Experience and situation of wate management in rural districts of Same & Kigoma, Tanzania


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Despite significant investment in the Water Supply services since the early 1970s, water supply coverage is not satisfactory. The 1991 National Water Policy set a goal of providing clean and safe water to the population within 400 meters from their households by the year 2002. Today only about 50% of the rural population has access to a reliable water supply service. Due to poor operational and maintenance arrangements, over 30% of the rural water schemes are not functioning properly

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Experience and situation of wate management in rural districts of Same & Kigoma, Tanzania

  1. 1. Technology for Human Development Ingeniería Sin Fronteras ISF ApD
  2. 2. EXPERIENCE AND SITUATION OF WATER MANAGEMENT IN RURAL DISTRICTS OF SAME & KIGOMA, TANZANIA. Ingeniería Sin Fronteras ISF ApD Clemence Mweche - Field Coordinator, Kigoma (Tanzania) [email_address] Gaspary Gratian - Programme Co-ordinator, Same (Tanazania) [email_address]
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF TANZANIA NATIONAL WATER POLICY 2002; <ul><li>Despite significant investment in the Water Supply services since the early 1970s, water supply coverage is not satisfactory. The 1991 National Water Policy set a goal of providing clean and safe water to the population within 400 meters from their households by the year 2002. Today only about 50% of the rural population has access to a reliable water supply service. Due to poor operational and maintenance arrangements, over 30% of the rural water schemes are not functioning properly </li></ul>TANZANIA AND WATER MANAGEMENT Urban water supply Rural Water Supply Water resources managemet The Tanzania National Water Policy is the main hub of water management in the country Concept & Processes
  4. 4. THE SPECIFIC POLICY OBJECTIVES <ul><ul><li>To provide adequate, affordable and sustainable water supply services to the rural population, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To define roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To emphasize on communities paying for part of the capital costs, and full cost recovery for operation and maintenance of services as opposed to the previous concept of cost sharing, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To depart from the traditional supply-driven to demand-responsive approach in service provision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To manage water supplies at the lowest appropriate level as opposed to the centralized command control approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To promote participation of the private sector in the delivery of goods and services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve health through integration of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAWAPO 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul>Concept & Processes <ul><li>Minimum policy standards appaly: </li></ul><ul><li>25l/per/day </li></ul><ul><li>250hab./water point. </li></ul><ul><li>300 – 450 meter meter </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODEL OF LEGAL ASSOCIATONS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT ISF is enabling community members to establish an autonomous, legally recognized community entity responsible for ensuring smooth operation and maintenance of completed water supply facilities in a sustainable way Concept & Processes Board of Trustees Scheme level Trusteeship (Board of trustees) 6 Board of Directors Scheme level Water Users companies Limited by Guarantees 5 Board/Executive Committee Village /Scheme Level Water Users Coop. Socities 4 WATSAN Committee Village level WATSAN COMMITTEE 3 WUA Board/Executive Committee Village /Scheme Level Water Users Association 2 WUG Committee Water Point Level Water User Group (WUG) 1 Managing Organization Operation area Model of legal Association No
  8. 8. COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Community decides: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of system (technology) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management model (organization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff model (cost recovery) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bylaws (regulation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The community is responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensions and connections (service level) </li></ul></ul></ul>Concept & Processes
  9. 9. OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Transparency and accountability to users </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information in assemblies and offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting system enabled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-poor regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS and vulnerable groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower level of service according to national standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of small repairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain for maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul>Concept & Processes
