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  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONIn these days of technology parity, it does not take long to duplicates.Moreover, with theavailability of increasing number of brands, theconsumers has little patience or the wit toswift through and judge theuniqueness of features claimed by each of the brands. So, howdoes oneensure that one is seen and heard in overcrowded market place? The answer liesinbrand positioning, one of the most powerful concepts in the marketing world,which enablesthe seller to win the marketing battles by influencing theconsumer‟s mind set.Did you know?•Dental caries according to WHO is still a major health problem in mostindustrializedcountries as it affects 60%-90% of school-aged children and thevast majority of adults*•Around 63% of the Indonesian population suffer from serious cariesproblem,averaging to 189 caries per person (Source : Susana‟s 1998 and SKRT1995)*•About 1.3% of the Indonesian population have dental problems everymonth reachingan average of school or office disturbances of 386 daily (Source: National Research& Development Institute, MOH RI; Perception &Motivation from Dental CareCommunity - National Economic & Social Survey1998)* Brand PositioningPositioning a brand in the consumers mind is critical to brand success. In an age sameness, abrand must tout a variety of product or brand features and benefits,by drawing attention tothem and promoting their value to the consumer.The actof developing certain Brandcharacteristics and promoting themis one of the fewways a brand can be differentiated. Your own market is probably saturated withproducts that all look similar and offer thesamebenefits. Since most products or brands have a variety of features, such as speed, accuracy,size, functionality, cost, style, specs, and more, each of these can be emphasized if they aretruly critical to a segment of the consumer market. If you want your brand to beknown for asubset of positioning theproduct brandin consumers minds as beingabout those attributes.You position a brand in order to establish your product as
  2. 2. a superior choice to competitors.What‟s important to know is that many of your competitors will position their products andbrands the same way you intend to. Thats when brand credibility comes into play. If you cancommunicate your brand positioning better, then consumers will view yours as the mostattractive or most credible. The credibility factor might only be delivered via the style of your brand communication At this level of brand strategywhere products are very similar, it takesexperience and expertise to fashion a strategy that gives you an advantage. At Brand IdentityGuru, we analyse your brand assets anddetermine which features and benefits need to be inyour brand or products value proposition to the customer. Well use and describe these assetsin a way that makes them more attractive and compelling than your competitors. Wherethereis no discernible brand advantage, well find one or create one and get your producteffectively differentiated and promoted. Positioning has 4 components:The1stcomponent is the product class or product category in which thebrand is to operate.To give a specific name to such a category is not always easysince boundaries are fluid e.g. a moisturizing lotion may decide to position itselfin the cold cream market.The2ndcomponentis consumer segmentation. It is impossible to think for abrand without, at the same time,considering the segment forwhich it offersbenefits that other brands don‟t. Positioning and2segmentation are like twosides of a coin, inseparable and integrated.The3rdcomponent isperceptual mapping, an essential tool to measure wherebrands are located in the perceptualspace of target consumer.Brand benefits andattributes make up the4thcomponent of positioning, a consumer can allot aposition in his mind only to a brand whose benefits aremeaningful to him. Hecompares and places bands in relation to these desirable benefits. Theconcept ofperceptual space forms the theoretical basis for brand positioning. Theconsumer‟smind is regarded as the geometric perceptual space, with productcategories and brandsoccupying different points in that space. The search forvacant positions in the market beconducted with reference to the preferredbenefits and the preferred importance of suchbenefits. These preferences are
  3. 3. portrayed in the form of preference maps.The 1stpurpose of PreferenceMapping is to measure the gap if any between the position of the brandsasactually perceived and the preferred or ideal position of its target segment.The2ndpurpose isto discover holes or vacant positions in the market because theyrepresent opportunities for new products.Positioning is the pursuit of differentialadvantage. It is placing your product ina certain distinct and preferably uniqueways in the consumers mind. Strategy is how to get tothat positioning.BrandImageBrand image describes a products personality beyond its physicalcharacteristics andpositioning in building brand image. Likebrandpersonality,brand image is not somethingyou have or you dont! A brand isunlikely to have one brand image, but several, though oneortwo maypredominate. The key in brand image research is to identify ordevelop themostpowerful images and reinforce them through subsequent brandcommunications. The term"brand image" gained popularity as evidence beganto grow that the feelings and imagesassociated with a brand were powerfulpurchase influencers, though brand recognition, recalland brand identity. It isbased on the proposition that consumers buy not only a product(commodity),but also the image associations of the product, such as power,wealth,sophistication, and most importantly identification and association withother