Chemical & Microbial analysis of farm & forest soil


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My presentation on "Chemical and Microbail analysis of farm and forest soil" presented at SICE after Summer research project.

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Chemical & Microbial analysis of farm & forest soil

  1. 1. <ul><li>Chemical & microbial analysis of </li></ul><ul><li>Farm Soil & Forest Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Ishan O. Trivedi </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is soil ? <ul><li>Soil is a heterogeneous mixture of silicate particles, humus, and a variety of insoluble salts and oxides of metals called the solid phase, a liquid phase and a gaseous phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of soil texture: </li></ul><ul><li>Clayey </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy </li></ul><ul><li>Loamy </li></ul>
  3. 3. We performed soil analysis to… <ul><li>Analyze physiochemical parameters of soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze microbial parameters of soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Study relationship between soil organic content and micro-organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Every soil is a unique combination </li></ul><ul><li>of minerals, micro and macro </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Also, soil is a/an: Great integrator Producer and absorber of gases (CO 2 and others) Medium for plant growth Medium of crop production Home to organisms (plants, animals and micro-organisms) Waste decomposer Snapshot of geologic, climatic, biological, and human history Source material for construction, medicine, art, etc. Filter of water and wastes Essential natural resource Medium of heat and water storage
  5. 5. Why we specifically chose forest and farm soil ? <ul><li>To analyze forest Biota: </li></ul><ul><li>- Forest is the richest biodiversity holder. </li></ul><ul><li>- Forest is the source of timber & medicines to humans. We analyzed what problems the trees may be facing in the forest and their solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>- We searched for methods to maximize the growth of beneficial micro-organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>To analyze farm fertility and types of organisms in it: </li></ul><ul><li>- Farm is the source of crops for us. Healthy soil gives rise to healthy crops. </li></ul><ul><li>- Different organisms are favoured in various pH, chloride content, organic content etc. Knowing this helped in identifying the useful organisms and provided methods of manipulation to favour these organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>- Earth worms are favoured in soil rich in organic content. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characterization and Sampling Options Soil Pit Auger Exposed Profile (road cut) Surface Sample
  7. 7. Physical analysis
  8. 8. Soil type <ul><li>Clay soil: Clay soils are made of very small particles. They feel slick and sticky when wet. Clay and silt hold moisture well, but resist water infiltration, especially when they are dry. Often puddles form on clay or silt soils, and they easily become compacted. </li></ul><ul><li>Loam soil: Loam soil is a mixture of sand, silt or clay, and organic matter. Loam soils are loose and look rich. When squeezed in your fist, moist loam will form a ball which crumbles when poked with a finger. Loam soils normally absorb water and store moisture well. Loam soils can be sandy or clay based, and will vary in moisture absorption and retention accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sandy soils: Sandy soils contain large particles which are visible to the unaided eye, and are usually light in color. Sand feels coarse when wet or dry, and will not form a ball when squeezed in your fist. Sandy soils stay loose and allow moisture to penetrate easily, but do not retain it for long term use </li></ul>
  9. 9. Farm & forest soil
  10. 10. Soil Structure: Forest & farm soil Granular Blocky Prismatic Columnar
  11. 11. Chemical analysis
  12. 12. Soil pH <ul><li>Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>A pH meter measures the potential difference between reference solution and test solution and accordingly displays it in the form of pH. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil sample, D/w, rotatory shaker, pH meter, pH tablets. </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve 10gm soil in 100ml D/w. </li></ul><ul><li>Put it on a rotatory shaker for 1 hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the soil to settle for 10 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Calibrate the pH meter on atleast 2 buffers, usually pH 4 and pH 7 using standard pH tablets. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the combined electrode in the suspension about 3 cm deep. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the reading after 30 secs. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the combined electrode and rinse it with D/w. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Soil chloride <ul><li>Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>AgNO 3 first reacts with chloride ions to form AgCl. Once all chloride ions have reacted, AgNO 3 reacts with K 2 CrO 4 to form brick red precipitates of Ag 2 CrO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil sample, D/W, rotatory shaker, K 2 CrO 4 , AgNO 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Take 10 gm soil and mix with 50 ml D/w. </li></ul><ul><li>Take 5 ml sample and add 20 ml D/W. </li></ul><ul><li>To this add 1-2 drops of K 2 CrO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Titrate with the help of AgNO3 until yellow to brick red. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil chloride Cl - /gm = (x*y*35.5)/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>X= pipette reading </li></ul><ul><li>Y= Normality (1N) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Total soil acidity <ul><li>Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of normality. </li></ul><ul><li>N 1 V 1 =N 2 V 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>0.05N NaOH, methyl orange indicator, phenolphthalein, soil sample, D/W. </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare 100 ml colourless sample from 1 gm soil sample with the help of D/W. </li></ul><ul><li>Add 2-3 drops of methyl orange. If solution turns yellow, methyl orange acidity is absent. </li></ul><ul><li>If solution turns pink, titrate with 0.05 N NaOH till yellow colour is obtained. Take this value as titer value “A”. </li></ul><ul><li>Now add 2-3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. If pink colour develops, phenolphthalein acidity is absent. </li></ul><ul><li>If soln. is colourless, titrate with 0.05N NaOH until pink colour is obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>Record B which is known as phenolphthalein acidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>Methyl orange acidity: </li></ul><ul><li>Mg/liter= (a*N NaOH *1000*50)/V Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Phenolphthalein acidity: </li></ul><ul><li>Mg/liter= (b*N NaOH *1000*50)/V Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Total acidity = [(a+b)*N NaOH *1000*50] / V Sample . </li></ul><ul><li>Convert into “mg/gm” units. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Total soil alkality <ul><li>Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of normality. </li></ul><ul><li>N 1 V 1 =N 2 V 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil sample, D/w, phenolphthalein indicator, 0.1N HCl, methyl orange </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare 100 ml colourless sample from 1 gm soil sample with the help of D/W. </li></ul><ul><li>Take 100 ml of sample. Add 1-2 drops of phenolphthalein. </li></ul><ul><li>Titrate against 0.1 N HCl if pink colour develops. </li></ul><ul><li>Record this as result “a”. This is phenolphthalein alkality. </li></ul><ul><li>Then add 1 drop of methyl orange. If it gives light yellow colour, again titrate against 0.1 N HCl until the light yellow colour is changed to red. </li></ul><ul><li>Note the result “b”. This is methyl orange alkality. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>Phenolphthalein alkality: </li></ul><ul><li>Mg/liter = (a*N HCl *1000*50)/V Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Methyl orange alkality: </li></ul><ul><li>Mg/liter = (b*N HCl *1000*50)/V Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Total alkality = [(a+b)*N HCl *1000*50]/V Sample . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Total Organic carbon: <ul><li>Principle: Oxidation of organic matter with know volume of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and knowing the unreduced K 2 Cr 2 O 7 by reduction with FAS. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials:   </li></ul><ul><li>-   0.01 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution. </li></ul><ul><li>-   Sulphuric acid reagent (500ml H 2 SO 4 + 5.5gm Ag 2 SO 4 , Allow it to react overnight). </li></ul><ul><li>-   Ferrous ammonium sulphate (0.1M). </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><li>-   1 gm soil sample + 10ml potassium dichromate + 7ml Sulphuric acid reagent + 2ml O-Phosphoric acid </li></ul><ul><li>-   Allow it to react on COD digester at 150 0 C for 1 hour. </li></ul><ul><li>-   Allow it to cool. </li></ul><ul><li>- Add 1 to 2 drop of ferroin indicator. </li></ul><ul><li>- Titrate with 0.1M ferrous ammonium sulphate. </li></ul><ul><li>- Colour change : Bluish green to reddish brown. Record it as result “B”. </li></ul><ul><li>- Run a blank experiment with all above ingredients except soil. Note it as result “A”. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation: </li></ul><ul><li>In mg O 2 /liter = [(A – B) * M *8000] / V sample . </li></ul><ul><li>A = ml Ferrous ammonium sulphate used for blank experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>B = ml Ferrous ammonium sulphate used for sample. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Microbiological analysis
  18. 18. Standard plate count. <ul><li>Principle: Law of serial dilution. </li></ul><ul><li>Media used: Nutrient agar, Czapek Dox agar, Soil agar, Actinomycete agar. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Interpretation of results <ul><li>pH: </li></ul>
  20. 22. Soil chlorides
  21. 23. Total alkality
  22. 24. Total acidity
  23. 25. Total organic carbon
  24. 26. Conclusion <ul><li>Chemical analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Farm soil. </li></ul><ul><li>This soil is nearly ideal for growing leguminous plants. Currently, ground nut is being grown at the site. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil structure, pH, chloride content, sodium content, molybdenum content etc. are all normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil is falling short of organic matter. This is restricting growth of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and earthworms. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter need to be added along with liming, if necessary, to make it an ideal soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest soil. </li></ul><ul><li>This soil is having high organic content. The pH is almost neutral. High amount of organic acids is the reason. Nitrogen fixing bacteria may find it difficult to survive if the pH falls further. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil needs liming or extraction of excess organic matter. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Microbiological analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>High organic matter was found in forest soil but farm soil was more workable ( aeration, water content, tillage etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>Soils receiving well decomposed organic manures have better soil aggregates than those receiving saw dust and other types of not so easily decomposable organic wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Samples have been collected from two organic content rich soil regions like farm and forest. Forest soil is rich organic matter, 0.28 gm/ dry wt. whereas in farm soil, it is 0.12 gm/dry wt. Heterotrophic count on N. agar shows high population of bacteria & count on soil agar shows high population of nitrogen fixing & biodegrading bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate alkaline pH favours high population of actinomycetes in forest soil whereas comparative high population of fungal indices in forest may be due to high plant biodiversity at forest. </li></ul><ul><li>The organic matter in soils is potential source of plant growth. Microbiological decomposition of organic matter is an essential step to release the bound nutrients in organic residues in an easily available form. </li></ul><ul><li>We concluded that the number of actinomycetes increases in presence of decomposing organic matter. </li></ul>
  26. 28. My contact details: <ul><li>My linkedin account: </li></ul><ul><li>My e-mail account: </li></ul><ul><li>My facebook account: http:// =100001411216125 </li></ul><ul><li>Please mention “your presentation” as subject when you contact me so that I can understand you better. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Thank you