  10. 10. WATER MANAGEMENT & SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>USERS LEVEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: </li></ul><ul><li>Management at DP Level-Water user Groups (Supervise all issues related to DP) </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of funds, Cleaness of DP&Sorrounding </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting to WUA, Management at system level(Water users Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive committee(Chair person,Secretary and Tresuary) </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise O&M, WUA is the highest management entity </li></ul><ul><li>WUGs and WUA members are facilitated in acquiring management </li></ul>NAWAPO 2002: Implementation of cost – recovery system to assure sustainability People not used to pay for water and have access to other sources, but unsafe! Concept & Processes
  11. 11. FINNANCING RURAL WATER SUPPLY <ul><li>Sources of funding </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes (government) and external funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial contribution (5%) and Tariffs (users) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding goes to : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning, supervision and policy guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extensions and improvements in service level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tariff types </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay as you fetch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block rates (crossed subsidies) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection rates for private users </li></ul></ul></ul>Concept & Processes users government
  12. 12. GUIDELINES FOR FACILITATING COMMUNITIES TO ESTABLISH LEGAL WUE <ul><li>Facilitation Service Providers and DWSTs orient to water users different management models and facilitate them to choose appropriate management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Initial meeting with village council leaders and WATSAN committee </li></ul><ul><li>in order to enable them appreciate the need to institute a sustainable water user legal entity </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate village assembly meetings to insure that water users have </li></ul><ul><li>a clear understanding on need of legal water user entity followed by Facilitate Formation of WUGs </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the interim committee to prepare a draft of the preferred water </li></ul><ul><li>user entity’s constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Processing the legal registration of the community water users’ entity </li></ul><ul><li>Official presentation of the registration certificate to the WUE </li></ul>Concept & Processes STEP BY STEP APROACH
  13. 13. THE SITUATION,,, <ul><li>Deficit of Coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 50% of coverage in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficit of operation and maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of the systems are not functional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficit of quantity and continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of water during dry seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deficit of quality of water </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination or salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Plannining and investment of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of institutional and technical capacities </li></ul></ul>Water Access in rural Tanzania Context
  16. 16. ISF IN TANZANIA KIGOMA SAME MAN'GOLA <ul><li>HYDROSANITARY PROGRAMS : </li></ul><ul><li>MANG’OLA VALLEY (from 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>KIGOMA RURAL DISTRICT (from 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>SAME DISTRICT (from 2006) </li></ul>
  17. 17. PRESENTATION OF WATER MANAGMENT IN KIGOMA RURAL DISTRICT Clemence Mweche Field Coordinator, Kigoma Ingeniería Sin Fronteras ISF ApD
  18. 18. MKONGORO II WATER SUPPLY SCHEME <ul><li>VILLAGES WITHIN THE PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Chankabwimba </li></ul><ul><li>Mahembe </li></ul><ul><li>Msimba </li></ul><ul><li>Kamara </li></ul><ul><li>Simbo </li></ul><ul><li>Kasuku </li></ul><ul><li>EXPECTED POPULATION TO BE SERVED 43,000 </li></ul><ul><li>STATUS OF MANAGMENT FACILITATION </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 33 participants from all the village selected and participated in the selection of managment entiy (The Water Users Assosiation is model proposed) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow up step by step approach, a total of 107 WUGs formed in the 5 villages and the process of registration for water users is on going to last village </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of WUGs and selection of leaders and members done also in the five village and is on going to the last village (The total DPs in all 6 vilage will be 155 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Community facilitated by selected Focus group from the community themselves and the objective is to make the communites understand the need of legal water user entity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 186 selected members formed a focus group from 4 villages and managed to make cost recovery awareness sessions in those villages. Three thousand, three hundred and twenty seven (3327) among of three thousand, nine handred and seventy five (3975) heads of households which is an average of 79.3% participated in the sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the cost recovery sessions in 4 villages the community leaders and about 99.7% of villagers in those communities proposed the WUA model and flat rate tariff to be used </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. MODEL OF LEGAL WATER ENTITY PROPOSED WUA _Board Chair person Secretary Treasurer Members Village Water committee WUG Committee Wug1 Wug2 Wug4 Wug3 Manager Chief WA O&M WA Security Guards