users of thebrand. In a consumer led world, people tend to definethemselves and their Jungian "persona"by their possessions. According toSigmund Freud, theegoandsuperegocontrol to a largeextent the image andpersonality that people would like others to have of them.Good brandimages areinstantly evoked, are positive, and are almost always unique among competitive3 brands.Brand image can be reinforced by brand communications such aspackaging,advertising, promotion, and customer service, word-of-mouth andother aspects of the brandexperience. Brand images are usually evoked byasking consumers the first words/imagesthat come to their mind when a certainbrand is mentioned (sometimes called "top of mind").When responses arehighly variable, non-forthcoming, or refer to non-imageattributessuchas cost, itis an indicator of a weak brand image.SNAPSHOT OF TOOTH PASTEBRANDS Today‟s companies are operating in macro environment forces. Theyare facing the toughestcompetition ever. So, all the companies are involved inwinning customers and outperforming competition. Indian tooth paste industryis one of the country largest market. TheIndian tooth paste market is very big.Large numbers of manufacturers are present. They aretrying to go at top mostposition.Hindustan Lever LimitedHindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is Indias
  4. 4. largest fast moving consumer goods company withleadership in Home &Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. HLLs brands spreadacross 20distinct consumer categories, touch the lives of two out of three Indians. IfHindustan Lever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of beingsingle-minded inidentifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in everywalk of life.4 Close-up, a HLL product is the original youth brand in India – the first brandtargeting youin the oral care market. Ever since its launch in 1975, Close-up hasbroken every rule in thebook on how toothpastes should behave! Close-up wasthe first gel toothpaste to be launchedin India and has led the gel toothpastesegment ever since. In 2004, Close-up was relaunchedwith a bang. And thistime it was packed with the power of Vitamin Fluoride System – apowerful mixof Vitamins, Fluoride, Mouthwash and Micro whiteners, the perfectcombinationof ingredients for fresher breath and stronger, whiter teeth. Close-up is nowthefirst Gel toothpaste with Fluoride in the Indian Market! Close-up alsoincludes toothbrushes.Pepsodent, a HLL product launched in 1993, was the firsttoothpaste with a unique anti-bacterial agent to address the consumer need ofchecking germs even hours after brushing.5 Pepsodent packs included a Germ Indicator in February-May 2002, whichallowed consumersto see the efficacy in fighting germs for themselves. As afollow-up, in October 2002,Pepsodent offered Dental Insurance to all itsconsumers to demonstrate the confidence thecompany has in the technicalsuperiority of the product. Pepsodent connects directly withkids and theirparents. Pepsodent has always worked in the direction of an overall awarenessofdental health. The relaunch campaign in October 2003 widened the context to"sweet andsticky" food and leveraged the truth that children do not rinse theirmouths every time theyeat, demonstrating that this makes their teeth vulnerableto germ attack. Pepsodents mostrecent campaign aims at educating consumerson the need for germ protection through thenight. Pepsodent also includes arange of toothbrushes.INTERNATIONAL DENTAL HEALTHFOUNDATIONalso approves it.COLGATE is the product of Colgate-Palmolive ( India ) ltd. Its product line includes ColgateGel, ColgateCalciguard, Colgate Total, Colgate Sensation, Colgate Simple and others.Colgate Calciguard being shown as an effectively decay primitive, dentifriceand Colgatedouble protection, which is scientifically proven, provides betterprotection against plaqueand gum disease. Its key ingredients are Calcium
  5. 5. carbonate, Silica, and Triclosan. IndianDental Association also approves it.Acc.To I.D.A- Colgate dental cream is an effective decay preventive dentifrice thatcan beof significant value when used as directed in a conscientiously appliedprogram of oralhygiene and regular professional care as directed by registereddental surgeons.6 Review of LiteratureSix Levels of Brand’s MeaningsAttributes: 1. Features:associates with a brand. 2. Benefits: Functional and emotional benefits associated withbrands. 3. Values: Producer‟s values that gets associated withbrands. 4. Culture: Represents the culture values of the place fromwhere the brand originates. 5. Personality: Image of the brand as perceived by the user. 6. User: Kind of consumer who buys or uses the product.Given the six levels of a brand‟s meanings, marketers must decide at whichlevel(s) todeeply anchor the brand‟s identity. The most enduring meaning of abrand is its values,culture and personality. They define the brand‟s easesBrand varies in the amount of power and value they have in the market place.Atone extreme are brands that are not known by most buyers in the marketplace. Then there arebrands for which buyers have a fairly high degree ofBRAND AWARENESS. Beyond thisare brands with high degree of BRANDACCEPTABILITYi.e. brands that most customerswould not resist buying.Then there are brands that enjoy a high degree of BRANDPREFERENCE.These are the brands that are selected over the other. Finallythere arebrands that command a high degree of BRAND LOYALITY. This iswhere the acid test for a brand lies.Brand becomes known through the products they create and bring on to themarket.Whenever a brand innovates, it generates “me-too-ism”. The role ofbrand name is to protect the innovation – it creates a mental patent. The brandname makes the innovation exclusiveand protects it against imitations.
