    • Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.
    Understand Emotions
  • Tom felt anxious, and became a bit stressed when he thought about all the work he needed to do. When his supervisor brought him an additional project, he felt_______________. 1. a. overwhelmed b. depressed c. ashamed d. self-conscious e. jittery Ability Understand the causes of emotions How the Ability May Be Used Being able to predict how people will emotionally react.
    • Ability
    • Stay open to emotions and blend with thinking.
    • Question Types
    • Indicate effectiveness of various solutions to problems.
    • How the Ability May Be Used
    • Integrate emotion and thought to make effective decisions.
    Manage Emotions
  • Debbie just came back from vacation. She was feeling peaceful and content. How well would each action preserve her mood? 1. Action 1: She started to make a list of things at home that she needed to do. Action 2: She began thinking about where and when she go on her next vacation. Action 3: She decided it was best ignore the feeling since it wouldn’t last anyway. a) Very ineffective b) Somewhat Ineffective c) Neutral d) Somewhat Ineffective e) Very Ineffective )
  • Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
    • An intelligence implies that there are better and worse answers or responses.
    • Problem with the ability approach:
      • Is there a right way to feel?
    • Indeed, there are emotional issues that cannot be measured this way!
      • What’s the “right” response to someone shouting?
  • Scoring an Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence
  • Scoring The MSCEIT
    • Consensus scoring is used based on the full standardization sample
    • Expert scoring is used based on a sample of 21 members of the International Society for Research in Emotions
    • Consensus scoring has been used with great success.
    • It is based upon the agreement of a large number of people.
    • For example, if 70 percent of people felt that a photo was of a very happy person, then the best answer for the photo would be “happiness”.
    Consensus Scoring
    • Based on Wechsler intelligence tests
      • Responses to intelligence test questions are categorized
      • Experts (psychologists) rate quality of responses
      • Compare test-taker’s response to experts’ ratings
    Expert Scoring
  • Consensus and Expert Scoring Converge
    • Consensus and expert choices for the right answers are in general agreement! The MSCEIT r for agreement ranges from .90 upward
    • So, there are better and worse answers in general. When there are enough experts, both general and expert participants now mostly agree.
    Good news!
  • How Was the MSCEIT Standardized ?
    • Standardized on 5000 Participants Across over 50 English-speaking data sites in:
      • Australia
      • Canada
      • India
      • South Africa
      • United Kingdom
      • United States
    • Ages 17 to 79
    • Reports matched to United States Census Data on age, gender, ethnicity and education
  • Faces .80 IDENTIFY .91 FACIL/USE .79 UNDERSTAND .80 MANAGE .83 Pictures .88 Synesthesia .64 Facilitation .65 Blends .66 Changes .70 Emtn Mangmt .69 Emtn Rltns .67 EXPERIENCE .90 STRATEGIC .88 MSCEIT .93 MSCEIT Reliability
  • Split-Half Reliabilities of the MSCEIT (Odd-even split; N = 1,985) Source: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, & Sitarenios (2003), Emotion
  • In Two Large-Sample Studies (N > 1700), Confirmatory Factor Analyses Show Good Fits for the 1, 2, and 4 Factor Models
  • T MSCEIT is Essentially Independent of the Following Tests (N’s > 100): r = .00 to .35 Self-report Scales of EQ, optimism, empathy  Sources: Bracket & Mayer, in press; Caruso, Mayer, & Salovey, 2002; Ciarrochi, Chan & Caputo, 2000; Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999; Roberts, Zeidner, & Mathews, forthcoming; Salovey, Mayer, Caruso,& Lopez, in press. r = .00 to .35 Big Five Personality Scales  r = .00 to .40 Intelligence Tests 
  • Low Scores on the MSCEIT Predicted these Negative Aspects of Relationships: r = .20 to .46, p < .001 Higher ratings of aggression by peers at school  Sources: Brackett & Mayer, in press; Brackett, Mayer, & Warner, under review; Formica, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2001; Rubin, 2000; N = 48. r = .15 to 24, p < .05 More alcohol and tobacco use  r = .21 to .40, p < .05 More fights, drug use 
  • MSCEIT’S Criterion Validity
    • Criterion:
    • Behavior
      • Self-Improvement -.16** 503
      • Rational Control -.39** 208
      • Life Enthusiasm .22** 208 Relatedness .30** 208
      • Destructive Behavior -.33** 208
    • Emotional intelligence is “an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures”
    • - Bar-On (1997)
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  • Why Was the BarOn EQ-i Developed?
    • To help answer a basic question:
    • Why do some people with high IQ fail in life, while others with moderate IQ succeed?