  20. 20. THE STEPS DONE IN THE FACILITATIONS AND PREPARATION OF CONSTITUTION <ul><li>Case study done in the multi projects of Uchira, Uroki bomang’ombe and Uparu in Kilimanjaro region and Mkongoro I water supply projects in Kigoma District with the objective of facilitating the communities to select the best management entity and formation of constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Review of the costitution coping with the proposed model of entity above is on progress before presenting in the interim commitee of the WUA members for ammendments and preparation of the final draf </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATION WITH COMMUNITIES TOWARDS O&M </li></ul><ul><li>CASH CONTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>Before started the project, the condition following the NAWAPO 2002 the donor can implement the project according to situation but the concept of contribution should be put to consideration hence each community of Mkongoro II system agreed to contribute1 million TSH for operation and maintenance and the money are going to be used once the project finish and start to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Status of contribution </li></ul><ul><li>All the community managed to contribute 4.1 million which is about 68.3% out of 6 millions which is </li></ul><ul><li>supposed to be contributed </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges Facing the contribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The village leaders are not committed to raise contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information gapes or lack of transparency with the money contributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of understand on the expenditure with the money once the project starts to operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding the new NAWAPO 2002 as water is not free facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No motivations for collectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political interest which overrides the projects interests </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. KIND CONTRIBUTION The participatory approach is the one used to implement the project, despite the community to contribute in cash but also they are participated by providing manpower for constructing the project Kigoma DC participate in the pipe lying with Chankabwimba people Construction of Tank _ Chankabwimba HUMAN PARTICIPARTION
  22. 22. JOINT CONTRUCTION COMMITTEE (JCC) This is the committe formed by the selected members from the community for implementing the roles of organising all the leaders and community smoothly in the contruction of the project - There 95 members in total from all the villages - The members of this committee are Councelors, Ward Excutive Officers (WEO), Village Excutive officers (VEO), Village Chairmans, Hamlets Leaders and Six Democrat members from each village HOW THE JCC IS WORKING In order to, plan and to organize local leaders properly, the JCC used to conduct a meet once per month and all members are supposed to participate in order to contribute the agenda raised To assist the JCC working propery in the construction of the project, ISF used to have pri meeting before the meeting arrangment for the matter of updating vorious issue related in the prgress of the project so that to be discussed in the meeting
  23. 23. THE WATER COMMITTEE <ul><li>There are about 54 water committee members 9 from each village of Mkongoro 2 </li></ul><ul><li>system who selected from the community themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The roles of the water committee in the community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To educate and disseminating the concept of NAWAPO 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To mobilize the community to participate in the project (Cash and Kindly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assist the village Leaders in the collection of initial contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assist the village leaders in the registration of water users </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. WATER POINT MAPPING (WPM) In order to assist the district to have the planning tool and to know the real situation of water problems in Kigoma District, ISF implement the exercise of collecting the data to over 75 village of Kigoma District The strong objective of the project was to help the District of Kigoma to have a planning and monitoring tool which can be practice by the district to priorities the area for interventions How do the exercise done IFS contract GeoData organization who are the expert of WPM project and with the questionnaire developed by ISF and inputs from the district the datas in 75 villages where collected Training of using the Tool The training for using the tool where conducted to 3 District and 3 ISF staffs by PCR from Madrid university The objective of the training was to capacitate the District staff and ISF team to use the tool For the District the tool should be updated, they can facilitate the exercise
  25. 25. SAME Ingeniería Sin Fronteras ISF ApD Gasary Gratian Programme Coordinator, Same