  6. 6. The sources of a brand’s identity include: The product, the name, brandcharacters andsymbols, Geographic and Historic roots of the brand and thecontent and form of advertisingused for the brand. Based on all these factors, abrand‟s identity evolves over a period of time.The brand identity platform has four components:1. The product class in which the brand is to operate.2. The targeted consumer segment.3. Brand location in the perceptual space of the target consumer.4. Benefits and Attributes with the brand by the consumer.As brands tend become physically similar, the brand manages falls back moreand more onNon-functional factors to distinguish his brands. This is calledBrand Positioning. A brandmanager has various strategies available to himself.These strategies revolve around four aspects of the brand, which can beexpressed as four questions.WHO AM I ?_____ This question deals with the origins of the brand, itsparentage. Abrand can be positioned with reference to its corporate identity oras an extension of a wellestablished brand.WHAT AM I?____ This question relates to the capabilities of the brand andcan befurther broken up as:(a)Category related Positioning:By choosing the product category in whichtheposition our brand, we are defining its composition. Similar brands canbedifferentiated by positioning them in different categories.(b)Benefit related Positioning:That particular benefit is selected, which willgive thebrand the greatest competitive advantage. We get the flexibility indifferentiating afunctionally similar product by emphasizing a benefit which thecompetitor has not exploited.(c)Positioning by usage occasion:This strategy enables us to dominate aparticular usage. It also enables us to distinguish similar products by identifyingour brand withone or two usages that competition has neglected.
  7. 7. (d)Price-Quality Positioning:The consumer looks at the products in a categoryatdifferent levels of price, offering different standing of quality and decideswhichprice cum-quality level is most suitable for a given need. FOR WHOM AM I?___ This is the strategy of positioning a brand for acarefullychosen target segment, where it is the best fit and has competitiveadvantage. Such segmentscan be divided in the basis of Demographic,Behavioural, Benefit seeking and.WHY ME?___ All the above strategies enables a marketer to create a distinctandpersuasive perception of the brand. Aggressive marketing companies try toadd to their branda clinic ling advantage through some unique features. It givesconsumer a reason to why he or she should select one brand in preference toanother. Positioning by competitors andpositioning by a unique attribute can bethe two strategies in this case.So much consumer loyalty and goodwillsurrounds a successful brand name that it is seen as the direct source of much ofthe owner company‟s profit. This is what is brand equity i.e. the incrementalvalueof a business abovethe value of its physical assets due to the marketposition achieved by itsbrand and the extension potential of the brand. Drawingupon this concept of brand equity,marketers have extended the names ofsuccessful brands to several new products in severalcategories.But the extensionneed not be a trap. They can be effectively managed bymatching three criteria.1stthe category chosen for the brand extension must be compatible with thenature of theparent brand and the expertise it represents. There must be a fit.2ndfor successful brand extension, one should ensure that there is consistencyin the valueperception of the brand in the new category as compared to itsparent brand.93rdthe brand name should have some in built advantage that gives it competitivestrengthagainst established brands in the new category. Techniques forPerceptual Mapping
  8. 8. 1. Image Profile AnalysisThis is probably the oldest and most widely usedtechnique for measuring consumer perception of competitive brands, services orcompanies. The starting point for thisanalysis is the measurement of perceptionsof each brand on a 5 or 7 points scale against aseries of pre-selected functionaland psychological attributes. The individual scores arethen average obtains acomposite mean score for each brand on different attributes.An examination ofthe chart provides a profile of competitive brands andtheir perceived strengthand weakness. A further improvement on this chart could beachieved bysuperimposing the profile of the ideal brand for each attribute. Anobservation ofthis type of chart provides useful insights about which brand iscompetingagainst whom, and on what