• Books to be Read:
1. Organization Development – French & Bell
2. Organization Development – V. G. Kondalkar
3. Organization Development & Change – Cummings & Worley
4. Organizational Development & Transformation- French, Bell & Zawacki
By Isha Aggarwal
Organizational Development or O.D. is a planned effort initiated
by process specialists to help an organization develop its
diagnostic skills, coping capabilities, linkage strategies( in the
form of temporary and semi-permanent systems) and a culture of
• A planned effort – thinking and planning
• initiated by process specialists
• Diagnostic skills- data collection-overtime
• Coping capabilities-problem-solving,confront and cope
• Linking strategies-Indl.& Organl. Goals
• Culture of Mutuality-OCTAPACE-fostering of certain values
and open and proactive systems viz. openness,confrontation,
trust, authenticity,pro-activeness, autonomy, collaboration and
Definition of O.D.by Edgar Schein
An organization is the planned coordination of the
activities of a number of people for the achievement of
some common explicit purpose or goals through the
division of labour and function, and through a hierarchy
of authority and responsibility.
Development is the act, process, result or state of being
developed-which in turn means to advance, to promote
the growth of, to evolve the possibility of, to further, to
improve or to enhance something
Two elements stand out viz.
(a)Development may be an act, process or an end state
(b)Development means bettering something
O. D. is the act, process or result of furthering,advancing,
or promoting the growth of an organization
Inter-teams-inter face-manage conflicts, developing collaboration,
attainment of goals.
Organization-stable entity which sets the goals. To carry on the
efforts begun by the outside consultant/ expert through an
internal O. D. Facilitator.
From a Behavioural science perspective:
„O.D. is a long –range effort to improve an Orgn‟s problem solving
and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and
collaborative management of organizational culture with special
emphasis on the culture of formal work teams- with the assistance
of a change agent, or catalyst, and the use of theory and technology
of applied behavioural science including Action Research.‟
Renewal is the process of initiating , creating and confronting
needed changes to make it possible for organizations to become
more viable, to adapt to new conditions, to solve problems, to learn
from experiences and to move towards greater maturity.
O. D. is a systemic and systematic change effort, using
behavioural science knowledge and skill, to transform an orgn.
to a new state.
O.D. is system-wide and value-based collaborative process of
applying behavioural science knowledge to the adaptive
development , improvement and reinforcement of such
organizational features as the strategies, structures, processes,
people and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness
The characteristics of O. D. are:
1. It is a system-wise process
2. It is value-based
3. It is collaborative
4. It is based on behavioural science knowledge
5. It is concerned with strategies, structures, processes, people
6. It is about organizational effectiveness
Organizational Development is a long-term effort, led and supported by top
management, to improve an organizational visioning, empowerment, learning,
and problem-solving processes,through an ongoing, collaborative management
of organizational culture- with special emphasis on the culture of intact work
teams and other team configurations-using the consultant-facilitator role and
the theory and technology of applied behavioural science, including action
The important aspects include:
(a) Long-term effort
(b) Led and supported by top management
(c) Visioning processes-viable, coherent and shared picture
(d) Empowerment processes
(e) Learning processes
(f) Problem solving processes
(g) Ongoing collaborative management of the organizational culture
(h) Intact work teams and other configurations
(i) Cross- functional teams
(j) Consultant- facilitator role
(k) Theory and technology of applied behavioural science
(l) Action research
“Organization transformation can occur in response to or in
anticipation of major changes in the organization‟s environment or
technology. In addition these changes are often associated with
significant alterations in the firm‟s business strategy, which, in
turn, may require modifying corporate culture as well as internal
structures and processes to support the new direction. Such
fundamental change entails new paradigm for organizing and
managing organizations. It involves qualitatively different ways of
perceiving, thinking, and behaving in the organizations.”
Beer (1980), the aim of OD are (1) enhancing congruence between
organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture;
(2) developing new and creative organizational solutions; and (3)
developing the organization‟s self-renewing capacity.
OD is a system wide application of behavioural science
knowledge to the planned development and re-enforcement of
organizational strategies, structures, and processes for improving
an organization‟s effectiveness (Cummings and Worley, 1993).
“Organizational Development is a long-term behavioural
philosophy initiated by the top management. It relates to use of
latest technologies and organizational processes to affect planned
change by establishing cultural framework based on vision,
empowerment and employee well being leading to attainment of
quality of work life and organizational effectiveness thus creating
a learned organization.”
OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL
1.Individual and group development.
2.Development of organization culture and processes by constant
interaction between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy.
3.Inculcating team spirit.
4.Empowerment of social side of employees.
5.Focus of value development.
6. Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-
making at various levels.
7. Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems
thereby achieving total system change if required.
8. Transformation and achievement of competitive edge of
9. Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by
way of research and development, innovations, creativity
and exploiting human talent.