  26. 26. <ul><li>ECONOMIC SITUATION : </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of households in Same district depend much on subsistence farming. About 80% of the total population are small farmers dealing with small scale farming system and livestock keeping. </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable land for irrigation is 12,000ha out of which only 8,200ha are utilized for irrigation. Also the District is famous in the Region for Pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION: </li></ul><ul><li>The District is estimated to have 218,983 inhabitants (by 2002 Census) with an average population density of 41 people per square km (by 2002 Census). According to the Regional Socio-Economic Survey of year 2005, the Capital Income of Same District resident was Tshs. 436,900/= per annum. </li></ul><ul><li>ADMINISTRATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Administratively District is divided into 6 Divisions, 25 Wards, 83 Villages and 454 registered Sub-Village. The District also has two parliamentary constituencies (Same East & Same West). At the beginning of the 2008 year the Council has established Same Township Authority and it is in operation. </li></ul>SAME WATER SECTOR SITUATION* * according to Same District Water Department (2008)
  27. 27. SAME WATER SECTOR SITUATION* <ul><li>WATER SUPPLY STATUS </li></ul><ul><li>General objective of the sector is to ensure that Socio-economic infrastructure, agro- economic and rural financial services improved by 2010. The specific objective of district water department is to make sure that the supply of accessible, affordable, adequate and potable water reach the coverage of 65% in 2010. Also Sanitation and Hygiene are improved and given priority. </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply service in Same can be categorized in two groups based in the geographical location, The first group is of the villages in the eastern mountains, mostly upland plateau where is the source of four rivers Nakombo, Hingilili, Saseni and Yongoma. The other group is of western Middle plateaus and lowland, where river Pangani (Ruvu) passed. In the former group,gravity water supply schemes dominates while shallow and deep wells are mostly located in the west, this is because there is no visible, reliable sources like springs and rivers located in the East. </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>There exist several water sources in form of Springs and streams, these are tributaries and distributaries of the main four Rivers mostly located in Shengena Forest, other is Ruvu river,the downstream of Nyumba ya Mungu Dam.The number of water sources identified is 61 </li></ul><ul><li>COVERAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Among 83 villages, the schemes above have spread in 53 villages leaving 29 villages essentially without having any piped water scheme. The assessment defined the average coverage being 51%. </li></ul><ul><li>This is to say, among 244089 people (2008 projection) leaving in Same District only 124485 people have access to piped water. This is below National Water coverage of 53.4%.However, this is not safe water (quality) coverage, it is an access and minimum quantity coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>EXISTING WATER SCHEMES </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers of water supply schemes present are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>24 Gravity shemes </li></ul><ul><li>3 B/H Electrical Power driven pump. </li></ul><ul><li>3 B/H Diesel Engine driven pump. </li></ul><ul><li>32 Hand pumps </li></ul><ul><li>1 Windmill </li></ul><ul><li>2 Solar power driven pump </li></ul>* according to Same District Water Department (2008)
  28. 28. <ul><li>OPERATION AND MAINTANANCE </li></ul><ul><li>The schemes handover operation done in 1990’s were preceded by Establishment of Water user administrative entities in the respective villages . The exercise aimed mainly to create the sense of ownership to the communities benefited in the project leadig to sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>In Same District, many water committees to almost all villages and One Board (Same town) was established. The exercise was followed by contribution to start village water fund. Up to now 78 villages have a total of 8,926,889Tshs water funds deposit money in the bank. There is 1047 domestic points, 408 of them not function . </li></ul>SAME WATER SECTOR SITUATION* <ul><li>CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><li>As it is observed,The situation of water supply is not good, coverage is very low with many villages without any defined scheme. Western side of Same District suffer more because there is no reliable sources of water. The area depend on wells , in most cases Deep wells more than 120m and saline water is sometimes found from these.! </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of water is a challenge, analysis of the water point mapping prevail. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enough fund to do major construction and rehabilitation of water schemes this is because many schemes are old and need major rehabilitation examples of these water schemes include Hedaru, Same, Maore, Ndungu, Kihurio,Kisiwani and vudee w/s. </li></ul><ul><li>The administrative entities are not capable of running the existing projects well. Village water committee in the villages has shown remarkable fail. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of expertise and human resources – especially in electrical and pump mechanics, an experienced electrical engineer and a water engineer is needed for both town and rural w/s </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to pay , as it was shown in the O & M </li></ul><ul><li>Participation with stakeholders.-some of the NGO’s don’t seek advise or inform about some of the interventions done in the villages. </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIREMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>To archive the coverage of 90%(Development vision for Tanzania 2025), we need to have, among other things, an addition of:- </li></ul><ul><li>-5 gravity schemes, each sufficiently to cover more than one village and 20 small </li></ul><ul><li>gravity schemes for one sub village or community because of the district </li></ul><ul><li>geographical features. </li></ul><ul><li>-9 Deep wells diesel or electric driven </li></ul><ul><li>-12 Shallow wells </li></ul><ul><li>-2 small Dams </li></ul><ul><li>-Water treatment facilities in old and new schemes </li></ul>* according to Same District Water Department (2008)
  29. 29. Water infrastructure and functionality in Same District Context
  30. 30. ISF Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro MAMA Pilot phase Period: 2006 - 2008 Beneficiaries:5.657 Inhabitants (Njoro, Ishinde, and Vumari Investment: 399, 270 EUROS ( District Council Of Madrid, Junta de Extremadura , private funds & ISF) Objectives: Reduction of Child mortality rate through access to safe drinking water and sanitation. History Period: 2008 -2012 Beneficiaries:30.000 Inhabitants Investment: 3.000.000 EUROS aprox. (European Union, District Council of Madrid, Castilla La Mancha, Murcia Region, private funds & ISF) Objectives: Gender balanced poverty reduction in Same District through the access to water and sanitation services Pilot PHASE
  31. 31. R1: Increased access to a sufficient amount of safe water Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro Pilot PHASE Technical possibilities + Village needs and agreements = Selected system to be designed … this approach is very significant independently of the existance of the NAWAPO 2002…..
  32. 32. Decision Making and Sustainability <ul><li>The process starts from the beginning (Create sense of Ownership & decision making) </li></ul>Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro
  33. 33. Community Mobilization & Participation <ul><li>COMMUNITY INVOLVED IN: </li></ul><ul><li>DECISION MAKING: PRA, DP LOCATION, SELECTION OF SYSTEM (APPROPIATE TECHNOLOGY) </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION: MONETARY AND LABOUR CONTRIBUTION </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT AND REPORTING </li></ul>Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro
  34. 34. Enhanced the capabilities of the communities to manage and maintain their respective water systems : Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro Pilot PHASE <ul><li>Ownership of communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Community based organisation for management of the systems (WUGs/WUAs). </li></ul><ul><li>Other types of Capacity Building........ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Resources Inventory Water Point Mapping, GvSIG Equipment and tools donations </li></ul></ul>local distict government,
  35. 35. <ul><li>RESULTS BY NUMBERS </li></ul>Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro Results, Pilot PHASE 14 11 Ishinde 4 12 Njoro 4 10 Vumari Schools Vulnerable By village VIP LATRINES CONSTRUCTION 55% 18 Ishinde 54% 22 Njoro 35% 22 Vumari Percentage women Nº of promoters By village HYGIENE PROMOTERS TRAINED IN PHAST
  36. 36. Water management structure DUS, under proposal WUA WUG DISTRICT (DWD) BASIN Office WUA WUG WUG WUG VG VG CBO H&S
  37. 37. The approach...promoting sustainability as key for development in rural water supply management! <ul><ul><li>Economical sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O&M sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Hydrosanitary Programme in Same District, Kilimanjaro Information collection, analysis, and dissemination at all levels...it is important.
  38. 38. Challenges; <ul><li>Read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of the district </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional model, even not following the former of the government </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to contribute by cash </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge on NAWAPO2002 in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Not many NGOs, CBO, are willing and having capacity to facilitate community management, ...no adequate platform and forums. </li></ul>GENERAL CHALLENGES IN THE PROGRAMMES
  39. 39. All in all... <ul><li>All plans are shared and done together with district councils (Planning,implementation and evaluation) </li></ul><ul><li>Coucil supports legal procedures of reconizing water entities specificaly District Water department </li></ul><ul><li>Are main supervisors after phase out of program </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration goes together with village goverment/community leaders and basin </li></ul><ul><li>ISF supports the partner departments in acquiring technology that will easen monitoring of all its water schemes in rural area (GIS training and other database system) </li></ul><ul><li>Its this linkage that justify the sustainability of water supply and sanitation at village level (scaling up from projects to services) </li></ul>GENERAL CONCLUSIONS