attribute or attributes, and to what extentthey are close to or away from the ideal image.However, image-profile analysishas its limitations. It is difficult to plot all the brandsin a single chart when thenumber of competitive brands is large. Moreover, all theattributes consider forimage perceptions may not be equally important or independent of each other.In other words, some of the attributes may be highly correlated andtherebyrepresents basically the same dimension ( or factors ).2. FactorAnalysisThe brand image data may be collected on all variables, which couldpossibly have somerelevance to the objective of the study. Initially, a large setof variables (attributes) isconsidered. Its prime objective is to reduce the initialset of variables and express them asa linear combination of the smallest set ofindependent “ factors “ or dimensions. Theinput data in all factors analysisprocedures are the correlation coefficients between allpossible pairs of originalvariables. A satisfactory solution is the one, which will yield the10 minimumnumber of factors” that conveys all the essential information contained intheoriginal set of variables. Statistically speaking, the objective becomes:1. Toreproduce as best as possible the observed correlations2.among the Originalvariables; and3. To extract the maximum variation.The factors thus derived willbe uncorrelated to each other, hence independent. Moreover,since all variablescan be expressed as linear combinations of extracted factors, thecoefficients ofvarious factors are called Factor Loading. From this, the analysisultimately aimsto determine the weights associated with each factor. This enables us notonly tocalculate the importance of each factor but also to determine the FactorAxescorresponding to clusters of points including the positions of individualbrands.3. Cluster AnalysisThe objective behind this procedure is to separatebrands into groups such that eachbrand in a group is more like the other brandsin its group falling outside the groupIn any cluster analysis procedure a measure
  9. 9. of inter-object (between brands or objects)similarity or dissimilarity has to beused.RESEARCH WORK Indian tooth paste industry is one of the countrylargest consumer market. The Indian toothpaste market is psuedo-mature. It isamazingly complex being segmented not only on thebasis of prices and benefitsbut even range of emotions with in that outlining framework.With in over 10-15brands in the market, this segment of the consumer product offers atremendousto study the concept of brand positioning, specially when tooth paste is afairlyintimate product and consumer prefers a brand which reflects his selfimage or fits in withthis fantasies. The focus of this study about tooth paste isconsumer perception of thevarious brand are available.11 MOST DEMANDING BRANDS & THEIR COMPARISIONCOLGATE:-Colgate, an oral hygiene product line and one of the namesake brands of theColgate-Palmolive Company, is a manufacturer of a wide range of toothpastes,toothbrushes, andmouthwashes.Colgate Ribbon Dental Cream was the firsttoothpaste in a collapsible tube, introduced in1896. It had previously been soldin glass jars since 1873.PEPSODENT:- Pepsodent is the oldest and mostwell-known toothpaste in Indonesia, since the beginningof its existence hasalways provided more than just basic efficacy.Pepsodent was the first toothpastein Indonesia that launches fluoridated paste back in1980s and the only paste inIndonesia that actively educates and promotes proper habit of brushing throughschool program and free dental check up service. Pepsodenthascompleted itsrange product from basic cleaning to complete benefit paste ever since.HOW ITWORK?Colgate and Pepsodent continues to work even after I eat or drinkColgate and Pepsodentcontains a unique combination of ingredients thatattaches to your teeth and gums and12 does not get washed away even when you eat or drink - so your whole mouthis protectedfor up to 12 hours.Colgate and Pepsodent works for up to 12hoursTriclosan (an ingredient that fights germs) is held in place by Gantrez (acopolymer) thatattaches to teeth protecting them for up to 12 hours.13 TYPE OF PRODUCTSCOLGATE PEPSODENTColgate Total AdvancedPepsodent Complete + Gum CareColgate Total Complete 12Colgate Max FreshPepsodentHerbalColgate Sensitive Pepsodent Milk Teeth Orange14 Colgate Cavity Protection Pepsodent Milk Teeth StrawberryColgate TartarProtection PepsodentSensitiveColgate LuminousPepsodentWhiteningColgateSparkling White Pepsodent Cavity