  • Dr. BarOn and Emotional Intelligence
    • Dr. Reuven Bar-On began in 1980
    • factors that were related to success in life
    • why some people with moderate IQ do well in life while others with high IQ fail
    • Distinct from IQ (cognitive intelligence)
    • components resemble personality factors, but can change and can be altered
  • Steps in the Development of BarOn EQ-i 
    • Identified key determinants of success
    • Clustered determinants of success into factors
    • Operationally defined the factors
    • Constructed the EQ-i 
    • Examined the factor structure, reliability, & validity
    • Validated the EQ-i  across cultures
    • Extensively normed (>10,000)
    • Continued validation
  • How Does the EQ-i Work?
    • 133 brief items answered on a 5-point scale from “Not True of Me” to “True of Me”
    • 30 minutes to complete
    • Standard scores based on “100” as the average, Standard Deviation of 15
    • Includes the following scales:
      • Total EQ
      • 5 EQ Composite Scales
      • 15 EQ Content Scales
      • 4 Validity Scales
  •  
  • BarOn/EQ-i  Factors
    • Intra-Personal
      • Emotional Self-Awareness
      • Assertiveness
      • Self-Regard
      • Self-Actualization
      • Independence
    • Inter-Personal
      • Interpersonal Relationship
      • Empathy
      • Social Responsibility
    • Adaptability
      • Problem Solving
      • Flexibility
      • Reality Testing
    • Stress Management
      • Stress Tolerance
      • Impulse Control
    • General Mood
      • Optimism
      • Happiness
  • Sample Test Items : I have good relations with others I’m fun to be with I like helping people Rating Scale: 1 = Very Seldom or Not True of me 5 = Very Often True of Me or True of Me BarOn/EQ-i
    • Emotional Self-Awareness Subscale
    • EQ-I Scoring
    • Sample Sizes
    - Over 10,000 used during R&D - 3,831 used for the norms
    • Subgroup Representation
  • Reliability and Validity
    • Good reliability
      • test-retest (>.6 @ 4mths)
      • Cronbach’s alpha (.75 to .89)
    • Good validity
      • construct (with other psych. tests)
        • varying relationships (weak to strong)
        • correlation with coping, IQ, and occupational success
  • EQi and Gender n = 4500 M n = 3200 F
  • EQ and Age (n=3831) EQ-I and Age Differences
  • Some of the Applications of the EQ-i ®
    • Recruiting high performers
    • Retaining high performers
    • Teambuilding
    • Managing diversity
    • Leadership development
    • Coaching
    • Performance management
    • Risk management
    • Self development
    • Change management
    • Merger integration & re-shaping culture
    • Restructuring & realignment
    • Stress management
    • Career planning
  • EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Models EQ-i - Bar-On’s test Intrapersonal Emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, self-regard, self-actualization, independence Interpersonal Empathy, interpersonal relationship, social responsibility Stress Management Problem solving, reality testing, flexibility Adaptability Stress tolerance, impulse control General Mood happiness, optimism NEO PI-R - Costa & McCrae Extraversion Warmth, gregariousness, optimism, assertiveness, high-energy Neuroticism Stress tolerance, impulse control, anger, depression, anxiety
  • EQ-i Seems Similar to Existing Personality Models
    • EQ-i and some personality test correlations very high
      • Self-Regard x Borderline features r = -.74
      • Happiness x Depression Scale r = -.77
  • What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Predicted r = + .50 or more If these are measuring the same thing, there should be a significant, positive correlation amongst the measures.
  • What Is Emotional Intelligence? MSCEIT EQ-i Actual r = .00 to .15 However, the measures are not highly related.
    • What Does This Mean?
    • EQ-I and the MSCEIT measure relatively different things.
    • How can they both be predicting emotional intelligence?
    • How do we use the EQ-I and the MSCEIT?
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
    • The answers lie in the intelligence / IQ models of Wechsler:
    • - Bar-On influenced by Wechsler’s search for non-intellective factors.
    • - Mayer & Salovey working in an intelligence ability framework.
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
    • MSCEIT measures fundamental abilities of emotional intelligence as measured in an objective manner.
    • EQ-I measures the non-intellective factors that impact emotionally-intelligent behavior as reported by the person.
    What Is Emotional Intelligence?
  • Research on the Effects of Intelligence (EI) on Career Success
    • “ IQ” “EI”
    • CAREER
    • ADVANCEMENT
    • LOW “EI”
    • CAREER
    • DERAILMENT
  • EQ & Work Success (n = 100) Source: A scientific study of 100 university-educated bank employees using the Bar-On EQ-i ® conducted by Joseph Hee-Woo Jae, Ateneo Manila University, Philippines.
  • What Emotional Intelligence Is Not
    • Cognitive Intelligence (IQ)
      • IQ is necessary but EQ allows the stars to rise to the top
      • EQ and IQ are not highly correlated (about r = .1)
      • estimated that 1% of the variance accounting for occupational success can be attributed to IQ
      • EQ is estimated to account for 3 to 27% of occupational success