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Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
Wave probigation
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Wave probigation

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For a course for an amateur radio license.

For a course for an amateur radio license.

Published in: Technology
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Transcript

  • 1.  Waves and ionisation  Atmosphere  Ionosphere  Troposphere  Other methods
  • 2.  Electromagnetic energy  Models  Waves  Particles  Electrical part  Magnetic part  Polarisation  Vertical  Horizontal
  • 3.  Ion  Protons != electrons  Ionisation  Removal or addition of an electron  Energy
  • 4.  Troposphere  Ground to 7-17 km out - Temp dec. with height  80% of the mass  Stratosphere  About 51 km out – Temp inc. with height  Mesosphere  80-85 km out – temp at – 85 deg C  Thermosphere  350 – 800 km out – temp +1 500 Deg C  Exosphere
  • 5.  Troposphere  Thermosphere  Exosphere ionosphere
  • 6.  100 – 300 km  Ionisation of particles  Sun  Thin atmosphere  Shell of electrons  Layers  Radio propagation  “acts like a mirror”  At certain frequencies
  • 7.  D layer  Ionising NO (some N2 and O2)  Electron collision high  Results in blocking of HF radio waves  < 10 MHz  Almost disappears after sunset  HF can pass through if broadcasted directly up
  • 8.  E (Heavyside) layer  Ionisation of O2  Refracts radio waves < 10 MHz  Nordic area  At night, increasing height inc. range  Es layer  Sporadic – best during the summer  Refracts up to 50 Mhz  Distance of 1000 km
  • 9.  F (Appleton) layer  Ionising of O – dense  Refracts most HF radio waves (3-30 MHz)  Skywaves  F1 and F2 layers  Exist during the day
  • 10.  Fading  Changes in the ionosphere  Changes the polarisation  Angle  Critical angle  Depends on ionosphere and frequency used  Hi angle and Hi F pass through.
  • 11.  Nordic region  3.5 – 7 MHz  Dipole  Straight out  Using D layer  14 – 30 MHz  Uses E and F layers (low elevation angle)  2 000 – 4 000 Km
  • 12.  DX traffic  DX – distance  Dipole or yagi array  For Europe  30 Deg  0.5 Wave length  Out side Europe  1 -2 X wave length  10 Deg 1.5 X wave length
  • 13.  Its damp!  99% of the water vapour!  Effects radio transmissions  Hi F = more absorption  Used for VHF, UHF and SHF transmissions  Line of sight  20- 30 km (depends on power)  Can scatter (refraction)  Up to 2 000 km
  • 14.  Earth-Moon-Earth (EME)  144 MHz, 434 MHz and 1 296 MHz  As far away as Australia!  Meteors  Same as EME  Short burst  Auroras  > 25 MHz  NW -> NE aerial

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