  10. 10. PreventionRETAILSHELVESBrands SKU Range MRP (In Rs)Colgate DentalCream 100, 150, 200 & 300 gm 28, 42, 54 & 82Colgate Cibaca 200 gm27Colgate Total 12 75 & 150 gm 33 & 62Colgate Sensitive 50 & 100 gm 35 &58Colgate Active Salt 100 & 200 gm 29 & 54Colgate Advanced Whitening 75& 150 gm 26 & 50Colgate Herbal 100 & 200 gm 30 & 55Colgate Fresh EnergyGel 80-150 & 200 gm 30, 50 & 63Colgate Max 80 & 150 gm 29 & 50ColgateKids Pink, Blue 40 gm 24, 22Colgate 200 gm 38Colgate Sensitive 100 ml40Pepsodent 2 In 1 80 & 150 gm 30 & 50Pepsodent Complete 80, 175 & 255gm 25, 53 & 6915Pepsodent G 150 gm 60Pepsodent Decay Protection 40, 80 & 175 gm 12, 23 &46Pepsodent Sensitive 100 gm 55Pepsodent Whitening 80, 175 gm 30 &50Pepsodent Superman 80 gm 45Pepsodent Barbie 80 gm 45Pepsodent Tom &Jerry 80 gm 45ADVERTISMENTCOLGATE:- Colgate has a toothpaste andtoothbrush mascot for childrens entertainment, "Dr.Rabbit",which has also beenused in three tapes that teach about dental health and advertiseColgatetoothpaste."Gardol" was actually their trademark for the ingredient Sodiumlauroylsarcosinate (andidentified as such on the package and in theiradvertising), which today is an ingredient inArm& Hammers "Advance White"toothpaste, minus the "Gardol" identification.PEPSODENT:- 16 Marketing efforts to sell Pepsodent toothpaste were very successful, andsalesskyrocketed thanks to a well-known slogan of, "Youll wonder where theyellow wentwhen you brush your teeth with Pepsodent." Entertainers alsohelped give the toothpaste aboost. It was referred to in a popular 1949 musicalcalled "South Pacific." Singer ColePorter also mentioned the tasty paste severaltimes in his recordings, and Pepsodentwasthe sponsor of the famous 1929 radioshow "Amos and Andy."COMPARISON OF BRANDS (IN %) AS PERDEMAND DemandColgatePepsodentCloseupDabur/BaboolAnchorCOMPARISON OF BRANDS (IN%) FOR CUSTOMERSATISFACTIONBrandsDemandColgate 33%Pepsodent 26%Close up20%Dabur/Babool 12%Anchor 9%Brands SatisfactionColgate 30%Pepsodent25%Close up 22%Dabur/Babool 14%Anchor 9%17 B) OPEN-END QUESTIONS:Answers are not pre-specified any answer canbe a source of information. A samplequestionnaire has been attached at the endof the Report.MECHANICALINSTRUMENTS:Mechanical devices areoccasionally used in the research. Galvanometer measures theinterest emotion
  11. 11. aroused by exposure to a specific situation or problem.In this surveyquestionnaire was use as research instrument and no mechanicalinstrumentswereused.CONTACTMETHOD:Information may be collected bymail, telephone or by personal interviews. The personalinterviewing methodwas adopted in this research work.MAIL CONTACT METHOD:Printedquestionnaire is used to be send by the post to the customers and the answers oftherespondents are obtained.PERSONALINTERVIEW:The investigator obtainsanswer to his questions in person from the respondents. Theindividuals may becontacted at homes or at the work place.TELEPHONEINTERVIEW:In this thecustomers are contacted by telephone and answers from therespondentsareobtained.ONLINE INTERVIEW:A company can include aquestionnaire at its web page and offer an incentive to answerthequestionnaire.27 In this study, the survey was also carried out by personal interviews with thepotential retailcustomers to explain the need of survey and to extract the realopinions from them for obtaining desiredinformation.SAMPLINGPROCEDURESampling procedure refers to “Howshould be respondents to be chosen”. In this survey theresearcher has used theprobability random Sampling to these respondents. In this study, thesurvey wasalso carried out by personal interviews with the potential customers to explaintheneed of survey and to extract the real opinions from them for obtainingdesired information.SATISTICALREPRESENTATIONThe statisticalinformation generated can be communicated visually by graphicrepresentations.Such graphic summarizations are especially useful forcommunicatingquantitative information to individuals who may not have anunderstanding of mathematicalforms. Graphical methods are also used in manyresearch applications, instead of a statisticaldescription, to emphasize anddramatize various features of quantitative information. Thestatisticalrepresentation for this research is tabulated and presented graphicallywithinference in the next chapter.INTERPRETATIONInterpretation in ourusage of this world, means to bring out the meaning of data or one mightsay toconvert mere data into information. The climax of the research process isapproachedas one prepares to draw conclusions from the data analyzed thewhole investigationculminates and reaches fruition drawing inferences thatleads to conclusions as to the cause of action or problem solution. This phasecalls for a high degree of interpretive skill, bothquantitative andlogical.Objectives: -1.To know about brand awareness.2.To know about brand