10.Behaviour modification and self managed team as the
basic unit of an organization.
a) Most individuals believe in their personal growth. Even
today, training and development, promotion to the next
higher position dominates the organization philosophy.
b) Majority of the people are desirous of making greater
contributions to the organizations they are serving.
Achievements of organizational goals are however, subject
to limitations or environmental constraints. It is for the
organizations to tap the skills that are available in
This leads to adopt the following organization strategy for
• Ask questions to resolve doubts.
• Listen to superior‟s advice.
• Support employees in their venture.
• Accept challenge.
• Leaders to encourage creativity and promote risk
• Give additional responsibility to subordinates.
• Set high standards of quality.
• Empower employees.
• Initiate suitable reward system that should be
compatible, if not more than the industry norms.
2. For Groups
a) One of the most important factors in the organization is the
„work group‟ around whom the organization functions. This
includes the peer group and the leader (boss)
b) More people prefer to be part of the group because the
group accepts them.
c) Most people are capable of making higher contributions to
the group‟s effectiveness.
Following strategy is required to be adopted for group
development based on the above assumptions:
a) Invest in training and development of the group. Money and
time spent on this is an investment for the organization.
Leaders should also invest in development of skills and thus
help create a position organizational climate.
b) Let the team flourish. Teams are the best approach to get the
work done. Apart from the above, teams enjoy emotional and
job satisfaction when they work in groups.
c) Leaders should adopt team leadership style and not autocratic
leadership style. To do this, jobs should be allotted to the
team and not to the individual.
d) It is not possible for one individual (leader) to perform
both, the leadership and maintenance functions. It is
therefore necessary for team members to assist leader in
performance of his duties.
e) Group should be trained in conflict management, stress
management, group decision-making, collaboration, and
effective interpersonal communication. This will
improve organizational effectiveness. Empowerment is
the corner stone of the successful organizations.
f) Leaders should pay particular attention to the feelings of
the employees. It should be understood that suppressed
feeling and attitudes adversely affect problem-solving,
personal growth and job satisfaction.
g) Development of group cohesiveness.
3. For Organizations
a) Create learning organization culture.
b) Adopt win-win strategy for sustained growth.
c) Create cooperative dynamics rather than competitive
organizational dynamics in the organization.
d) Needs and aspirations of the employees in the organization
must be met. This leads to greater participation of the
employees. Organizations should adopt developmental
outlook and seek opportunities in which people can
experience personal and professional growth. Such
orientation creates a self-fulfilling prophecy.
f) People must be treated with due respect and
considered important. The credit of success must be
given to the employees unconditionally.
g) Promote organizational citizenship.
4. It is possible to create organizations that are humane,
democratic and empowering on one hand and high
performing in terms of productivity, quality of
output, profitability, and growth on the other. It is the
responsibility of every entrepreneur to ensure that the
needs of the society are met.
Top values associated with O. D. today:
1. Increasing effectiveness and efficiency
2. Creating openness in communication
3. Empowering employees to act
4. Enhancing productivity
5. Promoting organizational participation
Values considered to be most important:
1. Empowering employees to act
2. Creating openness in communication
3. Facilitating ownership of process and outcome
4. Promoting a culture of collaboration
5. Promoting inquiry and continuous learning
Organizational Development is planned change in the
organizational context. In this context of change it is
necessary to refer to Kurt Lewin
He has provided two principle ideas viz.
1. What is occurring at any point of time is a resultant in a
field of opposing forces e. g. production level at a
particular point of time is the resultant equilibrium of
some forces pushing towards higher levels of production
and other forces pushing towards lower levels of
production. The production levels tend to remain at the
same levels as the field of forces remains constant.
Another example could be the level of morale.
2. The second contribution is the change itself. He has
described a three- stage process viz.
(a Unfreezing the old behaviour
(b)Moving to a new level of behaviour
(c )Refreezing the behavior at the new level
Kurt Lewin‟s Three –Stage Model : as modified by Lippitt & others
1. Developing a need for change. (Lewin‟s unfreezing phase)
2. Establishing a change relationship. In this phase a client system in
need of help and a change agent from outside the system establish a
3. Clarifying or diagnosing the clients system‟s problem
4. Examining alternative routes and goals; establishing goals and
intentions of actions
5. Transforming intentions into actual change efforts.Phases 3, 4 and
5 correspond to Lewin‟s moving phase
6. Generalizing and stabilizing change. This corresponds to Lewin‟s
7. Achieving a terminal relationship, that is, terminating the client-
The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change
(a) First-order change- transactional, evolutionary, adaptive,
incremental, or continuous change
(b) Second-order change- transformational, revolutionary, radical, or
n.b.. O. D. programs are directed toward both first-order and
second order change with an increasing emphasis on second –order
1. Structure 1. Mission and Strategy
2. Management Practices 2. Leadership
3. Systems 3. Organizational Culture
Distinguishing Organizational Climate and Organizational Culture.
Climate- people‟s perceptions and attitudes about the organization
Culture- deep seated assumptions about values and beliefs that are
enduring, often unconscious and difficult to change