  12. 12. preference.3.To know about the product/alternatives which consumersmight4.prefer to brush their teeth other than a tooth paste.28 5.To know about the factors that influence the consumers decision aparticular brand of tooth paste.7.To know about the attributes that a consumerslook for in a tooth8.pate brand, when he buys for himself.9.To know about thepossibility reasons that lead to brand switch10.over.11.Image profile analysis ofimportant tooth paste brands.Limitation: Time limitation.Research hasbeen done only at Dehradoon.Some of the persons were not soresponsive.Possibility of error in data collection.Possibility of error inanalysis of data due to small sample size.Scope1.Wide scope in know aboutmarket share of toothpaste company2.It provide information about consumerchoice and have scope in advertising aple for can help to increase market share of toothpaste company29 DATA COLLECTIONMETHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONFor this project Ihave more emphasized on the secondary data in comparison of the primarydata.I have interacted with the industry people, which helped me to understand thenitty-gritty‟s of mutual funds. I have used the secondary data extensively forthis project, as it wasnot possible to collect the whole data on my own.30 Data sources:Research is totally based on primary data. Secondary data can beused only for the reference.Research has been done by primary data collection,and primary data has been collected byinteracting with various people. Thesecondary data has been collected through variousjournals and websites.Primary Data Collection•By interacting with the people•Byanalyzing thedataAdvantages•High accuracylevel•Betterunderstanding•GoodconclusionDisadvantages•It is timeconsuming•Sometimes accuracy is not there because of lack of data•Sometimesaccuracy is not there because of the responsive error Secondary Data CollectionMethods•Internet•Variousmagazines•BrochuresAdvantages•Helps in identifyingthe research problem•Helps in generation of new ideas which can beauthenticated by primary research•Helps in gaining better insight into theproject•Helps in understanding the concept better 31Disadvantages•May not always answer the specific questions pertaining to yourstudy•Lack of availability•Inaccurate, adulterated and outdated data•Lack ofrelevance•InsufficientdataSampling:Sampling procedure: The sample isselected in a random way, irrespective of them being investor or not or availing
  13. 13. the services or not. It was collected through mails and personal visits totheknown persons, by formal and informal talks and through filling up thequestionnaireprepared. The data has been analyzed by using the measures ofcentral tendencies likemean, median, mode. The group has been selected andthe analysis has been done onthe basis statistical tools available.Sample size:The sample size of my project is limited to toothpaste only. Out of whichonlytoothpaste people attempted all the questions. Other 65 not attemptedquestions.Sample design: Data has been presented with the help of bar graph,pie charts, line graphs etc.Limitation: Time limitation.Research has beendone only at Dehradoon.Some of the persons were not soresponsive.Possibility of error in data collection.32Possibility of error in analysis of data due to small samplesize.:Administering a questionnaire on toothpaste customers residing collectedthe data in andaroundfaridabad, to know about consumers preferences andperception regarding variousaspects related a tooth paste such as factor whichinfluence the consumers most when hebought tooth paste, attribute that he lookfor while buying a tooth paste, reasons for brandsswitch over etc. This data wasthen tabulated to make calculations on analysis, which fromthe basis of theresults, and findings of the study. A copy of questionnaire is giveninappendices.SAMPLESIZE : 50SAMPLE PROFILECONSUMERQUESTIONNAIRE1. AGE :¹15-30 Years¹30-40 Years¹40-toothpasteyears¹Above 50 years2. SEX :¹Male¹Female3. OCCUPATION :¹Govt.Service¹Self-employed¹Corporate Executive¹Student¹Others (specify__________________)4. MARITAL STATUS :¹Single¹Married withchildren¹Married without children5. AVERAGE MONTHLYINCOME/ALLOWANCE¹<Rs. 3000¹Rs. 3000-6000¹Rs. 6000-10000¹Rs. 10000- 20000¹>Rs. 200006. Which toothbrush do you generally use?7. Name anyother five toothbrushes that you can recall1 2 3 4 533 8. Who purchases your toothbrush?¹Myself ¹A family member ¹ASubordinate9. Do you ask for a toothbrush by name?¹Yes¹No10. How much areyou ready to spend on a toothbrush?¹Rs. 5-10¹Rs. 10-15¹Rs. 15-20¹>Rs. 2011.What prompted you to purchase your current toothbrush?¹Dentist‟sadvice¹Impressed with the advertisement¹Shopkeeper gave it to me¹A well-wisher recommended it to me¹Just bought it no specific reason.12. How oftendo you replace your toothbrush?¹0-1 month¹1-2 months¹2-3 months¹3-4
  14. 14. months¹> 4 months13. How often do you brush your teeth aday?¹Once¹Twice¹After every meal¹Not particular RETAILERQUESTIONNAIRE1. Location of the store :2. Selling toothpaste since3.Brandsstocked¹Colgate Plus¹Cibaca Supreme¹Aqua Fresh¹Oral-B¹Pepsodent¹Promise¹Classic4. Which are the top three toothpaste in terms ofexist sales?1.Colgate Plus 2.Pepsodent 3.¹Aqua Fresh5. In case not coveredabove. What is the status of:1. Aquafresh¹Good¹Picking up Moderate¹Poor 2.Colgate Plus¹Good¹Picking up Moderate¹Poor 34 6. How do consumers ask for a toothpaste? (Rank them)(a) Ask by brand name(b) Ask for a cheap paste(c) Specify a price range(d) Go for an expensivepaste(e) Keep trying newer ones7. Which of these two companies make it apoint to:(a) Get a regular feedback Pepsodent Yes NoColgate Plus Yes No(b)Maintain regular supplyPepsodent Yes NoColgate Plus Yes No8. Rank yourprofit margin for the following brands:1. Cibaca Supreme 2. ColgatePlus3.Oral-B 4.Aqua Fresh5. Pepsodent9. What is your a) Highest Marginb)Lowest Margin10. If the consumer does not ask for a specific toothbrush thenwhich one would youoffer him? Why?DATA ANALYSIS &INTERPRETATION1. Gender Wise :-Male 30Female 2035 2. Age Wise :-3. Status Wise :-Students 23Professionals 14House wives8Businessmen 5Agewise and Gender Distribution of SamplesAge Male FemaleTotalUp to 25 14 10 2426 – 35 7 3 10Above 35 9 7 1636 Pie Chart..Status Wise Distribution of Sample37.Pie Chart.RESEARCHMETHDOLOGYImage Profile Analysis1. Which Toothpaste do you like most?Close up : 21Pepsodent : 12Colgate : 1738 7. Which brand do you like most?HLL - 32COLGATE-PALMOLIVE -18.MethodologyMost of the people preferred the HLL brand, which includesClose-up andPepsodent. Thirty-two people preferred HLL brand, which targetsthe youth segment, and eighteen peoplepreferred Colgate-Palmolive brand. Itwas a joint survey of both males &females.Ratingsgiven to these brands are outof fifty.4401020304050Rs. 5-10 Rs. 10-15 Rs. 15-20 >Rs. 20 CONSUMER PREFERENSES TOWARDS VARIOUSTOOTHPASTERESPONSE MALES (%) FEMALES (%) TOTAL (%)Ask bybrand name 57.6 70.8 62.8bought it in person 73.3 75.0 70.4eagerness tospends. 5-10 29.0 0.0 22.5Rs. 10-15 41.9 29.2 40.0Rs. 15-20 25.8 45.8 30.0>Rs.
  15. 15. 20 3.0 25.0 7.5ASCRIBED TONo specific reason 59.4 33.3 50.0word of mouth15.6 16.7 19.1impressed withadvt.9.3 20.8 11.9shopkeeper insisted 15.6 20.814.3dentists advice 6.3 8.3 4.84501020304050607080Ask by brandnameboughtit in person REPLACEMENTFREQUENCY0-1 MONTHS 23.5 12.5 17.41-2 MONTHS26.5 29.2 28.32-3 MONTHS 23.5 29.2 30.43-4 MONTHS 23.5 16.7 19.6> 4MONTHS 2.9 16.7 4.3460102030405060No specificreasonword ofmouthimpressedwithadvt.shopkeeperinsisteddentistsadvice FREQ. OFBRUSHINGOnce (per day) 50.0 28.0 46.7Twice 44.2 68.046.8after every meal 2.9 4.0 2.2Not very particular 2.9 0.02.247051015202530350-1 MONTHS 2-3 MONTHS > 4 MONTHSpressedwithAdvertisementYES 11.1 22.2 12.9NO 88.9 78.0 87.1RELATIVEIMPORTANCE OF ATTRIBUTES48010203040506070MALE (%) FEMALE(% TOTAL (%0102030405060708090MALE FEMALE TOTALYESNO MALES FEMALES TOTAL RANK PRICE 62.7 57.3 61.2 5PACKAGING40.2 49.3 44.6 8DURABILITY 74.5 74.7 75.4 2LONG HANDLE 51.9 60.057.0 6FLEXIBLE NECK 52.9 60.0 57.1 6COMFY. ANGLE 68.6 78.7 73.73SOFT BRISTLES 78.4 86.7 82.9 1LOOKS 46.1 40.0 44. 9DIAMOND HEAD36.3 41.3 38.9 10GRIP 58.8 68.0 63.4 4INDICATOR 28.4 41.3 34.3 1149 COLGATE PLUS USERS RESPONSEMales FemalesTotalv.GoodGodCan‟tsayv.GoodGodCan‟tsayv.GoodGodCan‟tsayQuality 1773 10 40 60 - 21.5 65.5 13Access 90 10 - 97.5 - 2.5 95.5 - 4.5Value/price42 508 60 23 7 51 32 17Loyalty Yes-3 No-97Yes-3 No-97- Yes-3No -97 -500 20 4060 80 100MALESFEMALESTOTALRANK BRANDS PERCENTAGECOLGATE PLUS 30.96CIBACA 14.28ORAL-B16.66CLOSE-UP 9.52PEPSODENT POPULAR 7.14JORDAN 9.52OTHERS11.90510102030405060708090100Quality Access Value/price Loyalty BRAND RECALLBRANDS PERCENTAGECOLGATE PLUS20.47PEPSODENT POPULAR 11.02CIBACA 10.24ORAL-B 9.54AQUA-FRESH 7.59AJANTA 7.09OTHERS 28.355205101520253035BRANDSORAL-B JORDAN Only about 5% of the respondents could not remember which toothbrush theywere presentlyusing which were excluded from the above computing.Chart 1We
  16. 16. have found that nearly half of our sample is highly aware as Colgate astheirToothpaste Brand with Pepsodent as Brand awareness is 25% with Closeup at 20%and Amar and babool at 6% and 4%respectively53051015202530BRANDSCOLGATEPLUSPEPSODENTPOPULARCIBACAORAL-BAQUA-FRESHAJANTA 2 weeks14%4 weeks22%6weeks34%8 weeks30%Duration of purchase2 weeks4 weeks6 weeks8 weeks Chart 2We have found that more than 75% of our sample is aware of theirtoothpaste branddue to television commercials whereas Product awareness byPrint Media is 12%followed by others (Posters @ Retail Stores) is 8% andawareness via Radio is 2%54ProductAwarenessTelevision78%Print12%Others8%radio2%TelevisionPrintOthersradio SUGGESTIONS1) Colgate-Palmolive should try to target the youth segmentby using Celebrities in their advertisements. It is good thing that they mostly useDentists to attract the customersbut as compared to HLL, they always usemodels and young people in their advertisements. Celebrities attract today‟syouth more.2) Colgate-Palmolive should try to introduce a variety of attractiveflavours in their toothpastes.3) They should bring about some changes in theirpackaging & Labeling.4) They should cut down their prices up to some extentbecause some tooth pastes of Colgate are quite expensive as compared to Close-up &Pepsodent.5) Close-up is less popular amongst senior citizens as comparedto Colgate. Closehave already established a brand name in Youth segment butthey should alsoconcentrate on targeting other classes of people.6) Colgatestresses on Strong & Healthy teeth, Prevention of tooth decay, Usea. of Naturalherbs while HLL products believe in 24hrs protection from germs,b. longlasting freshness and Whiteness of teeth‟s.2) In the Tooth Brush segment peopleprefer Colgate brushes more than HLLtoothbrushes because there is largevariety and shapes of Colgate Tooth brushesavailable in the market.3) BothHLL and Colgate-Palmolive should try to explore the rural areas alsobecauseboth these brands are not very popular amongst the rural people.70 APPENDIXBIBLIOGRAPHY1. Business Today Library2.A&M Issues ofJune „05, June „05, April „20063.CII Library4. FORE Library5.Kotler Philip(Principles of Marketing6. Kotler, Philip (Marketing Management).Journals andMagazines:1. Business Today2. Business IndiaSITE
  17. 17. VISITEDWWW.COLGATE.CO.INWWW.PEPSODENT.CO.INGOOGLE SEARCH 71 QUESTIONNAIRE1. Name ________________________________ 2. Age________ , Gender _______ , Contact No.____________________ 3. WhichTooth Paste do you like most?Close up Pepsodent Colgate4. Status:StudentProfessional House Wife Businessman5. Number of Tooth Pastes used permonth ______ 6. Which Brand do you like most ?HLL Colgate-Palmolive7.Which are the factors that influence you the most when you buy a toothpaste?(GiveRatings 1-8 )a) Price b) Colour c) Advertisement d)Packinge)Scheme f) Availability g) Taste h) Liking8. Which attribute do you look for,when you buy a tooth paste?( Rank in order of preference from 1 - 6 , the brandwhich has these attributes )72 a) Healthy tooth& gums b) Long lasting freshness c) Preventionof toothdecayd) Whiteness e) Use of Natural herbs f) Good foam9. The tooth pasteadvertisement that like most is of - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -RETAILERQUESTIONNAIRE11. Location of the store :12. Selling toothbrushessince13.Brands stocked¹Colgate Plus¹Cibaca Supreme¹Aqua Fresh¹Jordan¹Oral-B¹Royal¹Pepsodent¹Promise¹Ajay¹Ajanta¹Classic14. Which are the top threetoothbrushes in terms of exist sales?1. 2. 3. 4.15. In case not covered above.What is the status of:1. Aquafresh¹Good¹Picking up Moderate¹Poor 2. ColgatePlus¹Good¹Picking up Moderate¹Poor 16. How do consumers ask for a toothbrush? (Rank them)(a) Ask by brand name (b) Ask for a cheap brush(c) Specifya price range(d) Go for an expensive brush(e) Keep trying newer ones73 17. Which of these two companies make it a point to:(a) Get a regularfeedback Aquafresh¹Yes¹NoColgate Plus¹Yes¹No(b) Maintain regularsupplyAquafresh¹Yes¹NoColgate Plus¹Yes¹No18. Rank your profit margin forthe following brands:1. Cibaca Supreme 2. Colgate Plus3.Oral-B 4.AquaFresh5.Classic 6. Ajanta7. Pepsodent 8. Jordan19. What is your a) HighestMarginb) Lowest Margin20. If the consumer does not ask for a specifictoothbrush then which one would youoffer him? Why?74SearchSearch History: Searching...Result 00 of 0000 results for result for p.“Customer toward preference various toothpaste brand‟‟Download or PrintAddTo Collection4.0K
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